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Sample records for norwegian hospital sector

  1. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. Method The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. Results The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Conclusion Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate

  2. Monitoring adverse events in Norwegian hospitals from 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Bukholm, Geir; Lindstrøm, Jonas Christoffer; Haugen, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe how adverse event (AE) rates were monitored and estimated nationally across all Norwegian hospitals from 2010 to 2013, and how they developed during the monitoring period. Monitoring was based on medical record review with Global Trigger Tool (GTT). Setting All publicly and privately owned hospitals were mandated to review randomly selected medical records to monitor AE rates. The initiative was part of the Norwegian patient safety campaign, launched by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. It started in January 2011 and lasted until December 2013. 2010 was the baseline for the review. One of the main aims of the campaign was to reduce patient harm. Method To standardise the medical record reviews in all hospitals, GTT was chosen as a standard method. GTT teams from all hospitals reviewed 40 851 medical records randomly selected from 2 249 957 discharges from 2010 to 2013. Data were plotted in time series for local measurement and national AE rates were estimated, plotted and monitored. Results AE rates were estimated and published nationally from 2010 to 2013. Estimated AE rates in severity categories E-I decreased significantly from 16.1% in 2011 to 13.0% in 2013 (−3.1% (95% CI −5.2% to −1.1%)). Conclusions Monitoring estimated AE rates emerges as a potential element in national systems for patient safety. Estimated AE rates in the category of least severity decreased significantly during the first 2 years of the monitoring. PMID:26719311

  3. Youth Employment in the Hospitality Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Bradley R.

    A study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to analyze the long-term effects of hospitality industry employment on youth. The subsample extracted for the study included all youth who were aged 16-24 in 1980 and employed in the civilian sector for pay at any time in the year. Statistics indicated the hospitality sector was…

  4. The hospital sector in Germany: an overview.

    PubMed

    Schölkopf, M

    2000-01-01

    The German health care system has recently experienced far reaching reforms within its hospital sector, including a new financing and remuneration system, the life span of which is to the year 2003. The reforms have been based on the DRG-system already in operation in another country. Other regulations of the new reform involve the system of quality assurance and quality management in German hospitals and a new form of supply of services, the so called "integrated care" system, the introduction of which was to overcome the fragmented system of ambulatory and stationary medical care in Germany. This article, in short, presents an overview of the hospital sector in Germany and reports on the latest developments resulting from implementation of the health care reform. PMID:11276937

  5. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    PubMed

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. PMID:22257526

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medicine at Norwegian and Danish hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that a high proportion of the population in western countries use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, little is known about whether CAM is offered in hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian and Danish hospitals and investigate possible changes in Norway since 2001. Methods A one-page questionnaire was sent to all included hospitals in both countries. The questionnaire was sent to the person responsible for the clinical activity, typically the medical director. 99 hospitals in the authority (85%) in Norway and 126 in Denmark (97%) responded. Given contact persons were interviewed. Results CAM is presently offered in about 50% of Norwegian hospitals and one-third of Danish hospitals. In Norway CAM was offered in 50 hospitals, 40 of which involved acupuncture. 19 hospitals gave other alternative therapies like biofeedback, hypnosis, cupping, ear-acupuncture, herbal medicine, art therapy, homeopathy, reflexology, thought field therapy, gestalt therapy, aromatherapy, tai chi, acupressure, yoga, pilates and other. 9 hospitals offered more than one therapy form. In Denmark 38 hospitals offered acupuncture and one Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Light Therapy. The most commonly reported reason for offering CAM was scientific evidence in Denmark. In Norway it was the interest of a hospital employee, except for acupuncture where the introduction is more often initiated by the leadership and is more based on scientific evidence of effect. All persons (except one) responsible for the alternative treatment had a medical or allied health professional background and their education/training in CAM treatment varied substantially. Conclusions The extent of CAM being offered has increased substantially in Norway during the first decade of the 21st century. This might indicate a shift in attitude regarding CAM within the conventional health care system. PMID

  7. Removal of paper-based health records from Norwegian hospitals: effects on clinical workflow.

    PubMed

    Lium, Jan Tore; Faxvaag, Arild

    2006-01-01

    Several Norwegian hospitals have, plan, or are in the process of removing the paper-based health record from clinical workflow. To assess the impact on usage and satisfaction of electronic health record (EHR) systems, we conducted a survey among physicians, nurses and medical secretaries at selected departments from six Norwegian hospitals. The main feature of the questionnaire is the description of a set of tasks commonly performed at hospitals, and respondents were asked to rate their usage and change of ease compared to previous routines for each tasks. There were 24 tasks for physicians, 19 for nurses and 23 for medical secretaries. In total, 64 physicians, 128 nurses and 57 medical secretaries responded, corresponding to a response rate of 68%, 58% and 84% respectively. Results showed a large degree of use among medical secretaries, while physicians and nurses displayed a more modest degree of use. Possibly suggesting that the EHR systems among clinicians still is considered more of an administrative system. Among the two latter groups, tasks regarding information retrieval were used more extensively than tasks regarding generating and storing information. Also, we observed large differences between hospitals and higher satisfaction with the part of the system handling regular electronic data than scanned document images. Even though the increase in use among clinicians after removing the paper based record were mainly in tasks where respondents had no choice other than use the electronic health record, the attitude towards EHR-systems were mainly positive. Thus, while removing the paper based record has yet to promote new ways of working, we see it as an important step towards the EHR system of tomorrow. Several Norwegian hospitals have shown that it is possible. PMID:17108645

  8. New Technologies to Assist Training in Hospitality Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which…

  9. The soft budget constraint syndrome in the hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Kornai, János

    2009-06-01

    This study applies the theory and the conceptual framework of the soft budget constraint (SBC) to the hospital sector. The first part deals solely with hospitals in state ownership, but the study moves later onto the problems of ownership relations as well. The question posed is why the SBC phenomenon is so general in the hospital sector (including specialist outpatient clinics and diagnostic or nursing establishments that operate as separate units). The study contains several references to Hungarian experience, but the subject is of a more general nature. The SBC phenomenon is not confined to the Hungarian hospital sector, nor to the socialist system, nor as a vestige of socialism during post-socialist transformation. Soft budget constraints inevitably develop in the hospital sector, even in capitalist market economies. PMID:19377869

  10. Classifying nursing organization in wards in Norwegian hospitals: self-identification versus observation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The organization of nursing services could be important to the quality of patient care and staff satisfaction. However, there is no universally accepted nomenclature for this organization. The objective of the current study was to classify general hospital wards based on data describing organizational practice reported by the ward nurse managers, and then to compare this classification with the name used in the wards to identify the organizational model (self-identification). Methods In a cross-sectional postal survey, 93 ward nurse managers in Norwegian hospitals responded to questions about nursing organization in their wards, and what they called their organizational models. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the wards according to the pattern of activities attributed to the different nursing roles and discriminant analysis was used to interpret the solutions. Cross-tabulation was used to validate the solutions and to compare the classification obtained from the cluster analysis with that obtained by self-identification. The bootstrapping technique was used to assess the generalizability of the cluster solution. Results The cluster analyses produced two alternative solutions using two and three clusters, respectively. The three-cluster solution was considered to be the best representation of the organizational models: 32 team leader-dominated wards, 23 primary nurse-dominated wards and 38 wards with a hybrid or mixed organization. There was moderate correspondence between the three-cluster solution and the models obtained by self-identification. Cross-tabulation supported the empirical classification as being representative for variations in nursing service organization. Ninety-four per cent of the bootstrap replications showed the same pattern as the cluster solution in the study sample. Conclusions A meaningful classification of wards was achieved through an empirical cluster solution; this was, however, only moderately consistent with

  11. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A

    1988-03-01

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals. PMID:10302653

  12. The Social Construction of Skills: A Hospitality Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of skills in service work with specific reference to international tourism and its hospitality subsector. It explores the role of experiential factors (cultural, emotional and aesthetic) in equipping those entering work in the sector. The specific context of work in less developed countries and within migrant labour…

  13. Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Oshaug, A; Ostgård, L I; Trygg, K U

    1992-07-01

    Dietary studies based on 24 h recalls were carried out on four oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Two hundred and three persons were interviewed about what they had eaten the previous 24 h. Food purchased for the installations in the previous 5 months was recorded. Results based on 24 h recalls showed that average daily intake of energy was 12.2 MJ of which 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fibre intake, estimated as unavailable carbohydrate, was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. Intakes were compared with the Norwegian recommended dietary allowance. Most of the employees chose a diet which when eaten over a longer period of time may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry. PMID:1390597

  14. Noise exposure of commercial divers in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Nedwell, J R; Mason, T I; Collett, A G; Gardiner, R W K

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that exposure to high noise levels can adversely affect human hearing. Legislation exists in Europe to control or restrict the level of noise to which employees may be exposed during the course of their work. While the noise levels to which a worker may be exposed is well defined in air, human sensitivity to noise is different in high-pressure and mixed-gas conditions. Relatively little research exists to define human hearing in these circumstances, and few measurements exist of the levels of noise to which divers working in these conditions are exposed. A study using specially designed equipment has been undertaken in Norwegian waters to sample the noise levels present during typical saturation dives undertaken by commercial divers working in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The divers were working in heliox at depths of 30 msw and 120 msw. It found noise levels were generally dominated by self-noise: flow noise while breathing and communications. The noise levels, both when corrected for the difference in hearing sensitivity under pressure in mixed gas and uncorrected, would exceed legislated limits for noise exposure in a working day without the use of noisy tools. PMID:26094290

  15. Age differences in alcohol drinking patterns among Norwegian and German hospital doctors – a study based on national samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe and discuss the alcohol drinking patterns of the younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany – respectively the abstainers, frequent drinkers, episodic heavy drinkers and hazardous drinkers. Methods: Data were collected in nationwide postal surveys among doctors in Norway (2000) and Germany (2006). A representative sample of 1898 German and 602 Norwegian hospital doctors aged 27–65 years were included in the analyses (N=2500). Alcohol drinking patterns were measured using the first three items of AUDIT in Norway and the AUDIT-C in Germany, scores of ≥5 (ranking from 0 to 12) indicating hazardous drinking. Episodic heavy drinking was defined by the intake of ≥60g of ethanol, on one occasion, at least once a week. Frequent drinkers were who drank alcoholic beverages at least twice a week. Abstainers were persons who drank no alcohol. The analyses were performed separately for age groups (27–44 years versus 45–65 years) and genders. Results: Compared to the age groups 45 to 65 years in the Norwegian and German samples, the younger age groups (27–44 years) tend to have higher rates of abstainers, higher rates of infrequent drinking of moderate amount of alcoholic drinks, lower rates of episodic heavy drinking and lower rates of hazardous drinking. Conclusion: The younger generation of hospital doctors in Norway and Germany showed tendencies to healthier drinking habits. Changes in professional life, and in the attitude towards alcohol consumption, may go some way towards explaining these findings. PMID:20200658

  16. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market. PMID:17056148

  17. Risk-sharing integration efforts in the hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, R; Loubeau, P R

    1999-01-01

    The extent of hospital involvement in integrated delivery systems (IDSs) during 1996 was assessed by a national sample of 235 short-term private general hospitals. Two out of five hospitals were participating in networks with some financial risk sharing, and another third reported membership in IDS networks without financial obligations. Managed care's presence was the only significant factor moving hospitals from a stand-alone status to network membership. The decision to share financial risk was influenced not only by managed care pressures, but also by the level of local hospital competition and the severity of the inpatient case mix. PMID:10358809

  18. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  19. Professional knowledge creation in the hospital sector: a qualitative study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a professional knowledge creation model for the hospital sector. For this purpose, we qualitatively explore the determinants and process of knowledge creation in the hospital sector. Drawing from organization theory, we develop a hospital's professional knowledge creation model and develop three propositions first. We further explore the theoretical model at organization level by case study in Taiwan. The findings suggest that the hospital's professional knowledge creation is influenced by knowledge stock, social ties and isomorphic pressures as propositions argued. However, hospitals' attempts to keep aligned with their highly institutionalized environments may pay more attention to both existing knowledge stock and the process of professional knowledge creation for their survival. Finally, it is hoped that the significances of this study will contribute to the development of hypotheses in the future quantitative study for building a generalized knowledge creation model for the hospital organization. PMID:20540081

  20. [Evaluation of the efficiency and quality of hospitals publicly owned with private management and hospitals of the public sector].

    PubMed

    Giraldes, Maria Do Rosário

    2007-01-01

    should be compensated and contract-programmes, between other, must be celebrated. The low rate of autopsies, 5.9%, is a indicator of quality which needs an intervention. The inequalities existing in this indicator are high in all hospital groups, due to the fact that most of the hospitals show no activity in this area. The low percentage of surgeries in ambulatory, 17.6 %, which does not exist in several hospitals, show the need for a politic of intervention in this area. The percentage of cesearians in total deliveries is very high in all the hospitals with a low variation coefficient. Norms of intervention should be defined in what management indicators are concerned in relation to the areas of expenditure with day hospital care, drugs in day hospital, drugs in outpatient care and rehabilitation by user. Day hospital, which is more used for hemodyalisis and chimiotherapy should be developed in all hospitals with those specialities, after cost-effective analysis studies with the involvement of the private sector. The area of hotel support, as well in what laundry and food are concerned, present high inequalities in all hospital groups and need a special intervention. Process indicators, as cesearians in total deliveries, ambulatory surgeries intervention, and the rate of autopsies, are important areas of the quality of the hospital and should be developed. The outcome indicator, percentage of inpatient care after surgeries due to infection needs also attention. This area which has already been subject to an intervention with actions at hospital level and specific actions of teaching in this area should be developed due to the high value of this indicator of 0.12%. PMID:18282447

  1. Extending Miles & Snow's strategy choice typology to the German hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Bernd; Hinz, Vera; Ingerfurth, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Hospitals' strategy choices represent highly relevant factors that affect organizational performance and survival. This study assesses the differences among hospitals' strategic choices. This strategy definition and assessment reflects the typology proposed by Miles and Snow, who distinguish four strategy types: defender, analyzer, prospector, and reactor. Synthesis of empirical evidence from previous studies that have applied Miles and Snow's typology in the hospital sector using various methodological approaches and measures provides hints for industry-specific patterns and avenues for further research. Taking an extended view of strategic choice, the authors conduct an empirical survey of a sample of 178 German hospitals. The authors apply a multi-item measure of the Miles and Snow strategy types in the hospital sector and identify hybrid strategy types that deviate from the four strategy types defined by Miles and Snow. Overall, seven distinct strategy types emerge from this analysis. There exist three distinct hybrid types in particular. Strategy choice is systematically related to hospital size and teaching status but not to ownership and location. The significant variance in performance for the seven different strategy types justifies the distinction between them. The results support the idea of industry-specific strategy choices. Policy makers should analyze the structural context in which hospitals operate and intervene through political and regulatory means. PMID:25047455

  2. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  3. Variable prospective financing in the Danish hospital sector and the development of a Danish case-mix system.

    PubMed

    Ankjaer-Jensen, Anni; Rosling, Pernille; Bilde, Lone

    2006-08-01

    This article aims to describe and assess the Danish case-mix system, the cost accounting applied in setting national tariffs and the introduction of variable, prospective payment in the Danish hospital sector. The tariffs are calculated as a national average from hospital data gathered in a national cost database. However, uncertainty, mainly resulting from the definition of cost centres at the individual hospital, implies that the cost weights may not fully reflect the hospital treatment cost. As variable prospective payment of hospitals currently only applies to 20% of a hospital's budget, the incentives and the effects on productivity, quality and equality are still limited. PMID:17016932

  4. Where is the pilot? The changing shapes of governance in the European hospital sector.

    PubMed

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Delesie, Luc; Vleugels, Arthur

    2007-03-01

    Hospital governance refers to the complex of checks and balances that determine how decisions are made within the top structures of hospitals. This article explores the essentials of the concept by analysing the root notion of governance and comparing it with applications in other sectors. Recent developments that put pressure on the decision-making system within hospitals are outlined. Examples from the UK, France and the Netherlands are presented. Based on an evaluation of the current state of affairs, a research framework is developed, focusing on the determinants of governance configurations within the national healthcare systems and the wider legal and socio-economic context, as well as on the impact of governance configurations on the efficiency of the governing bodies and overall hospital performance. The article concludes with a preview of the European Hospital Governance Project, which follows the outlines of the described research framework. New techniques of data mining that are used in this project are explained by means of a real data example. PMID:17402314

  5. The skills gap in hospital management in the South African public health sector.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to the transformation and reconceptualization of the public sector in South Africa into a more effective, efficient, and responsive system of health delivery. As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for public sector health management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in the South African public health sector. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Self-assessment of levels of competency showed that managers felt most competent in strategic planning, people management, and self-management, and relatively less competent in the task-related skills and their ability to deliver healthcare. People management, self-management, and task-related skills were rated as being most important, followed by strategic management and health delivery skills, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating were for people management skills, task-related and self-management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design, and delivery of health management programs aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the public health sector in South Africa. PMID:18708881

  6. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  7. Antibiotic Prescribing among Pediatric Inpatients with Potential Infections in Two Private Sector Hospitals in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infectious diseases are one of the major causes of child mortality in India. Pediatric patients are commonly prescribed antibiotics for non-bacterial infections. Monitoring of local antibiotic prescribing with respect to the diagnosis is necessary to improve the prescribing practices. The aim of the study was to describe antibiotic prescribing for potential infections among patients admitted in pediatric departments in two private sector hospitals; one teaching (TH) and one non-teaching (NTH) in Central India. Methods Data from all patients admitted at the pediatric departments of both study hospitals was collected manually, for 3 years (2008–2011) using a customized form. Data from inpatients aged 0–18 years, diagnosed with; acute gastroenteritis (AGE), respiratory tract infections, enteric fever, viral fever or unspecified fever were focused for analysis. Antibiotic prescriptions were analysed using the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and defined daily doses (DDDs). Adherence to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics list of essential medicines (IAP-LEM) was investigated. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results Oftotal6, 825 inpatients admitted at two pediatric departments, 510 patients from the TH and 2,479from the NTH were selected based on the assigned potential infectious diagnoses. Of these, 224 patients (44%) at the TH and 2,088 (84%) at the NTH were prescribed at least one antibiotic during hospital stay (odds ratio-0.69, 95%confidence interval-0.52 to 0.93; p<0.001). Patients with AGE, viral- and enteric fever were frequently prescribed antibiotics at both hospitals, yet higher proportion were prescribed antibiotics at the NTH compared to the TH. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed antibiotic class in both hospitals, namely third generation cephalosporins, J01DD (69%) at the TH, and new fixed dose combinations of antibiotics J01R (FDCs, 42%) at the NTH. At the TH, 37% of the

  8. Leadership in Surgery for Public Sector Hospitals in Jamaica: Strategies for the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  9. Leadership in surgery for public sector hospitals in Jamaica: strategies for the operating room.

    PubMed

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica.Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  10. Improving service quality in NHS Trust hospitals: lessons from the hotel sector.

    PubMed

    Desombre, T; Eccles, G

    1998-01-01

    This article looks to review recent practice undertaken within the UK hotel sector to improve customer service, and suggests ideals that could be implemented within National Health (NHS) Trust hospitals. At a time of increasing competition, hotel firms are using service enhancement as a means to gain competitive advantage, and therefore developing a range of techniques to measure levels of service quality improvement. With continued change in the health service, where greater focus now lies with patient satisfaction, so there is a requirement for managers to adapt techniques presently being offered in other service industries to improve levels of customer service and ensure patients are targeted to define their levels of satisfaction. PMID:10177367

  11. Spatial distribution and accessibility to public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi: A Geographic Information Systems application.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Ali, Mir Shabbar

    2016-07-01

    Optimal utilization of specialized curative healthcare services is contingent on spatial access to tertiary-care hospitals by the targeted population. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution of public sector tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Karachi, and to use GIS and network analysis for modeling the accessibility to these hospitals for Karachi residents. Maps of three, six, and nine kilometer buffers were created around the five selected hospitals to determine which towns of Karachi are either entirely or partially covered/accessible. Most of the towns in Karachi were covered either partially or completely by the three buffers and service areas of 3,6, and 9 kilometers around the five selected hospitals. This study highlights the limitations of using publicly available data for road network, and the need for creating and making available in public domain, comprehensive road network vector dataset in conjunction with population breakdowns by administrative subdivisions. PMID:27427142

  12. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  13. Habitat of hydrocarbons on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The text attempts to synthesize the details of specific Norwegian finds into a regional framework which not only will be an essential reference documentation for explorationists in the Norwegian sector, but also will provide valuable insights into the variety of habitats of oil and gas accumulations in a global context.

  14. Language Planning Confronted by Everyday Communication in the International University: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Having been the scene of language planning for more than a century in relation to the two competing written standards of Norwegian, Norwegian language planners are now facing a new challenge: how to deal with what has been termed "domain loss" where Norwegian is perceived as losing out to English in important sectors of society,…

  15. Frequency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging patterns of tuberculous spondylitis in a public sector hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Sumera; Haider, Shahbaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequencies of different MRI patterns of tuberculous spondylitisin a public sector hospital in Karachi. Methods: This descriptive multidisciplinary case series study was done from October 25, 2011 to May 28, 2012 in Radiology Department and Department of Medicine in the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. MRI scans (dorsal / lumbosacral spine) of the Patients presenting with backache in Medical OPD, were performed in Radiology Department. Axial and sagittal images of T1 weighted, T2 weighted and STIR sequences of the affected region were taken. A total of 140 patients who were diagnosed as having tuberculous spondylitis were further evaluated and analyzed for having different patterns of involvement of the spine and compared with similar studies. Results: Among frequencies of different MRI pattern of tuberculous spondylitis, contiguous vertebral involvement was 100%, discal involvement 98.6%, paravertebral abscess 92.1% cases, epidural abscess 91.4%, spinal cord / thecal sac compression 89.3%, vertebral collapse 72.9%, gibbus deformity 42.9% and psoas abscess 36.4%. Conclusion: Contiguous vertebral involvement was commonest MRI pattern, followed by disk involvement, paravertebral & epidural abscesses, thecal sac compression and vertebral collapse. PMID:27022369

  16. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). Results In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion Hospital managers and

  17. Skills and Training for the Hospitality Sector: A Review of Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the skills debate in hospitality in four key areas: the nature of work and skills in hospitality, considering skills in terms of personal attributes, job requirements, and work settings; deskilling within the hospitality workplace; the technical/generic skills debate; and the education/training process in hospitality. Concludes that…

  18. Important Norwegian crude assays updated

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A

    1990-03-12

    New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

  19. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    PubMed

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation. PMID:26803473

  20. The North Norwegian Health Net.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, S; Uldal, S B; Baardsgard, A; Amundsen, M; Myrvang, R; Nordvåg, D; Stenmarkl, H

    1999-01-01

    The North Norwegian Health Net is a comprehensive scheme to connect all health-care institutions in the area to a national computer network. Services available include telemedicine, e-mail and Web access. A general practitioner has responsibility for ensuring that the clinical information is correct. Medical departments are responsible for the content of their own Web pages. All institutions require authorization before connection to ensure data protection and security. Changes in communication between primary- and secondary-care sectors are being monitored. To date the implementation of the network programme has gone smoothly. PMID:10534834

  1. The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-02-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa. PMID:20150608

  2. Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Saima; Malik, Asmat Ullah; Kamran, Irum; Ramzan, Musarat

    2014-01-01

    Background Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse. Methods A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients. Results All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system. Conclusion The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain aspects of its organization are key, including numbers (available quantity), skill mix (health team balance), distribution (urban/rural), and working conditions (compensation, nonfinancial incentives, and workplace safety). This study has identified the need to reform policies for

  3. New Norwegian HSE standard for the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    NORSOK (The competitive standing of the Norwegian offshore sector) is the Norwegian industry initiative to add value, reduce cost and lead time and remove unnecessary activities in offshore field developments and operations. The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry as a part of the NORSOK initiative and are jointly issued by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association and the Federation of Norwegian Engineering Industries. The purpose of the industry standard is to replace the individual oil company specifications for use in existing and future petroleum industry developments, subject to the individual company`s review and application. The NORSOK Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) standards covers: Technical Safety, Working Environment, Environmental Care, HSE during Construction. The standards are now being used in ongoing offshore development projects, and the experience with standards shows that the principle aim is being met. The development of standards continues, implementing experience gained.

  4. Hospital-based dialysis centers: perspectives from the for-profit sector.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, Peter W

    2005-06-01

    Make your hospital-based dialysis program financially viable, not a drain on cash flow. Assess the program's financial performance and potential value by comparing its data with industry benchmarks. Maximize all available revenue opportunities, and closely scrutinize expenses. PMID:17240663

  5. Sources of Meaningfulness in the Workplace: A Study in the US Hospitality Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the sources of meaningfulness at the workplace, according to the perceptions of hospitality employees from different national cultures in one US-based hotel, based on Dimitrov's empirical study about the features of the humane organization. Design/methodology/approach: This was an exploratory…

  6. Narrowing the Skills Gap for Innovation: An Empirical Study in the Hospital Sector

    PubMed Central

    Escoval, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background The current financial crisis and the increasing burden of chronic diseases are challenging hospitals to enhance their innovation capacity to deliver new and more effective health services. However, the shortage of skills has been widely recognized as a key obstacle for innovation. Ensuring the presence of a skilled workforce has become a priority for the health system in Portugal and across Europe. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the demand of new skills and their influence in both investments in innovation and development of skills. Methods We used a mixed-methods approach combining statistical analysis of data survey and content analysis of semistructured interviews with the Administration Boards of hospitals, using a nominal group technique. Results The results illustrate an increasing demand of a broad range of skills for innovation development, including responsibility and quality consciousness (with a significant increase of 55%, 52/95), adaptation skills (with an increase of 44%, 42/95) and cooperation and communication skills (with an increase of 55%, 52/95). Investments in the development of skills for innovation are mainly focused on aligning professional training with an organizational strategy (69%, 66/95) as well as collaboration in taskforces (61%, 58/95) and cross-department teams (60%, 57/95). However, the dynamics between the supply and demand of skills for innovation are better explained through a broader perspective of organizational changes towards enhancing learning opportunities and engagement of health professionals to boost innovation. Conclusions The results of this study illustrate that hospitals are unlikely to enhance their innovation capacity if they pursue strategies failing to match the skills needed. Within this context, hospitals with high investments in innovation tend to invest more in skills development. The demand of skills and investments in training are influenced by many other factors, including the

  7. "We're Not Slaves--We Are Actually the Future!" A Follow-up Study of Apprentices' Experiences in the Norwegian Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakkevig Dagsland, Åse Helene; Mykletun, Reidar Johan; Einarsen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the socialisation processes taking place during the apprenticeship period within the hospitality industry, searching for explanations of drop-out and early staff turnover in the personal, social and educational experiences of the apprentices during their organisational socialisation process and vocational training. Data were…

  8. Patterns of Adherence to and Compliance with the Portuguese Smoke-Free Law in the Leisure-Hospitality Sector

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Maria Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Aguiar, Pedro; Precioso, José; Nunes, Baltazar; Veloso, Luís; Santos, Sandra; Miguel, José Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH) sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas) adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted between January 2010 and May 2011. A random sample of venues was selected from the Portuguese LH sector database, proportionally stratified according to type, size and geographical area. All venues were assessed in loco by an observer. The independent effects of venues' characteristics on smoking permission and the level of noncompliance with the law were explored using logistic regression. Results Overall, 1.412 venues were included. Total ban policy was adopted by 75.9% of venues, while 8.4% had designated smoking areas. Smoking ban was more prevalent in restaurants (85.9%). Only 29.7% of discos/bars/pubs opted for complete ban. Full or partial smoking permission was higher in discos/bar/pubs (OR = 7.37; 95%CI 4.87 to 11.17). Noncompliance with the law was higher in venues allowing smoking and lower in places with complete ban (33.6% and 7.6% respectively, p<0.001). Discos/bars/pubs with full smoking permission had the highest level of noncompliance (OR = 3.31; 95%CI 1.40 to 7.83). Conclusions Our findings show a high adherence to smoking ban policy by the Portuguese LH sector. Nonetheless, one quarter of the venues is fully or partially permissive towards smoking, with the discos/bars/pubs considerably contributing to this situation. Venues with smoking permission policies were less compliant with the legislation. The implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law, without any exceptions, is essential to effectively protect people from the second hand

  9. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  10. Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation.

    PubMed

    Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation. PMID:24370484

  11. [Trends of tuberculosis related mortality and hospital discharges before and after the implementation of the health sector reform, Colombia, 1985-1999].

    PubMed

    Segura, Angela María; Rey, Juan José; Arbelaéz, María Patricia

    2004-06-01

    We describe the changes that have been presented in the tendencies of mortality and hospital discharges by tuberculosis (TB) between 1985-1999, period before and during the implementation of the Health Sector Reform (HSR) in Colombia. For it, we carried out an exploratory descriptive study with analysis of time series of hospital discharges and mortality rates of TB in Colombia. It was found that although starting from 1991 the Series approach stabilized, their tendencies showed a significant descent diminishing both in 30% between 1985 and 1990. The steady trend registered from 1991 to 1999, could be explained by deterioration of the primary care during this period, also due to other complex social processes occurred in Colombia during this decade, which barred the continuing the descent trend in hospital discharges and mortality due to TB previously registered. Due to the study design limitations we cannot establish causal relationships between these trends and the health sector reform in the country; we recommend the improvement the health sector performance about public health problems such as TB in order to avoid unnecessary hospitalizations and deaths due to causes responsive to health sector interventions. PMID:15495579

  12. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  13. [Euthanasia--experiences from Norwegian pain clinics].

    PubMed

    Meidell, N K; Naess, A C

    1998-10-10

    This survey focuses on the subject of euthanasia. A questionnaire was sent to 90 doctors working in pain clinics in Norwegian hospitals. 60 doctors (67%) returned the questionnaire. Only 18 doctors (30%) had ever received a request for euthanasia. The patients who requested euthanasia suffered from refractory pain, depression, fear of pain and fear of becoming helpless. 67% of the doctors were satisfied with the present Norwegian law, while 13% favoured a liberalization of the law. Only 5% were willing to comply with the patient's request for euthanasia under today's law. One third of the doctors would leave the decision to an officially appointed "board" if euthanasia were to become legalized. A majority wanted a doctor to commit the actual procedure, but there were also suggestions that a lawyer or other lay person should carry out the act of euthanasia. Our conclusion is that the closer the patient-doctor relationship is, the more opposed the doctor is to euthanasia. PMID:9816949

  14. Is the use of computer navigation in total knee arthroplasty improving implant positioning and function? A comparative study of 198 knees operated at a Norwegian district hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few Scandinavian studies on the effect of computer assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), compared to conventional technique (CON), and there is little information on effects in pain and function scores. This retrospective study has evaluated the effects of CAOS on radiological parameters and pain, function and quality of life after primary TKA. Methods 198 primary TKAs were operated by one surgeon in two district hospitals; 103 CAOS and 95 CON. The groups were evaluated based on 3 months post-operative radiographs and a questionnaire containing the knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS), the EQ-5D index score and a visual analogue scale (VAS) two years after surgery. Multiple linear regression method was used to investigate possible impact from exposure (CON or CAOS). Results On hip-knee-ankle radiographs, 20% of measurements were > ±3° of neutral in the CAOS group and 25% in the CON group (p = 0.37). For the femoral component, the number was 5% for CAOS and 18% for CON (p < 0.01). For the tibial component, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.58). In the sagittal plane, the surgeon tended to apply more femoral flexion and more posterior tibial slope with CAOS. We observed no statistically or clinically significant difference in KOOS score, VAS or ∆EQ-5D (all p values >0.05), but there was a trend towards better scores for CAOS. Operation time was 3 minutes longer for CON (p = 0.37). Conclusions CAOS can improve radiological measurements in primary TKA, and makes it possible to adjust component placement to the patient’s anatomy. Over-all, the two methods are equal in pain, function and quality-of-life scores. PMID:24228727

  15. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  16. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  17. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians’ perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001) of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses. PMID:26903670

  18. Learning-Conducive Work: A Survey of Learning Conditions in Norwegian Workplaces. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skule, Sveinung; Reichborn, Anders N.; Leren, Iver Jan, Ed.

    In this report, learning conditions in Norwegian workplaces were examined to identify ways of making workplaces more conducive to learning. Data were collected through interviews in 11 firms and a questionnaire survey of 1,300 private sector and 200 public sector employees. Opportunities to learn through work varied widely. Older women with little…

  19. The Norwegian approach to integrated quality development.

    PubMed

    Ovretveit, J

    2001-01-01

    The UK NHS quality proposals require all NHS organisations to develop an "integrated approach " to quality. In other countries, health care organisations are also working to ensure that the many different quality methods and systems used in health organisations do not duplicate or conflict with each other. The question this paper addresses is "what would an integrated approach to quality look like and how might managers and clinicians develop such an approach in their organisation?" The findings from the Norwegian total quality management experiment in six hospitals were that TQM could not be applied in its pure form in public health care services to ensure integration. The paper draws on this research to describe these hospitals' approach to integrate the different projects and systems which were stimulated by their initial quality programmes. The paper describes the "integrated quality development" approach which characterised these programmes. PMID:11547821

  20. Why we need the independent sector: the behavior, law, and ethics of not-for-profit hospitals.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Jill R

    2003-08-01

    Among the major forms of corporate ownership, the not-for-profit ownership form is distinct in its behavior, legal constraints, and moral obligations. A new empirical analysis of the American Hospital industry, using eleven years of data for all urban general hospitals in the country, shows that corporate form accounts for large differences in the provision of specific medical services. Not-for-profit hospitals systematically provide both private and public goods that are in the public interest, and that other forms fail to provide. Two hypotheses are proposed to account for the findings, one legal and one moral. While no causal claims are made, not-for-profit hospital behavior is consistent with the behavior required by law and morality. The moral argument, developed as a preliminary theory of not-for-profit ethics, also provides a potential reason to prefer not-for-profit hospitals. The findings provide a new justification for the not-for-profit tax exemption for hospitals, and also suggest new uses for ownership categories as regulatory tools. PMID:16273686

  1. Antibiotic prescribing in two private sector hospitals; one teaching and one non-teaching: A cross-sectional study in Ujjain, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The worldwide increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria is of great concern. One of the main causes is antibiotic use which is likely to be high but is poorly described in India. The aim was to analyze and compare antibiotic prescribing for inpatients, in two private sector tertiary care hospitals; one Teaching and one Non-teaching, in Ujjain, India. Methods A cross-sectional study with manual data collection was carried out in 2008. Antibiotic prescribing was recorded for all inpatients throughout their hospital stay. Demographic profile of inpatients and prescribed antibiotics were compared. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classifications for antibiotics was used and Defined Daily Doses (DDD) were calculated per patient day. Results A total of 8385 inpatients were admitted during the study period. In the Teaching hospital (TH) 82% of 3004 and in the Non-teaching hospital (NTH) 79% of 5381 patients were prescribed antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic groups were; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides in the TH and, 3rd generation cephalosporins and combination of antibiotics in the NTH. Of the prescriptions, 51% in the TH and 87% in the NTH (p<0.001) were for parenteral route administration. Prescribing by trade name was higher in the NTH (96%) compared with the TH (63%, p<0.001). Conclusions The results from both hospitals show extensive antibiotic prescribing. High use of combinations of antibiotics in the NTH might indicate pressure from pharmaceutical companies. There is a need to formulate and implement; based on local prescribing and resistance data; contextually appropriate antibiotic prescribing guidelines and a local antibiotic stewardship program. PMID:22788873

  2. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  3. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  4. The flexibilization of employment relationships in the health sector: the reality in a Federal University Hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sheila Maria Parreira; Coelho, Maria Carlota de Rezende; Borges, Luiz Henrique; Cruz, César Albenes de Mendonça; Massaroni, Leila; Maciel, Paulete Maria Ambrósio

    2015-10-01

    This was a socio-historical study that aimed to analyze the repercussions of the flexibilization of labor relationships within a University hospital (UH) using the thematic oral history method and triangulation of sources made up of workers' statements, institutional documents and relevant literature. It was observed that flexibilization, driven by state reform in the 1990s, had a structural impact on the trajectory of this institution, that, due to government downsizing policy, adopted outsourcing to maintain staff, leading to high staff turnover, various types of conflicts, and discontinuity and lack of organization of work processes. We conclude that the flexibilization of employment relationships became a handicap for this UH, disrupting services, negatively affecting students and service users, contributing to the deterioration of working conditions and lack of protection of workers. PMID:26465847

  5. Sexual Knowledge among Norwegian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Pal

    1993-01-01

    Studied sexual knowledge among Norwegian adolescents (n=1,855) aged 17-19 years. Found knowledge gaps among adolescents on sexual physiology and anatomy, sexually transmitted diseases, and fecundation/contraception. Level of sexual knowledge was higher among girls than boys and increased with increasing age. Sexual knowledge did not predict…

  6. Modernising Education: New Public Management Reform in the Norwegian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Møller, Jorunn; Skedsmo, Guri

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian…

  7. Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from then on, rate of improvement has increased much more slowly. The annual sale of anabolic steroids 1963-81 and testosterone 1974-81, in Norway have been recorded. The sale of anabolic steroids increased irregularly until 1974-75, and has since shown a 42% decrease. The sale of testosterone 1974-81 showed a slight reduction, thus giving no support to the suggestion that doping tests for anabolic steroids would lead to a transfer to testosterone abuse. PMID:7139228

  8. Prioritization and the elusive effect on welfare - a Norwegian health care reform revisited.

    PubMed

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2015-03-01

    The Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme that Norwegian authorities implemented in 2007 is an example of a policy that builds on the human capital approach. The main idea behind the scheme is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of absence from work. To achieve a reduction in average sickness absence duration, the allocation of FRW funds and new treatment capacity is exclusively aimed at people on sick leave. Many countries have allocated funds to reduce waiting times for hospital treatment and research shows that more resources allocated to the hospital sector can reduce waiting times. Our results support this as the FRW scheme significantly reduces waiting times. However, on average the reduction in waiting times is not transformed into an equally large reduction in the sickness absence period. We find significant difference in the effects of FRW on length of sick leave between surgical and non-surgical patients though. The duration of sick leave for FRW patients undergoing surgical treatment is approximately 14 days shorter than for surgical patients on the regular waiting list. We find no significant effect of the scheme on length of sick leave for non-surgical patients. In sum, our welfare analysis indicates that prioritization of the kind that the FRW scheme represents is not as straightforward as one would expect. The FRW scheme costs more than it contributes in reduced productivity loss. We base our analyses on several different econometric methods using register data on approximately 13,500 individuals over the period 2007-2008. PMID:25637910

  9. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  10. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  11. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups

    PubMed Central

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. PMID:24975918

  12. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  13. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  14. Applying Task-Technology Fit Model to the Healthcare Sector: a Case Study of Hospitals' Computed Tomography Patient-Referral Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Shun; Yu, Chun-Jen; Chen, Gary Yu-Hsin

    2015-08-01

    With the growth in the number of elderly and people with chronic diseases, the number of hospital services will need to increase in the near future. With myriad of information technologies utilized daily and crucial information-sharing tasks performed at hospitals, understanding the relationship between task performance and information system has become a critical topic. This research explored the resource pooling of hospital management and considered a computed tomography (CT) patient-referral mechanism between two hospitals using the information system theory framework of Task-Technology Fit (TTF) model. The TTF model could be used to assess the 'match' between the task and technology characteristics. The patient-referral process involved an integrated information framework consisting of a hospital information system (HIS), radiology information system (RIS), and picture archiving and communication system (PACS). A formal interview was conducted with the director of the case image center on the applicable characteristics of TTF model. Next, the Icam DEFinition (IDEF0) method was utilized to depict the As-Is and To-Be models for CT patient-referral medical operational processes. Further, the study used the 'leagility' concept to remove non-value-added activities and increase the agility of hospitals. The results indicated that hospital information systems could support the CT patient-referral mechanism, increase hospital performance, reduce patient wait time, and enhance the quality of care for patients. PMID:26126414

  15. Hospital financing in Norway.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, F

    1994-05-01

    The Norwegian block grant reform of 1980 replaced state reimbursements to hospitals by block grants allocated to counties according to objective criteria. The reform was accompanied by a general decentralization of budget authority to local level. The reform aimed to promote primary care, equalize the supply of health care across regions and give counties incentives to improve hospital efficiency. A decade later, the reform was reversed. The government has imposed restrictions which reduce the budget discretion of the counties and part of the block grant has been made dependent on the performance of the hospitals in the counties. The government has also issued a 'waiting-list guarantee' which states that patients who suffer from a serious disease are entitled to medical treatment within six months. This paper provides an overview of hospital financing in Norway during the last two decades and discusses why the block grant system did not fulfil the expectations of its architects. PMID:10136059

  16. Developing Electronic Cooperation Tools: A Case From Norwegian Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Mydske, Per Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Many countries aim to create electronic cooperational tools in health care, but the progress is rather slow. Objective The study aimed to uncover how the authoritys’ financing policies influence the development of electronic cooperational tools within public health care. Methods An interpretative approach was used in this study. We performed 30 semistructured interviews with vendors, policy makers, and public authorities. Additionally, we conducted an extensive documentation study and participated in 18 workshops concerning information and communication technology (ICT) in Norwegian health care. Results We found that the interorganizational communication in sectors like health care, that have undergone an independent development of their internal information infrastructure would find it difficult to create electronic services that interconnect the organizations because such connections would affect all interconnected organizations within the heterogenic structure. The organizations would, to a large extent, depend on new functionality in existing information systems. Electronic patient records play a central role in all parts of the health care sector and therefore dependence is established to the information systems and theirs vendors. The Norwegian government authorities, which run more than 80% of the Norwegian health care, have not taken extraordinary steps to compensate for this dependency–the government's political philosophy is that each health care institution should pay for further electronic patient record development. However, cooperational tools are complex due to the number of players involved and the way they are intertwined with the overall workflow. The customers are not able to buy new functionalities on the drawing table, while the electronic patient record vendors are not willing to take the economic risk in developing cooperational tools. Thus, the market mechanisms in the domain are challenged. We also found that public projects

  17. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  18. Norwegian Secondary School Teachers and ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Molster, Terje

    2011-01-01

    ICT is meant to be integrated in all subjects in Norwegian schools; nevertheless many teachers are reluctant to use ICT in their own teaching. This paper explores to what extent teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching and what teacher-level factors influence the use of ICT. It draws on an analysis of 10 focus-group interviews with 10 teachers…

  19. Field development projects advance in Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports on the Norwegian Sea, lying between the Norwegian North Sea and the western flank of the Barents Sea, which is set to become Norway's second oil and gas producing province. Oil is scheduled to start to flow near the end of next year when AS Norske Shell places on production 428 million bbl Draugen field in Block 6407/9, about 60 miles off the coast of mid-Norway in the frontier sea area known as Haltenbanken. Two years later, in 1995, Norske Conoco AS will add to the 95,000 b/d from Draugen when it commissions the world's first concrete hull tension leg platform (TLP) in Heidrun field. The TLP is expected to produce 200,000 b/d of oil and move associated gas by pipeline to the Norwegian mainland to feed a worldscale methanol plant planned for construction at Tjeldbergodden. The Norwegian government also has been asked to approve a gas pipeline link between Haltenbanken and the gas export infrastructure in the North Sea.

  20. Successful School Leadership: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jorunn; Eggen, Astrid; Fuglestad, Otto L.; Langfeldt, Gjert; Presthus, Anne-Marie; Skrovset, Siw; Stjernstrom, Else; Vedoy, Gunn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify what counts as successful school leadership within a Norwegian context. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses multi-site case study methods as a methodological approach. In selecting cases the first strategy included schools appointed as "good practice schools" by the Ministry of Education and Research.…

  1. Being "Neutral"? English Pronunciation among Norwegian Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…

  2. Norwegian Superintendents as Mediators of Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theoretical argument in this article views municipal school superintendents in the Nordic context as middle managers in organizational theory terminology. Empirical support for this discussion emerges from national data collected among Norwegian school superintendents in 2009. Findings show that the actual work and leadership…

  3. Continuing Medical Education: The Norwegian Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, H. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Norwegian Medical Association is given responsibility for training and continuing medical education by the government. Government financial support enables the association to provide courses without support from the pharmaceutical industry. Current emphases include doctors as individual learners, as counselors, and as mentors. (SK)

  4. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF).

    PubMed

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Clausen, Thomas; Duckert, Fanny; Ravndal, Edle; Waal, Helge

    2011-08-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF) at the University of Oslo is a newly established, clinical addiction research centre. It is located at the Oslo University Hospital and has a major focus on opioid dependency, investigating Norwegian opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), with special interest in OMT during pregnancy, mortality, morbidity and criminality before, during and after OMT and alternatives to OMT, such as the use of naltrexone implants. The well-developed health registries of Norway are core assets that also allow the opportunity for other types of substance abuse research. This research includes health services, abuse of prescription drugs and drugs of abuse in connection with traffic. The centre also focuses upon comorbidity, investigating the usefulness and limitations of psychometric instruments, drug abuse in different psychiatric treatment settings and internet-based interventions for hazardous alcohol consumption. PMID:20735364

  5. An investigation of the role nurses play in Norwegian home care.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Edda; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2010-10-01

    Registered nurses' (RNs') role in Norwegian home care services exists in a state of flux owing to the early discharge of patients from hospitals, more time-consuming and complex care for young patients, and a growing number of older care recipients. The aim of this study was to investigate the RN role through an integrative research review, with a focus on nursing activities and competence. This study found that RNs and assistant nurses often perform the same tasks, providing assistance with personal hygiene, medication and wound management. The change towards more medicalized and complex home care entails that requirements pertaining to RNs' competence, the allocation of RNs' time and skills to those in most need of nursing care, and the assignment of assistant nurses to lower care levels activities must be delineated. Norwegian home care must examine how care activities can be better allocated between RNs, social educators, assistant nurses, and informal care-givers. PMID:20966846

  6. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  7. Risk profiles associated with postnatal depressive symptoms among women in a public sector hospital in Mexico: the role of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended. PMID:25416532

  8. Iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper is a condensed version of parts of a Dr. ing. thesis to be presented during 1983. The first part of the paper deals with the regional distribution of iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf, and some general aspects related to it. The second part deals with iceberg scouring as a local phenomenon and its relation to the sea floor topography, sediment distribution, and geological and geotechnical properties of the sediments.

  9. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil; Todal, Jon

    2013-01-01

    In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmâl and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmâl is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmâl has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmâl among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the…

  10. First drilling in Norwegian sea off Norway yields encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsager, E.

    1981-06-08

    Three exploratory wells drilled in the Norwegian Sea penetrated Jurassic sandstones with excellent reservoir qualities, rich source rock, and some evidence of hydrocarbons. Constituting the first wells drilled north of the 62nd parallel off Norway, they produced encouraging evidence of prospective structures. The Norwegian continental shelf north of the North Sea contains areas of thick sedimentary basins having an areal extent 8-9 times that of the Norwegian North Sea.

  11. Norne tests new Norwegian development technologies, philosophies

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The world's largest ship-shaped floating production facility will mine hydrocarbons trapped below 1,246-ft, harsh Norwegian waters at the Norne field. An innovative development philosophy involving functional specifications and life-of-field bench marking will ensure costs and lead time to first oil are minimized. The Block 6608/10 Norne field is the largest discovery on the Norwegian continental shelf in more than a decade. The field extends for 6.2 miles, is 1.24 miles wide and sits 124 miles west of the mid-Norway coast in 1,246-ft waters. Well No. 6608/10-2 first penetrated the Norne reservoir in December 1991. Appraisal well 6608/10-3 was drilled in 1993 and proved the field's northerly extension. Based on results from those two wells, a development project began last year. To improve project economics and company performance, a clear objective was established to reduce investment costs by 25%--30% compared to the current established level in Norway. The Norne organization is working on a Plan for Development and Operation to be submitted to Norwegian authorities later this year so that final approval can be obtained in early 1995.

  12. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. PMID:24757013

  13. Numeracy Activities within VOX: The Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvalo, Svein

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces Vox, Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning, an agency of the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research that focuses mainly on improving basic skills in the adult population in the areas of literacy, numeracy and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). Vox is responsible for curriculum…

  14. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  15. The Norwegian Danish Basin: A key to understanding the Cenozoic in the eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Thomas L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Goledowski, Bartosz

    2015-04-01

    The Danish part of Norwegian-Danish Basin, which constitutes the eastern part of the North Sea Basin, has been the key area for sequence stratigraphic subdivision and analysis of the Cenozoic succession since the mid 1990's. Widespread 3D seismic data, in the central parts of the North Sea Basin, as well as more scattered 3D seismic data in the Danish part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, have given a more detailed understanding of the sequences and indicate that climate is tenable for the origin of Cenozoic sequence boundaries. The previous sequence stratigraphic interpretations have been an integrated part of an ongoing debate concerning vertical movements of the Fennoscandian shield versus the impact of climate and erosion. A newly accessed coherent regional 2D and reprocessed 3D seismic data set, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, constitute the database for a new sequence stratigraphic analysis of the entire area. The objective of the new study is to test previous subdivisions and introduce a coherent 3D sequence stratigraphic analysis and depositional model for the entire Norwegian-Danish Basin. This analysis is necessary to get out of the stalemate with the uplift discussion. The study shows that the original subdivision by Michelsen et al. (1995, 1998) stands. However, revision of few a sequence boundaries may have to be adjusted due to new biostratigraphic information published. Furthermore, high-angle clinoforms and geomorphological transport complexes observed in the Danish North Sea Basin can be traced into the Norwegian sector. This together with the recognition of several other high-angle clinoform complexes, and their associated seismic facies distribution maps and thickness-maps, enhances the level of detail and constrains the previous published paleogeographic reconstructions of the Cenozoic. The geometry of the Cenozoic infill, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, is here interpreted to be controlled by relative sea

  16. Nurse Competence Scale--psychometric testing in a Norwegian context.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Nordström, Gun

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to test the construct validity of the Nurse Competence Scale. The Nurse Competence Scale has been used in hospital settings for various purposes in several countries. Despite this, confirmatory factor analyses are scarcely reported. The present study is based on re-analyses of data from 2007 (i.e. psychometric testing) and 593 newly graduated nurses working in various contexts were included. Confirmatory as well as exploratory factor analyses (Principal Component Analysis) were carried out. The original 7-factor model of the Nurse Competence Scale (73 items) was not confirmed. The exploratory factor analyses resulted in a Norwegian Nurse Competence Scale consisting of 46 items in the following competence categories: Planning and delivery of care, Teaching functions, Professional leadership, Research utilization and nursing values and Professional awareness. The results underline the needs for psychometric testing of an instrument after translation processes. The instrument is suitable for describing and comparing nurse competence for various reasons. It may also be helpful in creating competence development programs at an individual as well as at an organizational level. Further studies with a broader sample are recommended. PMID:25434831

  17. Diversity and Significance of Mold Species in Norwegian Drinking Water▿

    PubMed Central

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Knutsen, Ann Kristin; Gaustad, Peter; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Skaar, Ida

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of CFU per 100 ml) of fungal species and the species diversity within each sample were determined. The identification of mold species was based on morphological and molecular methods. In total, 94 mold species belonging to 30 genera were identified. The mycobiota was dominated by species of Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus, with some of them occurring throughout the drinking water system. Several of the same species as isolated from water may have the potential to cause allergic reactions or disease in humans. Other species are common contaminants of food and beverages, and some may cause unwanted changes in the taste or smell of water. The present results indicate that the mycobiota of water should be considered when the microbiological safety and quality of drinking water are assessed. In fact, molds in drinking water should possibly be included in the Norwegian water supply and drinking water regulations. PMID:17028226

  18. The modified norwegian method of biceps tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Foad, Abdullah; Faruqui, Sami; Hanna, Courtney C

    2014-02-01

    This technical note describes a method of biceps tenodesis called the Modified Norwegian Method that is an all-arthroscopic, intra-articular, bony biceps tenodesis that uses a suture shuttle passer through an anterosuperolateral portal. It allows for easy passage of suture through the long head of the biceps tendon while one is viewing through the posterior portal. We believe this method to be a very reasonable and simple method of biceps tenodesis that has complication rates similar to those described for subpectoral and other methods of fixation. PMID:24843845

  19. Teachers at War: Norwegian Teachers during the German Occupation of Norway 1940-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunseath, Tessa

    2002-01-01

    States Norwegian Nazi leader, Vidkun Quisling, attempted to control dissenting Norwegian teachers by developing a compulsory union. Reports Nazi beliefs centered on controlling teachers, curriculum, and textbooks as a key to success. Notes Norwegian teachers' refusal to comply with the union scheme stymied Norwegian Nazi leaders' plans for…

  20. Hydrate problems in pipelines: A study from Norwegian continental waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, D.; Larsen, R.; Lund, A.; Thomsen, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    This study was undertaken by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and SINTEF to identify hydrate problems occurring in pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. A brief review of hydrate dissociation theory is given. Three major techniques for hydrate removal are discussed, as well as hazards related to hydrate plug removal. Questionnaire answers from 15 companies operating in Norwegian waters show three specific occurrences of hydrate plugs in the North Sea. Problems from other geographical areas are also discussed. Hydrate problems are reported for a wide variety of pipe lengths, diameters, profiles, insulations characteristics and fluids. Most problems occur during normal operation.

  1. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes. PMID:24215699

  2. Permian of Norwegian-Greenland sea margins: future exploration target

    SciTech Connect

    Surlyk, F.; Hurst, J.M.; Piasecki, S.; Rolle, F.; Stemmerik, L.; Thomsen, E.; Wrang, P.

    1984-09-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the northern North Sea and the southern Norwegian shelf has mainy been concentrated on Jurassic and younger reservoirs with Late Jurassic black shale source rocks. New onshore investigations in Jameson Land, central East Greenland, suggest that the Permian of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins contains relatively thick sequences of potential oil source rocks interbedded with carbonate reefs. The East Greenland, Upper Permian marine basin is exposed over a length of 400 km (250 mi) from Jameson Land in the south to Wollaston Forland in the north, parallel with the continental margin. The Upper Permian black shale is relatively thick, widely distributed, has a high organic carbon content, and a favorable kerogen type. Consequently, the possibilities for a Permian play in the northern part of the Norwegian shelf and along parts of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins are worth evaluating.

  3. World's largest TLP moves onto deepwater Norwegian location

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the world's largest and most sophisticated tension leg platform (TLP) was floated out to Snorre oil field in the Norwegian North Sea last month. The 78,000 ton unit built by Norwegian independent, Sega Petroleum AS, Oslo, was installed in the southern part of block 34/7 and should produce first oil in August, about a month ahead of schedule.

  4. Medical practice, procedure manuals and the standardisation of hospital death.

    PubMed

    Hadders, Hans

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines how death is managed in a larger regional hospital within the Norwegian health-care. The central focus of my paper concerns variations in how healthcare personnel enact death and handle the dead patient. Over several decades, modern standardised hospital death has come under critique in the western world. Such critique has resulted in changes in the standardisation of hospital deaths within Norwegian health-care. In the wake of the hospice movement and with greater focus on palliative care, doors have gradually been opened and relatives of the deceased are now more often invited to participate. I explore how the medical practice around death along with the procedure manual of post-mortem care at Trondheim University Hospital has changed. I argue that in the late-modern context, standardisation of hospital death is a multidimensional affair, embedded in a far more comprehensive framework than the depersonalized medico-legal. In the late-modern Norwegian hospital, interdisciplinary negotiation and co-operation has allowed a number of different agendas to co-exist, without any ensuing loss of the medical power holder's authority to broker death. I follow Mol's notion of praxiographic orientation of the actor-network approach while exploring this medical practice. PMID:19228301

  5. Heat Flow of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial heat flow determination is of prime interest for oil industry because it impacts directly maturation histories and economic potential of oil fields. Published systematic heat flow determinations from major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. For the sake of comparison, we carefully review previous heat flow studies carried out both onshore and offshore Norway. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and Vøring basins. This latter

  6. Heat flow of the Norwegian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial heat flow influences a large collection of geological processes. Its determination is a requirement to assess the economic potential of deep sedimentary basins. Published heat flow calculations from e.g. major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. The Barents Shelf shows significantly high heat flow, suggesting lateral transfer of heat from the mantle of the adjacent young ocean. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and V

  7. The Norwegian Plasma Fractionation Project--a 12 year clinical and economic success story.

    PubMed

    Flesland, O; Seghatchian, J; Solheim, B G

    2003-02-01

    The establishment of the Norwegian Fractionation Project (Project) was of major importance in preserving national self-sufficiency when plasma, cryoprecipitate and small batch factor IX-concentrates were replaced by virus inactivated products in the last part of the 1980s. Fractionation was performed abroad by contract with Octapharma after tenders on the European market. All Norwegian blood banks (>50) participated in the Project. Total yearly production was 50-60 tons of mainly recovered plasma. From 1993 solvent detergent (SD) treated plasma has replaced other plasma for transfusion. The blood banks paid for the fractionation and/or viral inactivation process, while the plasma remained the property of the blood banks and the final products were returned to the blood banks. The Project sold surplus products to other Norwegian blood banks and the majority of the coagulation factor concentrates to The Institute of Haemophilia and Rikshospitalet University Hospital. Both plasma and blood bank quality was improved by the Project. Clinical experience with the products has been satisfactory and self-sufficiency has been achieved for all major plasma proteins and SD plasma, but a surplus exceeding 3 years consumption of albumin has accumulated due to decreasing clinical use.The Project has secured high yields of the fractionated products and the net income from the produced products is NOK 1115 (140 Euros or US dollars) per litre plasma. An increasing surplus of albumin and the possibility of significant sales abroad of currently not fractionated IVIgG, could lead to a reorganisation of the Project from that of a co-ordinator to a national plasma handling unit. This unit could buy the plasma from the blood banks and have the plasma fractionated by contract after tender, before selling the products back for cost recovery. The small blood banks could produce plasma for products for the Norwegian market, while surplus products from the larger blood banks which are

  8. Vibration injuries in Norwegian forest workers

    PubMed Central

    Hellstr⊘m, B.; Andersen, K. Lange

    1972-01-01

    Hellstr⊘m, B., and Lange Andersen, K. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 255-263. Vibration injuries in Norwegian forest workers. A free medical examination with compensation for lost earnings was offered to the forest workers in three areas of eastern Norway. Sixty-six per cent attended (413 workers, of whom 296 used chain saws). The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) was 47% in chain saw operators, 14% in forest workers not exposed to vibration, and 9% in 302 indoor workers not exposed to vibration. The high prevalence of RP in chain saw operators was attributed to a traumatic vasospastic disease (TVD). The average time of latency was eight years. The standard symptoms of TVD were attacks of blanching and numbness. Cyanosis and pain occurred rarely. In subsamples, measurements of tactile two-point discrimination and maximal isometric muscle strength (hand grip and finger pressure) as well as x-ray examinations of the wrists and the hands gave no evidence of vibration injury to peripheral nerves, muscles, bones, or joints. PMID:5044596

  9. Categorization of speech sounds by Norwegian/English bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dypvik, Audny T.; Slawinski, Elzbieta B.

    2005-04-01

    Bilinguals who learned English late in life (late bilinguals) as opposed to those who learned English early in life (early bilinguals) differ in their perception of phonemic distinctions. Age of acquisition of a second language as well as depth of immersion into English is influenced by perceptual differences of phonemic contrasts between monolinguals and bilinguals, with consequences for speech production. The phonemes /v/ and /w/ are from the same category in Norwegian, rendering them perceptually indistinguishable to the native Norwegian listener. In English, /v/ and /w/ occupy two categories. Psychoacoustic testing on this phonemic distinction in the current study will compare perceptual abilities of monolingual English and bilingual Norwegian/English listeners. Preliminary data indicates that Norwegian/English bilinguals demonstrate varying perceptual abilities for this phonemic distinction. A series of speech sounds have been generated by an articulatory synthesizer, the Tube Resonance Model, along a continuum between the postures of /v/ and /w/. They will be presented binaurally over headphones in an anechoic chamber at a sound pressure level of 75 dB. Differences in the perception of the categorical boundary between /v/ and /w/ among English monolinguals and Norwegian/English bilinguals will be further delineated.

  10. People of the Prairies: A Norwegian and German-Russian Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbert, Jon Charles, Ed.; Peterson, Fredrick E., Ed.

    The guide presents secondary level units designed to promote understanding of the two largest ethnic groups in North Dakota, the Norwegians and the German-Russians. The book is presented in five parts. Part I provides an historical overview of the Norwegian and German-Russian migration to North Dakota. Part II presents three Norwegian units on…

  11. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  12. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed Central

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender. PMID:27014151

  13. Family Structure in Norwegian Families of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeby, Hege; Tossebro, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The idea that raising a child with disabilities has a negative impact on the parents' relationship is still widely accepted despite contradictory research findings. This article addresses the impact of raising a child with disabilities on family structure in the present Norwegian context. Method: Family demographics were collected at…

  14. Educating Voters: Political Education in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borhaug, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    Research on political education in schools suggests that an emphasis on formal structure, constitutional principles, formal citizen rights, and debates on current issues is common. The Norwegian national curriculum on political education envisions a different political education emphasizing that students should be critical of political life and…

  15. No indication of Coxiella burnetii infection in Norwegian farmed ruminants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection with Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q-fever, has never been detected in Norwegian animals. Recognising the increasing prevalence of the infection in neighbouring countries, the aim of the study was to perform a survey of Norwegian farmed ruminants for the prevalence of C. burnetii infection. Results Milk and blood samples from more than 3450 Norwegian dairy cattle herds, 55 beef cattle herds, 348 dairy goat herds and 118 sheep flocks were serologically examined for antibodies against C. burnetii. All samples were negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. The estimated prevalences of infected herds were 0 (95% confidence interval: 0% - 0.12%), 0 (0% - 12%), 0 (0% - 1.2%) and 0 (0% - 10%) for dairy cattle herds, beef cattle herds, goat herds and sheep flocks, respectively. Conclusions The study indicates that the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in farmed Norwegian ruminants is low, and it cannot be excluded that Norway is free of the infection. It would be beneficial if Norway was able to maintain the current situation. Therefore, preventive measures should be continued. PMID:22607497

  16. [Norwegian psychiatry and Nazism. A historical project of current interest].

    PubMed

    Lavik, N J

    1994-06-10

    In 1945 the Ministry of Justice appointed a committee to conduct a psychiatric examination of Norwegian Nazis. This was done after a proposal from the Norwegian Psychiatric Association on the initiative of Professor Langfeldt, who at that time was head of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Oslo. An investigation based on a crosscheck between membership of the Nazi party and the Norwegian case register for psychoses for the period 1926-1940 showed 30% more psychoses among the Nazis than in the population as a whole. Other studies tended to support the view that there was a high prevalence of deviant personalities among the Nazis. A study of 340 "front combatants" (not representative of the whole group of 8,000) showed no increase in psychopathology. They had a higher level of intelligence and education than the mean of young Norwegian males. Many of them belonged to strong pro-Nazi families. The studies of pro-Nazi women, especially the very young who had been involved in sexual relationships with German soldiers, are not representative. The findings seem to indicate that many of them lacked family support and had social problems. The studies are discussed in a historical perspective, with some comments about their relevance today. PMID:8079277

  17. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their children an education…

  18. Exploration of Norwegian Student Teachers' Relational Concerns during Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugan, Jan Arvid; Moen, Torill; Karlsdottir, Ragnheidur

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on and contributes to research on student teachers' relational concerns in teacher education, as four Grade 3 Norwegian student teachers were followed during their internship for two periods of two weeks each. The article presents and discusses data from interviews and student teachers' logs, while the aim of the study is to…

  19. Science Choices in Norwegian Upper Secondary School: What Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter

    2012-01-01

    There is international concern about young people's participation in science. This study investigated the relevant importance of various issues in 1628 Norwegian upper secondary students' choices of postcompulsory subject combinations: natural science and mathematics (henceforth Science) or languages, social science and economics (henceforth…

  20. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  1. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  2. Deepwater cementing in the Norwegian Sea: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Helgesen, J.T.; Harestad, K.; Sorgaard, E.

    1999-04-01

    During Norway`s 15th licensing round in 1996, five deepwater areas were opened for exploration drilling. All blocks are situated outside the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, west of mid-Norway. The seabed and location conditions were studied by the Norwegian Deepwater Project, a joint venture of the operator companies who were awarded blocks in these new unexplored areas. Results of the study revealed that the weather and sea conditions in these remote areas would be among the toughest in the world. Strong return currents from the Arctic Ocean bring undercooled water to these locations, lowering the seabed temperature to as low as {minus}2 C. Because all the blocks are situated outside the Norwegian continental shelf, the water depth is in the range of 2,600--5,000 ft (800--1,600 m). Typical deepwater conditions are present in most of the deepwater locations in the Norwegian Sea. The conditions that posed additional challenges to the drilling operation were poorly consolidated sediments, shallow water flow zones, hydrate destabilization and ooze sediments. The paper describes sediment consolidation, shallow water flow, hydrates, development of deepwater cement slurries, a field case, and future cementing operations in Norway.

  3. Social Capital and Student Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates student social capital in Norwegian secondary schools and its effects on student achievement. Using data from the national survey "Young in Norway 2002", it explores the concept and measurement of social capital in the school context by applying factor analysis. The paper also tests an analytical model that links student…

  4. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  5. The Prevalence and Nature of Intellectual Disability in Norwegian Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondenaa, E.; Rasmussen, K.; Palmstierna, T.; Nottestad, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. Methods: A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI)…

  6. The Norwegian Principal: The Impact of National and Local Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jorunn

    This article provides a snapshot of educational administration and leadership in Norway. The article describes the Norwegian context and the country's educational system. It reports on a small study that was part of a cross-cultural exploration into the principalship, offering a discussion based on interviews of principals from four…

  7. School Start Time, Sleepiness and Functioning in Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedaa, Oystein; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate how school start time affects sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian 10th grade students (N = 106). The intervention school started at 0930 hours on Mondays and 0830 hours the rest of the week. A control school started at 0830 hours all schooldays. The students were assessed on a reaction time test as well as…

  8. Adapted Education: The Norwegian Pathway to Inclusive and Efficient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Since the UNESCO conference in 1994, inclusion has been a major denominator in the educational debates of most OECD countries, focusing on how to facilitate education and social interaction for the diversity of pupils. By international standards, the Norwegian education system is regarded as inclusive, but the ongoing debate and political pressure…

  9. The Multi-Faceted Teacher Educator: A Norwegian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Within the broad theme of this special issue, the current article describes a turbulent Norwegian teacher education context in which two new teacher educators start work in a university. Like other nations, Norway is affected by international educational trends, some of which have a reductive impact on the teaching profession and on teacher…

  10. Writing in the Content Areas: A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Frøydis; Roe, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, literacy skills have been mandated as an integral part of all subject areas at all levels (grades 1-13) in Norwegian schools. With the exception of reading, evaluation reports show that teaching in general seems to be little affected by this reform. During the last few years, however, there has been a noticeable growth in interest in…

  11. The Broken Curve: Effects of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    The first Norwegian Manifesto (Manifesto-I) Against Bullying was launched by the Prime Minister in autumn 2002 and lasted for 2 years. A background for Manifesto-I was that school bullying had increased almost linearly in Norway with over 60% more victims and bullies since 1995. During the manifest period, the percentage of victims and bullies…

  12. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  13. Forecasting the Norwegian Labour Market for Graduates Holding Higher Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Terje

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the phenomenon of long-term unemployed graduates of Norwegian higher education institutions over the period 1973-1999. The phenomenon was unexpected. One explanation for it is that the market for graduates was and remains in disequilibrium because wages are not sufficiently flexible downward. Thus unemployment would be…

  14. Challenges and Possibilities in Norwegian Classroom Drama Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebo, Aud Berggraf

    2009-01-01

    My specific teaching and research interest is drama in the classroom--drama as a teaching and learning medium to fulfil a curriculum demand for student-active, creative and aesthetic learning processes. In this article I will focus on the challenges and possibilities that exist in Norwegian classroom drama. The article is based on my latest…

  15. The Limitations of Multiculturalism in Norwegian Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovdelien, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, 9 out of 10 children between the ages of one and five participate in an educational formation programme which, despite around half of the kindergartens being privately owned, is regulated by a common law and relatively detailed regulations describing what the content of kindergartens should be. Norwegian kindergartens therefore…

  16. Norwegian "Friluftsliv" and Ideals of Becoming an "Educated Man"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurholt, Kirsti Pedersen

    2008-01-01

    Norwegian "friluftsliv" or outdoor life is often identified as a "simple way of life" and as exemplary of green life-philosophy and environmental practices. This paper argues that "friluftsliv" must be conceptualized as a complex social phenomenon and an example of long-standing Western discourse linking ideas of nature, gender and education. The…

  17. Exemplary Educational Programs in Norwegian Prisons: A Case Study of Norwegian Educators' Attitudes and Humanitarian Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Norwegian correctional educators' attitudes and working environments influenced successful inmate outcomes. Success for incarcerated students was defined by the ability to enroll in and do well in prison classes, develop life skills, and gain the knowledge and skills to become productive members of…

  18. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  19. FRAM-2012: Norwegians return to the High Arctic with a Hovercraft for Marine Geophysical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Brekke, H.; Hope, G.

    2012-12-01

    After four years of testing methods, craft reliability, and innovative equipment, the R/H SABVABAA has embarked on its first FRAM-201x expedition to the highest Arctic. Named after the Inupiaq word for 'flows swiftly over it', the 12m by 6m hovercraft has been home-based in Longyearbyen, Svalbard since June 2008. In this, its fifth summer of work on the ice pack north of 81N, the craft is supported by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) via the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in Bergen, and the Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research. FRAM-2012 represents renewed Norwegian interest in returning to the highest Arctic some 116 years after the 1893-96 drift of Fridtjof Nansen's ship FRAM, the first serious scientific investigation of the Arctic. When replenished by air or icebreaker, the hovercraft Sabvabaa offers a hospitable scientific platform with crew of two, capable of marine geophysical, geological and oceanographic observations over long periods with relative mobility on the ice pack. FRAM-2012 is the first step towards this goal, accompanying the Swedish icebreaker ODEN to the Lomonosov Ridge, north of Greenland, as part of the LOMROG III expedition. The science plan called for an initial drive from the ice edge to Gakkel Ridge at 85N where micro-earthquakes would be monitored, and then to continue north to a geological sampling area on the Lomonosov Ridge at about 88N, 65W. The micro-earthquake monitoring is part of Gaute Hope's MSc thesis and entails five hydrophones in a WiFi-connected hydrophone array deployed over the Gakkel Rift Valley, drifting with the ice at up to 0.4 knots. On August 3 the hovercraft was refueled from icebreaker ODEN at 84-21'N and both vessels proceeded north. The progress of the hovercraft was hampered by insufficient visibility for safe driving and time consuming maneuvering in and around larger fields of rubble ice impassable by the hovercraft, but of little concern to the icebreaker. It

  20. The impact of policy on hospital productivity: a time series analysis of Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; Eggink, Evelien

    2014-06-01

    The health care industry, in particular the hospital industry, is under an increasing degree of pressure, by an ageing population, advancing expensive medical technology a shrinking labor. The pressure on hospitals is further increased by the planned budget cuts in public spending by many current administrations as a result of the economic and financial crises. However, productivity increases may alleviate these problems. Therefore we study whether productivity in the hospital sector is growing, and whether this productivity growth can be influenced by government policy. Using an econometric time series analysis of the hospital sector in the Netherlands, productivity is estimated for the period 1972-2010. Then, productivity is linked to the different regulation regimes during that period, ranging from output funding in the 1970s to the current liberalized hospital market. The results indicate that the average productivity of the hospital sector in different periods differs and that these differences are related to the structure of regulation in those periods. PMID:24258183

  1. Rift-drift evolution of the outer Norwegian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernigon, Laurent; Carmen, Gaina; Tadashi, Yamasaki; Gwenn, Péron-Pinvidic; Odleiv, Olesen

    2010-05-01

    Most of the tectonic and dynamic concepts on the evolution of rifted margins have been developed from either intra-continental rift basins or proximal margin usually characterised by small amounts of crustal thinning. Some of these continental margins also display a high level of volcanic activity along the continent-ocean transition (COT). In such a context, the tectonic evolution of the proto-breakup rift system of the outer Norwegian margin is still problematic, due to sub-basalt imaging and a poor knowledge of the mechanisms involved before, during and slightly after the onset of breakup. Regional analysis and interpretation of multichannel seismic data, potential field data, integrated with refined plate reconstruction and finite-element modelling have provided the opportunity to propose an updated tectonic model for the evolution and segmentation of the Norwegian margin and the early Norwegian-Greenland Sea oceanic domain. Timing of deformation and structural styles observed along the conjugates reflect lateral variations of the rifted system which is influenced by complex inherited features, late magma-tectonic processes and local plate instabilities. We show that the deep structures associated with the volcanic rifted margin are still controversial and not necessarily so magmatic. We have also attempted to investigate the role of localised magmatic intrusion in rift and breakup dynamics and compared the results with our geophysical data, offshore Norway. The thickness, composition and temperature of the underplated and/or intruded bodies seem to be important factors that control lithospheric stretching, basin temperature, rift structure, margin asymmetry and COT formation. We also document the early spreading history of the mid-Norwegian by means of two news recent aeromagnetic surveys which highlight a complex spreading evolution correlated with the onset of microcontinent formation (Jan Mayen microcontinent) and an atypical (mid-Eocene?) magmatic event

  2. Priority classification of patients according to a modified 'Norwegian model'.

    PubMed

    van Assendelft, A H

    1996-01-01

    A priority classification was evaluated according to a modified 'Norwegian model.' Many diseases do not belong to any specific priority category based only on the diagnosis. The classification also depends on the condition's type, site, and phase as well as the patient's age and overall condition. Savings cannot be achieved by the model used because 89% of the patients belonged to the priority categories I-III, the care of which can be classified as necessary. PMID:8707510

  3. Seismic background noise at the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array

    SciTech Connect

    Breding, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The System Control and Receiving Station (SCARS) has been collecting spectral history data on the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) since 1981 and on the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) since it was installed in 1984. This report details the spectral history data for the NRSA through 1986. The appendix contains spectral history data for all five RSTN stations from the time they were installed until their deactivation in September 1986.

  4. Joint probability of extreme waves and currents on Norwegian shelf--

    SciTech Connect

    Heideman, J.C. ); Hagen, O. )

    1989-07-01

    Simultaneous wave and current measurements on the Norwegian Shelf were used to estimate the appropriate current to associate with extreme waves in platform design. The primary data consisted of seven years of measurements at Tromsoflaket (71{degrees}30'N, 19{degrees}E, 230 m depth), including 38 storms with peak significant wave heights above 7 m. The maximum wave height and maximum current occurred simultaneously in only one of the 38 storms. The wave and current time-series data were used to calculate the time series of drag load on a simple structure and statistics of wave height and drag load were developed. The data showed that the in-line current that must be added to extreme waves in order to preserve the extreme loads approaches 25 cm/s asymptotically as storm severity increases. Sensitivity studies suggest that this limit is largely insensitive to reasonable variations in current profile, wave kinematics theory, structure geometry, tidal current removal, length of data base, or site location. These results show that the current specified by Norwegian regulatory authorities is conservative, and provide a basis for reducing the design hydrodynamic loads on drag-dominated offshore structures on the Norwegian shelf.

  5. Authorship: attitudes and practice among Norwegian researchers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Attitudes to, and practices of, scientific authorship vary. We have studied this variation among researchers in a university hospital and medical school in Norway. Methods We invited all faculty, researchers and PhD students at Oslo University Hospital and the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (approximately 2700) by e-mail to answer a web-based questionnaire in January 2013. We asked the researchers to report their authorship experiences and to score their agreement with, and ability to practice according to, 13 statements on authorship qualifications and criteria on a five-point Likert scale (1 = completely agree, 5 = completely disagree). The statements were taken from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and other recommendations on authorship. Results 654 questionnaires were returned (response rate 24%); 25% of the respondents had published less than five scientific articles, 43% five to 49, and 32% more than 50 articles. 97% reported knowledge of defined authorship criteria, and 68% regarded breaches of these as scientific misconduct. 36% had experienced pressure to include undeserved authors in their papers, more in basic science (46%) than in community medicine (25%). 29% reported that they had been denied authorship they believed they deserved. Researchers with less than six years of research experience found authorship decisions more difficult than more experienced researchers (48% vs 30%). The respondents’ agreement with the statements on authorship was higher than their self-reported ability to follow them for all statements. Average scores for agreement and practice for all statements combined were 1.4 vs 2.3. The discrepancy between attitude and practice declined with publishing experience. For the core ICMJE authorship requirements the average difference between attitude and practice was 1.2 among those who had published less than 5 articles and 0.7 among those who had published 50 articles or more

  6. Subjective health complaints are more prevalent in Maasais than in Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Mulindi, Sobbie; Sankok, David; Wilhelmsen, Ane B; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this observational, population-based study was to compare subjective health complaints (SHC) in Norwegians, living in a Western welfare society, and Maasai people, living in rural Kenya under primitive conditions. An interview-based version of SHC inventory was used. Data from 320 Maasais were compared to data from 1243 Norwegians. The Maasais had significantly higher score than the Norwegians on 23 of 28 items, involving musculoskeletal, "pseudo-neurological" and gastrointestinal complaints. The Maasais, living under primitive conditions, close to nature, seems to have more SHC than Norwegians, living in a modern, highly developed and industrialized country. PMID:17763124

  7. Proceedings of a joint meeting between the Norwegian Society of Infectious Diseases and the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Oslo, 20 June 2008.

    PubMed

    Newport, Melanie J; Myrvang, Bjorn

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the proceedings of a scientific meeting that was held between the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the Norwegian Infectious Diseases Society at Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo on 20 June 2008. Seven speakers updated the audience on recent advances in relevant issues, including international maternal and child health, podoconiosis, schistosomiasis and HIV, leprosy in the UK, rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis and the Global Filariasis Programme. The meeting ended with a series of case presentations. PMID:19111872

  8. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    PubMed

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. PMID:25129446

  9. From Digital Divides to Digital Inequality -- The Emerging Digital Inequality in the Norwegian Unitarian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumsvik, Rune J.

    2008-01-01

    This position paper highlights existing and emerging, prospective digital divides in Norwegian schools and asks whether we are now moving from traditional digital divides to digital inequality in our digitized society and schools. Despite very good technology density in Norwegian society and schools in general, there is the reason to pay attention…

  10. Infant Directed Speech in Natural Interaction--Norwegian Vowel Quantity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Kjellrun T.; Behne, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive face-to-face setting is used to study natural infant directed speech (IDS) compared to adult directed speech (ADS). With distinctive vowel quantity and vowel quality, Norwegian IDS was used in a natural quasi-experimental design. Six Norwegian mothers were recorded over a period of 6 months alone with their infants and in an adult…

  11. Cross-Validation of the Norwegian Teacher's Self-Efficacy Scale (NTSES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avanzi, Lorenzo; Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Balducci, Cristian; Vecchio, Luca; Fraccaroli, Franco; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    The study assesses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale--NTSES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the measurement invariance of the scale across two countries. Analyses performed on Italian and Norwegian samples confirmed a six-factor structure of the scale…

  12. Semantic Models of Host-Immigrant Relations in Norwegian Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Oppedal, Brit; Vike, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    Education has continuously been regarded as a vital tool in Norwegian policymakers' immigrant integration agendas. This study analyzes semantic structures substantiating the policy language of historical Norwegian immigrant education policies from their inception in 1973 until today (2013). The analysis is framed by Kronenfeld's linguistic…

  13. A Revised Version of the Norwegian Adaptation of the Test Anxiety Inventory in a Heterogeneous Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktedalen, Tuva; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis and Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) modeling were employed to investigate psychometric properties of a revised adaptation of the Norwegian version of the Test Anxiety Inventory (RTAIN) in a sample of 456 students. The study supported the Norwegian version as a useful inventory for measuring the components…

  14. Work-Plan Heroes: Student Strategies in Lower-Secondary Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalland, Cecilie P.; Klette, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how individualized teaching methods, such as the use of work plans, create new student strategies in Norwegian lower secondary classrooms. Work plans, which are frequently set up as instructional tools in Norwegian classrooms, outline different types of tasks and requirements that the students are supposed to do during a…

  15. The Norwegian Educational System, the Linguistic Diversity in the Country and the Education of Different Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Linguistic diversity has always been and still is one of the current issues in the Norwegian educational system. Norwegian is the official language of the country, but, there have been several distinct dialects and two official written Norwegian languages in the country since 1885. One of them is "Bokmål" and the other is…

  16. Hospital fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID

  17. The deglaciation history of the mid-Norwegian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haflidason, Haflidi; Bøyum, Eivind; Oline Hjelstuen, Berit

    2013-04-01

    The present knowledge on the last deglaciation of the mid-Norwegian continental shelf is still largely based on works from the late 1970's to early 1980's and improved by re-dating shell rich events using the AMS technology in the late 1990´s. These new dating results offered a new chronological framework for the two youngest till units identified in the outer shelf setting of the Mid-Norwegian shelf area using a regional grid of sparker lines. These till units were found to have been deposited around 15000 and 13500 14C BP. The results showed that the Mid-Norwegian shelf ice partly reached the shelf edge as late as ca. 13000 14C BP. Dating from the nearest coastal area show that most of the shelf area had been deglaciated in less than 1000 years. New high-resolution seismic technology, applying the TOPAS parametric echosounder system, the multibeam and the Olex data bathymetric data combined with new AMS dated gravity cores have in the recent year made it possible to approach the deglaciation history in a more detailed way than previously available. The results show that the last glacial maximum ice sheet retreated from the outer shelf area around 15200 14C. The ice sheet readvanced around 14500 14C and created a large end moraine complex and a new minor readvance is interpreted to have occurred around 13700 14C BP before a rapid retreat to the coastal areas during the Bølling period. The two dated ice sheet readvances have occurred within the period of the cold regional climatic event Heinrich 1.

  18. [Hospital comparison--status quo and prospects].

    PubMed

    Betzler, M; Haun, P

    1998-12-01

    Hospitals are competing with each other for the limited financial resources available in the health care sector. Comparison of hospitals is legally required (BPf1V section 5) to improve financial efficiency in the health care sector and make competition between hospitals keener, while also objectivizing it. If comparison of the hospitals is really to enhance profitability or efficiency, and not just to reduce the prices for hospital stays regardless of quality, it must extend to far more than the global figures in the compilation summarizing performance and calculation and the hospital statistics (no. of cases, days of care, length of stay, case lump sums and special fees). Documentation of particular features of the patient population, the potentials of the hospital and description of the treatment processes yield valuable information on capacity and performance level. With rising costs, the danger is growing that the quality and risk dimension of the actual medical treatment will not be promoted with the same enthusiasm by those offering the service. Hospital audit does not only allow a check on the hospital's own situation with regard to performance, quality, efficiency and patient satisfaction, but can also provide a basis of structural planning. The fact is that all efforts made and steps taken by the responsible persons in the hospital to improve the quality of structures, processes and results can only be successful if they are also perceived by the patients, the doctors who refer them and the visitors. If hospital audit is restricted to the bed occupancy and the invoicing data, it is only realistic to expect cuts in performance level. This would be bad for the patient and, in view of the consequent costs, also for the overall costs in the health care sector. Against the backdrop of a future performance-related system of remuneration instead of the principle of covering one's own costs that has been in place hitherto, openness about treatment results gains

  19. First oil pipeline to Norway crosses Norwegian trench

    SciTech Connect

    Johsrud, P.

    1988-05-02

    Norsk Hydro AS laid the first oil pipeline from North Sea fields to Norway last summer as part of the Oseberg transportation system. The line was hydrostatically tested last fall in preparation for start-up next year. After several appraisal wells and extensive evaluation work, the operator for the field, Norsk Hydro, presented a development plan which was approved by the Norwegian parliament in the spring of 1984. This article describes the development phases, the transportation system, and how the trench crossing was done.

  20. The performance of immigrants in the Norwegian labor market.

    PubMed

    Hayfron, J E

    1998-01-01

    "This paper tests the assimilation hypothesis with Norwegian data. Using both cross-section and cohort analyses, the results show that the 1970-1979 immigrant cohort experienced an earnings growth of about 11% between 1980 and 1990, when their earnings profile was compared to that of natives. This is lower than the 19% assimilation rate predicted by the cross-section method. On the contrary, the results reveal a rapid earnings divergence across cohorts, and between the 1960-1969 cohort and natives." PMID:12293838

  1. Levels of cadmium in liver and kidneys from Norwegian cervides

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Investigations during the last decade have demonstrated that the environment of the southernmost parts of Norway are substantially polluted by acid precipitation originating mainly from Central and Western Europe. These areas are also subjected to pollution by long-distance transport of some fairly volatile trace elements such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Accordingly, north-south concentration gradients have been demonstrated for these elements in surface soils, in coniferous forest ecosystems, and in certain herbivorous animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cadmium burden in Norwegian cervides, with special reference to moose, and to demonstrate possible regional differences in this regard.

  2. Norwegian remote sensing experiment in a marginal ice zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.A.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.; Horjen, I.; Matzler, C.; Crawford, J.; Harrington, R.; Jones, L.; Swift, C.; Delnore, V.E.; Cavalieri, D.; Gloersen, P.; Hsiao, S.V.; Shemdin, O.H.; Thompson, T.W.; Ramseier, R.O.; Johannessen, O.M.; Campbell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment in the marginal ice zone north of Svalbard took place in fall 1979. Coordinated passive and active microwave measurements were obtained from shipborne, airborne, and satellite instruments together with in situ observations. The obtained spectra of emissivity (frequency range, 5 to 100 gigahertz) should improve identification of ice types and estimates of ice concentration. Mesoscale features along the ice edge were revealed by a 1.215-gigahertz synthetic aperture radar. Ice edge location by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer was shown to be accurate to within 10 kilometers.

  3. Definitive radiotherapy of prostatic cancer: the Norwegian Radium Hospital's experience (1976-1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Telhaug, R.; Fossa, S.D.O.; Ous, S.

    1987-01-01

    During the years 1976 to 1982 definitive curatively aimed radiotherapy to the primary tumor was given to 53 patients with prostatic cancer confined to the true pelvis (T0, 2; T1-2, 19; T3, 24; T4, 8; N0, 18; N+, 2; Nx, 33); all patients were of the Mo-category. The pelvic lymph nodes received a total dose of 2 Gy X 25 by means of an anterior and posterior radiation field. The prostatic gland was irradiated by an additional booster dose of 2 Gy X 10 given to a perineal field. Twenty-four patients have relapsed after their prostatic radiotherapy, only three of them within the irradiated area. For the patients with T0-T2 tumors, the 5-year crude survival was 69%, whereas it was only 37% for patients with T3 tumors. Thirty-five patients developed intestinal (26 patients) and/or urogenital (23 patients) radiation side effects. In three patients a colostomy had to be performed owing to rectal stricture or fistula. The poor survival after radiotherapy in the present series is probably due to a high incidence of unrecognized pelvic lymph node metastases. In the future only prostatic cancer patients without pelvic lymph node spread will be considered candidates for definitive radiotherapy. An optimal radiation technique is mandatory in order to avoid major radiotherapy-induced toxicity.

  4. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    PubMed

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type. PMID:24338279

  5. Hospital Hints

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... have to spend the night in the hospital. Learning more about what to expect and about people ...

  6. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise. PMID:23614267

  7. HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the USGCRP's First National Assessment effort, EPA's Global Change Research Program sponsored the Health Sector Assessment. The Health Sector Assessment was co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan A. Patz, Director of the Program on the Health Effects of Global Environmental Change...

  8. Analysis of the petroleum resources of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Flertoft, I.P.; Kvadsheim, E.; Kalheim, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 1995 analysis of the petroleum resources of Norway is based on a play analysis. The input to the 1995 analysis is updated and refined compared with the analysis of 1993. The analysis makes a major distinction between unconfirmed play models and plays confirmed by discoveries. The unconfirmed plays have a higher risk and a greater range of uncertainty in the resource estimates compared to the confirmed plays. The effect of the unconfirmed plays on the estimates within different exploration areas is discussed. The unconfirmed play models are an important aspect of the exploration in the new exploration areas north of 62{degrees}N. The total estimate for the Norwegian Shelf is well within the estimate given in the 1993 analysis, but there are some adjustments in the relative importance of the different exploration provinces. Much emphasis is placed on incorporating historical exploration data and statistics to calibrate the play models. This includes rate of success and field size distributions of the individual play models and exploration provinces. Major confirmed plays in the North Sea have a rate of success of about 30% and show a good fit to a log normal field size distribution. Based on the log normal distribution it is possible to give prognosis for the size distribution of the undiscovered accumulation. This has made it possible to work out an economic analysis of the profitability of future exploration on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  9. Structural evolution and petroleum potential of the Norwegian Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, K.T.

    1995-08-01

    The tectonic history of the Norwegian Barents Sea has provided potential hydrocarbon traps in clastic reservoirs associated with rotated fault blocks, compressional anticlines and salt domes. Significant stratigraphic potential also resides in Paleozoic carbonates. Drilling in the Hammerfest Basin has yielded large gas discoveries in rotated fault blocks, but other trapping concepts remain relatively untested. The undrilled arm north of 74{degrees} 30 minutes N, currently being mapped by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate using exclusive seismic and geological data from shallow boreholes, represents a significant area for future exploration. Prospectivity is critically dependent on the scaling of traps following Neogene uplift of large areas of the Barents platform. The area is dominated by structural trends inherited from the Caledonian and older orogens. Carboniferous rifting established a system of half grabens and intervening highs, followed by late Permian faulting in the west which initiated regional subsidence continuing into the early Jurassic. Fault reactivation in early Triassic times triggered salt diapirism and provided structural control for the formation of Triassic shelf margins. During the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous western basins underwent tectonic subsidence, while the northeastern platform arm was subject to gentle compression. In the late Cretaceous salt was reactivated in the Nordkapp Basin and compressional structures developed west of the Loppa High. Further subsidence of the western basins was promoted by late Mesozoic and early Tertiary transtensional movements along the North Atlantic rift system. Subsequent regional compression in these basins, and basin inversion east of the Loppa High, are of post-Eocene age.

  10. Risk perception and safety in Norwegian offshore workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rundmo, T.

    1996-12-31

    The relationships between perception of risk, behavior and involvement in accidents are receiving increased attention in the offshore oil industry. How employees perceive the risk they are exposed to during the conduct of their work may contribute to an understanding of risk management and thereby to the safety of their working conditions. A self-completion questionnaire survey was carried out among employees on a representative sample of offshore oil installations in the Norwegian part of the North Sea in 1990. In 1994 a follow-up study was carried out. A total of 915 respondents replied to our questionnaire in 1990 and 1138 in 1994. The studies were financed by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. There were significantly fewer of the personnel who felt at risk in 1994 compared to 1990 and a greater percentage of the personnel were satisfied with the safety and contingency measures and experienced job stress to a greater extent in 1990 than they did in 1994. Emotional reactions caused by potentially-hazardous risk sources were dependent on the respondents perceived controllability of the risk sources. The study also showed that there were significant positive correlations between organizational factors, safety status, perceived risk, and accidents. However, safety cannot be improved by changing risk perception. It is the factors that cause variations in risk perception as well as behavior and safety which should be the focus of safety promotion.

  11. Heteronormative consensus in the Norwegian same-sex adoption debate?

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Norman; Hellesund, Tone

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the Norwegian newspaper debate (1998-2002) on the right of homosexual couples to adopt children. It identifies two patterns of meaning within which both anti-adoption and pro-adoption sides of the debate were located: 1) the nuclear family as reference point; and 2) a focus on innate qualities. Parallell to a continuous liberalization of sexualities in Norway we seem to witness a consensus on heteronormativity in Norway on both sides of the debate as the basic axiom in public discussions on homosexuality and adoption. In this article, we explore the nature of the heteronormative arguments and the reason for their appearance in this particular debate. The two patterns of meaning reproduce a perception of lesbians and gays as either a worthy or unworthy minority. These findings may be seen as reflecting fundamental positions regarding the Norwegian modernization project, where both sides of the debate see homosexuality as a central symbol. State feminism may also have played the role of reinforcing gender categories and thereby served as an important condition of possibility for contemporary heteronormativity. PMID:19197645

  12. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Results Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups. PMID:24204021

  13. Factors influencing Saprolegnia spp. spore numbers in Norwegian salmon hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Thoen, E; Evensen, Ø; Skaar, I

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L(-1) in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L(-1) in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. PMID:26123005

  14. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    PubMed

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society. PMID:21682583

  15. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.).

    PubMed

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D M

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock. PMID:26636759

  16. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock. PMID:26636759

  17. [Laennec Hospital].

    PubMed

    Dauphin, A; Mazin-Deslandes, C

    2000-01-01

    When the Laennec Hospital of Paris closed, after 366 years of activities for the patients, the articles about the circumstances of the foundation and the main stapes of the institution which became an very famous university hospital it present the available information of the history of the apothecaries, of the "gagnants-maitrise", pharmacists and the pharmacy's interns who succeeded themselves to create and dispense the medicaments necessary to the patients hospitalized or welcomed in ambulatory. It describes the evolution of the places, of the material, of forms, of the organization, of the medicaments and of the missions of what became the Pharmacy department after the recent individualization of the biological analysis in the biochemistry. PMID:11625687

  18. Preservation of anomalously high porosity in deeply buried sandstones by grain-coating chlorite: Examples from the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenberg, S.N. )

    1993-07-01

    Five Lower to Middle Jurassic sandstone reservoirs from the Norwegian sector provide examples of deep porosity preservation caused by grain-coating, authigenic chlorite. Wide porosity variations in clean sandstones correlate with an abundance of grain-coating chlorite and consequent inhibition of quarts cementation. Maximum porosities tend to decrease with increasing depth but generally are 10-15% higher than would be predicted from regional trends of mean porosity vs. depth. It is proposed in this paper that the high chlorite content of the porous zones reflects syndepositional concentration of Fe-rich marine clays analogous to minerals of the modern verdine facies. Fe-clay mineralization would have been localized where Fe-rich river water was discharged into the sea. The syndepositional clays were transformed during burial diagenesis into grain coatings of radially oriented chlorite crystals. Petrographic relationships indicate that these coatings grew mainly before the beginning of quartz cementation and feldspar grain dissolution (probably within the first 2 km of burial) but after grain contacts had become adjusted by mechanical compaction. The Norwegian examples demonstrate that a wide range of nearshore marine sand-body types is susceptible to chlorite mineralization. The distribution of anomalous porosity and the proportion of the net sand affected depend upon sedimentary facies architecture and the pattern of discharge of Fe-rich river water during sand deposition. This phenomenon can be critically important for hydrocarbon exploration because it can provide good reservoir quality at depths far below the [open quotes]economic basement[close quotes] originally defined on the basis of sandstones lacking chlorite coatings. 58 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  20. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, R.W. )

    1993-02-20

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. The compounds [Delta][sup 3]-carene and [alpha]-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while [Delta][sup 3]-carene was predominant at the northern site. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20[degrees]C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 [plus minus] 0.4 [mu]g (gdw (grams dry weight) h)[sup [minus]1], and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 [plus minus] 0.7 [mu]g(gdw h)[sup [minus]1]. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are too high for boreal coniferous forests. 52 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Norwegian mountain glaciers in the past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesje, Atle; Bakke, Jostein; Dahl, Svein Olaf; Lie, Øyvind; Matthews, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Documentation of glacier changes is a key element for reconstruction of past climate variability and early detection of global climate change. In this paper, records of Holocene glacier variations in different regions in Norway have been synthesised. During the period from approximately 8000 to 4000 cal. yr BP, most glaciers in Norway were completely melted away at least once due to high summer temperatures and/or reduced winter precipitation. Lichenometrically and historically dated moraines at Jostedalsbreen, in Jotunheimen, at Hardangerjøkulen, and at Folgefonna were used to extend records of glacier length variations back to their maximum position during the 'Little Ice Age'. The timing of the maximum 'Little Ice Age' glacial advance in different parts of southern Norway varied considerably, ranging from the early 18th century to the late 19th century. Cumulative glacier length variations of glaciers in southern Norway show an overall retreat from ˜ AD 1750 to the 1930s-40s. Thereafter, most Norwegian glaciers retreated significantly. Short maritime outlet glaciers with a short response time (< 10-15 yr) started to advance in the mid-1950s, whereas long outlet glaciers with longer frontal time lag (> 15-20 yr) continued their retreat to the 1980s. In the 1990s, however, several of the maritime glaciers started to advance as a response to higher winter accumulation during the first part of the 1990s. Since 2000 most of the observed glaciers have retreated remarkably fast (annual frontal retreat > 100 m) mainly due to high summer temperatures. The last glacier inventory in Norway published in 1988 shows that there were 1627 glaciers covering a total area of 2609 km 2 with an estimated volume of 164 km 3. Modern climate-glacier relationships from mass balance data in Scandinavia have been used to present possible effects on the Norwegian glaciers of climate scenarios between 1961-1990 and 2070-2100 presented by the 'RegClim' project. This long-term weather

  2. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  3. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janson, Robert W.

    1993-02-01

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. Sampling was done with Tenax TA and analysis and detection by GC and ion trap detection. The compounds Δ3-carene and α-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while Δ3-carene was predominant at the northern site. The relative composition of the emission of both species underwent changes in early spring and fall. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20°C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 ± 0.4 μg (gdw (grams dry weight) h)-1, and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 ± 0.7 μg(gdw h)-1. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are

  4. The Italian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy`s role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers` guide to Italian equipment, services.

  5. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  6. CEO Compensation and Hospital Financial Performance

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Kristin L.; Sandoval, Guillermo A.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.; Pink, George H.

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in pay-for-performance and the level of CEO pay raises questions about the link between performance and compensation in the health sector. This study compares the compensation of non-profit hospital Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) in Ontario, Canada to the three longest reported and most used measures of hospital financial performance. Our sample consisted of 132 CEOs from 92 hospitals between 1999 and 2006. Unbalanced panel data were analyzed using fixed effects regression. Results suggest that CEO compensation was largely unrelated to hospital financial performance. Inflation-adjusted salaries appeared to increase over time independent of hospital performance, and hospital size was positively correlated with CEO compensation. The apparent upward trend in salary despite some declines in financial performance challenges the fundamental assumption underlying this paper, that is, financial performance is likely linked to CEO compensation in Ontario. Further research is needed to understand long-term performance related to compensation incentives. PMID:19605619

  7. Psoas abscess diagnosed at a Northern university hospital.

    PubMed

    Maagaard, Anne; Oktedalen, Olav

    2002-01-01

    Abscess of the psoas muscle is an infrequent diagnosis at hospitals in Northern countries. We report on 16 patients who had this diagnosis during the period 1991-2001. Eight patients were immigrants who had previously been healthy and most of them had experienced symptoms for approximately 1 y. MRI or CT scans revealed spondylodiscitis in 6 of these patients and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified as the causative agent. With the exception of 1 patient who was exclusively treated with antituberculous agents, all 8 immigrant patients were successfully treated with antituberculous agents in addition to percutaneous drainage. The other 8 patients were Norwegians, 4 of whom had underlying conditions such as diabetes mellitus or drug abuse. The causative microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus spp., with the exception of M. tuberculosis in 1 case. The Norwegian patients had a more acute history of symptoms than the immigrant patients and 2 of them were in a septic condition on admittance. Two of the Norwegians died of serious infection; 5 were successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in addition to antibiotics and 1 was treated exclusively with antibiotic agents. The clinical history and microorganism associated with psoas abscess seemed to depend on whether or not the patient was an immigrant. Owing to increasing immigration, diagnosis of psoas abscess should be taken into account in Northern countries. PMID:12578159

  8. Between two beds: inappropriately delayed discharges from hospitals.

    PubMed

    Holmås, Tor Helge; Islam, Mohammad Kamrul; Kjerstad, Egil

    2013-12-01

    Acknowledging the necessity of a division of labour between hospitals and social care services regarding treatment and care of patients with chronic and complex conditions, is to acknowledge the potential conflict of interests between health care providers. A potentially important conflict is that hospitals prefer comparatively short length of stay (LOS) at hospital, while social care services prefer longer LOS all else equal. Furthermore, inappropriately delayed discharges from hospital, i.e. bed blocking, is costly for society. Our aim is to discuss which factors that may influence bed blocking and to quantify bed blocking costs using individual Norwegian patient data, merged with social care and hospital data. The data allow us to divide hospital LOS into length of appropriate stay (LAS) and length of delay (LOD), the bed blocking period. We find that additional resources allocated to social care services contribute to shorten LOD indicating that social care services may exploit hospital resources as a buffer for insufficient capacity. LAS increases as medical complexity increases indicating hospitals incentives to reduce LOS are softened by considerations related to patients’ medical needs. Bed blocking costs constitute a relatively large share of the total costs of inpatient care. PMID:24122364

  9. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  10. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  11. Solar Sector Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.; Svalgaard, Leif; Hannah, Iain G.

    2014-12-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field near 1 AU has a characteristic "sector" structure that reflects its polarity relative to the solar direction. Typically we observe large-scale coherence in these directions, with two or four "away" or "towards" sectors per solar rotation, from any platform in deep space and near the ecliptic plane. In a simple picture, this morphology simply reflects the idea that the sources of the interplanetary field lie mainly in or near the Sun, and that the solar-wind flow enforces a radial component in this field. The sector boundaries are sharply defined in the interplanetary field near one AU, but have more complicated sources within the Sun itself. Recent evidence confirms that the origins of this pattern also appear statistically at the level of the photosphere, with signatures found in the highly concentrated fields of sunspots and even solar flares. This complements the associations already known between the interplanetary sectors and large-scale coronal structures (i.e., the streamers). This association with small-scale fields strengthens at the Hale sector boundary, defining the Hale boundary as the one for which the polarity switch matches that of the leading-to-following polarity alternation in the sunspots of a given hemisphere. Surface features that appear 4.5 days prior to the sector crossings observed at 1 AU correlate with this sense of polarity reversal.

  12. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  13. Norwegian words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marianne; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2015-04-01

    All words have properties linked to form, meaning and usage patterns which influence how easily they are accessed from the mental lexicon in language production, perception and comprehension. Examples of such properties are imageability, phonological and morphological complexity, word class, argument structure, frequency of use and age of acquisition. Due to linguistic and cultural variation the properties and the values associated with them differ across languages. Hence, for research as well as clinical purposes, language specific information on lexical properties is needed. To meet this need, an electronically searchable lexical database with more than 1600 Norwegian words coded for more than 12 different properties has been established. This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching. PMID:25588015

  14. Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.

    PubMed

    Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

    2014-10-01

    Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study. PMID:24331127

  15. Sounds produced by Norwegian killer whales, Orcinus orca, during capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Parijs, Sofie M.; Leyssen, Teo; Similä, Tiu

    2004-07-01

    To date very little is still known about the acoustic behavior of Norwegian killer whales, in particular that of individual whales. In this study a unique opportunity was presented to document the sounds produced by five captured killer whales in the Vestfjord area, northern Norway. Individuals produced 14 discrete and 7 compound calls. Two call types were used both by individuals 16178 and 23365 suggesting that they may belong to the same pod. Comparisons with calls documented in Strager (1993) showed that none of the call types used by the captured individuals were present. The lack of these calls in the available literature suggests that call variability within individuals is likely to be large. This short note adds to our knowledge of the vocal repertoire of this population and demonstrates the need for further studies to provide behavioural context to these sounds.

  16. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  17. Lidar investigations of phytoplankton distribution on the north Norwegian shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, S.; Wassmann, P.

    1997-08-01

    The results of field studies of the small-scale spatial variability and seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton on the north Norwegian shelf are presented. The remote sensing has been carried out on board of RV {open_quotes}Jan Mayen{close_quotes} in May, June and September 1995. The tuneable lidar FLS-S based on excimer and dye-lasers has been used to measure the horizontal and vertical profiles of phytoplankton abundance. The data were collected in underway sensing along the tracks of 20 - 30 n.m. with horizontal spatial resolution of 100 m. In stratification measurements the lidar consistently sensed the water layers shifted to the depth with the step of 3 m.

  18. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  19. Ultrastructure of Frenkelia sp. from a Norwegian lemming in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H

    2000-04-01

    An apparently healthy Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus) caught in northern Finland was observed to have a whitish body 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter in the external layer of the cerebral cortex. By light microscopy a highly lobulated cyst of Frenkelia sp. was observed. By transmission electron microscopy lemmus) collected in the cyst wall was seen consisting of a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, an underlying electron-dense layer and a granular layer. The membrane was only slightly convoluted. The protrusions of the cyst wall appeared round but were often not distinctive. A very thin septum divided the interior of the cyst into compartments packed with bradyzoites and maturing zoites. The bradyzoites were elongate measuring 5-8 x 1.5-2 microm. This is the first electron microscopical study of Frenkelia sp. from L. lemmus. PMID:10813619

  20. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  1. Norwegian Physicians’ Knowledge of the Prices of Pharmaceuticals: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Ida Iren; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bringedal, Berit

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to measure physicians’ knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals, and investigate whether there are differences in knowledge of prices between groups of physicians. This article reports on a survey study of physicians’ knowledge of the prices of pharmaceuticals conducted on a representative sample of Norwegian physicians in the autumn of 2010. The importance of physicians’ knowledge of costs derives from their influence on total spending and allocation of limited health-care resources. Physicians are important drivers in the effort to contain costs in health care, but only if they have the knowledge needed to choose the most cost-effective treatment options. A survey was sent to 1 543 Norwegian physicians, asking them for price estimates and their opinions on the importance of considering the cost of treatment to society as a decision factor when treating their patients. This article deals with a subsection in which the physicians were asked to estimate the price of five pharmaceuticals: simvastatin, alendronate (Fosamax), infliximab (Remicade), natalizumab (Tysabri) and escitalopram (Cipralex). The response rate was 65%. For all the five pharmaceuticals, more than 50% and as many as 83% gave responses that differed more than 50% from the actual drug price. The price of more expensive pharmaceuticals was underestimated, while the opposite was the case for less expensive medicines. The data show that physicians in general have poor knowledge of the prices of the pharmaceuticals they offer their patients. However, the physicians who frequently deal with a drug have better knowledge of its price than those who do not handle a medication as often. The data also suggest that those physicians who agree that cost of care to society is an important decision factor have better knowledge of drug prices. PMID:24040402

  2. Hospitals then and now: changes since the start of Medicare.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Bill

    2007-04-01

    Australia's current hospital system is very different to the one that existed in 1982-83, the last full year before the introduction of Medicare. Capped budgets, new technology and rising expectations have seen the public sector lose ground to the private sector, particularly in terms of elective admissions and surgical episodes. In comparing the situation in 2004-05 with that in 1982-83, this paper focuses on hospital efficiency, casemix and the public-private balance. PMID:17402905

  3. How do Hospitals Respond to Price Changes? Evidence from Norway.

    PubMed

    Januleviciute, Jurgita; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Kaarboe, Oddvar; Siciliani, Luigi; Sutton, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Many publicly funded health systems use activity-based financing to increase hospital production and efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate whether price changes for different treatments affect the number of patients treated and the mix of activity provided by hospitals. We exploit the variations in prices created by the changes in the national average treatment cost per diagnosis-related group (DRG) offered to Norwegian hospitals over a period of 5 years (2003-2007). We use the data from Norwegian Patient Register, containing individual-level information on age, gender, type of treatment, diagnosis, number of co-morbidities and the national average treatment costs per DRG. We employ fixed-effect models to examine the changes in the number of patients treated within the DRGs over time. The results suggest that a 10% increase in price leads to about 0.8-1.3% increase in the number of patients treated for DRGs, which are medical (for both emergency and elective patients). In contrast, we find no price effect for DRGs that are surgical (for both emergency and elective patients). Moreover, we find evidence of upcoding. A 10% increase in the ratio of prices between patients with and without complications increases the proportion of patients coded with complications by 0.3-0.4 percentage points. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25929559

  4. Psychometric properties of a four-component Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Myrseth, Helga; Eidhamar, Are; Hystad, Sigurd W

    2012-04-01

    Organizational justice has attracted attention as a predictor of employees' mental and physical health as well as commitment and work outcomes. The lack of a Norwegian translation of an organizational justice scale has precluded its use in Norway. Four dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a Norwegian military context, including facet measures of distributional, interpersonal, and informational justice developed by Colquitt in 2001, in addition to procedural justice developed by Moorman in 1991. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-dimensional structure with good internal consistency. Follow-up analyses have suggested that the four dimensions were nested beneath a general, latent organizational justice factor. A positive relationship between organizational justice and self-sacrificial behavior was found, indicating satisfactory construct validity. The results demonstrate that the Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale is a reliable and construct-valid measure of organizational justice in a Norwegian setting. PMID:22662411

  5. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007): implication for the long term care sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs) in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007) was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC) or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors. PMID:22643111

  6. [Norwegian scabies in a pediatric patient with Down syndrome, a case report].

    PubMed

    Mantero, Natalia M; Jaime, Lorena J; Nijamin, Tamara R; Laffargue, Jorge A; De Lillo, Leonardo; Grees, Susana A

    2013-12-01

    Norwegian (crusted) scabies is a rare and extreme manifestation of scabies that can be observed mainly among immunosuppressed patients. Due to the high number of scabies mites present in each lesion, crusted scabies symptoms are much more intense than in usual scabies and it is thus highly contagious. A case study of a child with Down syndrome and Norwegian scabies who shows a good response to a treatment combining keratolytics, emollients, ivermectin and topical scabicides is described. PMID:24196772

  7. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005–2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  8. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular

  9. Apolipoprotein E ε2 genotype delays onset of dementia with Lewy bodies in a Norwegian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Guro; Sando, Sigrid B; Rongve, Arvid; Aarsland, Dag; White, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Background Results conflict concerning the relevance of APOE alleles on the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), though they are well established in connection with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of APOE alleles in a Norwegian cohort of patients with DLB was therefore examined compared with patients with AD and healthy control individuals. Methods The study included 156 patients with DLB diagnosed according to the consensus criteria guidelines, 519 patients diagnosed with AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS/ARDRA) criteria and 643 healthy elderly volunteers. Patients were recruited through hospitals, outpatient clinics, nursing homes or from local care authorities in central and south-western parts of Norway. Healthy individuals were recruited from caregivers and societies for retired people. Results Subjects carrying an APOE ε2 allele had a reduced risk for developing DLB (OR 0.4, CI 0.3 to 0.8, p=0.004), and the onset of disease was delayed by 4 years (p=0.01, Mann–Whitney U test). Conversely, the APOE ε4 allele increased the risk for development of DLB (OR 5.9, CI 2.7 to 13.0, p<0.0005 for homozygotes). Similar results were found for patients with AD regarding the effect of APOE ε2, though the protective effect appeared to be slightly less pronounced than in DLB. This study is one of the largest regarding DLB and APOE to date. Conclusion The results indicate that APOE ε2, a protective factor in AD, has a clear beneficial effect on the development of DLB also. PMID:24639435

  10. Hand, hip and knee osteoarthritis in a Norwegian population-based study - The MUST protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence and consequences of osteoarthritis (OA) in the Norwegian population is limited. This study has been designed to gain a greater understanding of musculoskeletal pain in the general population with a focus on clinically and radiologically confirmed OA, as well as risk factors, consequences, and management of OA. Methods/Design The Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker STudy (MUST) has been designed as an observational study comprising a population-based postal survey and a comprehensive clinical examination of a sub-sample with self-reported OA (MUST OA cohort). All inhabitants in Ullensaker municipality, Norway, aged 40 to 79 years receive the initial population-based postal survey questionnaire with questions about life style, general health, musculoskeletal pain, self-reported OA, comorbidities, health care utilisation, medication use, and functional ability. Participants who self-report OA in their hip, knee and/or hand joints are asked to attend a comprehensive clinical examination at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, including a comprehensive medical examination, performance-based functional tests, different imaging modalities, cardiovascular assessment, blood and urine samples, and a number of patient-reported questionnaires including five OA disease specific instruments. Data will be merged with six national data registries. A subsample of those who receive the questionnaire has previously participated in postal surveys conducted in 1990, 1994, and 2004 with data on musculoskeletal pain and functional ability in addition to demographic characteristics and a number of health related factors. This subsample constitutes a population based cohort with 20 years follow-up. Discussion This protocol describes the design of an observational population-based study that will involve the collection of data from a postal survey on musculoskeletal pain, and a comprehensive clinical examination on those with self-reported hand, hip and

  11. Norwegian petroleum resources with focus on challenges and opportunities in the Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, F.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf can be subdivided into 3 different petroleum provinces: (1) the North Sea, (2) the Norwegian Sea including the Jan Mayen ridge, and (3) the Barents Sea including the islands of Svalbard. The majority of the fields and discoveries and most of the resources are located in the mature North Sea Basin. Significant resources are however also discovered in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. 39 fields are in production or decided to be developed while 3 fields are closed down. Approximately 70% of the discovered resources are located in these fields, of which some are gigantic in size (Statfjord, Ekofisk, Gullfaks, Oseberg, Troll and Snorre). Most of the remaining discoveries (134) are smaller in size and approximately 2/3 of the resources are gas. According to a recent study carried out by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate the expected undiscovered Norwegian Petroleum Resources are assessed to be on the order of 3,5 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. with a level of uncertainty ranging from 2 to 6 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. 40% of the undiscovered petroleum resources are expected to be found as oil. These are the perspectives of the Norwegian Petroleum Resources. The resources of the Barents Sea is included in this perspective. The significance of the Barents Sea resources is not particularly important in the short-medium term perspective, but will be important in the longer perspective.

  12. Commercial sector can improve access.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the improved accessibility to family planning (FP) services made possible by expanding services among private physicians and through social marketing in developing countries. Encouraging private sector (PS) FP is a way to ease the caseload of public FP facilities and creating the potential for attracting more lower-income clients. Few developing countries have a "viable commercial market" for contraceptives. Commercial success depends upon a secure supply of FP supplies, well-trained providers, and consumer demand. Consumers want affordable, high-quality, and convenient services. Governments must ensure that regulations do not hamper PS programs. Public and private programs should not compete in ways that are counterproductive. The commercial sector includes private physicians, clinics, pharmacies, or hospitals without public subsidies. Public funding might be used to encourage PS distribution, especially condoms and messages about HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Messages may target specific audiences and promote an appealing logo and packaging. SOMARC in Turkey promotes a network of commercial health care facilities that offer high quality FP at affordable prices. The model includes provider training, quality of care monitoring, marketing, a hotline, posted prices, and prices set by consumer affordability surveys. This model is being tried in both Nepal and the Philippines. Commercial marketing has been successful in Latin America, North Africa, and the Middle East. Commercial expansion and survival is dependent upon the satisfaction of consumer preferences for convenience, greater access, better confidentiality, and quality. Examples from Zimbabwe and Romania are used to show strategies for training private providers. Private providers will become involved, for instance, by offering targeted training programs. PMID:12293234

  13. Improvement of hospital performance through innovation: toward the value of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of innovation as the strategic lever of organizational performance has been widespread in the hospital sector. While public value of innovation can be significant, it is not evident that innovation always ends up in higher levels of performance. Within this context, the purpose of the article was to critically analyze the relationship between innovation and performance,taking into account the specificities of the hospital sector. This article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 hospitals in Portugal,collected through a survey, data from interviews to hospital administration boards, and a panel of 15 experts. The diversity of data sources allowed for triangulation. The article uses mixed methods to explore the relationship between innovation and performance in the hospital sector in Portugal. The relationship between innovation and performance is analyzed through cluster analysis, supplemented with content analysis of interviews and the technical nominal group. The main findings reveal that the cluster of efficient innovators has twice the level of performance than other clusters. Organizational flexibility and external cooperation are the 2 major factors explaining these differences. The article identifies various organizational strategies to use innovation in order to enhance hospital performance. Overall, it proposes the alignment of perspectives of different stakeholders on the value proposition of hospital services, the embeddedness of information loops, and continuous adjustments toward high-value services. PMID:24902144

  14. Improvement of hospital performance through innovation: toward the value of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of innovation as the strategic lever of organizational performance has been widespread in the hospital sector. While public value of innovation can be significant, it is not evident that innovation always ends up in higher levels of performance. Within this context, the purpose of the article was to critically analyze the relationship between innovation and performance, taking into account the specificities of the hospital sector. This article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 hospitals in Portugal, collected through a survey, data from interviews to hospital administration boards, and a panel of 15 experts. The diversity of data sources allowed for triangulation. The article uses mixed methods to explore the relationship between innovation and performance in the hospital sector in Portugal. The relationship between innovation and performance is analyzed through cluster analysis, supplemented with content analysis of interviews and the technical nominal group. The main findings reveal that the cluster of efficient innovators has twice the level of performance than other clusters. Organizational flexibility and external cooperation are the 2 major factors explaining these differences. The article identifies various organizational strategies to use innovation in order to enhance hospital performance. Overall, it proposes the alignment of perspectives of different stakeholders on the value proposition of hospital services, the embeddedness of information loops, and continuous adjustments toward high-value services. PMID:23629035

  15. Hospital keeps cool and cuts its costs.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Russ

    2013-09-01

    Energy usage--particularly electricity--in hospitals is a hot topic, and the sector is under increasing pressure to reduce load and carbon emissions. The cost of 'going green' can, however, be high, and many hospitals shy away from more costly energy-efficient solutions, instead selecting cheaper options to suit the short term. One Hampshire healthcare facility, however, bucked the trend when selecting new chilled water plant, thanks to the advice and expertise of chartered consulting engineers, Henderson Green. Examining whether other hospitals should follow suit, managing director, Russ Pitman, explains 'why considering the bigger picture perspective does pay off'. PMID:24137998

  16. Acute care hospitals' accountability to provincial funders.

    PubMed

    Kromm, Seija K; Ross Baker, G; Wodchis, Walter P; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Ontario's acute care hospitals are subject to a number of tools, including legislation and performance measurement for fiscal accountability and accountability for quality. Examination of accountability documents used in Ontario at the government, regional and acute care hospital levels reveals three trends: (a) the number of performance measures being used in the acute care hospital sector has increased significantly; (b) the focus of the health system has expanded from accountability for funding and service volumes to include accountability for quality and patient safety; and (c) the accountability requirements are misaligned at the different levels. These trends may affect the success of the accountability approach currently being used. PMID:25305386

  17. Acute Care Hospitals' Accountability to Provincial Funders

    PubMed Central

    Kromm, Seija K.; Ross Baker, G.; Wodchis, Walter P.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Ontario's acute care hospitals are subject to a number of tools, including legislation and performance measurement for fiscal accountability and accountability for quality. Examination of accountability documents used in Ontario at the government, regional and acute care hospital levels reveals three trends: (a) the number of performance measures being used in the acute care hospital sector has increased significantly; (b) the focus of the health system has expanded from accountability for funding and service volumes to include accountability for quality and patient safety; and (c) the accountability requirements are misaligned at the different levels. These trends may affect the success of the accountability approach currently being used. PMID:25305386

  18. Does hospital financial performance measure up?

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1992-05-01

    Comparisons are continuously being made between the financial performance, products and services, of the healthcare industry and those of non-healthcare industries. Several useful measures of financial performance--profitability, liquidity, financial risk, asset management and replacement, and debt capacity, are used by the authors to compare the financial performance of the hospital industry with that of the industrial, transportation and utility sectors. Hospitals exhibit weaknesses in several areas. Goals are suggested for each measure to bring hospitals closer to competitive levels. PMID:10145625

  19. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    PubMed

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces. PMID:25558712

  20. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  1. [Evaluation of customer satisfaction with the hospital catering system in the city of Palermo (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Firenze, Alberto; Morici, Mariagrazia; Calamus, Giuseppe; Gelsomino, Viviana; Aprea, Luigi; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Muangala, Muana A Luila; Centineo, Giovanni; Romano, Nino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate patients' customer satisfaction with the hospital catering services of two public hospitals and one private sector hospital in the city of Palermo (Italy). A multiple choice questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to 207 of 227 hospitalized patients. Positive responses regarding the perceived quality of food were given especially by patients of the private sector hospital, 80% of which reported being satisfied with the catering service. A higher percentage of patients in the private sector hospital were satisfied with the food distribution modalities with respect to the two public hospitals. Only 3% of patients in the private sector hospital required their families to bring food from home, with respect to 7.9% and 30% respectively in the two public hospitals. Private sector patients also reported appreciating the wide availability of food and the help given by health care workers (79% vs a mean of 55% in the two public hospitals). No differences were found amongst hospitals with regards to the hygienic characteristics of meals. The results of this study indicate the need to make changes in the management of the catering service of one of the involved public hospitals especially. PMID:19494921

  2. Public Sector Impasse Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadakin, James C.

    The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…

  3. Ewe characteristics associated with neonatal loss in Norwegian sheep.

    PubMed

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Waage, Steinar; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2014-06-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify ewe characteristics that affect the risk of a ewe losing at least one lamb during the first 5 days post lambing. Data were from a national sheep registry, and only ewes that lambed in the spring of 2010 belonging to flocks that reported disease events were included. Ewes registered with abortion or stillbirth were excluded. Cases (n=4850) and controls (n=85,354) from 1153 flocks were studied using logistic regression models, accounting for within flock correlation. The odds of losing at least one lamb increased substantially when litter size exceeded two. For example, in 3-year-old ewes, the odds were 6 times greater for those with 3 lambs than for those with 1 lamb. However, the effect of litter size depended on the age of the ewe; for example for ewes giving birth to triplet lambs, the odds of losing at least one lamb were 2.7 times greater in 1-year-old ewes than in 3-year-old ewes. Dystocia was associated with increased risk of losing at least one lamb, but the effect varied by litter size. In ewes with single lambs, the odds of lamb loss were 5 times greater in those that experienced dystocia than in those that did not, while within subgroups of ewes with twins, triplets or >3 lambs, the corresponding odds ratio (OR) of losing one or more lambs was 2.2, 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. Compared with ewes of the Norwegian White breed, ewes of old Norwegian breeds were less likely to lose lambs (OR=0.8). We also examined the effects of several diseases experienced by the ewe during pregnancy or shortly postpartum on the risk of subsequent neonatal lamb loss. Significantly increased risk was found for ewes with abdominal hernia (OR=2.5) and for ewes treated for moderate to severe clinical mastitis (OR=1.6) when compared with ewes without these disorders. In conclusion, our large study population allowed for a detailed analysis of the combined effect of important ewe factors that affected survival of their lambs in the

  4. Treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics in Norwegian emergency wards, a cross-sectional national study

    PubMed Central

    Kroken, Rune A; Johnsen, Erik; Ruud, Torleif; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Jørgensen, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    Background Surveys on prescription patterns for antipsychotics in the Scandinavian public health system are scarce despite the prevalent use of these drugs. The clinical differences between antipsychotic drugs are mainly in the areas of safety and tolerability, and international guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia offer rational strategies to minimize the burden of side effects related to antipsychotic treatment. The implementation of treatment guidelines in clinical practice have proven difficult to achieve, as reflected by major variations in the prescription patterns of antipsychotics between different comparable regions and countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the practice of treatment of schizophrenic patients with antipsychotics at discharge from acute inpatient settings at a national level. Methods Data from 486 discharges of patients from emergency inpatient treatment of schizophrenia were collected during a three-month period in 2005; the data were collected in a large national study that covered 75% of Norwegian hospitals receiving inpatients for acute treatment. Antipsychotic treatment, demographic variables, scores from the Global Assessment of Functioning and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales and information about comorbid conditions and prior treatment were analyzed to seek predictors for nonadherence to guidelines. Results In 7.6% of the discharges no antipsychotic treatment was given; of the remaining discharges, 35.6% were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy and 41.9% were prescribed at least one first-generation antipsychotic (FGA). The mean chlorpromazine equivalent dose was 450 (SD 347, range 25–2800). In the multivariate regression analyses, younger age, previous inpatient treatment in the previous 12 months before index hospitalization, and a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder or mental retardation predicted antipsychotic polypharmacy, while previous inpatient treatment in the previous 12 months also

  5. Norwegian Priority Setting in Practice – an Analysis of Waiting Time Patterns Across Medical Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Gangstøe, Jurgita Januleviciute; Heggestad, Torhild; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different strategies for addressing the challenge of prioritizing elective patients efficiently and fairly have been introduced in Norway. In the time period studied, there were three possible outcomes for elective patients that had been through the process of priority setting: (i) high priority with assigned individual maximum waiting time; (ii) low priority without a maximum waiting time; and (iii) refusal (not in need for specialized services). We study variation in priority status and waiting time of the first two groups across different medical disciplines. Methods: Data was extracted from the Norwegian Patient Register (NPR) and contains information on elective referrals to 41 hospitals in the Western Norway Regional Health Authority in 2010. The hospital practice across different specialties was measured by patient priority status and waiting times. The distributions of assigned maximum waiting times and the actual ones were analyzed using standard Kernel density estimation. The perspective of the planning process was studied by measuring the time interval between the actual start of healthcare and the maximum waiting time. Results: Considerable variation was found across medical specialties concerning proportion of priority patients and their maximum waiting times. The degree of differentiation in terms of maximum waiting times also varied by medical discipline. We found that the actual waiting time was very close to the assigned maximum waiting time. Furthermore, there was no clear correspondence between the actual waiting time for patients and their priority status. Conclusion: Variations across medical disciplines are often interpreted as differences in clinical judgment and capacity. Alternatively they primarily reflect differences in patient characteristics, patient case-mix, as well as capacity. One hypothesis for further research is that the introduction of maximum waiting times may have contributed to push the actual waiting time towards

  6. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  7. Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Westerlund, E.A.; Berthelsen, T.; Berteig, L.

    1987-02-01

    Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of /sup 137/Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of /sup 137/Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on /sup 137/Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from /sup 137/Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the /sup 137/Cs content in reindeer meat and the /sup 137/Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of /sup 137/Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway.

  8. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents (N = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being. PMID:25132873

  9. Characteristics of Water Ingress in Norwegian Subsea Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Water ingress represents one of the main challenges in subsea tunnelling, particularly when this occurs in sections with poor rock mass quality. This paper is discussing the main characteristics of water ingress in subsea hard rock tunnels based on the experience from almost 50 such tunnels that have been built in Norway. Following a brief description of the geological conditions and the basic design of the subsea tunnels, pre-construction investigations and investigations during excavation are discussed with particular emphasis on prediction of water ingress. Two cases with particularly difficult conditions; the Bjorøy tunnel and the Atlantic Ocean tunnel, are discussed in detail. In these cases, large water inflow with pressure of up to 2.4 MPa was encountered at major faults/weakness zones during excavation, and special procedures were required to cope with the problems. Based on the experience from the Norwegian projects, it is concluded that continuous follow-up by experienced engineering geologists, probe drilling with the drilling jumbo and pre-grouting where required are the most important factors for coping with water ingress and ensuring stability.

  10. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, Håvard; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16), both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1%) responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors) (77.6%), and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors) (20.3%), and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries), calf (12.2%), ankle/foot (10.8%), lower back (10.8%), and thigh (10.1%). The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. PMID:24379711

  11. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Wastewater Recycling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Foley, K. J.; Sutherland, T. A.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of a wastewater recycling system installed in the Grand Hyatt Seattle.

  12. Estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and androgen receptor (AR) antagonists in effluents from Norwegian North Sea oil production platforms.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Harman, Christopher; Smith, Andy; Thomas, Kevin V

    2007-03-01

    The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) agonist and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist potencies of offshore produced water effluents collected from the Norwegian Sector were determined using recombinant yeast estrogen and androgen screens. Solid phase extraction (SPE) concentrates of the effluents showed E2 agonist activities similar to those previously reported for the United Kingdom (UK) Continental Shelf (<0.1-4 ng E2 L(-1)). No activity was detected in the filtered oil droplets suggesting that produced water ER activity is primarily associated with the dissolved phase. Targeted analysis for methyl- to nonyl-substituted alkylphenol isomers show the occurrence of known ER agonists in the analysed samples. For the first time, AR antagonists were detected in both the dissolved and oil associated phase at concentrations of between 20 and 8000 microg of flutamide equivalents L(-1). The identity of the AR antagonists is unknown, however this represents a significant input into the marine environment of unknown compounds that exert a known biological effect. It is recommended that further analysis using techniques such as bioassay-directed analysis is performed to identify the compounds/groups of compounds that are responsible in order to improve the assessment of the risk posed by produced water discharges to the marine environment. PMID:17258235

  13. Microbiological assessment along the fish production chain of the Norwegian pelagic fisheries sector--Results from a spot sampling programme.

    PubMed

    Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Roiha, Irja Sunde; Levsen, Arne; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

    2015-10-01

    Microbes play an important role in the degradation of fish products, thus better knowledge of the microbiological conditions throughout the fish production chain may help to optimise product quality and resource utilisation. This paper presents the results of a ten-year spot sampling programme (2005-2014) of the commercially most important pelagic fish species harvested in Norway. Fish-, surface-, and storage water samples were collected from fishing vessels and processing factories. Totally 1,181 samples were assessed with respect to microbiological quality, hygiene and food safety. We introduce a quality and safety assessment scheme for fresh pelagic fish recommending limits for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), thermos tolerant coliforms, enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes. According to the scheme, in 25 of 41 samplings, sub-optimal conditions were found with respect to quality, whereas in 21 and 9 samplings, samples were not in compliance concerning hygiene and food safety, respectively. The present study has revealed that the quality of pelagic fish can be optimised by improving the hygiene conditions at some critical points at an early phase of the production chain. Thus, the proposed assessment scheme may provide a useful tool for the industry to optimise quality and maintain consumer safety of pelagic fishery products. PMID:26187839

  14. Achievements of risk-based produced water management on the Norwegian continental shelf (2002-2008).

    PubMed

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Frost, Tone K; Johnsen, Ståle

    2011-10-01

    In 1996, the Norwegian government issued a White Paper requiring the Norwegian oil industry to reach the goal of "zero discharge" for the marine environment by 2005. To achieve this goal, the Norwegian oil and gas industry initiated the Zero Discharge Programme for discharges of produced formation water from the hydrocarbon-containing reservoir, in close communication with regulators. The environmental impact factor (EIF), a risk-based management tool, was developed by the industry to quantify and document the environmental risks from produced water discharges. The EIF represents a volume of recipient water containing concentrations of one or more substances to a level exceeding a generic threshold for ecotoxicological effects. In addition, this tool facilitates the identification and selection of cost-effective risk mitigation measures. The EIF tool has been used by all operators on the Norwegian continental shelf since 2002 to report progress toward the goal of "zero discharge," interpreted as "zero harmful discharges," to the regulators. Even though produced water volumes have increased by approximately 30% between 2002 and 2008 on the Norwegian continental shelf, the total environmental risk from produced water discharges expressed by the summed EIF for all installations has been reduced by approximately 55%. The total amount of oil discharged to the sea has been reduced by 18% over the period 2000 to 2006. The experience from the Zero Discharge Programme shows that a risk-based approach is an excellent working tool to reduce discharges of potential harmful substances from offshore oil and gas installations. PMID:21594986

  15. Hospitals for sale.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael M; West, Daniel J; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The pace of hospital merger and acquisition activity reflects the economic theory of supply and demand: Publicly traded hospital companies, private equity funds, and large nonprofit hospital systems are investing capital to purchase and operate freestanding community hospitals at a time when many of those hospitals find themselves short of capital reserves and certain forms of management expertise. But the sale of those community hospitals also raises questions about the impact of absentee ownership on the communities which those hospitals serve. PMID:21864058

  16. Employment in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  17. The concentration of hospital care for black veterans in Veterans Affairs hospitals: implications for clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish K; Stone, Roslyn; Lave, Judith; Chen, Huanyu; Klusaritz, Heather; Volpp, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Where minorities receive their care may contribute to disparities in care, yet, the racial concentration of care in the Veterans Health Administration is largely unknown. We sought to better understand which Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals treat Black veterans and whether location of care impacted disparities. We assessed differences in mortality rates between Black and White veterans across 150 VA hospitals for any of six conditions (acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture, stroke, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and pneumonia) between 1996 and 2002. Just 9 out of 150 VA hospitals (6% of all VA hospitals) cared for nearly 30% of Black veterans, and 42 hospitals (28% of all VA hospitals) cared for more than 75% of Black veterans. While our findings show that overall mortality rates were comparable between minority-serving and non-minority-serving hospitals for four conditions, mortality rates were higher in minority-serving hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and pneumonia. The ratio of mortality rates for Blacks compared with Whites was comparable across all VA hospitals. In contrast to the private sector, there is little variation in the degree of racial disparities in 30-day mortality across VA hospitals, although higher mortality among patients with AMI and pneumonia requires further investigation. PMID:20946426

  18. Assessment Procedures of Norwegian PhD Theses as Viewed by Examiners from the USA, the UK and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the assessment procedures of Norwegian PhD theses as viewed by external members of evaluation committees from three countries with different examination systems; the USA, the UK and Sweden. Their viewpoints give useful information not only on the pros and cons with the Norwegian system, but also on the strengths and…

  19. "Glocality" in Play: Efforts and Dilemmas in Changing the Model of the Teacher for the Norwegian National Framework for Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ødegaard, Elin Eriksen

    2016-01-01

    Norwegian society is becoming increasingly heterogeneous. In order to meet challenges and provide conditions for high quality kindergartens "The National Kindergarten Act" and the "Norwegian Framework Plan for Kindergartens" are under revision (period 2013 to 2016). A central challenge of this is how to formulate ideas that…

  20. Young People and the European Dimension in a Norwegian Context. Migration and National Critical Events as Challenges to Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeie, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the "European dimension" in a Norwegian context with focus on the relevance for young people in particular. Against a backdrop of literature discussing Norwegian majority self-understanding in relation to Europe, the article discusses some examples that are relevant for addressing the overall theme, namely recent…

  1. Parent experiences of inpatient pediatric care in relation to health care delivery and sociodemographic characteristics: results of a Norwegian national survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The national survey of parent experiences with inpatient pediatric care contribute to the Norwegian system of health care quality indicators. This article reports on the statistical association between parent experiences of inpatient pediatric care and aspects of health care delivery, child health status and health outcome as assessed by the parents, and the parents’ sociodemographic characteristics. Methods 6,160 parents of children who were inpatients at one of Norway’s 20 pediatric departments in 2005 were contacted to take part in a survey that included the Parent Experience of Pediatric Care questionnaire. It includes 25 items that form six scales measuring parent experiences: doctor services, hospital facilities, information discharge, information about examinations and tests, nursing services and organization. The six scales were analyzed using OLS-regression. Results 3,308 (53.8%) responded. Mean scores ranged from 62.81 (organization) to 72.80 (hospital facilities) on a 0–100 scale where 100 is the best possible experience. Disappointment with staff, unexpected waiting, information regarding new medication, whether the staff were successful in easing the child’s pain, incorrect treatment and number of previous admissions had a statistically significant association with at least five of the PEPC scale scores. Disappointment with staff had the strongest association. Most sociodemographic characteristics had weak or no associations with parent experiences. Conclusions The complete relief of the child’s pain, reducing unexpected waiting and disappointment with staff, and providing good information about new medication are aspects of health care that should be considered in initiatives designed to improve parent experiences. In the Norwegian context parent experiences vary little by parents’ sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24325153

  2. [From the hospital in white to the pre-hospital in red].

    PubMed

    Marchal, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Having started out in the hospital sector, Christian Marchal has had a rewarding and original career. His credo: emergency assistance and the interest of the victims. As part of the fire and rescue service nursing corps, he has acquired skills and trained as a supervisor. PMID:26743369

  3. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey.

    PubMed

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  4. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. PMID:20702020

  5. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    PubMed Central

    Størmer, Carl Christian Lein; Laukli, Einar; Høydal, Erik Harry; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of Tromsø. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians. PMID:26572701

  6. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  7. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  8. Comparative genomics of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy Norwegian infants

    PubMed Central

    Solheim, Margrete; Aakra, Ågot; Snipen, Lars G; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F

    2009-01-01

    Background Enterococcus faecalis, traditionally considered a harmless commensal of the intestinal tract, is now ranked among the leading causes of nosocomial infections. In an attempt to gain insight into the genetic make-up of commensal E. faecalis, we have studied genomic variation in a collection of community-derived E. faecalis isolated from the feces of Norwegian infants. Results The E. faecalis isolates were first sequence typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and characterized with respect to antibiotic resistance and properties associated with virulence. A subset of the isolates was compared to the vancomycin resistant strain E. faecalis V583 (V583) by whole genome microarray comparison (comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)). Several of the putative enterococcal virulence factors were found to be highly prevalent among the commensal baby isolates. The genomic variation as observed by CGH was less between isolates displaying the same MLST sequence type than between isolates belonging to different evolutionary lineages. Conclusion The variations in gene content observed among the investigated commensal E. faecalis is comparable to the genetic variation previously reported among strains of various origins thought to be representative of the major E. faecalis lineages. Previous MLST analysis of E. faecalis have identified so-called high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (HiRECC), defined as genetically distinct subpopulations, epidemiologically associated with enterococcal infections. The observed correlation between CGH and MLST presented here, may offer a method for the identification of lineage-specific genes, and may therefore add clues on how to distinguish pathogenic from commensal E. faecalis. In this work, information on the core genome of E. faecalis is also substantially extended. PMID:19393078

  9. Urinary Biomarkers for Phthalates Associated with Asthma in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Håland, Geir; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Løvik, Martinus

    2012-01-01

    Background: High-molecular-weight phthalates in indoor dust have been associated with asthma in children, but few studies have evaluated phthalate biomarkers in association with respiratory outcomes. Objectives: We explored the association between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and current asthma. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, 11 metabolites of 8 phthalates [including four metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] were measured in one first morning void collected from 2001 through 2004 from 623 10-year-old Norwegian children. Logistic regression models controlling for urine specific gravity, sex, parental asthma, and income were used to estimate associations between current asthma and phthalate metabolite concentrations by quartiles or as log10-transformed variables. Results: Current asthma was associated with both mono(carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP) and mono(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP), although the association was limited to those in the highest quartile of these chemicals. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for current asthma was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.0, 3.3) for the highest MCOP quartile compared with the lowest quartile, and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The aOR for current asthma was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.0) for the highest MCNP quartile and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) for an interquartile-range increase. The other phthalate metabolites were not associated with current asthma. Conclusions: Current asthma was associated with the highest quartiles of MCOP and MCNP, metabolites of two high molecular weight phthalates, diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate, respectively. Given the short biological half-life of the phthalates and the cross-sectional design, our findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:23164678

  10. [Norwegian front fighters 1940-1945, 50 years later. Experiences, strains, medical and social conditions].

    PubMed

    Stridsklev, I C

    1995-04-30

    The author describes a medical and social investigation of 181 Norwegian war veterans who served on the Eastern Front during World War II. To ensure representativity, special emphasis is placed on 76 Norwegians in 1st Company, Regiment Norge, as listed in January 1944. They have been interviewed about hardships during war service in the civil war in Spain and until spring 1945, during captivity in Russia, in other Allied forces' camps and in Norwegian camps and prisons after the war. Their medical and social status from 1940 until today has been studied. The "front fighters" are a heavily strained group. This is best illustrated by their death rates during the war and in the first years after the war. However, as a group, they have more resources than the general population, and have done comparatively well since the war, in spite of physical and social handicaps. PMID:7770837

  11. The impact of the Holocaust on the second generation: Norwegian Jewish Holocaust survivors and their children.

    PubMed

    Major, E F

    1996-07-01

    The entire population of Norwegian-born Jews who survived the German concentration camps and their children was examined, and compared to Norwegian-born Jews who escaped to Sweden, and their children. An attempt is made to look for the symptoms described as a "second generation syndrome" by several authors. The present findings do not support the presence of serious psychopathology among the children of Norwegian-born Jewish survivors as a group, but indicate a certain degree of psychological vulnerability among these children. As adults, they are more often engaged in health/social care professions and organizations and also show signs of greater assimilation to their non-Jewish surroundings than the comparison group. PMID:8827648

  12. Norwegian regulatory requirements related to the utilization of intelligent pigs in pipeline integrity monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vestre, H.I.

    1996-08-01

    Since the first steps of the Norwegian Offshore Petroleum Industry were taken in the late sixties, several philosophies and generations of tools for pipeline integrity monitoring have been utilized. This paper presents and discusses the Norwegian Regulatory Requirements relevant for internal integrity monitoring of pipelines on the continental shelf. It is pointed out that, for several pipeline systems, the establishment of an internal baseline and subsequent inspections by intelligent pigs at intervals that are partly adjusted based on operational experience, is of vital importance in the continuous effort to maintain and develop the high availability of oil and gas through the Norwegian pipeline grid. It is also pointed out that the selection of philosophy and technology for integrity monitoring should include an evaluation of the continuous corrosivity of the transported products, the consequences of failures for personnel, the environment, the economic investment and the income of the society.

  13. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  14. The Hale solar sector boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A Hale solar-sector boundary is defined as that half (northern hemisphere or southern hemisphere) of a sector boundary in which the change of sector-magnetic-field polarity is the same as the change of polarity from a preceding spot to a following spot. Above a Hale sector boundary the green corona has maximum brightness, while above a non-Hale boundary the green corona has a minimum brightness. The Hale portion of a photospheric sector boundary tends to have maximum magnetic-field strength, while the non-Hale portion has minimum field strength.

  15. The Hale solar sector boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A Hale solar sector boundary is defined as the half (Northern Hemisphere or Southern Hemisphere) of a sector boundary in which the change of sector magnetic field polarity is the same as the change of polarity from a preceding spot to a following spot. Above a Hale sector boundary the green corona has maximum brightness, while above a non-Hale boundary the green corona has a minimum brightness. The Hale portion of a photospheric sector boundary tends to have maximum magnetic field strength, while the non-Hale portion has minimum field strength.

  16. Can hospitals compete on quality? Hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples. PMID:25711185

  17. ERP implementation in hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Divya; Garg, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    In a competitive healthcare sector, hospitals have to focus on their processes in order to deliver high-quality care while at the same time reducing costs. Many hospitals have decided to adopt one or another Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system to improve their businesses, but implementing an ERP system can be a demanding endeavour. The systems are so difficult to implement that some are successful; many have failed, causing multimillion dollar losses. The challenge of ERP solutions lie in implementation because they are complex, time consuming and expensive too. This paper describes the various process workflows and phases of ERP implementation at Fortis Hospital Cunningham Road, Bangalore, India. This knowledge will provide valuable insights for the researchers and practitioners to understand the different process workflows and to make informed decisions when implementing ERP in any hospital. PMID:23079029

  18. Examining Convergence in the Cultural Value Orientations of Norwegians in the Oil and Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Jennifer

    There is much debate in Norway as to whether Norwegian cultural values are being diluted by the increasing influx of international organizations. Little empirical work has been done to assess the effect of employment by international organizations on the cultural values of Norwegians. The aim of this study was to determine if individuals retain cultural values closest to their own nationality or the nationality of their employing organization. This objective was accomplished by comparing cultural value dimensions of Norwegians employed in organizations headquartered in one of five countries. Recruitment emails were sent to 612 possible participants and 160 individuals completed the survey completely, resulting in a sample size of N=160, a response rate of 26%. From the completed surveys, cultural dimension scores were calculated for each individual and group in the areas of power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Using those cultural dimension scores, three groups of one-way ANOVA tests were run in accordance with the parameters of each of three research questions. Comparing Norwegians employed in local government or a Norwegian oil and gas company, a significant difference existed only for uncertainty avoidance (p=.0074). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in local government with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil companies resulted in significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0007), individualism (p=.0000), and uncertainty avoidance (p=.0000); however, there was not a statistically significant difference in masculinity scores between the two groups (p=.0792). Comparing cultural dimension scores of Norwegians employed in a Norwegian oil and gas company with those employed by one of four internationally-headquartered oil and gas companies also resulted in statistically significant differences in scores for power distance (p=.0015), individualism (p=.0000), and

  19. Scalar winds from SSM/I in the Norwegian and Greenland seas during Norcsex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, Per; Hubanks, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Data acquired with the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) during the Norwegian Coastal Sea Experiment (Norcsex) in March 1988 have been utilized to estimate scalar winds in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. The algorithm for calculating these winds was first developed for the Nimbus-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) in order to investigate scalar winds during the Polar Lows Experiment in February 1984. The coefficients in this algorithm have been tuned to accommodate differences in the SSM/I and SMMR instruments.

  20. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. PMID:25194519

  1. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  2. Health care of female outpatients in south-central India: comparing public and private sector provision.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jagdish; Cleland, John

    2004-11-01

    The object of this study was to compare components of quality of care provided to female outpatients by practitioners working in the private and public sectors in Karnataka State, India. Consultations conducted by 18 private practitioners and 25 public-sector practitioners were observed for 5 days using a structured protocol. Private practitioners were selected from members of the Indian Medical Association in a predominantly rural sub-district of Kolar District. Government doctors were selected from a random sample of hospitals and health centres in three sub-districts of Mysore District. A total of 451 private-sector and 650 public-sector consultations were observed; in each sector about half involved a female practitioner. The mean length of consultation was 2.81 minutes in the public sector and 6.68 minutes in the private sector. Compared with public-sector practitioners, private practitioners were significantly more likely to undertake a physical examination and to explain their diagnosis and prognosis to the patient. Privacy was much better in the private sector. One-third of public-sector patients received an injection compared with two-thirds of private patients. The mean cost of drugs dispensed or prescribed were Rupees 37 and 74 in public and private sectors, respectively. Both in terms of thoroughness of diagnosis and doctor-patient communication, the quality of care appears to be much higher in the private than in the public sector. However, over-prescription of drugs by private practitioners may be occurring. PMID:15459165

  3. Microbial quality and nutritional aspects of Norwegian brand waters.

    PubMed

    Otterholt, Eli; Charnock, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological quality of the five leading brands of Norwegian bottled still waters was investigated. All brands were free for the enteric indicator organisms and named pathogens whose absence is demanded in current quality directives. The relatively nutrient-poor agar R₂A revealed large heterogeneous bacterial populations which grew slowly, or not at all, on clinical media specified for use in substrate-utilization approaches to identification. The main approach used for identification was cultivation of microbes on R₂A, followed by amplification and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. The identity of the heterotrophic plate count of the brands differed significantly to that found in many other similar studies with respect to the dominating species. The bacterial flora was dominated by beta- and alphaproteobacteria most of which were psychrotolerant. Several brands contained Sphingomonas and large populations of Methylobacterium species which have been associated with a variety of opportunistic infections of immunocompromised hosts. Analysis of the isolated strains' nutritional capabilities using the Biolog GN2® system, gave in most instances low positive scores, and strain identifications using the system were generally inconclusive. Measures of assimilable organic carbon in the water revealed that some brands contained levels higher than those which have been associated with biological stability and restricted or no growth of heterotrophs in distribution systems. The relationship between assimilable organic carbon and R₂A plate counts was significant and moderately positive for bottled waters. Assimilable organic carbon correlated strongly with the survival time of Escherichia coli when introduced into bottles as a contaminant. Those brands having high values (~100 μg/L) supported protracted survival, but not growth of E. coli, whereas E. coli quickly became nonculturable in brands with low values. Thus measures of assimilable organic carbon may

  4. Crustal structure from the Faroes Shelf to the Norwegian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A. W.; White, R. S.; Kusznir, N. J.; Christie, P.; Roberts, A. M.; Isimm Team

    2003-04-01

    We show the crustal structure along a 400km seismic profile extending across a prime example of a volcanically rifted margin, from the Faroes shelf across the continent-ocean boundary northeast of the Faroe Islands, and 100km into oceanic crust of the Norwegian Sea formed immediately after continental break-up. 85 4-component OBS were used for the survey, giving wide-angle arrivals visible to beyond 120km offset. The survey was complemented by a 12 km Q-streamer profile along the same line. Integration of the normal incidence through wide-angle arrivals for the OBS and streamer data allow us to make a constrained velocity model through the active crust and into the upper mantle. We used a large airgun source comprising 14 guns with a total volume of 6,360 cu. in. towed at 20m depth. The resulting output was dominated by low frequencies (peak at 9Hz) to allow improved imaging through the basalts. A thickened oceanic crust is found, indicative of high temperatures caused by the Iceland mantle plume, and the presence of clear seaward dipping reflectors is evidence of extrusive lavas. Underplating is also inferred on the margin from the high seismic velocities in the lower crust. Academia and industry seek to understand magmatic margin evolution for its impact on deep water hydrocarbon prospecting. The NE Atlantic has been chosen as our research area because of its accessibility, wealth of related data and current exploration on the Atlantic margin. The iSIMM programme's long term goals are to characterise volcanically rifted margins and to develop theoretical models of the formation and subsidence of rifted margins. iSIMM investigators are: R.S. White (1), N.J. Kusznir (2), P.A.F. Christie (3), A.M. Roberts (4), N. Hurst (2), Z.C. Lunnon (1,3), C.J. Parkin (1), A.W. Roberts (1), L.K. Smith (1), R. Spitzer (1), V. Tymms (2), A. Davies (1), A. Surendra (1), with funding from NERC, Agip UK, BP, Amerada Hess Ltd., Anadarko, Conoco, Phillips, Shell, Statoil, and WesternGeco.

  5. Diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Norwegian Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kari-Mette; Kristoffersen, Anne Karin; Ingebretsen, André; Vikholt, Katharina Johnsen; Örtengren, Ulf Thore; Olsen, Ingar; Enersen, Morten; Gaustad, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients have resulted in greater incidence of invasive fungal infections with high mortality. Candida albicans infections dominate, but during the last decade, Candida glabrata has become the second highest cause of candidemia in the United States and Northern Europe. Reliable and early diagnosis, together with appropriate choice of antifungal treatment, is needed to combat these challenging infections. Objectives To confirm the identity of 183 Candida glabrata isolates from different human body sites using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and VITEK®2, and to analyze isolate protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven antifungal drugs was determined for the isolates to elucidate susceptibility. Design A total of 183 C. glabrata isolates obtained between 2002 and 2012 from Norwegian health-care units were analyzed. For species verification and differentiation, biochemical characterization (VITEK®2) and mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF) were used. MIC determination for seven antifungal drugs was undertaken using E-tests®. Results Using VITEK®2, 92.9% of isolates were identified as C. glabrata, while all isolates (100%) were identified as C. glabrata using MALDI-TOF. Variation in protein spectra occurred for all identified C. glabrata isolates. The majority of isolates had low MICs to amphotericin B (≤1 mg/L for 99.5%) and anidulafungin (≤0.06 mg/L for 98.9%). For fluconazole, 18% of isolates had MICs >32 mg/L and 82% had MICs in the range ≥0.016 mg/L to ≤32 mg/L. Conclusions Protein profiles and antifungal susceptibility characteristics of the C. glabrata isolates were diverse. Clustering of protein profiles indicated that many azole resistant isolates were closely related. In most cases, isolates had highest susceptibility to amphotericin B and anidulafungin. The results confirmed previous observations of high

  6. [University clinics in the competitive hospital market].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C E; Möller, J; Hesslau, U; Bauer, M; Gabbert, T; Kremer, B

    2005-07-01

    In recent years Germany has faced a growing economization and competition among hospitals. To protect their interests hospitals have to operate similarly to other commercial businesses. Academic hospitals face difficult circumstances in this competition. They have to facilitate research and education activities which require additional financial and personnel resources but also provide maximum acute care treatment at all times. This causes additional disadvantages in terms of financial resources, compared to private hospital chains. Such examples of financial shortcomings have led to the privatization of academic research centres in Germany. An alternative strategy to privatization of academic acute care hospitals is the change of their legal status into a capital company or into a foundation, according to US experiences. Public private partnerships (PPPs) may also represent a potential alternative, as they have already produced a growing number of successful examples in the public sector in Germany. Academic acute care hospitals can also choose a strategic reorganization of their targets, similar to their privately held competitors in the market. Potential economies in scale may be achieved in areas such as medical treatment, research and personnel planning.However, it is vital that academic acute care hospitals start to act productively and also individually. This article provides a number of managerial pathways and options to maintain and strengthen operational competitiveness. PMID:15942750

  7. Trends and initiatives in hospital ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Burns, L A

    1982-05-01

    Changes in the financing and delivery of hospital ambulatory care are discussed. Ambulatory care encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical services provided to patients who are not confined overnight to an institutional bed as inpatients. There are a large and growing number of ways hospitals and physicians cooperate to provide ambulatory-care services. Technological advancements, which have spurred changes in other sectors of medicine, have also changed patterns of medical practice in ambulatory care. Some of the reasons why hospitals develop and expand ambulatory-care programs relate to the changing demand for health services, the shifting preferences of third-party payers and regulators, competitive influences, diversification of risk, and use of such programs as feeders for inpatient services and as teaching and research settings. Although outpatient revenues are a small portion of total hospital revenues, they are growing more rapidly than inpatient revenues. Changes in the health industry that offer opportunities to hospitals are described, such as the increasing physician supply and the formation of group practices, the climate of cost consciousness and price competition, and the trend toward new corporate structures for hospitals. These changes portend changes for hospital pharmacists and give them the opportunity to increase their clinical roles in providing ambulatory care. PMID:7081250

  8. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  9. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  10. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  11. Better mental health in children of Vietnamese refugees compared with their Norwegian peers - a matter of cultural difference?

    PubMed Central

    Vaage, Aina Basilier; Tingvold, Laila; Hauff, Edvard; Van Ta, Thong; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2009-01-01

    Background There are conflicting results on whether immigrant children are at a heightened risk of mental health problems compared with native youth in the resettlement country. The objective of the study To compare the mental health of 94 Norwegian-born children from a community cohort of Vietnamese refugees, aged 4 - 18 years, with that of a Norwegian community sample. Methods The SDQ was completed by two types of informants; the children's self-reports, and the parents' reports, for comparison with Norwegian data from the Health Profiles for Children and Youth in the Akershus study. Results The self-perceived mental health of second-generation Vietnamese in Norway was better than that of their Norwegian compatriots, as assessed by the SDQ. In the Norwegian-Vietnamese group, both children and parents reported a higher level of functioning. Conclusion This surprising finding may result from the lower prevalence of mental distress in Norwegian-Vietnamese children compared with their Norwegian peers, or from biased reports and cultural differences in reporting emotional and behavioural problems. These findings may represent the positive results of the children's bi-cultural competencies. PMID:19845965

  12. The Norwegian Regional College System in the Context of Decentralization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Thor Einar

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses efforts being made in Norway to decentralize policy decision making, allowing greater regional participation in educational policymaking. As an outcome of this process, the Norwegian Regional College System aims at achieving equal access to education, diffusing educational resources, and contributing to the cultural and…

  13. Do You /Ond 'taend? An Error Analysis of Norwegian Students' Pronunciation of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Thor Sigurd

    This preliminary report of an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) pronunciation test carried out at Telemark College in Norway is first of all a description of the difficulties Norwegian students have with regard to the pronunciation of Received Pronunciation (RP) vowels and consonants. An attempt also is made to predict areas of possible…

  14. The Role of Peer Review in Norwegian Quality Assurance: Potential Consequences for Excellence and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langfeldt, Liv; Stensaker, Bjorn; Harvey, Lee; Huisman, Jeroen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the role of peer review within broader external quality assurance schemes. Based on an analytical framework emphasising that modern quality assurance schemes are designed as a balancing act between standardised guidelines and professional judgement, the article uses data from a recent evaluation of NOKUT, the Norwegian Quality…

  15. Text Interpretation and Educational Design in Norwegian Textbooks of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestøl, Jon Magne

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural perspectives on educational design, this article presents a qualitative study investigating how religious texts emerge as educational objects and mediating artefacts in Norwegian textbooks of religious and moral education. The article describes how the distribution of text references in textbooks influences the formation…

  16. The Newly Qualified Teacher: A Leader and a Professional? A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimsath, Gerd; Nordvik, Grete; Bergsvik, Eli

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a Norwegian study. The focus is two-fold, including the views of both new teachers and leaders on the issue of leadership and professionalism. First, the focus is on the way newly qualified teachers describe how they function in the school and kindergarten organizations. The discussion explores how new teachers' meetings…

  17. No Place: Small Children in Norwegian Asylum-Seeker Reception Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeberg, Marie Louise; Bagge, Cecilie; Enger, Truls Andre

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on empirical material from fieldwork among young children living with their families in two Norwegian reception centres for asylum-seekers, this article compares their realities to the norms and realities for other children in Norway. Children's spatial and social situations within the centres stand out in stark contrast to Norwegian…

  18. Love It or Leave It: Norwegian Students' Motivations and Expectations for Postcompulsory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter; Henriksen, Ellen Karoline

    2013-01-01

    In response to insufficient participation and female underrepresentation in physics education, this article uses questionnaire data from Norwegian physics students in upper secondary ("N" = 585) and first-year tertiary ("N" = 278) education to characterize the "physics choosers." An expectancy-value perspective is…

  19. Study Programmes for Engineers from Developing Countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasson, Axel; Hermansen, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes the background of the study and fellowship programs for graduates from the developing countries at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. Discusses some experiences with the programs. Includes a brief description of five courses: (1) "Pulp and Paper Technology"; (2) "Marine Civil Engineering"; (3) "Hydropower Development"; (4) "Electric…

  20. Increasing Completion Rates in Norwegian Doctoral Training: Multiple Causes for Efficiency Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein; Olsen, Terje Bruen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines changes in completion rates and time-to-degree in Norwegian doctoral training over the last 30 years. A steadily increasing share of doctoral candidates holding a fellowship have been awarded their doctoral degree within five years; from 30% of those admitted in 1980 to 60% of those admitted 25 years later. Furthermore, the…

  1. Social Influence, Health Variables and Criminal Behaviours Associated with Substance Use among Rural Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Dahl, Hilde; Flemmen, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate social influence, health, criminality and substance use in a sample of 1288 Norwegian rural adolescents. Relations between these factors and substance use were examined. Methods: Data were obtained from the "UngData" study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among adolescents (n = 740) in nine secondary…

  2. Translating Knowledge into Action at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Trine; Francis, Charles; Pederson, Kristin; Lieblein, Geir; Rahman, Md. Hafizur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the impacts of action learning on graduates' abilities to use interdisciplinary knowledge to solve problems, practice teamwork on the job and become change agents through study in two MSc programmes at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB). Design/methodology/approach: Electronic questionnaires were…

  3. National Assessment of Writing Proficiency among Norwegian Students in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.; Thygesen, Ragnar; Berge, Kjell Lars; Evensen, Lars Sigfred; Vagle, Wenche

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses a government-initiated nationwide assessment of writing proficiency among Norwegian compulsory school students. A sample-study of 7th and 10th grade students are discussed and reported with regard to challenges in measuring writing skills in a valid and reliable manner. For the 7th graders the results showed a…

  4. Allocating Time Resources for Research between Academic Staff: The Case of Norwegian University Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyvik, Svein

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore how time resources for research are allocated among academic staff members in institutions where research qualifications differ much between individuals. Norwegian university colleges are used as a case. These resources, which can be regarded as scarce goods, are of two kinds: the share of working hours…

  5. Revisiting Instructional and Transformational Leadership: The Contemporary Norwegian Context of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit; Brandmo, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the taxonomy of two conceptual models of leadership roles for principals--instructional and transformational leadership (IL and TL)--can be traced empirically in a sample of Norwegian school leaders. Design/methodology/approach: The participants consisted of 149 school leaders attending a…

  6. Included as Excluded and Excluded as Included: Minority Language Pupils in Norwegian Inclusion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social…

  7. Evaluation of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying, 2002-2004. A Summary of the Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikkanen, Tarja I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the main results of the research-based evaluation of the Norwegian Manifesto against bullying. Besides schools, the evaluation was to include bullying also in kindergartens and publicly organised leisure activities. Furthermore, the work in Manifesto was to be covered on national, regional and local levels. The goal setting…

  8. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  9. Subsea template, pipeline anchor Troll-Oseberg gas-injection scheme in Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weibye, B.S.

    1988-01-18

    The author discusses the subsea, gas production template and the 30-mile pipeline that are key elements in supplying as from the Troll field for injection into Oseberg field in the Norwegian North Sea by 1991. The author discusses the design basis and philosophies as well as the production system, template installation and control pods.

  10. Prediction of Attitudes towards Child Sexual Abuse among Three Different Norwegian Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative…

  11. Early Career Teachers' Emotional Experiences and Development--A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakhelln, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Emotional experiences that are an integral part of the process of becoming teachers have been insufficiently explored in the research literature. The early experiences of three new teachers in a Norwegian upper secondary school are analysed using a collective case-study design and a socio-cultural theoretical framework. Emotions arising in the…

  12. Competition and Leadership as Drivers in German and Norwegian University Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiklie, Ivar; Lange, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses how steering and organisation of German and Norwegian universities have developed after both countries with Humboldtian university traditions introduced New Public Management-inspired governance reforms during the first decade of the 21st century. The article outlines different organisation ideals and values involved in…

  13. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by virtue of…

  14. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to exploitation…

  15. Preschool Teachers' Approaches to Science: A Comparison of a Chinese and a Norwegian Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Anne Synnøve Ekrene; He, Min

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the way in which preschool teachers support children's science learning in a Chinese and a Norwegian kindergarten. The study takes an ethnographic approach. Preschool teachers from one kindergarten in Shanghai and one in Bergen were asked to videotape educational activities that focused on science in their…

  16. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  17. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  18. Wisdom in the Open Air: The Norwegian Roots of Deep Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Peter, Ed.; Rothenberg, David, Ed.

    This book traces the Norwegian roots of "deep ecology": the search for solutions to environmental problems by examining fundamental tenets of culture. Deep ecology contributes to the philosophical foundations of environmental education and outdoor education, and much writing in this area has focused on promoting awareness of the human relationship…

  19. "Friendship in All Directions": Norwegian Children with Physical Disabilities Experiencing Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjornslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn H.; Helseth, Solvi

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how Norwegian children with physical disabilities experience friendship during the transition between primary and secondary school. The research was based on 38 life mode interviews with 15 children. Two themes were explored: (1) different kinds of friends: friends with disabilities, friends without disabilities and…

  20. The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of…

  1. Transferring and Transforming Technology Education: A Study of Norwegian Teachers' Perceptions of Ideas from Design & Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Berit

    2006-01-01

    What happens when educational ideas cross national and cultural borders? How do teachers respond to ideas originating in a different school system and a different national culture? This article reports on an empirical study investigating the transfer of ideas from Design & Technology as a subject in England and Wales into Norwegian schools. A…

  2. Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

  3. Selective Critical Thinking: A Textbook Analysis of Education for Critical Thinking in Norwegian Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Børhaug, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    Current Norwegian curricular guidelines oblige schools to educate citizens with a critical perspective on society. From a discourse theoretical perspective, this obligation implies that various school subjects, and in particular social studies, offer discourses on social issues that allow for different points of view and critical evaluation.…

  4. New Management Systems in Norwegian Universities: The Interface Between Reform and Institutional Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ingvild Marheim; Gornitzka, Ase

    1995-01-01

    Implementation and results of government-mandated "results-oriented planning" in Norwegian universities are analyzed using two approaches: the first looks at the effects of the initiative, and the second views the management reforms as cosmetic. It is found that while academic staff are involved in the new planning system, little effect has been…

  5. Imageability of Norwegian Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Lind, Marianne; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjorn-Helge

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study of imageability ratings for a set of 1599 Norwegian words (896 nouns, 483 verbs and 220 adjectives) from a web-based survey. To a large extent, the results are in accordance with previous studies of other languages: high imageability scores in general, higher imageability scores for nouns than for verbs, and an…

  6. Becoming a Learning Organization: The Espoused Values of Police Managers from Two Norwegian Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine; Gottschalk, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which espoused values among police managers in the Norwegian police force are compatible with those of a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and administered to police managers in two police districts in Norway. A set of values was…

  7. "Omdefinerer En Norsk Norge": The Influence of Changing Demographics on Norwegian Schooling for Social Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how Norwegian compulsory education, both philosophically and practically, reflects the institutionalized democratic values of the larger social and political community of Norway. It examines, through the application of collective and structural lenses of analysis, how shifting demographics in this social and political…

  8. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  9. Exploring Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Teachers at Norwegian Folk High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    The folk high school (FHS) is a Nordic contribution to global education and is a unique approach to non-university adult education. Because expanded tuition is the true nature of Norwegian FHS, it is important for FHS that its teachers perform discretionary individual extra-role behaviour advantageous to the school organization, a phenomenon…

  10. Mediating National Language Management: The Discourse of Citizenship Categorization in Norwegian Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The dimension of language policing that is the focus in this article refers to the management of micro-level language use by a macro-level institution, in this context the Norwegian Language Council, co-constructed with media actors. An important aspect of language policing is the official definition of terms, carried out by bodies like the…

  11. What Characterizes the Algebraic Competence of Norwegian Upper Secondary School Students? Evidence from TIMSS Advanced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Ida Friestad

    2015-01-01

    Algebra is the fundamental language of mathematics, and a profound understanding of school algebra is an important prerequisite for further studies in mathematical sciences. The aim of this study is to characterize the algebraic competence of the Norwegian upper secondary school students participating in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  12. Some Health Effects of Implementing School Nursing in a Norwegian High School: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svebak, Sven; Jensen, Eva Naper; Gotestam, K. Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a school nursing service on health complaints and mood were investigated in a Norwegian high school. The school nursing service was delivered to students in 1 high school, and students in a comparable high school served as the comparison group. There were 41 students in the treatment group and 63 in the comparison group. All…

  13. Student Psychological Distress: A Psychometric Study of 1750 Norwegian 1st-Year Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Ronnestad, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that university and college students are more vulnerable to psychological distress than the general population has generated increasing public concern. This study presents psychometric data on Norwegian undergraduate students' psychological distress (N= 1750). Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item…

  14. Academic Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools: The Impact of Violence during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong; Mossige, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a national survey (N = 6,979) of young people in their last year in Norwegian secondary schools in 2007 (aged 18 and 19), this paper examines the effect of experience of violence including sexual abuse during childhood (before the age of 13) on the later academic achievement of young people. This investigation includes three types…

  15. The Norwegian Communicative Development Inventories: Reliability, Main Developmental Trends and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Kristoffersen, Kristian E.; Bleses, Dorthe; Wehberg, Sonja; Jørgensen, Rune N.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from a large population-based study of early communicative development in Norwegian children using an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, comprising 6574 children between 8 and 36 months. Data were collected via the Internet. In accordance with similar studies from other languages,…

  16. An Econometric Examination of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of Norwegian Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Kahamseh, Saeed; Gunnarsson, Didrik; Larsen, Nils Magne; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This…

  17. "I Am Not Angry in the Kindergarten!" Interruptive Anger as Democratic Participation in Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindheim, Liv Torunn

    2014-01-01

    This article calls into question the idyllic picture of Norwegian kindergartens where harmonious and joyful interaction is the preferred and normal way to participate. If taking children's right to democratic participation and freedom of expression seriously, anger can also be seen as a legitimate way of participating. Conflicts of interest,…

  18. Validation of an Eulerian population model for the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Morten Omholt; Broch, Ole Jacob; Melle, Webjørn; Bagøien, Espen; Slagstad, Dag

    2016-08-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is an important zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea, as a dominant food organism for pelagic fish larvae, and a potentially large source of marine lipids and proteins. Its position in the marine food web also makes it an important model species in assessing the risk posed by oil spills in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas. In this study, an Eulerian population model for C.finmarchicus, coupled to the physical and ecological model SINMOD, is presented. The model includes the full life cycle of C. finmarchicus with a representation of all developmental stages. The model has been validated against field measurements made in different areas of the Norwegian Sea in 1997 and 1998. The model displays geographical and temporal distributions of development stages that is in line with observed patterns. When comparing time series for selected regions, we see a high degree of variability both in the field samples and model output. On average, the model deviations are near half of the summed variability of the field data and model estimates. The model has applications within assessment of ecological production, and the potential for harvesting in the Norwegian and Arctic Seas, but in combination with other models, also for the assessment of ecological effects of oil spills and other types of pollution.

  19. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  20. Personal Epistemology across Cultures: Exploring Norwegian and Spanish University Students' Epistemic Beliefs about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braten, Ivar; Gil, Laura; Stromso, Helge I.; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim was to explore and compare the dimensionality of personal epistemology with respect to climate change across the contexts of Norwegian and Spanish students. A second aim was to examine relationships between topic-specific epistemic beliefs and the variables of gender, topic knowledge, and topic interest in the two contexts.…

  1. An Effective Introduction to Technology and Design in Norwegian Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkeby, Pal J.

    2010-01-01

    How can young pupils get "An effective introduction" to technology and design at the primary level in the Norwegian context? This question is highlighted with examples based on case studies at five classes in two schools doing their first technology and design project at grades 1 or 2 (age 6-8 years). The project was about air rockets. The…

  2. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  3. Changes and Challenges in Music Education: Reflections on a Norwegian Arts-in-Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophersen, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    With a recent research study on a Norwegian arts-in-education programme "The Cultural Rucksack" as its starting point, this article addresses policy changes in the fields of culture and education and possible implications these could have on music education in schools. Familiar debates on the quality of education and the political…

  4. Performance-based budgeting in the public sector: an illustration from the VA health care system.

    PubMed

    Yaisawarng, Suthathip; Burgess, James F

    2006-03-01

    This paper estimates frontier cost functions for US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in FY2000 that are consistent with economic theory and explicitly account for cost differences across patients' risk, level of access to care, quality of care, and hospital-specific characteristics. Results indicate that on average VA hospitals in FY2000 operate at efficiency levels of 94%, as compared to previous studies on US private sector hospitals that average closer to 90% efficient. Using these cost frontiers, management systems potentially could be implemented to enhance the equitable allocation of the VA medical care global budget and systematically distribute funds across hospitals and networks. The paper also provides recommendations to improve the efficiency of delivering health care services applicable to public sector organizations. PMID:16331724

  5. The role of purchasing in hospital performance.

    PubMed

    Preker, Alexander S; Langenbrunner, John C

    2005-01-01

    In this article the authors review the core messages on getting value for public money spent on healthcare presented in a recent World Bank publication, Spending Wisely: Buying Health Services for the Poor, edited by the same authors. The authors discuss how interest of the poor would often be better served through a fundamental shift in the way public money is spent on the health services--notably by moving away from passive budgeting within the public sector towards strategic purchasing or contracting of services from non-governmental providers. The shift from hiring staff in the public sector and producing services "in house" to strategic purchasing of non governmental providers--outsourcing--has been at the centre of a lively debate on collective financing of healthcare during recent years. Its underlying premise is that it is necessary to separate the functions of financing from the production services to improve performance and accountability. Promoting good health and confronting disease challenges of course requires action across a broad range of activities in the health system. This includes improvements in the policymaking and stewardship role of governments, better access to human resources, drugs, medical equipment and consumables, and a greater engagement of both public and private providers of services. Managing scarce resources and healthcare effectively and efficiently in the hospital sector through more strategic purchasing is an important part of this story. This is the second in series of articles on the economics of hospital care. In the first article on the "Economics of organizational reform" the authors, Alexander S. Preker and April Harding, examined the role of economic incentives to good governance and performance in the hospital sector. A more detailed discussion on this topic can be found in the World Bank publication Innovations in Health Care: The Corporatization of Public Hospitals, 2003, edited by the same authors. PMID:16512059

  6. Hospital treatment of HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Ola, Samuel Olawale

    2006-12-01

    Treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria has progressed from the stage of inactivity, unconcern, abandonment and neglect to the present stage of holistic care involving treatment of the infection with Highly Active Anti Retroviral Agents, complications of the disease and side effects of antiretroviral therapy as well as that of human behavioural responses towards the disease with hope and promising outcome. The goal of the treatment is to prolong the patient's life while maintaining the best possible quality of health and life. It is now a continuum of care between the hospital and the different sectors of the community. Hospital treatment of patients with HIV-AIDS is complex and yet a simple task if there is healthy interaction of the patients and health care providers in a milieu of well equipped hospital setting with available treatment facilities for proper management of diseases. Similarly, for the care to achieve its goal, it requires a joint participation of the community and the commitment of the government not only on curtailment of the reservoir of HIV infection by antiretroviral therapy but total eradication of diseases, poverty and ignorance in all its entirety. PMID:18050774

  7. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  8. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  9. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature. PMID:10283019

  10. Cold seep carbonates along the Norwegian margin, insights into U-Th geochronology and S geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremiere, A.; Lepland, A.; Wing, B. A.; Sahy, D.; Condon, D. J.; Chand, S.; Noble, S. R.; Bui, T. H.; Thorsnes, T.; Brunstad, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cold seep carbonates along the Norwegian margin, insights into U-Th geochronology and S geochemistryAuthigenic carbonate crusts form in shallow subsurface of marine sediments due to the microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). As a result they are unique archives of the locus and intensity of past methane seepage that can be dated by using U-daughter decay affording the unique opportunity to constrain the absolute timing of methane release events. Because AOM is mainly driven by the microbial reduction of seawater sulfate, multiple sulfur isotope compositions of paired carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) and pyrite in seep carbonates taken as proxies for porewater sulfate and sulfide, respectively, have the potential to reconstruct the biogeochemical conditions under which seep carbonates precipitate. Methane-derived carbonate crusts were collected from several seepage sites on the Norwegian continental shelf, including sites in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. The U-Th dating results constrain the main episode of carbonate crust formation in the Barents and Norwegian seas during the time interval between 14 and 7 ka. Such ages suggest that the methane seepage along the northern Norwegian margin was most active after the collapse of the Scandinavian ice sheet and deglaciation of the area that took place at about 15 ka. The methane flux for the carbonate crust formation was likely provided by the dissociation of methane hydrates that extensively formed in underlying sediments during the last glacial period, but became unstable due to depressuring effects of retreating ice sheet. The precipitation of studied North Sea carbonate crusts occurred more recently, from 6 to 1 ka, suggesting that their formation is unrelated to the glacial history of the area. The paired sulfur stable isotope compositions of pyrite-CAS record a large range of fractionation factors (from 30 to 70 ‰) reflecting change of sulfate-reduction rates possibly controlled

  11. Are the High Hip Fracture Rates Among Norwegian Women Explained by Impaired Bone Material Properties?

    PubMed

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Vilaplana, Laila; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Wang-Fagerland, Morten; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; F Eriksen, Erik

    2015-10-01

    Hip fracture rates in Norway rank among the highest in the world, more than double that of Spanish women. Previous studies were unable to demonstrate significant differences between the two populations with respect to bone mass or calcium metabolism. In order to test whether the difference in fracture propensity between both populations could be explained by differences in bone material quality we assessed bone material strength using microindentation in 42 Norwegian and 46 Spanish women with normal BMD values, without clinical or morphometric vertebral fractures, no clinical or laboratory signs of secondary osteoporosis, and without use of drugs with known influence on bone metabolism. Bone material properties were assessed by microindentation of the thick cortex of the mid tibia following local anesthesia of the area using the Osteoprobe device (Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA, USA). Indentation distance was standardized against a calibration phantom of methylmethacrylate and results, as percentage of this reference value, expressed as bone material strength index units (BMSi). We found that the bone material properties reflected in the BMSi value of Norwegian women was significantly inferior when compared to Spanish women (77 ± 7.1 versus 80.7 ± 7.8, p < 0.001). Total hip BMD was significantly higher in Norwegian women (1.218 g/cm(2) versus 0.938 g/cm(2) , p < 0.001) but regression analysis revealed that indentation values did not vary with BMD r(2)  = 0.03 or age r(2)  = 0.04. In conclusion Norwegian women show impaired bone material properties, higher bone mass, and were taller than Spanish women. The increased height will increase the impact on bone after falls, and impaired bone material properties may further enhance the risk fracture after such falls. These ethnic differences in bone material properties may partly explain the higher propensity for fracture in Norwegian women. PMID:25900016

  12. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Ozone Based Laundry Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Sutherland, T. A.; Foley, K. J.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of ozone laundry system installations at the Charleston Place Hotel in Charleston, South Carolina, and the Rogerson House assisted living facility in Boston, Massachusetts.

  13. [Hospital legislation in the Federal Republic of Germany and its effects on psychiatric hospitals (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Zumpe, V

    1978-02-01

    The article discusses the hospital laws of several land governments enacted subsequent to the hospital financing law of the Federal Government, in respect of the influence exercised by these laws on the internal structure of the hospital. The fact that the laws apply to all kinds of hospitals, and hence also to big psychiatric hospitals, is considered a disadvantage for psychiatric care. Such care is obviously hampered, on the one hand, by the legislative demand for departmentalization of the individual fields according to specialist subjects, representing a setup which is opposed to the realization of patient care in accordance with the requirements of the communities and citizens who expect to be cared for on an individual and not on a schematic basis, whereas, on the other hand, the new structures of management stipulated by the law do not provide for the inclusion of representatives of the new groups of professions now engaged in psychiatric activities. The model of regrouping the hospital structure into sectors instead of medical specialist departments, is presented and contrasted with the proposed model. It is recommended to arrange for representation of the non-medical and non-nursing professions in the managing boards, as well as to take into account the sociotherapeutico-rehabilitative interests as forming part of the conceptual approach to care in psychiatric hospitals, via special hospital committees. PMID:643974

  14. Hospital development plans: a new tool to break ground for strategic thinking in Tanzanian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Flessa, Steffen

    2005-12-01

    Tanzanian hospitals suffer from underfunding and poor management. In particular, planning and strategic thinking need improvement. Cultural values such as subordination, risk aversion, and high time preference, together with a long history of socialist government, result in lack of responsibility, accountability, and planning. This has been addressed by the health sector reform with its focus on decentralization, strengthened by the introduction of basket funding facilitated by the Comprehensive Council Health Plans. As a consequence of this the next logical step is to improve the authority of regional and district hospitals in the use of their resources by introducing hospital development plans. These strategic plans were introduced as tools of strategic planning in 2001 by the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau in close collaboration with the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, binding the release of rehabilitation funds to presentation of a strategic hospital plan. This study examines the rationale and content of hospital development plans. Initial experiences are discussed. The quality of presented plans has steadily improved, but there is a tendency for hospitals with a close connection to development partners to present well prepared reports while other hospitals have severe problems fulfilling the requirements. For many hospitals it is in fact the first time that they have had to define their functions and future role, thus breaking ground for strategic thinking. PMID:16267658

  15. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New Zealand's…

  16. 77 FR 48499 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... expanding markets for infrastructure, hospitality, healthcare, and environmental and information..., knowledge, hospitality, leisure/tourism and energy. Compared to other South Asian countries, Sri Lanka is..., hospitality and transport sectors will provide opportunities for U.S. companies to expand and grow in...

  17. [Edvard Munch: disease and genius of the great Norwegian artist].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo; Miranda C, Eva; Molina D, Matías

    2013-06-01

    Edvard Munch is one the most transcendental artists of all times. His work is innovative in terms of reflecting the grief, sadness, loneliness and the impact of death in human beings as no one did it before. Behind his work it is possible to find many clues given by Munch himself of the reason of his creativity: a childhood surrounded by death and sorrow, and the development of an affective disorder that led him to alcoholism and many hospitalizations due to psychotic episodes. In this review, we analyze Munch's life and his disease that undoubtedly contributed to his great artistic legacy. PMID:24121581

  18. Differences in public and private sector adoption of telemedicine: Indian case study for sectoral adoption.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sanjay P; Negash, Solomon; Mbarika, Victor W A; Kifle, Mengistu; Prakash, Nupur

    2007-01-01

    Telemedicine is the use of communication networks to exchange medical information for providing healthcare services and medical education from one site to another. The application of telemedicine is more promising in economically developing countries with agrarian societies. The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) identifies three healthcare services: clinical medical services, health and medical education, and consumer health information. However, it is not clear how these services can be adopted by different sectors: public and private. This paper looks at four Indian case studies, two each in public and private sectors to understand two research questions: Are there differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private hospitals. If there are differences: What are the differences in telemedicine adoption between public and private sectors? Authors have used the extant literature in telemedicine and healthcare to frame theoretical background, describe the research setting, present the case studies, and provide discussion and conclusions about their findings. Authors believe that as India continues to develop its telemedicine infrastructures, especially with continued government support through subsidies to private telemedicine initiatives, its upward trend in healthcare will continue. This is expected to put India on the path to increase its life expectancy rates, especially for it rural community which constitute over 70% of its populace. PMID:17917199

  19. Financial management of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Speranzo, A J

    1984-05-01

    The effect of hospital reimbursement systems on the financial management of hospitals is briefly discussed, and the organization of hospital financial operations is reviewed. The implementation of Medicare prospective pricing will change the way in which hospital finances are managed. Health-care managers will be concerned with the profitability of product lines, or diagnosis-related groups, in future strategic planning efforts. The hospital's finance department consists of several traditional areas that exist in almost all financial organizations. The functions and interactions of these various areas are discussed in light of previous and current hospital reimbursement strategies. Staffing of the finance department and the duties of the hospital's chief financial officer are also described. The prospective pricing system of hospital reimbursement and increasing pressure from the business community to stem the rising costs of health care will produce changes in the medical and financial operations of the hospital industry over the next decade. PMID:6375357

  20. [Authorization, institutional services, hospital-based practices and cooperation in the hospital--from the point of view of the hospital owners].

    PubMed

    Kersting, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    Structural changes in the financing of hospital-based health care in Germany make a revision of the currently existing strict separation between ambulatory and stationary patient care inevitable. The present monopolist situation of office-based physicians (organised in private practices without any legal or financial relation to a hospital) will be amended by the participation of hospitals and hospital-employed doctors in ambulatory services of a different kind. These may include the institutional authorization of hospitals to participate in ambulatory services, especially in the case of emergencies and first aid, and co-operations between doctors in private practices and hospitals. Such co-operations are now legally enabled to provide "integrated services", but still lacking acceptance by the parties involved in the health care services. Ambulatory medical care is an already huge and now rapidly growing market, whereas the classical hospital services represent a declining product. Therefore hospitals will have to act accordingly or they will even forfeit the opportunity to use the ambulatory care sector to improve the intensity of utilisation of their hospital beds. In addition, hospitals will have to accept that office-based doctors are their customers and have to be treated as such. The establishment of regional networks may be a solution to this problem. Integrated services can only be established if new ways of co-operation and knowledge transfer are introduced into this area step by step. The present article provides practical examples of co-operation models. PMID:14710650

  1. Risk assessment of pre-hospital trauma airway management by anaesthesiologists using the predictive Bayesian approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation (ETI) has been considered an essential part of pre-hospital advanced life support. Pre-hospital ETI, however, is a complex intervention also for airway specialist like anaesthesiologists working as pre-hospital emergency physicians. We therefore wanted to investigate the quality of pre-hospital airway management by anaesthesiologists in severely traumatised patients and identify possible areas for improvement. Method We performed a risk assessment according to the predictive Bayesian approach, in a typical anaesthesiologist-manned Norwegian helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS). The main focus of the risk assessment was the event where a patient arrives in the emergency department without ETI despite a pre-hospital indication for it. Results In the risk assessment, we assigned a high probability (29%) for the event assessed, that a patient arrives without ETI despite a pre-hospital indication. However, several uncertainty factors in the risk assessment were identified related to data quality, indications for use of ETI, patient outcome and need for special training of ETI providers. Conclusion Our risk assessment indicated a high probability for trauma patients with an indication for pre-hospital ETI not receiving it in the studied HEMS. The uncertainty factors identified in the assessment should be further investigated to better understand the problem assessed and consequences for the patients. Better quality of pre-hospital airway management data could contribute to a reduction of these uncertainties. PMID:20409306

  2. The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Morlock, L L; Gifford, B D

    1988-01-01

    Hospital corporate restructuring is the segmentation of assets or functions of the hospital into separate corporations. While these functions are almost always legally separated from the hospital, their impact on hospital policymaking may be far more direct. This study examines the effects of corporate restructuring by community hospitals on the structure, composition, and activity of hospital governing boards. In general, we expect that the policymaking function of the hospital will change to adapt to the multicorporate structure implemented under corporate restructuring, as well as the overlapping boards and diversified business responsibilities of the new corporate entity. Specifically, we hypothesize that the hospital board under corporate restructuring will conform more to the "corporate" model found in the business/industrial sector and less to the "philanthropic" model common to most community hospitals to date. Analysis of survey data from 1,037 hospitals undergoing corporate restructuring from 1979-1985 and a comparison group of 1,883 noncorporately restructured hospitals suggests general support for this hypothesis. Implications for health care governance and research are discussed. PMID:3384671

  3. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  4. Hospital demand for physicians.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, M A; Jensen, G A

    1990-01-01

    This article develops a derived demand for physicians that is general enough to encompass physician control, simple profit maximization and hospital utility maximization models of the hospital. The analysis focuses on three special aspects of physician affiliations: the price of adding a physician to the staff is unobserved; the physician holds appointments at multiple hospitals, and physicians are not homogeneous. Using 1983 American Hospital Association data, a system of specialty-specific demand equations is estimated. The results are consistent with the model and suggest that physicians should be concerned about reduced access to hospitals, particularly as the stock of hospitals declines. PMID:10104050

  5. Hospitable Classrooms: Biblical Hospitality and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to a Christian hermeneutic of special education by suggesting the biblical concept of hospitality as a necessary characteristic of classroom and school environments in which students with disabilities and other marginalized students can be effectively incorporated into the body of the classroom. Christian hospitality, seen…

  6. Light chiral dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2016-08-01

    An interesting possibility for dark matter is a scalar particle of mass of order 10 MeV-1 GeV, interacting with a U (1 ) gauge boson (dark photon) which mixes with the photon. We present a simple and natural model realizing this possibility. The dark matter arises as a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson (dark pion) in a non-Abelian gauge sector, which also gives a mass to the dark photon. For a fixed non-Abelian gauge group, S U (N ) , and a U (1 ) charge of the constituent dark quarks, the model has only three free parameters: the dynamical scale of the non-Abelian gauge theory, the gauge coupling of the dark photon, and the mixing parameter between the dark and standard model photons. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model does not allow any mass term for the dark quarks, and the stability of the dark pion is understood as a result of an accidental global symmetry. The model has a significant parameter space in which thermal relic dark pions comprise all of the dark matter, consistently with all experimental and cosmological constraints. In a corner of the parameter space, the discrepancy of the muon g -2 between experiments and the standard model prediction can also be ameliorated due to a loop contribution of the dark photon. Smoking-gun signatures of the model include a monophoton signal from the e+e- collision into a photon and a "dark rho meson." Observation of two processes in e+e- collision—the mode into the dark photon and that into the dark rho meson—would provide strong evidence for the model.

  7. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority. PMID:23424818

  8. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic sector design suggests a strategic approach to ease air traffic congestion, which is predicted to become a serious problem in the national airspace system by 2025. Considerable research has been conducted to address the sectorization problem. In previous work, an approach that combines the Voronoi diagrams, Genetic Algorithms (GA), and the iterative deepening algorithm was proposed. However, as originally formulated, the number of sectors used was predefined and only two-dimensional partitions were allowed, which constrained the method's ability to achieve good designs. The current work extends the earlier Voronoi-based method by treating the number of sectors as an additional decision variable, allowing 3D partitions, and developing more comprehensive costs.

  9. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    PubMed

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff. PMID:15033548

  10. Health care inequities in north India: Role of public sector in universalizing health care

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Methods: Data from National Sample Survey 60th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Results: Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public

  11. An extended study of seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis simplex IgE antibodies in Norwegian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lin, A H; Nepstad, I; Florvaag, E; Egaas, E; Van Do, T

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels ≥1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population. PMID:24219706

  12. Congener-specific determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk from Norwegian mothers living in Oslo

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, H.R.; Becher, G.; Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U.

    1994-12-31

    Human milk samples from 28 mothers at Oslo City Hospital, Norway, were collected in 1991 and analyzed for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, IUPAC numbers 28, 74, 99, 101, 105, 114, 118, 128, 138, 141, 153, 156, 157, 170, 180, 194, and 206, plus selected non-ortho-substituted compounds, IUPAC numbers 77, 126, and 169. Sum DDTs (sum of concentrations of DDT and related compounds), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, transnonachlor, and sum hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (sum of concentrations of {alpha}-HCH, {beta}-HCH, and {gamma}-HCH) were also determined. The mean levels of sum DDTs, HCB, oxychlordane, transnonachlor, and sum HCHs were 338, 41, 9, 19, and 36 ng/g, respectively, in human milk fat. p,p{prime}-DDE and {beta}-HCH accounted for 81 and 93% of sum DDTs and sum HCHs, respectively. The mean level of sum PCBs (sum of mean concentrations of 20 individual congeners) was 372 ng/g milk fat. A very good correlation was found between sum PCBs and PCB-153 (r = .97). Sum PCBs determined on a capillary column was found to account for 62-79% of total PCBs calculated by using the packed column method used in previous human milk surveys in Norway. Comparison with previous results revealed that the mean sum PCB, HCB and sum DDT levels were decreased by 70, 65, and 75%, respectively during the past 9 yr. The contribution of individual PCDD/PCDF (earlier Norwegian study) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted PCB congeners to the total calculated toxic equivalent values was assessed, and the PCBs were found to constitute a major part of the TCDD equivalents in human milk, with PCB-126 as the main contributor. 40 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Students' reflections on shadowing interprofessional teamwork: a Norwegian case study.

    PubMed

    Fougner, M; Horntvedt, T

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the students' reflections on interprofessional teamwork during brief exposures to real-life experiences in hospitals or home-based rehabilitation service. Each of the 10 interprofessional groups, comprising three students, followed a rehabilitation team for a day. The composition of each student group correlated with the rehabilitation team. Data were collected from interviews with the student groups and subjected to a thematic analysis. The following four main themes were identified for which the students seemed to affect collaboration: sharing knowledge; team setting and position within the organisation; patient centred focus; and challenges in crossing professional borders when performing tasks. Each of these themes is presented and discussed in relation to the educational literature. In conclusion, the data suggest that a well organized, one-day observation-based learning experience helped to motivate students and helped to enable them to relate theory and practice. PMID:20795834

  14. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  15. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  16. Understanding your hospital bill

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting the help you need, consider hiring a medical-billing advocate. Advocates charge an hourly fee or a ... American Hospital Association. Hospital Billing and Collection ... 15, 2015. Family Doctor.org. Understanding your Medical Bills. ...

  17. Hospitals as health educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to ... care and breastfeeding Parenting Baby sign language Baby yoga or massage Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes ...

  18. Mental readiness for maritime international operation: procedures developed by Norwegian navy.

    PubMed

    Sanden, Sverre; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Eid, Jarle; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan; Koefoed, Vilhelm; Størksen, Roar; Røsseland, Atle; Neteland, Hans Olav; Wetteland, Per Inge; Wilhelmsen, Eirik Veum

    2014-01-01

    Seafarer's mental health is vital for a well-functioning organisation. Neglecting mental health status on board could be extremely costly for both the crew affected as well as the company. The present article outlines an extensive programme implemented in the Royal Norwegian Navy for personnel deployed in international operations. The challenges involved in international operations bare similarities to onboard personnel in civilian maritime operations. The program utilised by the Royal Norwegian Navy is extensive and not immediately applicable to civilian maritime companies. However, elements of this program could be used with limited resources. Questionnaire based screening, before, during and at the end of a contract period could result in early detections of mental health problems and increased retaining of personnel. This should be done by health professionals. Early targeting of at risk personnel could prevent serious costs for the individual as well as the company. PMID:25231333

  19. Climate for work group creativity and innovation: Norwegian validation of the team climate inventory (TCI).

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Einarsen, Ståle; Jørstad, Kari; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S

    2004-11-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties and the validity of the Norwegian translation of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI). The TCI is a measure of climate for innovation within groups at work and is based on the four-factor theory of climate for innovation (West, 1990). Cronbach's alpha revealed satisfactory reliabilities and exploratory factor analysis successfully extracted the four original factors as well as a fifth factor that has also been reported in other studies (N = 195 teams from a wide range of professions). Results from confirmatory factor analysis, using a different sample (N = 106 teams from the Norwegian public postal service), suggested that the five-factor solution had the most parsimonious fit. Criterion validity was explored by correlating TCI scores from 92 post offices and 395 postal distribution teams with customer satisfaction scores. Significant positive relationships were found between three of four TCI scales and customer satisfaction. PMID:15535807

  20. Satisfaction with Quality of Care Received by Patients without National Health Insurance Attending a Primary Care Clinic in a Resource-Poor Environment of a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria in the Era of Scaling up the Nigerian Formal Sector Health Insurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Iloh, GUP; Ofoedu, JN; Njoku, PU; Okafor, GOC; Amadi, AN; Godswill-Uko, EU

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing importance of the concept of patients’ satisfaction as a valuable tool for assessing quality of care is a current global healthcare concerns as regards consumer-oriented health services. Aim: This study assessed satisfaction with quality of care received by patients without national health insurance (NHI) attending a primary care clinic in a resource-poor environment of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 400 non-NHI patients from April 2011 to October 2011 at the primary care clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria. Adult patients seen within the study period were selected by systematic sampling using every second non-NHI patient that registered to see the physicians and who met the selection criteria. Data were collected using pretested, structured interviewer administered questionnaire designed on a five points Likert scale items with 1 and 5 indicating the lowest and highest levels of satisfaction respectively. Satisfaction was measured from the following domains: patient waiting time, patient–staff communication, patient-staff relationship, and cost of care, hospital bureaucracy and hospital environment. Operationally, patients who scored 3 points and above in the assessed domain were considered satisfied while those who scored less than 3 points were dissatisfied. Results: The overall satisfaction score of the respondents was 3.1. Specifically, the respondents expressed satisfaction with patient–staff relationship (3.9), patient–staff communication (3.8), and hospital environment (3.6) and dissatisfaction with patient waiting time (2.4), hospital bureaucracy (2.5), and cost of care (2.6). Conclusion: The overall non-NHI patient's satisfaction with the services provided was good. The hospital should set targets for quality improvement in the current domains of satisfaction while the cost of care has implications for government

  1. Hospital services and casemix in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, Delia; Boldy, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    The Health Department of WA currently operates as a single integrated funder and purchaser of health services for the State. Health Service Agreements defining the level of health provision are negotiated with the various health services in WA. During the latter part of the 1990s, the funding of public hospitals for acute inpatient care moved away from a historical basis to output-based funding using a casemix approach based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs). Other hospital services are still mainly purchased using historical funding levels, negotiated block funding or bedday payments, with output-based funding mechanisms under investigation. WA has developed its own approach to classifying admitted patients that recognises differences in complexity of care among episodes grouped to the same DRG. WA also has a unique cost estimation model for calculating DRG cost weights, which is based on a linear estimate of the relationship between nights of stay in hospital and the cost of hospital care for each DRG. Another emerging trend in the provision of public hospital services in WA has been the greater involvement of the private sector through the contracting of private providers to operate public hospitals. While no close examination has been undertaken of the outcomes of these changes in terms of their effect on efficiency or other relevant indicators of hospital performance, current purchasing arrangements are being reviewed following recommendations made in a report by the Health Administrative Review Committee. No decision has yet been made as to future changes to the funding policy of WA public hospitals. PMID:11974956

  2. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  3. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may...

  4. Trends in Public Sector Arbitration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Harry; Wallace, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Presents developments in grievance arbitration in government employment by examining all public sector arbitration cases from 1971 through 1979. Predicts that issues of employee discipline and discharge will comprise the largest number of cases proceeding to arbitration. (Author/MLF)

  5. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma - a study based on the Norwegian canine cancer register

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998–2009. Results Histologically verified tumours recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were studied (n = 19,715). A total of 31 (0.16%) cases of canine gastric carcinomas were identified. The median age of affected dogs was 10 years. The most commonly reported clinical signs were vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. Males had significantly higher odds of gastric carcinoma than females (P = 0.02). The PMR with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each breed, and a breed predisposition was identified. Individuals of the breeds Tervuren (PMR 56.1), Bouvier des Flandres (PMR 36.5), Groenendael (PMR 34.5), Collie (PMR 26.1), Standard poodle (PMR 7.6), and Norwegian elkhound (PMR 6.1) had a significantly increased risk of developing gastric carcinoma. Discussion and conclusion The proportion of cases of gastric carcinoma recorded in the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register was found to be 0.16%, and a breed predisposition was identified. The breed predisposition observed in the current study indicates a genetic susceptibility to gastric carcinoma. PMID:23514604

  6. International hospital productivity comparison: experiences from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Medin, Emma; Häkkinen, Unto; Linna, Miika; Anthun, Kjartan S; Kittelsen, Sverre A C; Rehnberg, Clas

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on describing the methodological challenges intrinsic in international comparative studies of hospital productivity and how these challenges have been addressed within the context of hospital comparisons in the Nordic countries. The hospital sectors in the Nordic countries are suitable for international comparison as they exhibit similar structures in the organisation for hospital care, hold administrative data of good quality at the hospital level, apply a similar secondary patient classification system, and use similar definitions of operating costs. The results of a number of studies have suggested marked differences in hospital cost efficiency and hospital productivity across the Nordic countries and the Finnish hospitals have the highest estimates in all the analyses. Explanatory factors that were tested and seemed to be of limited importance included institutional, structural and technical. A factor that is yet to be included in the Nordic hospital productivity comparison is the quality of care. Patient-level data available from linkable national registers in each country enable the development of quality indicators and will be included in the forthcoming hospital productivity studies within the context of the EuroHOPE (European health care outcomes, performance and efficiency) project. PMID:23582633

  7. 2. View northwest of main hospital building complex, hospital building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northwest of main hospital building complex, hospital building (Building 90), administration and clinical hospital building (Building 88), and hospital building (Building 91) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers Western Branch, 4101 South Fourth Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  8. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  9. Relation between liquid hydrocarbon reserves and geothermal gradients - Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Comparison of average geothermal gradients and initial liquid hydrocarbon reserves for 28 Norwegian North Sea fields indicates that gradients in the largest North Sea oil fields cluster around 2.1F/100 feet. No reserves are found where gradients are lower than 1.8F/100 feet or higher than 2.3F/100 feet. At 6.89 billion barrels, reserves for 14 fields falling between 2.05 and 2.15/100 feet total over four times the reserves for all other fields put together. Reserves for seven fields at gradients lower than 2.05F/100 feet and for seven higher than 2.15F/100 feet total 594 and 991 million barrels, respectively. The conclusion is that 2.1F/100 feet is the optimum gradient for generation of liquid hydrocarbons in the Norwegian North Sea, given the depth, kerogen type, and source rock potential of the Kimmeridge Clay, the primary source rock there. Gradients lower than this have not stimulated maximum generation from the source rock. At higher gradients, increasing gas production from source rocks and thermal cracking of previously generated liquid hydrocarbons to gas are effective in limiting liquid hydrocarbon reserves. The 2.1F/100 feet gradient should be a useful pathfinder in the search for new oil reserves in the Norwegian North Sea. Determination of the optimum gradient should be a useful pathfinder in other regions as well.

  10. Sleep Difficulties and Insomnia Symptoms in Norwegian Musicians Compared to the General Population and Workforce.

    PubMed

    Vaag, Jonas; Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are reported as common among performing artists and musicians. However, epidemiological research comparing musicians to different groups of the general population is lacking. For this study, 4,168 members of the Norwegian Musician's Union were invited to an online survey regarding work and health. Of the 2,121 (51%) respondents, 1,607 were active performing musicians. We measured prevalence of insomnia symptoms using the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), and compared this sample to a representative sample of the general Norwegian population (n = 2,645). Overall, musicians had higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to the general population (Prevalence Difference 6.9, 95% Confidence Interval 3.9-10.0). Item response analysis showed that this difference was mainly explained by nonrestorative sleep and dissatisfaction with sleep among musicians. An additional analysis, comparing musicians to the general Norwegian workforce (n = 8,518) on sleep difficulties, confirmed this tendency (Prevalence Difference 6.2, 95% Confidence Interval 4.3-8.1). Musicians performing classical, contemporary, rock, and country music reported the highest prevalence of insomnia, and these genres might be of special interest when developing preventative measures, treatment strategies, and further research on sleep difficulties among musicians. PMID:26337077

  11. Symptoms of depression as reported by Norwegian adolescents on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lundervold, Astri J; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993-1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708

  12. Changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008: two cross sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in screen-based communication, leading to concerns about the negative health effects of screen-based activities in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to (1) analyze changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008, and (2) to analyze associations between the changes in screen time activity over time and sex, grade level and parental educational level. Methods Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM), 1488 6th and 7th grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire including a question about time spent on television viewing and personal computer use in 2001 and 1339 pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. Data were analyzed by multilevel linear mixed models. Results The proportions of 6th and 7th grade pupils at the 27 schools that reported screen time activity outside school of 2 hours/day or more decreased from 55% to 45% (p<0.001) from 2001 to 2008 when adjusting for sex, grade level and parental education. The decrease was most evident in 6th graders (51% to 37%) and in children with highly educated parents (54% to 39%). Conclusion The present study shows that there has been a marked reduction in screen time activity outside school in this group of Norwegian 10–12 year olds from 2001 to 2008. PMID:23356930

  13. [Types of and reasons for violence in hospital].

    PubMed

    Le Grand-Sébille, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Patients' adherence to care has been built up over time. Violence is however an underlying reality in the field of care. Acts of violence are not only physical and relational. They can also be linked to the constant focus on costs and assessment which conveys a mutation of the references of the hospital sector. PMID:27157557

  14. The Implications of Contemporary Cultural Diversity for the Hospitality Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearns, Niamh; Devine, Frances; Baum, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This viewpoint paper aims to assess a curriculum response within a specific vocational sector, hospitality, driven by the recent surge in intra EU labour migration and the ensuing increase in workplace cultural diversity. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies an appropriate curriculum response by assessing the industry…

  15. Hospitality Occupational Skills Training Cooperative. Project HOST Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Educational Cooperative, Des Plaines, IL.

    Project HOST (Hospitality Occupational Skills Training) provided vocational training and employment opportunities in the hotel industry to disadvantaged adult minority populations in Chicago. It demonstrated a model for successful cooperation between the business sector and a public vocational education agency and developed and piloted a…

  16. Changes in hospital efficiency after privatization.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Oliver; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effects of privatization on hospital efficiency in Germany. To do so, we obtained boot-strapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficiency scores in the first stage of our analysis and subsequently employed a difference-in-difference matching approach within a panel regression framework. Our findings show that conversions from public to private for-profit status were associated with an increase in efficiency of between 2.9 and 4.9%. We defined four alternative post-privatization periods and found that the increase in efficiency after a conversion to private for-profit status appeared to be permanent. We also observed an increase in efficiency for the first three years after hospitals were converted to private non-profit status, but our estimations suggest that this effect was rather transitory. Our findings also show that the efficiency gains after a conversion to private for-profit status were achieved through substantial decreases in staffing ratios in all analyzed staff categories with the exception of physicians and administrative staff. It was also striking that the efficiency gains of hospitals converted to for-profit status were significantly lower in the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) era than in the pre-DRG era. Altogether, our results suggest that converting hospitals to private for-profit status may be an effective way to ensure the scarce resources in the hospital sector are used more efficiently. PMID:22297925

  17. Catering and Hospitality Industry--Key Facts and Figures. Research Report. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjivassiliou, Kari

    According to reliable statistical information from a wide variety of sources, the hospitality industry in the United Kingdom is a significant growth industry that employed more than 2 million people (7% of the country's work force) in 1994. Of those individuals, 685,000 were employed in catering services sectors (with hospitals, retirement/nursing…

  18. Exposure to Fibres, Crystalline Silica, Silicon Carbide and Sulphur Dioxide in the Norwegian Silicon Carbide Industry

    PubMed Central

    Føreland, S.; Bye, E.; Bakke, B.; Eduard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess personal exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide (SiC) and sulphur dioxide in the Norwegian SiC industry. Methods: Approximately 720 fibre samples, 720 respirable dust samples and 1400 total dust samples were collected from randomly chosen workers from the furnace, processing and maintenance departments in all three Norwegian SiC plants. The respirable dust samples were analysed for quartz, cristobalite and non-fibrous SiC content. Approximately 240 sulphur dioxide samples were collected from workers in the furnace department. Results: The sorting operators from all plants, control room and cleaning operators in Plant A and charger, charger/mix and payloader operators in Plant C had a geometric mean (GM) of fibre exposure above the Norwegian occupational exposure limit (OEL) (0.1 fibre cm−3). The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable quartz (20 μg m−3). The charger/mix operators in Plant C had the highest GM exposure to respirable cristobalite (38 μg m−3) and the refinery crusher operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to non-fibrous SiC (0.65 mg m−3). Exposure to the crystalline silica and non-fibrous SiC was generally low and between 0.4 and 2.1% of the measurements exceeded the OELs. The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable dust (1.3 mg m−3) and total dust (21 mg m−3). GM exposures for respirable dust above the Norwegian SiC industry-specific OEL of 0.5 mg m−3 were also found for refinery crusher operators in all plants and mix, charger, charger/mix and sorting operators in Plant C. Only 4% of the total dust measurements exceeded the OEL for nuisance dust of (10 mg m−3). Exposure to sulphur dioxide was generally low. However, peaks in the range of 10–100 p.p.m. were observed for control room and crane operators in Plants A and B and for charger and charger/mix operators in Plant C. Conclusion: Workers in

  19. Structured electronic template for histopathology reports on colorectal carcinomas: a joint project by the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Society for Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bjugn, Roger; Casati, Bettina; Norstein, Jarle

    2008-03-01

    Both individual patient treatment and cancer registries depend on adequate histopathology reports. To ensure the quality of these reports, professional organizations have published guidelines on minimum data sets for various cancer types. Norway has a population of 4.6 million, and all individuals have a unique identification number. As required by law, relevant information on cancer is submitted to the Cancer Registry of Norway. A closed, national health data network has been established facilitating electronic transferal between various institutions. The Cancer Registry and the Norwegian Society for Pathology have jointly established a nationwide project to (i) develop standardized templates in database format for histopathology reports on cancer resection specimens and (ii) develop an Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard to facilitate future electronic transfer of cancer reports from hospitals to the Cancer Registry. A minimum data set template for reporting colorectal carcinoma resection specimens and the Extensible Markup Language standard have been established. The template is based on international guidelines and classification systems. For most key parameters, pull-down menus with predefined alternatives have been constructed. The template is fully integrated into software being used by all pathology laboratories in Norway. Since the introduction of the template in April 2005, the template had been used for reporting 430 (93%) of 462 colorectal resections at 2 pilot laboratories (Akershus University Hospital [Lørenskog, Norway] and Stavanger, University Hospital [Stavanger, Norway]), demonstrating that high and consistent quality can be ascertained. Pathologists have found the template both time saving and user friendly. The template is now gradually implemented nationwide. PMID:18187180

  20. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas. PMID:27370916

  1. Disintegration of a marine-based ice stream - evidence from the Norwegian Channel, north-eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morén, Björn M.; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Hjelstuen, Berit O.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Schäuble, Cathrina; Borge, Marianne

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream repeatedly drained large part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet through Mid and Late Pleistocene glacial stages. During parts of Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3, glacial ice from Fennoscandia and the British Isles coalesced in the central North Sea and the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream reached the shelf edge on multiple occasions. Through the last decades a large amount of acoustic and sediment core data have been collected from the Norwegian Channel, providing a good background for studies focussing on stability- and development-controlling parameters for marine-based ice streams, the retreat rate of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, and the behaviour of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Further, this improved understanding can be used to develop more accurate numerical climate models and models which can be used to model ice-sheet behaviour of the past as well as the future. This study presents new acoustic records and data from sediment cores which contribute to a better understanding of the retreat pattern and the retreat rate of the last ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Channel. From bathymetric and TOPAS seismic data, mega-scale glacial lineations, grounding-zone wedges, and end moraines have been mapped, thereby allowing us to reconstruct the pro- and subglacial conditions at the time of the creation of these landforms. It is concluded that the whole Norwegian Channel was deglaciated in just over 1 000 years and that for most of this time the ice margin was located at positions reflected by depositional grounding-zone wedges. Further work will explore the influence of channel shape and feeding of ice from western Norwegian fjords on this retreat pattern through numerical modelling.

  2. Why nonprofits? Hospitals and the future of American health care.

    PubMed

    Gray, B H

    1992-01-01

    The future of the nonprofit hospital depends on its relationship to the for-profit and governmental sectors of our economy. A decade ago, the primary challenge came from the growing investor-owned hospital companies. Nonprofit hospitals' responses--both competitive and imitative--led to new challenges from government regarding tax-exempt status. The reasons underlying this challenge include the growing commercialism of health care, the nation's failure to deal directly with the problem of the uninsured, and the lack of a coherent theory of tax exemption. Although hospitals are likely to retain exemptions from federal taxation, challenges to local tax exemptions are likely to continue. Strategies that hospitals pursue for competitive purposes may undercut their legitimacy as tax-exempt institutions, but several groups are working to address the issue. PMID:10118566

  3. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the different…

  4. The Impact of Medical Tourism on Thai Private Hospital Management: Informing Hospital Policy

    PubMed Central

    James, Paul TJ

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to help consolidate and understand management perceptions and experiences of a targeted group (n=7) of Vice-Presidents of international Private Thai hospitals in Bangkok regarding medical tourism impacts. Methods: The method adopted uses a small-scale qualitative inquiry. Examines the on-going development and service management factors which contribute to the establishment and strengthening of relationships between international patients and hospital medical services provision. Develops a qualitative model that attempts to conceptualise the findings from a diverse range of management views into a framework of main (8) - Hospital Management; Hospital Processes; Hospital Technology; Quality Related; Communications; Personnel; Financial; and Patients; and consequent sub-themes (22). Results: Outcomes from small-scale qualitative inquiries cannot by design be taken outside of its topical arena. This inevitably indicates that more research of this kind needs to be carried out to understand this field more effectively. The evidence suggests that Private Thai hospital management have established views about what constitutes the impact of medical tourism on hospital policies and practices when hospital staff interact with international patients. Conclusions: As the private health service sector in Thailand continues to grow, future research is needed to help hospitals provide appropriate service patterns and appropriate medical products/services that meet international patient needs and aspirations. Highlights the increasing importance of the international consumer in Thailand’s health industry. This study provides insights of private health service providers in Bangkok by helping to understand more effectively health service quality environments, subsequent service provision, and the integrated development and impacts of new medical technology. PMID:22980119

  5. Hospital diversification strategy.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger. PMID:25223156

  6. To market, to market: corporatisation, privatisation and hospital costs.

    PubMed

    White, K; Collyer, F

    1997-01-01

    The Australian political arena echoes with calls for the privatisation of health care institutions, the contracting-out of health care services and the introduction of various marketing strategies into hospital management. These calls are justified by asserting that the market, rather than the public sector, can provide better services, greater productivity and increased efficiency. The National Health Strategy (1991, p 17) provides a good example. Noting that Australia is copying American investment trends for hospital 'chains' rather than for independent small establishments, the strategy dismisses any concern over changes in ownership, pointing instead to a 'process of rationalisation' that is to be 'welcomed'. Using evidence from the United States, United Kingdom and Australian hospital sectors, this paper examines claims for the greater efficiency of market processes. PMID:10169362

  7. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation) Water Quality and Need for Measures - A Case Study of a Norwegian River.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Gro S; Wennberg, Aina C; Nesheim, Ingrid; Tryland, Ingun

    2015-06-01

    Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation. PMID:26090611

  8. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation) Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River

    PubMed Central

    Johannessen, Gro S.; Wennberg, Aina C.; Nesheim, Ingrid; Tryland, Ingun

    2015-01-01

    Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation. PMID:26090611

  9. Direct hospital marketing: an idea whose time has come.

    PubMed

    Dodson, D C; Dotson, M J; Cussimanio, L

    1990-01-01

    Health care marketing has arrived swiftly and with significant impact upon the hospital scene. From the early days of rejection and suspicion of only a few years ago, it has now taken its place with other hospital management functions. Still, however, hospitals have not yet reached the degree of expertise that exists in other sectors. One of the reasons why hospitals have not fully emerged to the level of marketing expertise as many of their traditional business counterparts is that many of the areas of both the science and art of marketing have not been fully developed. One such area is direct mail marketing. Presented here is an overview of the advantages and functions of hospital direct mail marketing. A variety of examples are given with a more thorough case example being provided by Lee's Summit Community Hospital in Lee's Summit, Missouri. The successful direct mail marketing campaign there should be both an inspiration and a model for success for other hospitals. Space limitations prevent the authors from some of the more exacting details of mail marketing and, of course, successful campaigns do not happen by magic. They take careful planning, strategy, and execution. They also require a coordinated organizational and human effort to be successful. But direct mail marketing does offer a potentially new arena of marketing for most hospitals. The expertise, skill, knowledge, and technology are in place. All that is really needed is the commitment on the part of the hospital leadership. PMID:10104552

  10. Private sector participation in delivering tertiary health care: a dichotomy of access and affordability across two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Anuradha; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Bergkvist, Sofi; Samarth, Amit; Rao, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality care in public sector hospitals coupled with the costs of care in the private sector have trapped India's poor in a vicious cycle of poverty, ill health and debt for many decades. To address this, the governments of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Maharashtra (MH), India, have attempted to improve people’s access to hospital care by partnering with the private sector. A number of government-sponsored schemes with differing specifications have been launched to facilitate this strategy. Aims This article aims to compare changes in access to, and affordability and efficiency of private and public hospital inpatient (IP) treatments between MH and AP from 2004 to 2012 and to assess whether the health financing innovations in one state resulted in larger or smaller benefits compared with the other. Methods We used data from household surveys conducted in 2004 and 2012 in the two states and undertook a difference-in-difference (DID) analysis. The results focus on hospitalization, out-of-pocket expenditure and length of stay. Results The average IP expenditure for private hospital care has increased in both states, but more so in MH. There was also an observable increase in both utilization of and expenditure on nephrology treatment in private hospitals in AP. The duration of stay recorded in days for private hospitals has increased slightly in MH and declined in AP with a significant DID. The utilization of public hospitals has reduced in AP and increased in MH. Conclusion The state of AP appears to have benefited more than MH in terms of improved access to care by involving the private sector. The Aarogyasri scheme is likely to have contributed to these impacts in AP at least in part. Our study needs to be followed up with repeated evaluations to ascertain the long-term impacts of involving the private sector in providing hospital care. PMID:25759452

  11. Analyzing cross-sector interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J. P.; Fisher, R. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-sector infrastructure interdependencies and key risk considerations, analysis approaches, research and development needs, and the range of interdisciplinary skills required for comprehensive cross-sector analysis. Traditional analysis of interdependencies involves characterization of infrastructure-to-infrastructure linkages to identify the key infrastructure components that, if lost or degraded, could adversely affect the performance of other infrastructures. Such analysis is motivated by the recognition that a series of incidents could interact (cascade) across critical infrastructures to degrade the service upon which all depend. From a risk perspective, cross-sector analysis also must involve identifying and characterizing a wide range of threats (natural and accidental, systems related, and intentional), vulnerabilities (physical and cyber), and consequences of loss (e.g., health and safety, economic, national security, environmental, sociopolitical). Such information provides a foundation for making defensible, cost-effective infrastructure protection and operation decisions to ensure the security and reliability of our interdependent systems.

  12. Renovating Charity Hospital or building a new hospital in post-Katrina New Orleans: economic rationale versus political will.

    PubMed

    Leleu, Hervé; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2013-02-01

    Since September 2005, Charity Hospital of New Orleans has been closed due to Hurricane Katrina. A debate following the closing arose about whether this public hospital should be renovated or a new medical center affiliated with the Louisiana State University should be built. Using academic literature, government statistics, and popular press reports, we describe the economic implications that support the view that Charity Hospital should have been renovated. We also address why this policy was not pursued by demonstrating the influence politics and individual stakeholders (specifically, Louisiana State University) had on the eventual policy pursued. In this commentary we also note the political identity movement away from public-sector provision of services to private-sector interests. PMID:23377720

  13. Measuring Hospital Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Ruchlin, Hirsch S.; Leveson, Irving

    1974-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive method for quantifying hospital output and estimating hospital productivity. A number of less comprehensive productivity measures that can be quantified from data available from regional third-party payers and from the American Hospital Association are also developed and evaluated as proxies for the comprehensive measure, which is based on local area data. Methods are discussed for estimating the necessary variables on a regional or national level. PMID:4461703

  14. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  15. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  16. Does type of hospital ownership influence physicians' daily work schedules? An observational real-time study in German hospital departments

    PubMed Central

    Mache, Stefanie; Scutaru, Cristian; Vitzthum, Karin; Quarcoo, David; Schöffel, Norman; Welte, Tobias; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last two decades the German hospital sector has been engaged in a constant process of transformation. One obvious sign of this is the growing amount of hospital privatization. To date, most research studies have focused on the effects of privatization regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the effects of privatization on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real-time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. By analysing working hours, further impacts of hospital privatization can be assessed and areas of improvement identified. Methods Observations were made by shadowing 100 physicians working in private, for-profit or non-profit as well as public hospital departments individually during whole weekday shifts in urban German settings. A total of 300 days of observations were conducted. All working activities were recorded, accurate to the second, by using a mobile personal computer. Results Results have shown significant differences in physicians' working activities, depending on hospital ownership, concerning working hours and time spent on direct and indirect patient care. Conclusion This is the first real-time analysis on differences in work activities depending on hospital ownership. The study provides an objective insight into physicians' daily work routines at hospitals of different ownership, with additional information on effects of hospital privatization. PMID:19473487

  17. Individual and hospital-specific factors influencing medical graduates' time to medical specialization.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Karl-Arne; Hagen, Terje P

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies of gender differences in relation to medical specialization have focused more on social variables than hospital-specific factors. In a multivariate analysis with extended Cox regression, we used register data for socio-demographic variables (gender, family and having a child born during the study period) together with hospital-specific variables (the amount of supervision available, efficiency pressure and the type of teaching hospital) to study the concurrent effect of these variables on specialty qualification among all 2474 Norwegian residents who began specialization in 1999-2001. We followed the residents until 2010. A lower proportion of women qualified for a specialty in the study period (67.9% compared with 78.7% of men, p < 0.001), and they took on average six months longer than men did to complete the specialization qualification (p < 0.01). Fewer women than men entered specialties providing emergency services and those with longer working hours, and women worked shorter hours than men in all specialties. Hospital factors were significant predictors for the timely attainment of specialization: working at university hospitals (regional) or central hospitals was associated with a reduction in the time taken to complete the specialization, whereas an increased patient load and less supervision had the opposite effect. Multivariate analysis showed that the smaller proportion of women who qualified for a specialty was explained principally by childbirth and by the number of children aged under 18 years. PMID:24161102

  18. Health Status After Cancer: Does It Matter Which Hospital You Belong To?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Survival rates are widely used to compare the quality of cancer care. However, the extent to which cancer survivors regain full physical or cognitive functioning is not captured by this statistic. To address this concern we introduce post-diagnosis employment as a supplemental measure of the quality of cancer care. Methods This study is based on individual level data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry (n = 46,720) linked with data on labor market outcomes and socioeconomic status from Statistics Norway. We study variation across Norwegian hospital catchment areas (n = 55) with respect to survival and employment five years after cancer diagnosis. To handle the selection problem, we exploit the fact that cancer patients in Norway (until 2001) have been allocated to local hospitals based on their place of residence. Results We document substantial differences across catchment areas with respect to patients' post-diagnosis employment rates. Conventional quality indicators based on survival rates indicate smaller differences. The two sets of indicators are only moderately correlated. Conclusions This analysis shows that indicators based on survival and post-diagnosis employment may capture different parts of the health status distribution, and that using only one of them to capture quality of care may be insufficient. PMID:20626866

  19. Hospital care and capacity in the tri-state region of Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio: analysis and insights.

    PubMed

    Burns, David J; Chinta, Ravi; Kashyap, Vishal; Manolis, Chris; Sen, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Hospitals are a significant part of the burgeoning healthcare sector in the United States (U.S.) economy. Despite the availability of what some describe as the world's best healthcare, the U.S. suffers from wide discrepancies in healthcare provision across hospitals and regions of the country. Specifically, capacity, utilization, quality, and even financial performance of hospitals vary widely. Based on secondary data from 533 hospitals in the adjoining states of Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio, this study develops several comparative metrics that enable benchmarking, which, in turn, leads to several inferences and implications for hospital administrators. The paper concludes with implications for hospital administrators and suggestions for future research. PMID:19042547

  20. Improving the efficiency of district hospitals: is contracting an option?

    PubMed

    Mills, A; Hongoro, C; Broomberg, J

    1997-02-01

    A world-wide revolution in thinking about public sector management has occurred in recent years, termed the 'new public management'. It aims to improve the efficiency of service provision primarily through the introduction of market mechanisms into the public sector. The earliest form of marketization in developed countries has tended to be the introduction of competitive tendering and contracts for the provision of public services. In less wealthy countries, the language of contracting is heard with increasing frequency in discussions of health sector reform despite the lack of evidence of the virtues (or vices) of contracting in specific country settings. This paper examines the economic arguments for contracting district hospital care in two rather different settings in Southern Africa: in South Africa using private-for-profit providers, and in Zimbabwe using NGO (mission) providers. The South African study compared the performance of three 'contractor' hospitals with three government-run hospitals, analysing data on costs and quality. There were no significant differences in quality between the two sets of hospitals, but contractor hospitals provided care at significantly lower unit costs. However, the cost to the government of contracting was close to that of direct provision, indicating that the efficiency gains were captured almost entirely by the contractor. A crucial lesson from the study is the importance of developing government capacity to design and negotiate contracts that ensure the government is able to derive significant efficiency gains from contractual arrangements. In other parts of Africa, contracts for hospital care are more likely to be agreed with not-for-profit providers. The Zimbabwean study compared the performance of two government district hospitals with two district 'designated' mission hospitals. It found that the two mission hospitals delivered similar services to those of the two government hospitals but at substantially lower unit

  1. Hospitals as learning organizations: fostering innovation through interactive learning.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to provide an analytical understanding of hospitals as "learning organizations." It further analyzes the development of learning organizations as a way to enhance innovation and performance in the hospital sector. The article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 administrators from hospital boards in Portugal, collected through a survey, interviews with hospital's boards, and a nominal group technique with a panel of experts on health systems. Results show that a combination of several organizational traits of the learning organization enhances its capacity for innovation development. The logistic model presented reveals that hospitals classified as "advanced learning organizations" have 5 times more chance of developing innovation than "basic learning organizations." Empirical findings further pointed out incentives, standards, and measurement requirements as key elements for integration of service delivery systems and expansion of the current capacity for structured and real-time learning in the hospital sector. The major implication arising from this study is that policy needs to combine instruments that promote innovation opportunities and incentives, with instruments stimulating the further development of the core components of learning organizations. Such a combination of policy instruments has the potential to ensure a wide external cooperation through a learning infrastructure. PMID:25539491

  2. Do Type of Childcare and Age of Entry Predict Behavior Problems during Early Childhood? Results from a Large Norwegian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekhal, Ratib

    2012-01-01

    Associations between type and age of entry into Norwegian universally-accessible childcare and children's behavior problems at age 3 years were examined in this study. Data from 73,068 children in the large population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) were used, and included information about childcare arrangements,…

  3. Immunization and private sector participation.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    Representatives from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama met August 19-20 in Honduras to discuss promoting and strengthening the participation of the private medical sector in immunization and surveillance programs for vaccine-preventable diseases. Participants met to analyze countries' experiences in incorporating the private medical sector into immunization and surveillance activities for vaccine-preventable diseases; to review regional and global goals for vaccine-preventable diseases, cold chain requirements, and issues related to introducing new vaccines into routine immunization schedules; and to sign agreements to facilitate the incorporation of the private medical sector into immunization and surveillance activities in the region. Country experiences are outlined. The Ministries of Health and the Societies/Associations of Pediatrics established specific objectives designed to develop and/or strengthen private medical sector participation in immunization. Agreements reached on epidemiological surveillance, a basic vaccination schedule, quality vaccines, the cold chain, national committees on immunization practices, annual work plans, technical cooperation, monitoring, and information, education, and promotion are described. PMID:12321836

  4. What is the Service Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia

    1992-01-01

    This research brief reviews the literature concerning recent trends in the service-producing sector of the economy and to speculate on the implications for higher education. An opening section offers highlights noting key facts and statistics and a general profile of service-producing industries. The first of three sections describes some of the…

  5. Tapping the rental sector network

    SciTech Connect

    Narum, D. )

    1991-07-01

    This article discusses the residential rental sector as a market for the energy conservation efforts of utilities. Topics include customer behavior, information dissemination and education, financial incentives, the perception and acceptance of energy conservation or efficiency technology, marketing techniques, and implications for conservation programs.

  6. Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

    This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

  7. Norwegian remote sensing spectrometry for mapping and monitoring of algal blooms and pollution - NORSMAP-89

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, L.H.; Johannessen, O.M.; Frette, O. )

    1990-01-09

    During the late spring of 1988 an extensive bloom of the toxic algae Chrysocromulina polylepis occurred in the Skagerrak region influencing most life in the upper 30 meter of the ocean. The algal front was advected northward with the Norwegian Coastal Current along the coast of southern Norway, where it became a severe threat to the Norwegian seafarming industry. An ad-hoc expert team was established to monitor and forecast the movement of the algae front. Remote sensing of sea surface temperature from the operational US NOAA satellites monitored the movement of the algal front, consistent with a warm ocean front. The lack of any optical remote sensing instrumentation was recognized as a major de-efficiency during this algal bloom. To prepare for similar events in the future Nansen Remote Sensing Center initiated a three week pilot study in the Oslofjord and Skagerrak region, during May 1989. The Canadian Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) was installed in the surveillance aircraft. Extensive in situ campaigns was also carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Institute of Marine Research. A ship-borne non-imaging spectrometer was operated from the vessels participating in the field campaign. As a contribution from a joint campaign (EISAC '89) between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Community and the European Space Agency (ESA) both the Canadian Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and the US 64-channel GER scanner was operated simultaneously at the NORSMAP 89 test site. Regions of different biological and physical conditions were covered during the pilot study and preliminary analysis are obtained from oil slicks, suspended matter from river, as well as minor algal bloom. The joint analysis of the data collected during the NORSMAP 89 campaign and conclussions will be presented, as well as suggestions for future utilization of airborne spectroscopy systems for operational monitoring of algal bloom and water pollution.

  8. Real-Time Ichthyoplankton Drift in Northeast Arctic Cod and Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring

    PubMed Central

    Vikebø, Frode B.; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Albretsen, Jon; Sundby, Svein; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Huse, Geir; Svendsen, Einar; Kristiansen, Trond; Eriksen, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background Individual-based biophysical larval models, initialized and parameterized by observations, enable numerical investigations of various factors regulating survival of young fish until they recruit into the adult population. Exponentially decreasing numbers in Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring early changes emphasizes the importance of early life history, when ichthyoplankton exhibit pelagic free drift. However, while most studies are concerned with past recruitment variability it is also important to establish real-time predictions of ichthyoplankton distributions due to the increasing human activity in fish habitats and the need for distribution predictions that could potentially improve field coverage of ichthyoplankton. Methodology/Principal Findings A system has been developed for operational simulation of ichthyoplankton distributions. We have coupled a two-day ocean forecasts from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute with an individual-based ichthyoplankton model for Northeast Arctic cod and Norwegian Spring Spawning herring producing daily updated maps of ichthyoplankton distributions. Recent years observed spawning distribution and intensity have been used as input to the model system. The system has been running in an operational mode since 2008. Surveys are expensive and distributions of early stages are therefore only covered once or twice a year. Comparison between model and observations are therefore limited in time. However, the observed and simulated distributions of juvenile fish tend to agree well during early fall. Area-overlap between modeled and observed juveniles September 1st range from 61 to 73%, and 61 to 71% when weighted by concentrations. Conclusions/Significance The model system may be used to evaluate the design of ongoing surveys, to quantify the overlap with harmful substances in the ocean after accidental spills, as well as management planning of particular risky operations at sea. The modeled

  9. Late Triassic uplift of southern Norway revealed by detrital zircons in the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivarius, Mette; Nielsen, Lars H.; Weibel, Rikke; Kristensen, Lars; Thomsen, Tonny B.

    2016-04-01

    Zircon U/Pb geochronometry is used to identify the sediment source areas of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic shallow marine to paralic Gassum Formation in the Norwegian-Danish Basin. The analyses of zircon grains from geographically and stratigraphically widely distributed cores take advantage of the detailed sequence stratigraphic framework existing for the succession. The zircon ages indicate that the sediment in the lower part of the Gassum Formation in the northern and central parts of the basin was supplied solely from the Telemarkia Terrane in the southern part of southern Norway. However, age signatures from other basement terranes were added during periods of transgression presumably as a result of longshore reworking. The sediment in the eastern part of the basin has a different provenance signature that reflects supply from various sources of which some or all seemingly include older sediments. The basinwide fluvial incision that occurred during a relative sea-level fall in the Rhaetian is interpreted to be related to uplift of southern Norway since a pronounced content of zircon grains with U/Pb ages of 1.65 Ga were introduced in the Norwegian-Danish Basin at the time. This age is dominant in the upper part of the Gassum Formation and is present in all studied younger sediments in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, whereas it is missing in older sediments in the basin. Rocks with corresponding ages are presently exposed in the Jotun Nappe Complex and the Western Gneiss Complex in the central and northern parts of southern Norway. Thus, major faulting activity must have occurred in southern Norway during the Late Triassic that made such rocks available for erosion with permanent southeastwards drainage.

  10. Unhappy doctors? A longitudinal study of life and job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors 1994 – 2002

    PubMed Central

    Nylenna, Magne; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf G

    2005-01-01

    Background General opinion is that doctors are increasingly dissatisfied with their job, but few longitudinal studies exist. This study has been conducted to investigate a possible decline in professional and personal satisfaction among doctors by the turn of the century. Methods We have done a survey among a representative sample of 1 174 Norwegian doctors in 2002 (response rate 73 %) and compared the findings with answers to the same questions by (most of) the same doctors in 1994 and 2000. The main outcome measures were self reported levels of life satisfaction and job satisfaction according to the Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS). Results Most Norwegian doctors are happy. They reported an average life satisfaction of 5.21 in 1994 and 5.32 in 2002 on a scale from 1 (extremely dissatisfied) to 7 (extremely satisfied). Half of the respondents reported a very high level of general life satisfaction (a score of 6 or 7) while only one third said they would have reported this high level of satisfaction five years ago. The doctors thought that they had a higher level of job satisfaction than other comparable professional groups. The job satisfaction scale among the same doctors showed a significant increase from 1994 to 2002. Anaesthesiologists and internists reported a lower and psychiatrists and primary care doctors reported a higher level of job satisfaction than the average. Conclusion Norwegian doctors seem to have enjoyed an increasing level of life and job satisfaction rather than a decline over the last decade. This challenges the general impression of unhappy doctors as a general and worldwide phenomenon. PMID:15943859

  11. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  12. Library Services in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Social Security, London (England).

    The memorandum gives guidance to the provision and organization of library services at hospitals both for staff and for patients. It also draws attention to the assistance available from outside sources towards the development and maintenance of these services so hospital authorities may make the most effective use of the available facilities.…

  13. Hospitality, Tourism, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novachek, James

    The Northern Arizona Hospitality Education Program is an exemplary three-year project designed to help students, mainly Indian, obtain job skills and attitudes necessary for successful employment in the hospitality industry. Nine high schools from Apache, Coconino, and Navajo Counties participated in the project. Objectives included providing an…

  14. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  15. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  16. [Music in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Bouteloup, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Occasional events, regular workshops, concerts, shows, artists in residence, cultural outings...Hospital does not necessarily have to be a place of silence and sadness. But this situation has not always been so straightforward as on the face of it, nothing is more incompatible with a hospital environment than music, which, by definition, is festive and noisy. PMID:20684389

  17. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    PubMed

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider. PMID:10127850

  18. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  19. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  20. Mid-1980s distribution of tritium, 3He, 14C and 39Ar in the Greenland/Norwegian seas and the Nansen basin of the Arctic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, P.; Bonisch, G.; Kromer, B.; Loosli, H.H.; Buehler, R.

    1995-12-31

    The distributions of tritium/3He, 14C and 39Ar observed in the period between 1985 and 1987 in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are presented. The data are used to outline aspects of the large-scale circulation and the exchange of deep water between the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin. Additionally, semi-quantitative estimates of mean ages of the main water masses found in these regions are obtained. Apparent tritium/3He ages of the upper waters (depth <500m) vary from close to zero in the Norwegian Current to about 15 years at the lower boundary of the Arctic halocline. The deep waters (>1,500m depth) of the Greenland/ Norwegian Seas show apparent tritium/3He ages between about 17 years in the Greenland Sea and 30 years in the Norwegian Sea.

  1. Simulations of the mesoscale circulation of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heburn, George W.; Johnson, Clifford D.

    1995-01-01

    The Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas provide the only link between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans. This is a very dynamic region, rich in mesoscale variability. A two-layer, hydrodynamic version of the Navy layered ocean model is used to simulate the mesoscale frontal features and associated current systems. The model is wind-driven using monthly mean wind stresses and inflow/outflow mass flux from the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The current transports from the model results compare favorably with transport measurements from a number of observational experiments.

  2. A study of shame from sexual abuse within the context of a Norwegian incest center.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Kaare Torgny

    2013-01-01

    Working with those who have experienced sexual abuse is a complicated matter because such abuse not only involves the violation of the victim's body, but it often generates shame in those involved. This article is based on empirical data from 26 hours of videotaped focus group interviews with 19 adult men and women in a Norwegian incest center who spoke openly of the shame they experienced from sexual abuse as children, parents, and employees. Findings from this study show that shame from sexual abuse can be grouped into seven major categories: (a) family, (b) emotions, (c) body, (d) food, (e) self-image, (f) sex, and (g) therapy. PMID:23924177

  3. A Geomorphological Analysis of the Cenozoic Rejuvenation of the Southwestern Norwegian 'Passive' Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Jeni; Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per; Arnhold, Chad; Conrad, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Although the Norwegian and Greenland rifted margins underwent Early Paleocene breakup, the southwestern Norwegian continental margin exhibits 2 to 3 km-high, sharply asymmetric seaward-facing escarpments and a 250+ km long topographic displacement gradient, a morphology not consistent with simple margin evolution models that predict subsidence and cooling as the dominate processes in tectonically-quiescent regions. Such atypical margins present a paradox: How is high, rugged topography along rifted margins maintained for tens to hundreds of millions of years after the cessation of extension? Recent work indicates the offshore crustal thinning gradient, a measure of the length from the continental escarpment to the location of the maximum crustal thickness, may play a controlling role: where the gradient is sharp the topography is most elevated; where gentle, the escarpments are lower. Although controversy remains, it is generally accepted, based on offshore geophysical data and onshore geomorphology, thermochronology, and structural geology, that the southwestern Norwegian escarpment has undergone topographic rejuvenation during the Cenozoic. Although several mechanistic models invoking various contributions of active tectonism have been proposed, from remnant topography recently carved by extensive glaciation to active uplift along large-scale onshore margin-parallel faults, the rejuvenating mechanism has not been resolved. Non-glacial components of rock column uplift may possibly be occurring today: tectonic control of major drainage patterns has been proposed and recent work in the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex provides compelling evidence for discrete fault-bound tectonic blocks with unique exhumation histories. We are seeking to constrain the primary mode of Cenozoic deformation along the western Norwegian continental rifted margin by utilizing a tiered approach with distinct but complementary techniques encompassing tectonic geomorphology, structural geology

  4. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  5. Distribution and diversity patterns of asellote isopods (Crustacea) in the deep Norwegian and Greenland Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svavarsson, Jörundur; Brattegard, Torleiv; Strömberg, Jarl-Ove

    Distribution and diversity patterns of asellote isopods (Crustacea) of the deep Norwegian and Greenland Seas are described. The asellotes show the same pattern of rapid faunal change across the upper continental slope as commonly described elsewhere. Here the rate of species replacement is maximum at depths of 800-1000m, but decreases towards greater depths. The distribution of the asellotes shows some correlations to the distribution of sediment types. Species diversity is maximum at 800m and decreases with depth. The species diversity pattern is related here to heterogeneity of the sediments and different species immigration rates into shallow and deep Arctic waters.

  6. Tool or Science? The History of Computing at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordal, Ola

    One may characterize the history of computing at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology by a tension between the computer as a tool in other disciplines and computer science as discipline in itself. This tension has been latent since the pioneering period of the 1950s until today. This paper shows how this have been expressed in the early attempts to take up computing at the University, and how it gave the Division of Computer Science a fairly rough start when it opened in 1972.

  7. International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) Established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, A.; Nadim, F.

    2003-12-01

    As one of 13 new `Centres of Excellence' awarded by the Norwegian Research Council with a 10-year funding schedule, the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) was established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), in January 2003. The Centre is formed through a co-operation between several institutions, which in addition to NGI are the Gelogical Survey of Norway (NGU), Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR), University of Oslo (UiO) and the Norwegian University for Science and Technology (NTNU). The Centre is located in the NGI building in Oslo, Norway. Funding is for 10 years, and the centre is staffed by researchers from the partner institutions, visiting scientists, post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. With the ultimate goal of geohazard mitigation and preventing the loss of lives and damage to infrastructure and environment, key research topics of the Centre are: Unsaturated soils and mechanisms for precipitation-induced slides in steep slopes; Risk and vulnerability analysis for geohazards; Earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk evaluation; Rock slope failures - models and risks; Landslides in soft clay slopes (quick clay), fjord margins and coastal zones; GIS applications to geohazards; SAR applications to geohazards; Slide dynamics and mechanics of disintegration; Tsunami modelling and prediction; and Offshore Geohazards. As prospecting for hydrocarbons move into increasingly deeper waters of the world's continental margins, research on offshore geohazard forms an important activity of the new centre. Main offshore geohazards include slope instability, effects of shallow gas and gas hydrates on the behaviour of seafloor sediments, mud volcanism and diapirism. Of these, slope instability is considered to be the major hazard, because of the potentially serious third party impact. The current offshore geohazards project within ICG consists of three main themes: Assessment of offshore geohazards (site surveys); Geophysical methods for offshore

  8. The metacognitive model of depression: An empirical test in a large Norwegian sample.

    PubMed

    Solem, Stian; Hagen, Roger; Hoksnes, Jonas J; Hjemdal, Odin

    2016-08-30

    The aim of the current study was to test the metacognitive model of depression in a large Norwegian sample. We hypothesized that metacognitions and rumination would explain variance in depressive symptoms as suggested by the metacognitive model. A total of 1433 participants were included using a cross-sectional study design. Participants answered scales assessing positive beliefs about rumination, rumination, negative beliefs about rumination, and symptoms of depression. Metacognitive beliefs and rumination in their hypothesized order explained significant variance in depressive symptoms. The results replicate previous studies and provide further support for a metacognitive model of depression. PMID:27285952

  9. Factors affecting hydrocarbon generation, migration, and accumulation in Norwegian Central Graben and northern Viking graben

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    The Norwegian Central graben and northern Viking graben are among the most prolific hydrocarbon provinces in Europe, with proved reserves exceeding 8 billion bbl of oil and 61 tcf of gas. Although are several successful plays are found in both grabens, this study concentrates on factors controlling accumulations in the most prolific trends - the Late Cretaceous to Danian chalk fields of the Central graben, and the Jurassic and Triassic sandstone fields of the northern Viking graben. Detailed modeling of hydrocarbon generation and migration in the two grabens demonstrates some similarities and major differences in the geochemical factors that control the accumulations.

  10. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    PubMed

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  11. [Illness-based payment to hospitals: the French experience].

    PubMed

    De Pouvourville, G; Comar, L; Bouvier, V

    1994-01-01

    Since 1991, the French government is experiencing case based prospective payment mechanisms for public and for profit private hospitals. The experiments are the final objective of a program launched in 1982 to implement Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) in France. Experiments are described and discussed. The relevance of the DRG classification is questioned, as well as the potential incentives embedded in the payment scheme. In the public sector, a case based prospective budgeting method is tested, to re-allocate resources according to case mix and relative costs. In the for profit sector, a prospective payment per case is designed, with price and volume adjustment inside a global cap of expenses. The experiments are a first step towards the unification of payment methods in both sectors. But important differences still remain, dealing with the scope of the payment method and the rate-setting basis. All expenditures will be covered in the public sector, physician fees are excluded in the private sector. The rates are based on actual cost in the public sector, on actual bills for the private sector. PMID:8134668

  12. Hospital efficiency and debt.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Patrick Michael; Rosko, Michael D; Valdmanis, Vivian G

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Hospitals rely heavily on debt financing to fund major capital investments. Hospital efficiency is at least partly determined by the amount and quality of plant and equipment it uses. As such, a hospital's access to debt and credit rating may be related to its efficiency. This study explores this relationship using a broad sample of hospitals and associated bond issuance histories. Employing stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), we measure cost inefficiency to gauge the impact of debt issuance and debt rating. We find that hospitals with recent bond issues were less inefficient. Although we do not find a perfectly linear relationship between debt rating and inefficiency, we have evidence that hints at such a relation. Finally, we find an increase in inefficiency in the years following bond issues, consistent with the possibility of a debt death spiral. PMID:21110482

  13. [Hospital medicine in Chile].

    PubMed

    Eymin, Gonzalo; Jaffer, Amir K

    2013-03-01

    After 15 years of development of Hospital Medicine in Chile, there are several benefits of this discipline. Among others, a reduction in the length of hospital stay, readmissions, costs, and improved medical teaching of students, residents and fellows have been observed. However, in South América there are only isolated groups dedicated to Hospital Medicine in Chile, Argentina and Brazil, with a rather slow growth. The unjustified fear of competition from sub specialists, and the fee for service system of payment in our environment may be important factors to understand this phenomenon. The aging of the population makes imperative to improve the safety of our patients and to optimize processes and resources within the hospital, to avoid squandering healthcare resources. The following is a detailed and evidence-based article, on how hospital medicine might benefit both the public and prívate healthcare systems in Chile. PMID:23900327

  14. Hospitality as an Environmental Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    1991-01-01

    Compares stewardship and hospitality as they relate to the biosphere. Traces the origin of the word "hospitality," discusses cultural traditions of hospitality, and applies the concept of hospitality to the natural world. Considers forms of symbiosis in nature: commensals, mutualism, and parasitism. Hospitality promotes respect, humility, and…

  15. Reflections on science and the communication sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raes, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Reflections on science and the communication sector. In this contribution I will reflect about successes and failures in communicating climate change and air pollution sciences to the general public. These communication efforts included writing popular articles, giving public presentations, working with people from the social scientists and artists. Giving the fact that communication is a very important (economic) sector on its own, the question is to what extent scientists should enter that sector, whether scientists are at all accepted in that sector, whether they should use the expertise in that sector, or whether they should merely provide the knowledge to be used by that sector.

  16. Hospital management principles applicable to the veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs. PMID:15510343

  17. Philanthropy and hospital financing.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D G; Clement, J P; Wheeler, J R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationships among donations to not-for-profit hospitals, the returns provided by these hospitals, and fund-raising efforts. It tests a model of hospital behavior and addresses an earlier debate regarding the supply price of donations. DATA SOURCES. The main data source is the California Office of Statewide Health Planning data tapes of hospital financial disclosure reports for fiscal years 1980/1981 through 1986/1987. Complete data were available for 160 hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Three structural equations (donations, returns, and fund-raising) are estimated as a system using a fixed-effects, pooled cross-section, time-series least squares regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Estimation results reveal the expected positive relation between donations and returns. The reverse relation between returns and donations is insignificant. The estimated effect of fund-raising on donations is insignificantly different from zero, and the effect of donations on fund-raising is negative. Fund-raising and returns are negatively associated with one another. CONCLUSION. The empirical results presented here suggest a positive donations-returns relations and are consistent with a positive supply price for donations. Hospitals appear to view a trade-off between providing returns and soliciting donations, but donors do not respond equally to these two activities. Attempts to increase free cash flow through expansion of community returns or fund-raising activity, at least in the short run, are not likely to be highly successful financing strategies for many hospitals. PMID:8537223

  18. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  19. Hospitals' internal accountability.

    PubMed

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  20. Equity analysis of hospital beds distribution in Shiraz, Iran 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hatam, Nahid; Zakeri, Mohammadreza; Sadeghi, Ahmad; Darzi Ramandi, Sajad; Hayati, Ramin; Siavashi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the important aspects of equity in health is equality in the distribution of resources in this sector. The present study aimed to assess the distribution of hospital beds in Shiraz in 2014. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the population density index and fair distribution of beds were analyzed by Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient, respectively. Descriptive data were analyzed using Excel software. We used Distributive Analysis Stata Package (DASP) in STATA software, version 12, for computing Gini coefficient and drawing Lorenz curve. Results: The Gini coefficient was 0.68 in the population. Besides, Gini coefficient of hospital beds’ distribution based on population density was 0.70, which represented inequality in the distribution of hospital bedsamong the nine regions of Shiraz. Conclusion: Although the total number of hospital beds was reasonable in Shiraz, distribution of these resources was not fair, and inequality was observed in their distribution among the nine regions of Shiraz. PMID:27579284

  1. FLARING SOLAR HALE SECTOR BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Svalgaard, L.; Hannah, I. G.; Hudson, H. S.

    2011-05-20

    The sector structure that organizes the magnetic field of the solar wind into large-scale domains has a clear pattern in the photospheric magnetic field as well. The rotation rate, 27-28.5 days, implies an effectively rigid rotation originating deeper in the solar interior than the sunspots. The photospheric magnetic field is known to be concentrated near that portion (the Hale boundary) in each solar hemisphere, where the change in magnetic sector polarity matches that between the leading and following sunspot polarities in active regions in the respective hemispheres. We report here that flares and microflares also concentrate at the Hale boundaries, implying that flux emergence and the creation of free magnetic energy in the corona also have a direct cause in the deep interior.

  2. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  3. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but can also be caused by fungi. Hospital construction. Hospital staff do everything they can to prevent ... patients staying at hospitals where there is ongoing construction or renovation. 5 This is thought to be ...

  4. Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes: Preliminary Results from the Polish-Norwegian Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, Renata J.; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Debele, Sisay E.; Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Hisdal, Hege; Lawrence, Deborah; Meresa, Hadush K.; Napiórkowski, Jarosław J.; Osuch, Marzena; Strupczewski, Witold G.; Wilson, Donna; Wong, Wai Kwok

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the background, objectives, and preliminary outcomes from the first year of activities of the Polish-Norwegian project CHIHE (Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes). The project aims to estimate the influence of climate changes on extreme river flows (low and high) and to evaluate the impact on the frequency of occurrence of hydrological extremes. Eight "twinned" catchments in Poland and Norway serve as case studies. We present the procedures of the catchment selection applied in Norway and Poland and a database consisting of near-natural ten Polish and eight Norwegian catchments constructed for the purpose of climate impact assessment. Climate projections for selected catchments are described and compared with observations of temperature and precipitation available for the reference period. Future changes based on those projections are analysed and assessed for two periods, the near future (2021-2050) and the far-future (2071-2100). The results indicate increases in precipitation and temperature in the periods and regions studied both in Poland and Norway.

  5. Chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences in Norwegian-Danish basin and North Sea Central Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.O.

    1987-05-01

    Geochemical studies of subsurface sections and outcrops in the Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences from the Norwegian-Danish basin and the North Sea Central Trough have resulted in a detailed chemostratigraphy for these strata. The most applicable chemostratigraphic markers are based on the distribution of strontium, magnesium, manganese, the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio, and the variations in the carbonate contents. It is demonstrated that the chemostratigraphic approach is valid at two levels: (1) a superior chemostratigraphy in which deep-sea cores from the Atlantic Ocean and sections from western Europe are correlated on the basis of significant geochemical anomalies and long-term variations most likely induced by oceanic geochemical cycles and sea level fluctuations; (2) a subordinate but detailed intrabasinal chemostratigraphic correlation which primarily reflects the physicochemical conditions in the depositional environment. The Upper Cretaceous chemostratigraphy established in the Danish area allows a detailed correlation between relatively continuous chalk sequences in the Norwegian-Danish basin and the rather condensed and hiati-influenced sections in the oil fields of the North Sea. The results emphasize the applicability of chemostratigraphy in the subsurface exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk.

  6. Fission track analysis, rift shoulder uplift, and tectonic modeling of the Norwegian Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect

    Andriessen, P.; Van Der Beek, P.; Cloetingh, S.; Rohrman, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Apatite fission track analysis from southern Norway and Sweden, across the Permian Carboniferous Oslo rift, are presented and discussed in relation to different rifting scenarios. Vertical and horizontal apatite fission tack profiles in middle and southern Norway unravel the post-Carboniferous history of the Fennoscandian shield. Fission track apatite ages range from 240 Ma in the south to 160 Ma in the north, and according to spontaneous fission track length measurements, they must be interpreted as mixed ages, indicating minor amounts of Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary cover. Apatite fission track length and age modeling suggest rapid cooling and uplift in the Tertiary for the southernmost part of Norway, suggesting a differential uplift of the basement. the obtained data are important for the reconstruction of burial and thermal histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins of the Norwegian continental margin in the northern North Sea, where diverse rifting events, intraplate stress regimes, and inversion tectonics are involved. Fission track analysis puts constraints on tectonic modeling of uplift of rift flanks and the Norwegian continental margin and yields information for these assessment of hydrocarbon potentials of the sedimentary basins.

  7. Copernicus benefits the Norwegian Satellite Earth Observation Database for Marine and Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Johannessen, Johnny

    2014-05-01

    The Norwegian Satellite Earth Observation Database for Marine and Polar Research (NORMAP) is developed for creating and maintaining a repository of Earth Observation data over the high latitude and Arctic regions to facilitate, stimulate and strengthen high quality and original multidisciplinary Earth System research, application, exploitation and education in marine, polar and climate sciences. As such it is complementing and supporting the Norwegian strategy for advancing these science disciplines in the high latitude and Arctic regions. In the international arena, NORMAP benefits and complements the EU GMES MyOcean project, and other previous GMES downstream services such as AQUAMAR, MONARCH-A, SIDARUS, etc. With the launch of the first Sentinel-1 mission NORMAP will be reinforced by the new data flow from the Copernicus Space Component. NORMAP is also acquiring data from a multitude of other satellites through the unified Copernicus system and will become one of the national thematic information services designed to benefit the environmental monitoring and support effective policy-making.

  8. Changes in significant and maximum wave heights in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiangbo; Tsimplis, M. N.; Yelland, M. J.; Quartly, G. D.

    2014-02-01

    This paper analyses 10 years of in-situ measurements of significant wave height (Hs) and maximum wave height (Hmax) from the ocean weather ship Polarfront in the Norwegian Sea. The 30-minute Ship-Borne Wave Recorder measurements of Hmax and Hs are shown to be consistent with theoretical wave distributions. The linear regression between Hmax and Hs has a slope of 1.53. Neither Hs nor Hmax show a significant trend in the period 2000-2009. These data are combined with earlier observations. The long-term trend over the period 1980-2009 in annual Hs is 2.72 ± 0.88 cm/year. Mean Hs and Hmax are both correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during winter. The correlation with the NAO index is highest for the more frequently encountered (75th percentile) wave heights. The wave field variability associated with the NAO index is reconstructed using a 500-year NAO index record. Hs and Hmax are found to vary by up to 1.42 m and 3.10 m respectively over the 500-year period. Trends in all 30-year segments of the reconstructed wave field are lower than the trend in the observations during 1980-2009. The NAO index does not change significantly in 21st century projections from CMIP5 climate models under scenario RCP85, and thus no NAO-related changes are expected in the mean and extreme wave fields of the Norwegian Sea.

  9. Development of an inflow controlled environmental flow regime for a Norwegian river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsen, Knut; Harby, Atle; Linnansaari, Tommi; Ugedal, Ola

    2010-05-01

    For most regulated rivers in Norway the common environmental flow regime is static and shows very little variation over the year. Recent research indicate that flow regimes that follow the natural inflow variation can meet the ecological and social demands for water in a better way. The implementation of a variable environmental flow regime provides many challenges both related to defining flow for various species and user groups in the river, but also due to practical implementation, legislation and control. A inflow controlled flow regime is developed for a Norwegian river regulated for hydro power as a pilot study. The regime should meet ecological demands from Atlantic salmon and brown trout, recreational use of water and visual impression of the river. This should be achieved preferably without altering the energy production in the hydro power system. The flow regime is developed for wet, dry and normal discharge conditions based on unregulated inflow to the catchment. The development of the seasonal flow requirements for various targets identified is done using a modification of the Building Block Method. Several options are tested regarding the integration of the flow regime into the operational strategy of the hydropower plant, both using real time prognosis of inflow and combinations with historical data. An important topic in selecting the release strategy is how it meets current Norwegian legislation and how well future documentation and environmental control can be carried out. An evaluation protocol is also proposed for the flow regime to test if the ecological targets are met.

  10. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  11. Insights from new high-resolution data from the Traenadjupet Slide on the Norwegian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozzato, Alessandro; Tappin, David; Talling, Peter; Cartigny, Matthieu; Long, David; Hunt, James; Watts, Camilla; Pope, Ed; Allin, Joshua; Stanford, Jennifer; Dowdeswell, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Submarine landslides are among the largest mass flows on Earth and can be far larger than landslides on land. They can generate tsunami and therefore represent a significant geohazard. A series of large submarine landslides have been studied previously in unusual detail along the Norwegian continental margin, including the Storegga and Traenadjupet Slides. The most closely studied is the Storegga slide(1,2) which occurred 8.2k BP and moved >3,000 km3 of sediment(2). A tsunami with run up heights sometimes reaching 20m high has been identified from deposits mapped along the Norwegian, Shetland and mainland Scottish coasts (1). The Traenadjupet Slide is the second largest slide on the Norwegian margin with a volume of about 900km3. It has been dated to ~4k BP(3,4). The volume is comparable to that of the Storegga Slide. However, no major tsunami deposit at 4ka has yet been mapped that links to the Traenadjupet Slide (Stein Bondevik, pers. comm.). The purpose of this study is to obtain new insights into how the Traenadjupet Slide was emplaced. In particular, why did movement of 900km3 of sediment during the Traenadjupet Slide fail to produce a major tsunami at 4ka? We present a new field dataset for the Traendajupet Slide including MBES bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles, and piston cores acquired during the 64PE391 research expedition in July 2014, together with data acquired previously during the JCR51 cruise. These datasets cover a large part of Traenadjupet slide and give new insights into the mechanism of the slide failure. The Traenadjupet Slide morphology is very different to that of the Storegga Slide. The Storegga Slide disintegrated generating debris flows and turbidity currents that propagated for hundreds of kilometres. The Traenadjupet Slide, on the other hand, appears not to have disintegrated in a similar manner, but rather left thick mounded deposits at the foot of the slope(5). Several distinct lobes covered with 500m-scale sediment blocks are visible

  12. Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Salt tectonics have extensively been studied in most parts of the Central North Sea. However, few studies have been done in the Norwegian side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In this contribution, we report a new regional analysis of the salt patterns across the offshore Norwegian-Danish Basin. We have mapped the regional distribution of salt structures in the Norwegian-Danish Basin using both old and recent 2D seismic reflection profiles tied to wells. The salt-thickness map shows three distinct salt structures patterns: (1) NW-SE trending salt walls in the northern part of the basin; the spacing between the walls vary between 7 to 12 km; (2) a dense and irregular distribution of salt diapirs in the southern part of the studied area; (3) an irregular pattern of sparse but big salt diapirs in the eastern part of the basin. This domain is characterized by numerous turtle structures associated with salt diapirs. Reflection seismic cross-sections show that most salt structures only pierce the Triassic sedimentary strata whereas only few salt structures reach the seabed. Rotated fault blocks indicate a gliding vergence towards the South in the eastern part of the basin and towards the SE in the western side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. No mature or compressive salt structures, except some squeezed salt diapirs, are observed in the topographic lows of the basin. The initiation of salt tectonics started during the early Middle Triassic in the entire basin; salt tectonics reactivations were recorded during the Middle Jurassic, Paleogene, and prior to the Quaternary but are not homogeneous across the basin. Salt movements inferred from our study are in good agreement with previous studies. The trend of salt walls (domain 1) indicates a NE-SW extension which is not compatible with N-S trending pre-salt faults. Instead, the strong Triassic subsidence towards the SW has most likely controlled the formation of the salt walls. The salt was initially thicker in domain 2 that

  13. New insights into the structure of Norwegian continental margins from modern aeromagnetic compilations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbing, J.; Olesen, O.; Gernigon, L.; Skilbrei, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    We present the aeromagnetic compilation of the Norwegian mainland and its shelf area and its importance for geological models and tectonic studies. The combined data-set reveal that the bedrock structures are continuous from the Baltic Shield under the Caledonian orogen into the continental shelf and that the late-Caledonian collapse of the Caledonian orogene has influenced the style of extension on the Norwegian shelf. On the margin, modern high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys with small line-spacing, more accurate navigation and sensitive magnetometers have revealed the existence of significant magnetic anomalies arising from sedimentary layers. Sub-cropping Late Paleozoic to Tertiary sedimentary units along the Trøndelag-Nordland coast produce a very distinct anomaly pattern. The asymmetry of the anomalies, with a steep gradient and a negative anomaly to the east and a more gentle gradient to the west, relate the anomalies to a strata gently dipping westward. Susceptibility measurements on core samples, hand specimens and in situ on bedrock exposures are essential for the interpretation of these anomalies. Remapping of the oceanic crust has also improved our under-standing of the Tertiary opening of the North Atlantic as previously interpreted oceanic fracture zones zones do not exist; these were artefacts of poor navigation and wide line spacing of the vintage datasets. Tectonic reconstruction has shown that the opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea between the Jan Mayen and Senja fracture zones occurred along a stable axis without offsets of the oceanic spreading anomalies and without jumps in spreading axis. Transfer zones have previously been associated with oceanic fracture zones along the Mid-Norwegian and East-Greenland margins. Transfer zones are important entry points for sedimentary drainage systems, a relationship that has also been suggested for the transport of Cretaceous sands to the mid-Norwegian margin. Our new interpretation has consequently

  14. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  15. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robichaud; A. Crawley; and L. Poole: NREL

    2005-09-09

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  16. Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. Setting 16 of 29 states in India, 2009–2012. Design Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. Data (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. Outcome measures State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. Results The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009–2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians’ prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009–2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. Conclusions If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is

  17. Trust-based or performance-based management: a study of employment contracting in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Inger Johanne

    2011-01-01

    Hospitals are frequently changing managerial practices due to numerous public sector reforms taking place. In general, these reforms include the making and monitoring of contracts that regulate relations between the hospitals and their professional staffs. The aim of this paper is to discuss some main characteristics of the contracts that regulate the perceived relations between physicians as employees and the public hospital as employer. The theoretical framework is based on a contract theory approach. The empirical data is based on survey data from full-time employed physicians in the medical and surgical divisions in one of the largest university hospitals in Norway. This study shows that perceived obligations and psychological contracts indicate high degree of relational contracts between the hospital and the physicians. These socio-cultural elements should be recognized as important mechanisms of coordination and communication when policy makers and hospital managers are designing hospital management control systems. PMID:19322810

  18. Hospital Waste Management in Nonteaching Hospitals of Lucknow City, India

    PubMed Central

    Manar, Manish Kumar; Sahu, Krishna Kumar; Singh, Shivendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW) management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices. PMID:25657950

  19. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  20. The challenge of corporatisation: the experience of Portuguese public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui; Costa, José

    2010-08-01

    The inability of traditional state organisations to respond to new economic, technological and social challenges and the associated emerging problems has made it necessary to adopt new methods of health management. As a result, new directions have emerged in the reform of Public Administration together with the introduction of innovative models. The aim is to achieve a type of management that focuses on results as well as on effort and efficiency. We intend to analyse to what extent the adoption of business management models by hospital healthcare units can improve their performance, mainly in terms of standards of efficiency. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to investigate the efficiency of a set of public Portuguese hospitals. The aim was to evaluate the impact of business management in Portuguese public hospitals with regards to efficiency, specifically taking into account the fact that lack of resources and increased health care needs are a present and future reality. From a total of 83 public hospitals, a sample of 59 hospitals was chosen, of which 21 are state-owned hospital enterprises (SA) and 38 are traditional public administration sector hospitals (SPA). This study evaluates hospital performance by calculating two efficiency measures associated with two categories of inputs. The first efficiency measures the costs associated with hospital production lines and the number of beds (representing fixed capacity) as inputs. The annual costs generated by the hospitals in the consumption of capital and work (direct and indirect costs) are used. A second measure of efficiency is calculated separately. This measure includes in the inputs the number of beds as well as the human resources available (number of doctors, number of nurses and other personnel) in each hospital. With regard to output, the variables that best reflect the hospital services rendered were considered: number of inpatient days, patients discharged, outpatient visits, emergencies

  1. Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Sjögren’s, Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications The SSF thanks Lynn Petruzzi, RN, MSN, for this Patient Education Sheet. Educate your healthcare givers! • Tell your surgeon, ...

  2. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAH Conditions of Participation . What are the location requirements for CAH status? Critical Access Hospitals must be ... clinic that does not meet the CAH distance requirements? As of January 1, 2008, all CAHs, including ...

  3. Understanding your hospital bill

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know whether your hospital charged a fair price. There are some web sites you can use ... zip code to find an average or estimated price in your area. www.healthcarebluebook.com www.fairhealth. ...

  4. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed? Todd says that there is no standard definition for hospital beds, a fact that consumers shopping ... in retail stores that don’t meet the definition of medical devices under the law, but which ...

  5. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms. PMID:1743965

  6. [Ryazan hospital--80 years].

    PubMed

    Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

    2012-02-01

    In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area. PMID:22558855

  7. ["Working together" at hospital?].

    PubMed

    Divay, Sophie

    2015-02-01

    Working well together at hospital depends on several factors, on the level of a team as well as that of the ministry in charge of health. How can we encourage and promote cooperation between caregivers? If the hospital is the reflection of society as a whole, an analysis of the functioning of this universe provides a better understanding of the challenges and the missions of each player for the benefit of the patient. PMID:26144821

  8. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made. PMID:23513759

  9. Management of Feedyard Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fox, J T

    2015-11-01

    There are many considerations when managing feedyard hospitals. The type of hospital system must fit the facility design, the type of cattle fed at the feedyard, the crew that is employed by the feedyard, and the protocol established by the veterinarian. Ensuring the animals are well-cared for and have their basic needs met should be the priority of the feedyard personnel and the veterinarian maintaining the veterinarian-client-patient relationship with the feedyard. PMID:26210766

  10. Hospital air is sick.

    PubMed

    Brownson, K

    2000-11-01

    Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:11185833

  11. Improving Schools through Private Sector Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary E.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the local school board's role in developing private sector involvement in public education. Gives examples of projects listed in the computerized databank of the President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives. Outlines the major issues in private sector involvement. (NJ)

  12. The Information Sector: Definition and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Marc U.

    In the last 20 years the U.S. economy had changed as a result of the increase in production, processing, and distribution of information goods and services. Three information sectors--the primary sector producing information goods and services, the private bureaucracy, and the public bureaucracy--are part of a six-sector economy. Today,…

  13. Recurrent psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Voineskos, G.; Denault, S.

    1978-01-01

    Undue emphasis has been placed on rising rates of readmission to psychiatric facilities. After a decade of preoccupation with discharge rates, readmission statistics have been singled out in the last 15 years as the key factor for assessing hospital effectiveness. A study of a group of patients at high risk for recurrent hospitalization revealed that these patients were characterized more by features relating to environmental supports than by diagnosis. The operational definition for recurrent hospitalization (five or more admissions during the 2-year period preceding the latest admission) was effective in identifying this group; this is the first reported instance in which the definition has specified a certain number of admissions within a time-limited period. The findings of this study, as well as of an analysis of case histories and consumer opinion, led to the design of a pilot program for persons undergoing recurrent hospitalization. Readmission statistics are useless or misleading as measures of hospital effectiveness and efficiency; what matters is the way the former patients function in the community after discharge. Rather than simply trying to reduce the readmission rate psychiatric facilities should be examining the types of persons who are hospitalized recurrently to develop programs aimed at improving the functioning of these people in the community. PMID:630483

  14. Hospital accreditation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C

    1998-01-01

    Health service accreditation systems have explicit standards for organisation against which the participating hospital assesses itself before a structured visit by outside "surveyors". They submit a written report back to the hospital with commendations and recommendations for development prior to a follow-up survey. Accreditation may be awarded for a fixed term or may be with held by an independent assessment Board if the hospital does not meet a defined threshold of standards. In Europe, some government and medical organisations initially distanced themselves from the pilot hospital wide programmes, arguing that they would cost too much and undermine management, or that they were irrelevant to clinical practice. But gradually it became obvious that accreditation worked for hospitals; purchasers and insurers saw its potential for quality and resource management; and professional bodies recognised the links between clinical training, practice and outcome and the environment in which health care is provided. If nothing else, it offered a multi-professional bridge between the existing numerous fragmented systems such as inspecting (statutory safety), visiting (professional training), and monitoring (service contracts). The introduction of accreditation appears to benefit hospitals in many different countries and health systems and provides a vehicle for integrated quality management which is visible to funding agencies, government and the public. Interest is growing within Europe. PMID:10179643

  15. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk. PMID:18087914

  16. Young People's Talk about Religion and Diversity: A Qualitative Study of Norwegian Students Aged 13-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Lippe, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on how young people talk about religion and diversity in a multicultural society. More specifically, it focuses on how students speak about Islam and Muslims. In analysing interviews with students, a main interest has been to examine the relationship between the students' speech and dominant discourses in Norwegian society…

  17. Voices and Perspectives in Norwegian Pupils' Work on Religions and World Views: A Diachronic Study Applying Sociocultural Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakedal, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    This article researches work by four pupils in a diachronic collection of Norwegian primary school workbooks. Given signs of a variety of voices and perspectives in chosen representations of central tenets and/or practices in religions and philosophical traditions, how can an analysis and discussion of a few chosen texts shed light on their…

  18. Corresponding Values and Colonising Discourses: Situating "Hindu Children" and Their Values in Relation to Hegemonic Norwegian Discourses about Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaisen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between values expressed by "Hindu children" in Norway and hegemonic "Norwegian values". The discussion is based on interviews with children from the Indian Punjabi and the Sri Lankan Tamil traditions and on observations in religious education (RE) lessons. The children emphasise the culture of their…

  19. Survey of large circular and octagonal tanks operated at Norwegian commercial smolt and post-smolt sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted to determine the geometry, operating parameters, and other key features of large circular or octagonal culture tanks used to produce Atlantic salmon smolt and post-smolt at six major Norwegian Atlantic salmon production companies. A total of 55 large tanks were reported at sev...

  20. Political Alienation among Migrant Youths: Exploring the Mechanisms of Political Alienation and Acculturation among Migrant Youths in Norwegian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, Trond

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the following question: What characterizes the mechanisms of political alienation among non-Western immigrant students, and how might these mechanisms be related to student's acculturation attitudes? A theory of political alienation and acculturation is applied. Substantial quantitative data from Norwegian upper secondary…

  1. The Zero Programme against Bullying: Effects of the Programme in the Context of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling; Bru, Edvin; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Vaaland, Grete S.

    2010-01-01

    The anti-bullying programme "Zero" was implemented at 146 Norwegian primary schools. The outcome among pupils was evaluated after 12 months of the total 16-month period using an age-equivalent design. The present study shows that bullying was reduced among pupils in the schools participating in the Zero programme. Moreover, National surveys in…

  2. A Norwegian Out-of-School Mathematics Project's Influence on Secondary Students' STEM Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Fredrik; Sjaastad, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Considerable resources are spent on initiatives aiming to increase achievement and participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Drawing on focus group interviews and a questionnaire study with participants in ENT3R, a Norwegian out-of-school mathematics program, we investigated why participants attended and stayed in…

  3. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction Study - Design and Implementation of a National Survey and Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bukten, Anne; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Rognli, Eline Borger; Stavseth, Marianne Riksheim; Lobmaier, Philipp; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Kunøe, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian prison inmates are burdened by problems before they enter prison. Few studies have managed to assess this burden and relate it to what occurs for the inmates once they leave the prison. The Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study is a large-scale longitudinal cohort study that combines national survey and registry data in order to understand mental health, substance use, and criminal activity before, during, and after custody among prisoners in Norway. The main goal of the study is to describe the criminal and health-related trajectories based on both survey and registry linkage information. Data were collected from 1,499 inmates in Norwegian prison facilities during 2013-2014. Of these, 741 inmates provided a valid personal identification number and constitute a cohort that will be examined retrospectively and prospectively, along with data from nationwide Norwegian registries. This study describes the design, procedures, and implementation of the ongoing NorMA study and provides an outline of the initial data. PMID:26648732

  4. Large Nosocomial Outbreak Associated with a Norwegian Scabies Index Case Undergoing TNF-α Inhibitor Treatment: Management and Control.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Valeria; Orsi, Giovanni Battista; Del Borgo, Cosmo; Fabietti, Paolo; Ianari, Adriana; Albertoni, Francesco; Porcelli, Patricia; Potenza, Concetta; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria

    2015-11-01

    We describe a large outbreak associated with a crusted (Norwegian) scabies case in an immunocompromised patient following treatment with TNF-α inhibitor (adalimumab) for psoriasis arthritis. The increasing use of TNF-α inhibitors should induce clinicians to consider this serious parasitic infection when evaluating skin rashes in patients receiving biologic therapies. PMID:26288185

  5. Voices from Above--Voices from Below. Who Is Talking and Who Is Listening in Norwegian Language Politics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Einar Haugen brought Norwegian language planning to prominence in the 1960s, describing a series of language reforms ultimately intended to bring the two written standards, Bokmal and Nynorsk, together. Since Haugen's time language policy in Norway has changed direction, and developments over the past 40 years have led to increased autonomy for…

  6. Allocating Information Costs in a Negotiated Information Order: Interorganizational Constraints on Decision Making in Norwegian Oil Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimer, Carol A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyzes two types of decisions for insuring mobile oil rigs and fixed installations in the Norwegian North Sea: (1) decisions about information for ratemaking and underwriting, and (2) decisions about the conditions of insurance. Appended are 46 references. (MLF)

  7. Subpolar gyre and radiative forcings moderate sea surface temperatures of the Norwegian Sea during the mid-Piacenzian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachem, Paul; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; McClymont, Erin

    2016-04-01

    The mid-Piacenzian age (ca. 3.3-3.0 Ma) of the Pliocene epoch has been proposed as a possible reference for future warm climate states. We have developed a new set of orbital-resolution alkenone-based sea surface temperature (SST) and ice rafted debris (IRD) records from the Norwegian Sea. SSTs in the Norwegian Sea were 2-3°C warmer in the mid-Piacenzian compared to the Holocene average. There is notable orbital-scale SST variability with a range of 4°C. The most likely cause of the average long-term warmth is a higher atmospheric CO2 concentration. A correlation of SST variability with the presence of Greenland-sourced IRD suggests a common climate forcing acting across the Nordic Seas region. The orbital-scale variability was in part caused by interplay of obliquity and precession, as low SSTs coincide with times of low northern summer insolation. Changes of the SST gradient between the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic sites suggest that the subpolar gyre was at least of comparable strength as during the Holocene. The North Atlantic Current (NAC) influence on the Norwegian Sea SSTs does not appear to have been stronger than during the Holocene.

  8. Interprofessional Collaboration as a Means of Including Children at Risk: An Analysis of Norwegian Educational Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesjedal, Elisabeth; Hetland, Hilde; Iversen, Anette Christine; Manger, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Issues concerning interprofessional collaboration (IPC) for children at risk have become a priority globally as well as in Norway. By international standards, the Norwegian educational system is regarded as inclusive and collaborative in terms of the external services that support schools and pupils. However, a debate continues on how to best…

  9. Factor Structure of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale for Norwegian School-Age Children Explored with Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Hjemdal, Odin

    2013-01-01

    The validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was examined in a national sample of 863 Norwegian schoolchildren in grades 1-7 (aged 6-13). The original factor structure of the STRS was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA results did not support the original three-factor structure of the STRS. Subsequent CFA of the…

  10. Mental Health Problems in Norwegian School Children Placed Out-of-Home: The Importance of Family Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havnen, Karen Skaale; Jakobsen, Reidar; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to explore the association between mental health problems in children placed out-of-home and family risk factors reported as reasons for placement. The sample consisted of 109 Norwegian children aged 6-12 years. Mental health problems were assessed by the Revised Rutter scales reported by the parents and the…

  11. On the Question of Secular Trends in the Heritability of Intelligence Test Scores: A Study of Norwegian Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundet, Jon Martin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Intelligence test data collected in 1931 through 1960 on 757 identical and 1,093 fraternal male twins, from the files of the Norwegian Armed Forces, were examined for secular trends in the heritability of intelligence test scores. Only ambiguous evidence of such trends was found. (SLD)

  12. The Outdoor Environment as a Site for Children's Participation, Meaning-Making and Democratic Learning: Examples from Norwegian Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Wenche; Grindheim, Liv Torunn; Waters, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore socio-cultural theories of learning and some of the processes by which children learn democratic values. Norwegian policy and practice emphasises children's right to participation and involvement in decision-making. We discuss the importance of adults' attitudes, knowledge and ability to relate to and understand…

  13. The Influence of Parents and Teachers on the Deep Learning Approach of Pupils in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article was to explore the influence of parents and teachers on the deep learning approach of pupils by estimating the strength of the relationships between these factors and the motivation, volition and deep learning approach of Norwegian 16-year-olds. Method: Structural equation modeling for cross-sectional…

  14. The Role of Neuroticism and Perceived School-Related Stress in Somatic Symptoms among Students in Norwegian Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of neuroticism and perceived school-related stress in somatic symptoms among a sample of 327 (167 females and 160 males) students in two Norwegian junior high schools. The results suggest that the role of neuroticism on somatic symptoms may be overestimated, and that the role of stress may be underestimated…

  15. The Effects of Topic Familiarity, Author Expertise, and Content Relevance on Norwegian Students' Document Selection: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Stenseth, Tonje; Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the extent to which author expertise and content relevance were salient to secondary Norwegian students (N = 153) when they selected documents that pertained to more familiar and less familiar topics. Quantitative results indicated that author expertise was more salient for the less familiar topic (nuclear…

  16. What Are the Earth and the Heavenly Bodies Like? A Study of Objectual Conceptions among Norwegian Deaf and Hearing Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roald, Ingvild; Mikalsen, Oyvind

    2000-01-01

    Addresses deaf pupils' conceptions of directly-observed phenomena of the earth and sky. Studies 7-, 9-, 11-, and 17-year-old deaf pupils and uses 9-year-old Norwegian pupils with normal hearing as the control group. Reports that the children's conceptions are scientifically accepted. Indicates that the shape of the sign representing an object may…

  17. Parenting after a Natural Disaster: A Qualitative Study of Norwegian Families Surviving the 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafstad, Gertrud S.; Haavind, Hanne; Jensen, Tine K.

    2012-01-01

    How do parents support their children after a high-impact disaster? To answer this question, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 51 Norwegian parents. These parents and children were all severely exposed to the trauma of the tsunami disaster. The analyses show how parents interpret their children's signs of distress, as well as their own…

  18. From a Narrative of Suffering towards a Narrative of Growth: Norwegian History Textbooks in the Inter-War Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovland, Brit Marie

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses changes and revisions of the Norwegian official Grand Narrative, as portrayed in primary school history textbooks. The selected corpus of textbooks of 1885-1940 shows narrative and historiographical changes supporting a hypothesis of a development from a "Narrative of Suffering" towards a "Narrative of…

  19. Industriousness and Development of the School-System in the Eighteenth Century: The Experience of Norwegian Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Ida

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how the Norwegian urban school system was developed during the eighteenth century. In the cities, there were laws for Latin as well as Danish schools. During the eighteenth century, schools for poor children were established, while towards the end of the century the importance of the school system in relation to the economic…

  20. The Use of the Dialogue Concepts from the Arsenal of the Norwegian Dialogue Pedagogy in the Time of Postmodernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradovski, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the views by the American educationalist Henry Giroux on the role teachers and educationalists should be playing in the time of postmodernism and by Abraham Maslow's concept of biological idiosyncrasy, the author discusses how the concepts of the dialogues created by the representatives of Norwegian Dialogue Pedagogy, Hans Skjervheim,…