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Sample records for notch signaling pathways

  1. Notch -- a goldilocks signaling pathway in disease and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eike-Benjamin; Lendahl, Urban

    2016-03-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a fundamental signaling mechanism operating in most, if not all, multicellular organisms and in most cell types in the body. Like other "ivy league" pathways such as Wnt, PI3K, Sonic Hedgehog, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs), and JAK/STAT signaling, the Notch pathway is a linear signaling mechanism, i.e., an extracellular ligand activates a receptor, which ultimately leads to transcriptional alterations in the cell nucleus, but Notch signaling is a strict cell-cell communication mechanism and lacks built-in amplification steps in the signaling pathway. Dysregulated Notch signaling, either by direct mutations in the pathway or by altered signaling output, is increasingly linked to disease, and Notch can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on the cellular context. This underscores that appropriate level of Notch signaling is important for differentiation and tissue homeostasis, a notion supported also by genetic data indicating that Notch signaling is very gene dosage-sensitive. Thus, too much or too little signaling can lead to disease and Notch can therefore be considered a Goldilocks signaling pathway. Given the emerging role of dysregulated Notch signaling in disease, there is increasing interest in developing therapeutic approaches to modulate Notch signaling. In this review we discuss recent findings on how signal transduction is tuned in the Notch pathway and how Notch signaling is dysregulated in disease. We also discuss different strategies to modulate Notch signaling for clinical use, for example by novel antibody-based tools and by taking advantage of the cross-talk between Notch and other signaling mechanisms. PMID:27115169

  2. The Notch signaling pathway as a mediator of tumor survival

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Sharon R.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and responsible for cell fate determination in the developing embryo and mature tissue. At the molecular level, ligand binding activates Notch signaling by liberating the Notch intracellular domain, which then translocates into the nucleus and activates gene transcription. Despite the elegant simplicity of this pathway, which lacks secondary messengers or a signaling cascade, Notch regulates gene expression in a highly context- and cell-type-dependent manner. Notch signaling is frequently dysregulated, most commonly by overactivation, across many cancers and confers a survival advantage on tumors, leading to poorer outcomes for patients. Recent studies demonstrate how Notch signaling increases tumor cell proliferation and provide evidence that active Notch signaling maintains the cancer stem-cell pool, induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and promotes chemoresistance. These studies imply that pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling may refine control of cancer therapy and improve patient survival. Gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) are drugs that inhibit Notch signaling and may be successful in controlling cancer cell growth in conjunction with standard chemotherapy, but substantial side effects have hampered their widespread use. Recent efforts have been aimed at the development of antibodies against specific Notch receptors and ligands with the hope of limiting side effects while providing the same therapeutic benefit as GSIs. Together, studies characterizing Notch signaling and modulation have offered hope that refined methods targeting Notch may become powerful tools in anticancer therapeutics. PMID:23585460

  3. SEPT4 is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin

    2012-04-01

    Notch receptor-mediated signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that regulates diverse developmental processes and its dysregulation has been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders and cancers. Notch functions in these processes by activating expression of its target genes. Septin 4 (SEPT4) is a polymerizing GTP-binding protein that serves as scaffold for diverse molecules and is involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. After activation of the Notch signal, the expression of SEPT4 is up-regulated and cell proliferation is inhibited. When the Notch signal is inhibited by the CSL (CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1)-binding-domain-negative Mastermind-like protein 1, the expression of SEPT4 is down-regulated, proliferation and colony formation of cells are promoted, but cell adhesion ability is decreased. Nevertheless, the SEPT4 expression is not affected after knock-down of CSL. Meanwhile, if SEPT4 activity is inhibited through RNA interference, the protein level and activity of NOTCH1 remains unchanged, but cell proliferation is dysregulated. This indicates that SEPT4 is a Notch target gene. This relationship between Notch signaling pathway and SEPT4 offers a potential basis for further study of developmental control and carcinogenesis. PMID:21938432

  4. The Canonical Notch Signaling Pathway: Unfolding the Activation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kopan, Raphael; Ilagan, Ma. Xenia G.

    2009-01-01

    Notch signaling regulates many aspects of metazoan development and tissue renewal. Accordingly, misregulation or loss of Notch signaling underlies multiple human disorders, from developmental syndromes to adult onset diseases and cancer. Notch receptor activation is irreversible as it involves proteolysis-mediated release of the Notch intracellular domain, translocation to the nucleus, and association with a DNA-bound protein. Even though each Notch molecule signals only once without amplification by secondary messenger cascades, Notch signaling is remarkably robust in most tissues. In this review, we highlight the recent studies that reveal new molecular details involved in regulating ligand-mediated activation, receptor proteolysis and target selection. PMID:19379690

  5. Endosomal sorting of Notch receptors through COMMD9-dependent pathways modulates Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiying; Koo, Yeon; Mao, Xicheng; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis; Morris, Lindsey L.; Jia, Da; Miyata, Naoteru; Faulkner, Rebecca A.; van Deursen, Jan M.; Vooijs, Marc; Billadeau, Daniel D.; van de Sluis, Bart; Cleaver, Ondine

    2015-01-01

    Notch family members are transmembrane receptors that mediate essential developmental programs. Upon ligand binding, a proteolytic event releases the intracellular domain of Notch, which translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription. In addition, Notch trafficking across the endolysosomal system is critical in its regulation. In this study we report that Notch recycling to the cell surface is dependent on the COMMD–CCDC22–CCDC93 (CCC) complex, a recently identified regulator of endosomal trafficking. Disruption in this system leads to intracellular accumulation of Notch2 and concomitant reduction in Notch signaling. Interestingly, among the 10 copper metabolism MURR1 domain containing (COMMD) family members that can associate with the CCC complex, only COMMD9 and its binding partner, COMMD5, have substantial effects on Notch. Furthermore, Commd9 deletion in mice leads to embryonic lethality and complex cardiovascular alterations that bear hallmarks of Notch deficiency. Altogether, these studies highlight that the CCC complex controls Notch activation by modulating its intracellular trafficking and demonstrate cargo-specific effects for members of the COMMD protein family. PMID:26553930

  6. Cardioprotective actions of Notch1 against myocardial infarction via LKB1-dependent AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Sun, Wanqing; Quan, Nanhu; Wang, Lin; Chu, Dongyang; Cates, Courtney; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Li, Ji

    2016-05-15

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in intracellular adaptation to energy stress during myocardial ischemia. Notch1 signaling in the adult myocardium is also activated in response to ischemic stress. However, the relationship between Notch1 and AMPK signaling pathways during ischemia remains unclear. We hypothesize that Notch1 as an adaptive signaling pathway protects the heart from ischemic injury via modulating the cardioprotective AMPK signaling pathway. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to an in vivo ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery and the hearts from C57BL/6J mice were subjected to an ex vivo globe ischemia and reperfusion in the Langendorff perfusion system. The Notch1 signaling was activated during myocardial ischemia. A Notch1 γ-secretase inhibitor, dibenzazepine (DBZ), was intraperitoneally injected into mice to inhibit Notch1 signaling pathway by ischemia. The inhibition of Notch1 signaling by DBZ significantly augmented cardiac dysfunctions caused by myocardial infarction. Intriguingly, DBZ treatment also significantly blunted the activation of AMPK signaling pathway. The immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that an interaction between Notch1 and liver kinase beta1 (LKB1) modulated AMPK activation during myocardial ischemia. Furthermore, a ligand of Notch1 Jagged1 can significantly reduce cardiac damage caused by ischemia via activation of AMPK signaling pathway and modulation of glucose oxidation and fatty acid oxidation during ischemia and reperfusion. But Jagged1 did not have any cardioprotections on AMPK kinase dead transgenic hearts. Taken together, the results indicate that the cardioprotective effect of Notch1 against ischemic damage is mediated by AMPK signaling via an interaction with upstream LKB1. PMID:27015742

  7. Drosophila Cyclin G Is a Regulator of the Notch Signalling Pathway during Wing Development

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Anja C.; Szawinski, Jutta; Zimmermann, Mirjam; Preiss, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Notch signalling regulates a multitude of differentiation processes during Drosophila development. For example, Notch activity is required for proper wing vein differentiation which is hampered in mutants of either the receptor Notch, the ligand Delta or the antagonist Hairless. Moreover, the Notch pathway is involved in several aspects of Drosophila oogenesis as well. We have identified Drosophila Cyclin G (CycG) as a molecular interaction partner of Hairless, the major antagonist in the Notch signalling pathway, in vitro and in vivo. Loss of CycG was shown before to cause female sterility and to disturb the architecture of the egg shell. Nevertheless, Notch dependent processes during oogenesis appeared largely unaffected in cycG mutant egg chambers. Loss of CycG modified the dominant wing phenotypes of Notch, Delta and Hairless mutants. Whereas the Notch loss of function phenotype was ameliorated by a loss of CycG, the phenotypes of either Notch gain of function or of Delta or Hairless loss of function were enhanced. In contrast, loss of CycG had only a minor effect on the wing vein phenotype of mutants affecting the EGFR signalling pathway emphasizing the specificity of the interaction of CycG and Notch pathway members. PMID:26963612

  8. Notch Signaling in Pancreatic Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu-Yan; Zhai, Wen-Jun; Teng, Chun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a significant role in embryonic cell fate determination and adult tissue homeostasis. Various studies have demonstrated the deep involvement of Notch signaling in the development of the pancreas and the lateral inhibition of Notch signaling in pancreatic progenitor differentiation and maintenance. The targeted inactivation of the Notch pathway components promotes premature differentiation of the endocrine pancreas. However, there is still the contrary opinion that Notch signaling specifies the endocrine lineage. Here, we review the current knowledge of the Notch signaling pathway in pancreatic development and its crosstalk with the Wingless and INT-1 (Wnt) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways. PMID:26729103

  9. Origin and evolution of the Notch signalling pathway: an overview from eukaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gazave, Eve; Lapébie, Pascal; Richards, Gemma S; Brunet, Frédéric; Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Degnan, Bernard M; Borchiellini, Carole; Vervoort, Michel; Renard, Emmanuelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Of the 20 or so signal transduction pathways that orchestrate cell-cell interactions in metazoans, seven are involved during development. One of these is the Notch signalling pathway which regulates cellular identity, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis via the developmental processes of lateral inhibition and boundary induction. In light of this essential role played in metazoan development, we surveyed a wide range of eukaryotic genomes to determine the origin and evolution of the components and auxiliary factors that compose and modulate this pathway. Results We searched for 22 components of the Notch pathway in 35 different species that represent 8 major clades of eukaryotes, performed phylogenetic analyses and compared the domain compositions of the two fundamental molecules: the receptor Notch and its ligands Delta/Jagged. We confirm that a Notch pathway, with true receptors and ligands is specific to the Metazoa. This study also sheds light on the deep ancestry of a number of genes involved in this pathway, while other members are revealed to have a more recent origin. The origin of several components can be accounted for by the shuffling of pre-existing protein domains, or via lateral gene transfer. In addition, certain domains have appeared de novo more recently, and can be considered metazoan synapomorphies. Conclusion The Notch signalling pathway emerged in Metazoa via a diversity of molecular mechanisms, incorporating both novel and ancient protein domains during eukaryote evolution. Thus, a functional Notch signalling pathway was probably present in Urmetazoa. PMID:19825158

  10. Notch1 Regulates Hippocampal Plasticity Through Interaction with the Reelin Pathway, Glutamatergic Transmission and CREB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Astori, Simone; Fredj, Naila Ben; Perry, Elisabeth; Lamy, Christophe; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in adult brain function such as synaptic plasticity, memory and olfaction. Several reports suggest an involvement of this pathway in neurodegenerative dementia. Yet, to date, the mechanism underlying Notch activity in mature neurons remains unresolved. In this work, we investigate how Notch regulates synaptic potentiation and contributes to the establishment of memory in mice. We observe that Notch1 is a postsynaptic receptor with functional interactions with the Reelin receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the ionotropic receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Targeted loss of Notch1 in the hippocampal CA fields affects Reelin signaling by influencing Dab1 expression and impairs the synaptic potentiation achieved through Reelin stimulation. Further analysis indicates that loss of Notch1 affects the expression and composition of the NMDAR but not AMPAR. Glutamatergic signaling is further compromised through downregulation of CamKII and its secondary and tertiary messengers resulting in reduced cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling. Our results identify Notch1 as an important regulator of mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. These findings emphasize the possible involvement of this signaling receptor in dementia. Highlights In this paper, we propose a mechanism for Notch1-dependent plasticity that likely underlies the function of Notch1 in memory formation: Notch1 interacts with another important developmental pathway, the Reelin cascade. Notch1 regulates both NMDAR expression and composition. Notch1 influences a cascade of cellular events culminating in CREB activation. PMID:26635527

  11. Effect of verteporfin-PDT on the Notch signaling pathway in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerec, Virginie; Andreola, Fausto; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence supports a pro-oncogenic function for Notch signaling in several solid tumors. Therefore, Notch inhibitory agents, such as gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI), are being investigated as cancer therapeutic agents and a potential adjuvant to conventional chemo/radiotherapy. To date, no in vitro data are available on the cellular response and effect of either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or GSI on human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Consequently, we aimed to study the: (i) constitutive expression of Notch signaling pathway in CCA cell lines; (ii) response to Verteporfin-PDT and to GSI, as single agents on CCA cell lines; (iii) effect of Verteporfin-PDT on Notch signaling pathway expression. Expression of Notch signaling components was studied in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, HuCCT1 and TFK-1 (intra- and extrahepatic, respectively). No difference in basal expression of Notch1, 2 and Jagged1 was observed in either cell line. In contrast, Notch3 was found to be weakly and highly expressed in HuCCT1 and TFK-1 cells, respectively - supporting our recent microarray data which showed Notch3 overexpression in biliary brushings from patients with extrahepatic CCA. HuCCT1 and TFK-1 differentially responded to Verteporfin-PDT treatment; preliminary data showed no clear effect of GSI on proliferation/apoptosis in either cell line following short exposure (6 and 24h). Following Verteporfin-PDT, Notch1, 2 and Jagged-1 expression was down-regulated in both cell lines, while Notch3 expression was unaffected in HuCCT1 cells and down-regulated in TFK-1 cells. The Notch signaling pathway could represent a potential target for combination therapy in CCA treatment.

  12. Overexpression of protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 accelerates hepatocellular carcinoma progression via the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijie; Dong, Pingping; Liu, Longzi; Gao, Qiang; Duan, Meng; Zhang, Si; Chen, She; Xue, Ruyi; Wang, Xiaoying

    2016-04-29

    Aberrant activation of Notch signaling frequently occurs in liver cancer, and is associated with liver malignancies. However, the mechanisms regulating pathologic Notch activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) catalyzes the addition of O-linked fucose to the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of Notch. In the present study, we detected the expression of Pofut1 in 8 HCC cell lines and 253 human HCC tissues. We reported that Pofut1 was overexpressed in HCC cell lines and clinical HCC tissues, and Pofut1 overexpression clinically correlated with the unfavorable survival and high disease recurrence in HCC. The in vitro assay demonstrated that Pofut1 overexpression accelerated the cell proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Furthermore, Pofut1 overexpression promoted the binding of Notch ligand Dll1 to Notch receptor, and hence activated Notch signaling pathway in HCC cells, indicating that Pofut1 overexpression could be a reason for the aberrant activation of Notch signaling in HCC. Taken together, our findings indicated that an aberrant activated Pofut1-Notch pathway was involved in HCC progression, and blockage of this pathway could be a promising strategy for the therapy of HCC. PMID:27003260

  13. hCLP46 regulates U937 cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wenzhan; Du, Jie; Chu, Qiaoyun; Wang, Youxin; Liu, Lixin; Song, Manshu; Wang, Wei

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 by RNAi impairs mammalian Notch signaling. {yields} hCLP46 affects neither cell surface Notch1 expression nor ligand-receptor binding. {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 inhibits U937 cell-growth by up-regulation of CDKN1B. -- Abstract: Human CAP10-like protein 46 kDa (hCLP46) is the homolog of Rumi, which is the first identified protein O-glucosyltransferase that modifies Notch receptor in Drosophila. Dysregulation of hCLP46 occurs in many hematologic diseases, but the role of hCLP46 remains unclear. Knockdown of hCLP46 by RNA interference resulted in decreased protein levels of endogenous Notch1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Notch target gene Hes-1, suggesting the impairment of the Notch signaling. However, neither cell surface Notch expression nor ligand binding activities were affected. In addition, down-regulated expression of hCLP46 inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells, which was correlated with increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) CDKN1B (p27) and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) protein. We showed that lack of hCLP46 results in impaired ligand induced Notch activation in mammalian cell, and hCLP46 regulates the proliferation of U937 cell through CDKI-RB signaling pathway, which may be important for the pathogenesis of leukemia.

  14. The NOTCH signaling pathway: role in the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and implication for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tosello, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) is characterized by aberrant activation of NOTCH1 in over 60% of T-ALL cases. The high prevalence of activating NOTCH1 mutations highlights the critical role of NOTCH signaling in the pathogenesis of this disease and has prompted the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the NOTCH signaling pathway. Small molecule gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) can effectively inhibit oncogenic NOTCH1 and are in clinical testing for the treatment of T-ALL. Treatment with GSIs and glucocorticoids are strongly synergistic and may overcome the gastrointestinal toxicity associated with systemic inhibition of the NOTCH pathway. In addition, emerging new anti-NOTCH1 therapies include selective inhibition of NOTCH1 with anti-NOTCH1 antibodies and stapled peptides targeting the NOTCH transcriptional complex in the nucleus. PMID:23730497

  15. Downregulation of Notch Signaling Pathway in Late Preterm and Term Placentas from Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Soulitzis, Nikolaos; Sifakis, Stavros; Koutroulakis, Demetrios; Gourvas, Victor; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, affecting 3–5% of all pregnancies. The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role during placental development, activating several target genes. Defects in the Notch pathway have adverse effect on placentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of receptors NOTCH1,-2,-3,-4, ligands DLL1,-3,-4, JAG1,-2 and target genes HEY1,-2 in placental tissue samples from 20 late preterm or term pregnancies complicated by PE versus 20 normal pregnancies. mRNA levels of the studied molecules were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR), while the protein expression of the intracellular domain of NOTCH2 (NICD2) and NOTCH3 (NICD3) was measured by Western Blot (WB). qRT-PCR analysis revealed that NOTCH1, NOTCH4 and DLL1 were not expressed in the placenta. On the contrary, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, DLL3, DLL4, JAG1, JAG2, HEY1 and HEY2 mRNA levels were downregulated in PE samples vs. controls (p<0.01). WB confirmed that NICD2 (p = 0.014) and NICD3 (p<0.001) protein levels were also lower in PE specimens. Statistical analysis revealed several significant associations: of NOTCH3 mRNA expression with smoking during pregnancy (p = 0.029), of NICD3 protein levels (p = 0.028) and DLL3 mRNA levels (p = 0.041) with birth weight centile, and of HEY2 transcript levels with parity (p = 0.034) and mode of delivery (p = 0.028). Our results suggest that Notch pathway downregulation is associated with PE. Further studies are required in order to determine the role of these molecules in PE pathogenesis and to evaluate their potential use for the early detection and treatment of PE. PMID:25962154

  16. Quinomycin A targets Notch signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Dandawate, Prasad R; Dhar, Animesh; Tawfik, Ossama W; Parab, Rajashri R; Mishra, Prabhu Dutt; Ranadive, Prafull; Sharma, Rajiv; Mahajan, Girish; Umar, Shahid; Weir, Scott J; Sugumar, Aravind; Jensen, Roy A; Padhye, Subhash B; Balakrishnan, Arun; Anant, Shrikant; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam

    2016-01-19

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) appear to explain many aspects of the neoplastic evolution of tumors and likely account for enhanced therapeutic resistance following treatment. Dysregulated Notch signaling, which affects CSCs plays an important role in pancreatic cancer progression. We have determined the ability of Quinomycin to inhibit CSCs and the Notch signaling pathway. Quinomycin treatment resulted in significant inhibition of proliferation and colony formation in pancreatic cancer cell lines, but not in normal pancreatic epithelial cells. Moreover, Quinomycin affected pancreatosphere formation. The compound also decreased the expression of CSC marker proteins DCLK1, CD44, CD24 and EPCAM. In addition, flow cytometry studies demonstrated that Quinomycin reduced the number of DCLK1+ cells. Furthermore, levels of Notch 1-4 receptors, their ligands Jagged1, Jagged2, DLL1, DLL3, DLL4 and the downstream target protein Hes-1 were reduced. The γ-secretase complex proteins, Presenilin 1, Nicastrin, Pen2, and APH-1, required for Notch activation also exhibited decreased expression. Ectopic expression of the Notch Intracellular Domain (NICD) partially rescued the cells from Quinomycin mediated growth suppression. To determine the effect of Quinomycin on tumor growth in vivo, nude mice carrying tumor xenografts were administered Quinomycin intraperitoneally every day for 21 days. Treatment with the compound significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth, coupled with significant reduction in the expression of CSC markers and Notch signaling proteins. Together, these data suggest that Quinomycin is a potent inhibitor of pancreatic cancer that targets the stem cells by inhibiting Notch signaling proteins. PMID:26673007

  17. Corilagin suppresses cholangiocarcinoma progression through Notch signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yue; Xiao, Linfeng; Ming, Yanlin; Zheng, Zhizhong; Li, Wengang

    2016-05-01

    Corilagin is a natural plant polyphenol tannic acid with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. However, the mechanisms of its actions are largely unknown. Our group reported that corilagin could induce cell inhibition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2. We report here that corilagin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development through regulating Notch signaling pathway. We found that, in vitro, corilagin inhibited CCA cell proliferation, migration and invasion, promoted CCA cell apoptosis, and inhibited Notch1 and Notch signaling pathway protein expression. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to establish Notch intracellular domain (NICD) interaction with MAML1 and P300 in CCA. Importantly, corilagin reduced Hes1 mRNA level through inhibiting Hes1 promoter activity. In nude mice, corilagin inhibited CCA growth and repressed the expression of Notch1 and mTOR. These results indicate that corilagin may control CCA cell growth by downregulating the expression of Notch1. Therefore, our findings suggest that corilagin may have the potential to become a new therapeutic drug for human CCA. PMID:26935808

  18. Corilagin suppresses cholangiocarcinoma progression through Notch signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    GU, YUE; XIAO, LINFENG; MING, YANLIN; ZHENG, ZHIZHONG; LI, WENGANG

    2016-01-01

    Corilagin is a natural plant polyphenol tannic acid with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. However, the mechanisms of its actions are largely unknown. Our group reported that corilagin could induce cell inhibition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2. We report here that corilagin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development through regulating Notch signaling pathway. We found that, in vitro, corilagin inhibited CCA cell proliferation, migration and invasion, promoted CCA cell apoptosis, and inhibited Notch1 and Notch signaling pathway protein expression. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to establish Notch intracellular domain (NICD) interaction with MAML1 and P300 in CCA. Importantly, corilagin reduced Hes1 mRNA level through inhibiting Hes1 promoter activity. In nude mice, corilagin inhibited CCA growth and repressed the expression of Notch1 and mTOR. These results indicate that corilagin may control CCA cell growth by downregulating the expression of Notch1. Therefore, our findings suggest that corilagin may have the potential to become a new therapeutic drug for human CCA. PMID:26935808

  19. Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 13 through down-regulating Notch signaling pathway in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zeng, Li; Wang, Ze-ming; Zhang, Sihan; Rong, Xiao-Feng; Li, Rong-Heng

    2015-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that an excess of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in osteoarthritis (OA). Here, the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) on the expression of MMP-13 in IL-1β-induced SW 1353 chondrosarcoma cells and an experimental rat model of OA induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) were investigated. SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells were pretreated with or without GRb1 and Notch signaling pathway inhibitor, DAPT, then were stimulated with IL-1β. In rats, experimental OA was induced by ACLT. These rats then received intra-articular injections of vehicle, an inhibitor of γ-secretase, DAPT, and/or GRb1. Expression of MMP-13, collagen type II (CII), Notch1, and jagged 1 (JAG1) were verified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, levels of MMP-13 mRNA were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. In histological analyses, treatment with DAPT reduced the number of cartilage lesions present and the expressions of MMP-13, CII, Notch1, and JAG1. In addition, treatment with GRb1 was associated with lower levels of Notch1 and JAG1 in both IL-1β-induced SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells and in the rat OA model. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of GRb1 on MMP-13 was greater than that exhibited by the signaling pathway inhibitor. In conclusion, GRb1 inhibits MMP-13 through down-regulating Notch signaling pathway in OA. PMID:26062798

  20. BMP signaling balances murine myeloid potential through SMAD-independent p38MAPK and NOTCH pathways.

    PubMed

    Cook, Brandoch D; Evans, Todd

    2014-07-17

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates early hematopoietic development, proceeding from mesoderm patterning through the progressive commitment and differentiation of progenitor cells. The BMP pathway signals largely through receptor-mediated activation of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) proteins, although alternate pathways are modulated through various components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Using a conditional, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown system in the context of differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we demonstrated previously that Smad1 promotes hemangioblast specification, but then subsequently restricts primitive progenitor potential. Here we show that co-knockdown of Smad5 restores normal progenitor potential of Smad1-depleted cells, suggesting opposing functions for Smad1 and Smad5. This balance was confirmed by cotargeting Smad1/5 with a specific chemical antagonist, LDN193189 (LDN). However, we discovered that LDN treatment after hemangioblast commitment enhanced primitive myeloid potential. Moreover, inhibition with LDN (but not SMAD depletion) increased expression of Delta-like ligands Dll1 and Dll3 and NOTCH activity; abrogation of NOTCH activity restored LDN-enhanced myeloid potential back to normal, corresponding with expression levels of the myeloid master regulator, C/EBPα. LDN but not SMAD activity was also associated with activation of the p38MAPK pathway, and blocking this pathway was sufficient to enhance myelopoiesis. Therefore, NOTCH and p38MAPK pathways balance primitive myeloid progenitor output downstream of the BMP pathway. PMID:24894772

  1. Anticancer effect of eupatilin on glioma cells through inhibition of the Notch-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YAWEI; HOU, HONGWEI; LI, MING; YANG, YANG; SUN, LAN

    2016-01-01

    Eupatilin, one of the major flavonoids in Artemisia asiatica Nakai (Asteraceae), has been reported to possess antitumor properties. However, thus far there have been no reports regarding the effects of eupatilin on glioma. Therefore, in the current study the effects of eupatilin on glioma and the underlying molecular mechanism were explored. The effect of eupatilin on cell viability was detected by the MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were performed with Transwell assays and cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Notch-1 knockdown cells were established by transfection with Notch-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression levels of Notch-1 were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results of the present study indicated that eupatilin exhibits an anticancer effect on glioma cells. Eupatilin inhibited proliferation, reduced cell invasion and migration, and promoted the apoptosis of glioma cells. Additionally, it suppressed Notch-1 expression. Knockdown of Notch-1 by siRNA contributed to the inhibitory effect of eupatilin on proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. In conclusion, eupatilin had an inhibitory effect on proliferation, invasion and migration, and promoted apoptosis of glioma cells through suppression of the Notch-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, eupatilin may have potential as an effective agent for the treatment of glioma. PMID:26676446

  2. Constitutively active Notch1 induces growth arrest of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells via separate signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Talora, Claudio; Cialfi, Samantha; Segatto, Oreste; Morrone, Stefania; Kim Choi, John; Frati, Luigi; Paolo Dotto, Gian; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella . E-mail: isabella.screpanti@uniroma1.it

    2005-05-01

    Notch signaling plays a key role in cell-fate determination and differentiation in different organisms and cell types. Several reports suggest that Notch signaling may be involved in neoplastic transformation. However, in primary keratinocytes, Notch1 can function as a tumor suppressor. Similarly, in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, constitutively active Notch1 signaling was found to cause growth suppression. Activated Notch1 in these cells represses viral E6/E7 expression through AP-1 down-modulation, resulting in increased p53 expression and a block of pRb hyperphosphorylation. Here we show that in cervical cancer cell lines in which Notch1 ability to repress AP-1 activity is impaired, Notch1-enforced expression elicits an alternative pathway leading to growth arrest. Indeed, activated Notch1 signaling suppresses activity of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor E47, via ERK1/2 activation, resulting in inhibition of cell cycle progression. Moreover, we found that RBP-J{kappa}-dependent Notch signaling is specifically repressed in cervical cancer cells and this repression could provide one such mechanism that needs to be activated for cervical carcinogenesis. Finally, we show that inhibition of endogenous Notch1 signaling, although results in a proliferative advantage, sensitizes cervical cancer cell lines to drug-induced apoptosis. Together, our results provide novel molecular insights into Notch1-dependent growth inhibitory effects, counteracting the transforming potential of HPV.

  3. Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway play important roles in activating liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A; Cheng, Bin

    2016-02-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC. PMID:26735577

  4. Notch signals positively regulate activity of the mTOR pathway in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Steven M.; Weng, Andrew P.; Tibshirani, Robert; Aster, Jon C.

    2007-01-01

    Constitutive Notch activation is required for the proliferation of a subgroup of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Downstream pathways that transmit pro-oncogenic signals are not well characterized. To identify these pathways, protein microarrays were used to profile the phosphorylation state of 108 epitopes on 82 distinct signaling proteins in a panel of 13 T-cell leukemia cell lines treated with a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to inhibit Notch signals. The microarray screen detected GSI-induced hypophosphorylation of multiple signaling proteins in the mTOR pathway. This effect was rescued by expression of the intracellular domain of Notch and mimicked by dominant negative MAML1, confirming Notch specificity. Withdrawal of Notch signals prevented stimulation of the mTOR pathway by mitogenic factors. These findings collectively suggest that the mTOR pathway is positively regulated by Notch in T-ALL cells. The effect of GSI on the mTOR pathway was independent of changes in phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and Akt activity, but was rescued by expression of c-Myc, a direct transcriptional target of Notch, implicating c-Myc as an intermediary between Notch and mTOR. T-ALL cell growth was suppressed in a highly synergistic manner by simultaneous treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and GSI, which represents a rational drug combination for treating this aggressive human malignancy. PMID:17363738

  5. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Hua; Qi, Shao-Hai; Shu, Bin; Ruan, Shu-Bin; Lin, Ze-Peng; Lin, Yan; Shen, Rui; Zhang, Feng-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Ju-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic, non-healing wounds are a major complication of diabetes. Recently, various cell therapies have been reported for promotion of diabetic wound healing. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are considered a powerful tool for tissue therapy. However, the effect and the mechanism of the therapeutic properties of ESCs in the diabetic wound healing are unclear. Herein, to determine the ability of ESCs to diabetic wound healing, a dorsal skin defect in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) mouse model was used. ESCs were isolated from mouse skin. We found that both the mRNA and protein levels of a Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1), Notch1 and Notch target gene Hairy Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) were significantly increased at the wound margins. In addition, we observed that Jag1 was high expressed in ESCs. Overexpression of Jag1 promotes ESCs migration, whereas knockdown Jag1 resulted in a significant reduction in ESCs migration in vitro. Importantly, Jag1 overexpression improves diabetic wound healing in vivo. These results provide evidence that ESCs accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway, and provide a promising potential for activation of the Notch pathway for the treatment of diabetic wound. PMID:27129289

  6. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong-Hua; Qi, Shao-Hai; Shu, Bin; Ruan, Shu-Bin; Lin, Ze-Peng; Lin, Yan; Shen, Rui; Zhang, Feng-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Ju-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic, non-healing wounds are a major complication of diabetes. Recently, various cell therapies have been reported for promotion of diabetic wound healing. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are considered a powerful tool for tissue therapy. However, the effect and the mechanism of the therapeutic properties of ESCs in the diabetic wound healing are unclear. Herein, to determine the ability of ESCs to diabetic wound healing, a dorsal skin defect in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) mouse model was used. ESCs were isolated from mouse skin. We found that both the mRNA and protein levels of a Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1), Notch1 and Notch target gene Hairy Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) were significantly increased at the wound margins. In addition, we observed that Jag1 was high expressed in ESCs. Overexpression of Jag1 promotes ESCs migration, whereas knockdown Jag1 resulted in a significant reduction in ESCs migration in vitro Importantly, Jag1 overexpression improves diabetic wound healing in vivo These results provide evidence that ESCs accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway, and provide a promising potential for activation of the Notch pathway for the treatment of diabetic wound. PMID:27129289

  7. Epidermal growth factor promotes proliferation of dermal papilla cells via Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Nan, Weixiao; Wang, Shiyong; Zhang, Tietao; Si, Huazhe; Wang, Datao; Yang, Fuhe; Li, Guangyu

    2016-08-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the development and growth of hair follicle is controversial. In the present study, 2-20 ng/ml EGF promoted the growth of mink hair follicles in vitro, whereas 200 ng/ml EGF inhibited follicle growth. Further, dermal papilla (DP) cells, a group of mesenchymal cells that govern hair follicle development and growth, were isolated and cultured in vitro. Treatment with or forced expression of EGF accelerated proliferation and induced G1/S transition in DP cells. Moreover, EGF upregulated the expression of DP mesenchymal genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), as well as the Notch pathway molecules including Notch1, Jagged1, Hes1 and Hes5. In addition, inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by DAPT significantly reduced the basal and EGF-enhanced proliferation rate, and also suppressed cell cycle progression. We also show that the expression of several follicle-regulatory genes, such as Survivin and Msx2, were upregulated by EGF, and was inhibited by DAPT. In summary, our study demonstrates that the concentration of EGF is critical for the switch between hair follicle growth and inhibition, and EGF promotes DP cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27109378

  8. Repression of Ccr9 transcription in mouse T lymphocyte progenitors by the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Carr, Tiffany; de Pooter, Renee F; Emanuelle, Akinola Olumide; Akinola, Emanuelle Olumide; Gounari, Fotini; Kee, Barbara L

    2015-04-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR9 controls the immigration of multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells into the thymus to sustain T cell development. Postimmigration, thymocytes downregulate CCR9 and migrate toward the subcapsular zone where they recombine their TCR β-chain and γ-chain gene loci. CCR9 is subsequently upregulated and participates in the localization of thymocytes during their selection for self-tolerant receptor specificities. Although the dynamic regulation of CCR9 is essential for early T cell development, the mechanisms controlling CCR9 expression have not been determined. In this article, we show that key regulators of T cell development, Notch1 and the E protein transcription factors E2A and HEB, coordinately control the expression of Ccr9. E2A and HEB bind at two putative enhancers upstream of Ccr9 and positively regulate CCR9 expression at multiple stages of T cell development. In contrast, the canonical Notch signaling pathway prevents the recruitment of p300 to the putative Ccr9 enhancers, resulting in decreased acetylation of histone H3 and a failure to recruit RNA polymerase II to the Ccr9 promoter. Although Notch signaling modestly modulates the binding of E proteins to one of the two Ccr9 enhancers, we found that Notch signaling represses Ccr9 in T cell lymphoma lines in which Ccr9 transcription is independent of E protein function. Our data support the hypothesis that activation of Notch1 has a dominant-negative effect on Ccr9 transcription and that Notch1 and E proteins control the dynamic expression of Ccr9 during T cell development. PMID:25710912

  9. The Parkinson's Disease-Associated Protein Kinase LRRK2 Modulates Notch Signaling through the Endosomal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Yoshito; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Meng, Hongrui; Arano, Taku; Uemura, Kengo; Asano, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Kenji; Zhang, Chang-Liang; Matsumoto, Gen; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2015-09-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We have identified two novel LRRK2-associated proteins, a HECT-type ubiquitin ligase, HERC2, and an adaptor-like protein with six repeated Neuralized domains, NEURL4. LRRK2 binds to NEURL4 and HERC2 via the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC) domain and NEURL4, respectively. HERC2 and NEURL4 link LRRK2 to the cellular vesicle transport pathway and Notch signaling, through which the LRRK2 complex promotes the recycling of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1)/Delta (Dl) through the modulation of endosomal trafficking. This process negatively regulates Notch signaling through cis-inhibition by stabilizing Dll1/Dl, which accelerates neural stem cell differentiation and modulates the function and survival of differentiated dopaminergic neurons. These effects are strengthened by the R1441G ROC domain-mutant of LRRK2. These findings suggest that the alteration of Notch signaling in mature neurons is a component of PD etiology linked to LRRK2. PMID:26355680

  10. Lkb1 deletion upregulates Pax7 expression through activating Notch signaling pathway in myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Zhang, Pengpeng; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yizhen; Kuang, Shihuan

    2016-07-01

    Satellite cells play crucial roles in mediating the growth, maintenance, and repair of postnatal skeletal muscle. Activated satellite cells (myoblasts) can divide symmetrically or asymmetrically to generate progenies that self-renewal, proliferate or differentiate. Pax7 is a defining marker of quiescent and activated satellite cells, but not differentiated myoblast. We demonstrate here that deletion of Lkb1 upregulates Pax7 expression in myoblasts and inhibits asymmetric divisions that generate differentiating progenies. Furthermore, we find that Lkb1 activates the Notch signaling pathway, which subsequently increases Pax7 expression and promotes self-renewal and proliferation while inhibiting differentiation. Mechanistic studies reveal that Lkb1 regulates Notch activation through AMPK-mTOR pathway in myoblasts. Together, these results establish a key role of Lkb1 in regulating myoblast division and cell fates choices. PMID:27131604

  11. mTORC1 Prevents Preosteoblast Differentiation through the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Yongkui; Wang, Wenhao; Chen, Juan; Lai, Pinglin; Liu, Zhongyu; Yan, Bo; Xu, Song; Zhang, Zhongmin; Zeng, Chun; Rong, Limin; Liu, Bin; Cai, Daozhang; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates both intracellular and extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and metabolism. However, the role of mTOR signaling in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation is undefined, and the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we report that activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is required for preosteoblast proliferation; however, inactivation of mTORC1 is essential for their differentiation and maturation. Inhibition of mTORC1 prevented preosteoblast proliferation, but enhanced their differentiation in vitro and in mice. Activation of mTORC1 by deletion of tuberous sclerosis 1 (Tsc1) in preosteoblasts produced immature woven bone in mice due to excess proliferation but impaired differentiation and maturation of the cells. The mTORC1-specific inhibitor, rapamycin, restored these in vitro and in vivo phenotypic changes. Mechanistically, mTORC1 prevented osteoblast maturation through activation of the STAT3/p63/Jagged/Notch pathway and downregulation of Runx2. Preosteoblasts with hyperactive mTORC1 reacquired the capacity to fully differentiate and maturate when subjected to inhibition of the Notch pathway. Together, these findings identified the role of mTORC1 in osteoblast formation and established that mTORC1 prevents preosteoblast differentiation and maturation through activation of the Notch pathway. PMID:26241748

  12. Interactions between the juvenile Batten disease gene, CLN3, and the Notch and JNK signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, Richard I.; Vivancos, Valérie; O'Hare, Megan B.; Tear, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the gene CLN3 are responsible for the neurodegenerative disorder juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis or Batten disease. CLN3 encodes a multi-spanning and hydrophobic transmembrane protein whose function is unclear. As a consequence, the cell biology that underlies the pathology of the disease is not well understood. We have developed a genetic gain-of-function system in Drosophila to identify functional pathways and interactions for CLN3. We have identified previously unknown interactions between CLN3 and the Notch and Jun N-terminal kinase signalling pathways and have uncovered a potential role for the RNA splicing and localization machinery in regulating CLN3 function. PMID:19028667

  13. Development of the Drosophila entero-endocrine lineage and its specification by the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L; Ortiz, Paola A; Ying, Chong T; Moridzadeh, Rameen; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2011-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated the developmental-genetic steps that shape the entero-endocrine system of Drosophila melanogaster from the embryo to the adult. The process starts in the endoderm of the early embryo where precursors of endocrine cells and enterocytes of the larval midgut, as well as progenitors of the adult midgut, are specified by a Notch signaling-dependent mechanism. In a second step that occurs during the late larval period, enterocytes and endocrine cells of a transient pupal midgut are selected from within the clusters of adult midgut progenitors. As in the embryo, activation of the Notch pathway triggers enterocyte differentiation and inhibits cells from further proliferation or choosing the endocrine fate. The third step of entero-endocrine cell development takes place at a mid-pupal stage. Before this time point, the epithelial layer destined to become the adult midgut is devoid of endocrine cells. However, precursors of the intestinal midgut stem cells (pISCs) are already present. After an initial phase of symmetric divisions which causes an increase in their own population size, pISCs start to spin off cells that become postmitotic and express the endocrine fate marker, Prospero. Activation of Notch in pISCs forces these cells into an enterocyte fate. Loss of Notch function causes an increase in the proliferatory activity of pISCs, as well as a higher ratio of Prospero-positive cells. PMID:21382366

  14. Development of the Drosophila entero-endocrine lineage and its specification by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L.; Ortiz, Paola A.; Ying, Chong T.; Moridzadeh, Rameen; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the developmental-genetic steps that shape the entero-endocrine system of Drosophila melanogaster from the embryo to the adult. The process starts in the endoderm of the early embryo where precursors of endocrine cells and enterocytes of the larval midgut, as well as progenitors of the adult midgut, are specified by a Notch signaling-dependent mechanism. In a second step that occurs during the late larval period, enterocytes and endocrine cells of a transient pupal midgut are selected from within the clusters of adult midgut progenitors. As in the embryo, activation of the Notch pathway triggers enterocyte differentiation, and inhibits cells from further proliferation or choosing the endocrine fate. The third step of entero-endocrine cell development takes place at a mid-pupal stage. Before this time point, the epithelial layer destined to become the adult midgut is devoid of endocrine cells. However, precursors of the intestinal midgut stem cells (pISCs) are already present. After an initial phase of symmetric divisions which causes an increase in their own population size, pISCs start to spin off cells that become postmitotic and express the endocrine fate marker, Prospero. Activation of Notch in pISCs forces these cells into an enterocyte fate. Loss of Notch function causes an increase in the proliferatory activity of pISCs, as well as a higher ratio of Prospero-positive cells. PMID:21382366

  15. Dominant Enhancers of Egfr in Drosophila Melanogaster: Genetic Links between the Notch and Egfr Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. V.; Savenye, E. D.; Lum, D.; Breitkreutz, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a key component of a complex signaling pathway that participates in multiple developmental processes. We have performed an F(1) screen for mutations that cause dominant enhancement of wing vein phenotypes associated with mutations in Egfr. With this screen, we have recovered mutations in Hairless (H), vein, groucho (gro), and three apparently novel loci. All of the E(Egfr)s we have identified show dominant interactions in transheterozygous combinations with each other and with alleles of N or Su(H), suggesting that they are involved in cross-talk between the N and EGFR signaling pathways. Further examination of the phenotypic interactions between Egfr, H, and gro revealed that reductions in Egfr activity enhanced both the bristle loss associated with H mutations, and the bristle hyperplasia and ocellar hypertrophy associated with gro mutations. Double mutant combinations of Egfr and gro hypomorphic alleles led to the formation of ectopic compound eyes in a dosage sensitive manner. Our findings suggest that these E(Egfr)s represent links between the Egfr and Notch signaling pathways, and that Egfr activity can either promote or suppress Notch signaling, depending on its developmental context. PMID:9383058

  16. Resveratrol can prevent CCl₄-induced liver injury by inhibiting Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Gamze; Kaya-Dagistanli, Fatma; Ayla, Sule; Demirci, Sibel; Eser, Mediha; Unal, Z Seda; Cengiz, Mujgan; Oktar, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    We investigated whether Notch signaling was increased in an experimental liver fibrosis model and examined the effects of resveratrol on Notch expression. Rats were divided into four groups: the control group, injected with physiological saline; the CCl₄ group; the CCl₄ plus resveratrol group; and the resveratrol group. After treatment, immunostaining was performed to detect Notch1, Notch3, Notch4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and TUNEL assays were performed to evaluate apoptosis. Sirius red staining was used to detect fibrosis. Samples were also biochemically evaluated for glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. GSH, GPx, and catalase activities were significantly decreased (p⟨0.001) in the CCl₄ group. Distinct collagen accumulation was detected around the central vein and portal areas, and numbers of Notch1-, Notch3-, and Notch4-positive cells were significantly increased (p⟨0.001) in fibrotic areas in the CCl₄ group. Increased expression of Notch proteins in fibrotic areas may support the role of Notch in mediating signaling associated with liver fibrosis through activation of hepatic stellate and progenitor cells. In contrast, resveratrol prevented liver fibrosis by decreasing lipid peroxidation and may be effective for inhibiting Notch signaling. PMID:26742567

  17. Monomeric C-reactive protein and Notch-3 co-operatively increase angiogenesis through PI3K signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Boras, Emhamed; Slevin, Mark; Alexander, M Yvonne; Aljohi, Ali; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason; Krupinski, Jerzy; Potempa, Lawrence A; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Elobeid, Adila; Matou-Nasri, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is the most acute-phase reactant serum protein of inflammation and a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Its expression is associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability and the formation of immature micro-vessels. We have previously shown that CRP upregulates endothelial-derived Notch-3, a key receptor involved in vascular development, remodelling and maturation. In this study, we investigated the links between the bioactive monomeric CRP (mCRP) and Notch-3 signalling in angiogenesis. We used in vitro (cell counting, wound-healing and tubulogenesis assays) and in vivo (chorioallantoic membrane) angiogenic assays and Western blotting to study the angiogenic signalling pathways induced by mCRP and Notch-3 activator chimera protein (Notch-3/Fc). Our results showed an additive effect on angiogenesis of mCRP stimulatory effect combined with Notch-3/Fc promoting bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation, migration, tube formation in Matrigel(TM) with up-regulation of phospho-Akt expression. The pharmacological blockade of PI3K/Akt survival pathway by LY294002 fully inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis induced by mCRP/Notch-3/Fc combination while blocking Notch signalling by gamma-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) partially inhibited mCRP/Notch-3/Fc-induced angiogenesis. Using a BAEC vascular smooth muscle cell co-culture sprouting angiogenesis assay and transmission electron microscopy, we showed that activation of both mCRP and Notch-3 signalling induced the formation of thicker sprouts which were shown later by Western blotting to be associated with an up-regulation of N-cadherin expression and a down-regulation of VE-cadherin expression. Thus, mCRP combined with Notch-3 activator promote angiogenesis through the PI3K/Akt pathway and their therapeutic combination has potential to promote and stabilize vessel formation whilst reducing the risk of haemorrhage from unstable plaques. PMID:24972386

  18. Notch Signaling Components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Yan; Wu, Tao; Li, Qing; Wang, Min-Cong; Jing, Li; Ruan, Zhi-Ping; Yao, Yu; Nan, Ke-Jun; Guo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies. PMID:27196489

  19. Protein O-Fucosyltransferase 1 Expression Impacts Myogenic C2C12 Cell Commitment via the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Der Vartanian, Audrey; Audfray, Aymeric; Al Jaam, Bilal; Janot, Mathilde; Legardinier, Sébastien; Maftah, Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle regeneration in mammals by controlling the transition of satellite cells from quiescence to an activated state, their proliferation, and their commitment toward myotubes or self-renewal. O-fucosylation on Notch receptor epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats is catalyzed by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) and primarily controls Notch interaction with its ligands. To approach the role of O-fucosylation in myogenesis, we analyzed a murine myoblastic C2C12 cell line downregulated for Pofut1 expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition during the time course of differentiation. Knockdown of Pofut1 affected the signaling pathway activation by a reduction of the amount of cleaved Notch intracellular domain and a decrease in downstream Notch target gene expression. Depletion in Pax7+/MyoD− cells and earlier myogenic program entrance were observed, leading to an increase in myotube quantity with a small number of nuclei, reflecting fusion defects. The rescue of Pofut1 expression in knockdown cells restored Notch signaling activation and a normal course in C2C12 differentiation. Our results establish the critical role of Pofut1 on Notch pathway activation during myogenic differentiation. PMID:25384974

  20. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Judy S.; Singleton, Ciera S.; Miele, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas, and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems such as Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required. PMID:27148486

  1. Changes in the regulation of the Notch signaling pathway are temporally correlated with regenerative failure in the mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Maass, Juan C.; Gu, Rende; Basch, Martin L.; Waldhaus, Joerg; Lopez, Eduardo Martin; Xia, Anping; Oghalai, John S.; Heller, Stefan; Groves, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is most commonly caused by the death of hair cells in the organ of Corti, and once lost, mammalian hair cells do not regenerate. In contrast, other vertebrates such as birds can regenerate hair cells by stimulating division and differentiation of neighboring supporting cells. We currently know little of the genetic networks which become active in supporting cells when hair cells die and that are activated in experimental models of hair cell regeneration. Several studies have shown that neonatal mammalian cochlear supporting cells are able to trans-differentiate into hair cells when cultured in conditions in which the Notch signaling pathway is blocked. We now show that the ability of cochlear supporting cells to trans-differentiate declines precipitously after birth, such that supporting cells from six-day-old mouse cochlea are entirely unresponsive to a blockade of the Notch pathway. We show that this trend is seen regardless of whether the Notch pathway is blocked with gamma secretase inhibitors, or by antibodies against the Notch1 receptor, suggesting that the action of gamma secretase inhibitors on neonatal supporting cells is likely to be by inhibiting Notch receptor cleavage. The loss of responsiveness to inhibition of the Notch pathway in the first postnatal week is due in part to a down-regulation of Notch receptors and ligands, and we show that this down-regulation persists in the adult animal, even under conditions of noise damage. Our data suggest that the Notch pathway is used to establish the repeating pattern of hair cells and supporting cells in the organ of Corti, but is not required to maintain this cellular mosaic once the production of hair cells and supporting cells is completed. Our results have implications for the proposed used of Notch pathway inhibitors in hearing restoration therapies. PMID:25873862

  2. Changes in the regulation of the Notch signaling pathway are temporally correlated with regenerative failure in the mouse cochlea.

    PubMed

    Maass, Juan C; Gu, Rende; Basch, Martin L; Waldhaus, Joerg; Lopez, Eduardo Martin; Xia, Anping; Oghalai, John S; Heller, Stefan; Groves, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is most commonly caused by the death of hair cells in the organ of Corti, and once lost, mammalian hair cells do not regenerate. In contrast, other vertebrates such as birds can regenerate hair cells by stimulating division and differentiation of neighboring supporting cells. We currently know little of the genetic networks which become active in supporting cells when hair cells die and that are activated in experimental models of hair cell regeneration. Several studies have shown that neonatal mammalian cochlear supporting cells are able to trans-differentiate into hair cells when cultured in conditions in which the Notch signaling pathway is blocked. We now show that the ability of cochlear supporting cells to trans-differentiate declines precipitously after birth, such that supporting cells from six-day-old mouse cochlea are entirely unresponsive to a blockade of the Notch pathway. We show that this trend is seen regardless of whether the Notch pathway is blocked with gamma secretase inhibitors, or by antibodies against the Notch1 receptor, suggesting that the action of gamma secretase inhibitors on neonatal supporting cells is likely to be by inhibiting Notch receptor cleavage. The loss of responsiveness to inhibition of the Notch pathway in the first postnatal week is due in part to a down-regulation of Notch receptors and ligands, and we show that this down-regulation persists in the adult animal, even under conditions of noise damage. Our data suggest that the Notch pathway is used to establish the repeating pattern of hair cells and supporting cells in the organ of Corti, but is not required to maintain this cellular mosaic once the production of hair cells and supporting cells is completed. Our results have implications for the proposed used of Notch pathway inhibitors in hearing restoration therapies. PMID:25873862

  3. miR-124 interacts with the Notch1 signalling pathway and has therapeutic potential against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Lin, Tiesu; Xu, Chaochao; Hu, Sunkuan; Pan, Yangyang; Jin, Rong

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant Notch signalling plays an important role in cancer progression. However, little is known about the interaction between miRNA and the Notch signalling pathway and its role in gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we found that miR-124 was down-regulated in GC compared with adjacent normal tissue. Forced expression of miR-124 inhibited GC cell growth, migration and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest. miR-124 negatively regulated Notch1 signalling by targeting JAG1. miR-124 levels were also shown to be inversely correlated with JAG1 expression in GC. Furthermore, we found that the overexpression of the intracellular domain of Notch1 repressed miR-124 expression, promoted GC cell growth, migration and invasion. Conversely, blocking Notch1 using a γ-secretase inhibitor up-regulated miR-124 expression, inhibited GC cell growth, migration and invasion. In conclusion, our data demonstrates a regulatory feedback loop between miR-124 and Notch1 signalling in GC cells, suggesting that the miR-124/Notch axis may be a potential therapeutic target against GC. PMID:26612211

  4. Kick it up a notch: Notch signaling and kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweetwyne, Mariya T; Tao, Jianling; Susztak, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Notch is a critical regulator of kidney development, but the pathway is mostly silenced once kidney maturation is achieved. Recent reports demonstrated increased expression of Notch receptors and ligands both in acute and chronic kidney injury. In vivo studies indicated that Notch activation might contribute to regeneration after acute kidney injury; on the other hand, sustained Notch expression is causally associated with interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the role of the Notch signaling with special focus on kidney fibrosis. PMID:26312157

  5. WNT antagonist, DKK2, is a Notch signaling target in intestinal stem cells: augmentation of a negative regulation system for canonical WNT signaling pathway by the Notch-DKK2 signaling loop in primates.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Notch and WNT signaling pathways are key components of the stem cell signaling network. Canonical WNT signaling to intestinal progenitor cells leads to transcriptional activation of the JAG1 gene, encoding Serrate-type Notch ligand. JAG1 then binds to the Notch receptor on adjacent stem cells to induce Notch receptor proteolyses for the release of Notch intracellular domain (NICD). NICD is associated with CSL/RBPSUH and Mastermind (MAML1, MAML2, or MAML3) to activate Notch target genes, such as HES1 and HES5. Although WNT-dependent Notch signaling activation in intestinal stem cells is clarified, the effects of Notch signaling activation on WNT signaling in progenitor cells remain unclear. We searched for Notch-response element (NRE) in the promoter region of genes encoding secreted WNT signaling inhibitors, including DKK1, DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1. Double NREs were identified within human DKK2 promoter by bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). The human DKK2 gene was characterized as Notch signaling target in intestinal stem cells. Because DKK2 is a key player in the stem cell signaling network, the DKK2 gene at human chromosome 4q25 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene inactivated due to epigenetic silencing and/or deletion. The chimpanzee DKK2 gene was identified within the NW_105990.1 genome sequence, while the cow Dkk2 gene was identified within the AC156664.2 and AC158038.2 genome sequences. Chimpanzee DKK2 and cow Dkk2 showed 98.5% and 95.8% total-amino-acid identity with human DKK2, respectively. Double NREs in human DKK2 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee DKK2 promoter, partially in rat Dkk2 promoter, but not in cow and mouse Dkk2 promoters. The Notch-DKK2 signaling loop, created or potentiated in primates, was complementary to WNT-DKK1 and BMP-IHH-SFRP1 signaling loops for negative regulation of canonical WNT signaling pathway. Together, these facts indicate that DKK2 promoter evolution resulted in the

  6. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yong; Zheng, Gui-Zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-Xiao; Lin, Fei-Xiang; Liu, De-Zhong; Wu, Chu-Cheng; Du, Shi-Xin; Li, Xue-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  7. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guo-yong; Zheng, Gui-zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-xiao; Lin, Fei-xiang; Liu, De-zhong; Wu, Chu-cheng; Du, Shi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  8. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 promotes the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cell via activating Notch-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fengqin; Zhang, Zhi-qiang; Fang, Yong-chao; Li, Xiao-lei; Sun, Yu; Xiong, Chuan-zhi; Yan, Lian-qi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) is identified to be overexpressed in several cancers. However, the role of MALAT-1 in chondrosarcoma is poorly understood. Methods The expression of MALAT-1 and Notch-1 signaling pathway was detected in chondrosarcoma tissues and chondrosarcoma cells by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to examine the cell viability of chondrosarcoma cells transfected with si-MALAT-1 or pcDNA-MALAT-1. Then the expression of Notch-1 signaling pathway was detected when MALAT-1 was upregulated or downregulated in chondrosarcoma cells. A subcutaneous chondrosarcoma cells xenograft model was used to confirm the effect of MALAT-1 on tumor growth in vivo. Results We found the increased expression of MALAT-1 and Notch-1 signaling pathway in chondrosarcoma tissue and cells. MALAT-1 promoted the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells. In addition, MALAT-1 activated the Notch-1 signaling pathway at posttranscriptional level in chondrosarcoma cells. Meanwhile, overexpression of Notch-1 reversed the effect of si-MALAT-1 on the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells. Finally, we found that MALAT-1 promoted the tumor growth in a subcutaneous chondrosarcoma cells xenograft model, which confirmed the promoted effect of MALAT-1 on the tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion Taken together, our study demonstrated that MALAT-1 promoted the proliferation of chondrosarcoma cell via activating Notch-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27110130

  9. Quetiapine Ameliorates Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors and Protects Myelin Integrity in Cuprizone Intoxicated Mice: The Involvement of Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-ning; Liu, Gao-hua; Zhang, Rui-guo; Xue, Fen; Wu, Di; Chen, Yun-chun; Peng, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Background: White matter disturbances and myelin impairment are key features of schizophrenia. The antipsychotic drug quetiapine can promote the maturation of oligodendrocytes, but the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Methods: The schizophrenia-like behaviors, degrees of demyelination, and levels of Notch signaling molecules in forebrains of adult male C57BL/6 mice were examined after fed with cuprizone (0.2% wt/wt) in the presence or absence of 10mg/kg/d quetiapine for 6 weeks. These parameters were also observed after the transcranial injection of Notch signaling inhibitor MW167 (1mM) daily during the last week of the treatment period. Results: Quetiapine ameliorated the schizophrenia-like behaviors and decreased expression of myelin basic protein and inhibition of Notch signaling molecules, such as Notch1, Hes1, and Hes5, in the forebrain that induced by cuprizone. These beneficial effects of quetiapine were abolished by MW167. Conclusions: The antipsychotic and myelin protective effects of quetiapine are mediated by Notch signaling in a mouse model of cuprizone-induced demyelination associated with schizophrenia-like behaviors. The Notch pathway might therefore be a novel target for the development of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:26232790

  10. Notching on Cancer's Door: Notch Signaling in Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Teodorczyk, Marcin; Schmidt, Mirko H H

    2014-01-01

    Notch receptors play an essential role in the regulation of central cellular processes during embryonic and postnatal development. The mammalian genome encodes for four Notch paralogs (Notch 1-4), which are activated by three Delta-like (Dll1/3/4) and two Serrate-like (Jagged1/2) ligands. Further, non-canonical Notch ligands such as epidermal growth factor like protein 7 (EGFL7) have been identified and serve mostly as antagonists of Notch signaling. The Notch pathway prevents neuronal differentiation in the central nervous system by driving neural stem cell maintenance and commitment of neural progenitor cells into the glial lineage. Notch is therefore often implicated in the development of brain tumors, as tumor cells share various characteristics with neural stem and progenitor cells. Notch receptors are overexpressed in gliomas and their oncogenicity has been confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo. To this end, special attention is paid to the impact of Notch signaling on stem-like brain tumor-propagating cells as these cells contribute to growth, survival, invasion, and recurrence of brain tumors. Based on the outcome of ongoing studies in vivo, Notch-directed therapies such as γ-secretase inhibitors and blocking antibodies have entered and completed various clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on Notch signaling in brain tumor formation and therapy. PMID:25601901

  11. Notch Signaling and the Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Notch 1 to 4 receptors are important determinants of cell fate and function, and Notch signaling plays an important role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. After direct interactions with ligands of the Jagged and Delta-like families, a series of cleavages release the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which translocates to the nucleus where it induces transcription of Notch target genes. Classic gene targets of Notch are hairy and enhancer of split (Hes) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey). In cells of the osteoblastic lineage, Notch activation inhibits cell differentiation and causes cancellous bone osteopenia because of impaired bone formation. In osteocytes, Notch1 has distinct effects that result in an inhibition of bone resorption secondary to an induction of osteoprotegerin and suppression of sclerostin with a consequent enhancement of Wnt signaling. Notch1 inhibits, whereas Notch2 enhances, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Congenital disorders of loss- and gain-of-Notch function present with severe clinical manifestations, often affecting the skeleton. Enhanced Notch signaling is associated with osteosarcoma, and Notch can influence the invasive potential of carcinoma of the breast and prostate. Notch signaling can be controlled by the use of inhibitors of Notch activation, small peptides that interfere with the formation of a transcriptional complex, or antibodies to the extracellular domain of specific Notch receptors or to Notch ligands. In conclusion, Notch plays a critical role in skeletal development and homeostasis, and serious skeletal disorders can be attributed to alterations in Notch signaling. PMID:27074349

  12. Role of Notch-1 signaling pathway in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Huimin; Zhang, Yaozhou; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wei, Tianxiang; Lou, Jiyu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch-1 expression is increased in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease patients. We speculate that Notch-1 signaling may be involved in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) (Aβ25–35). In the present study, PC12 cells were cultured with different doses (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 nmol/L) of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a Notch-1 signaling pathway inhibitor, for 30 minutes. Then cultured cells were induced with Aβ25–35 for 48 hours. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with high doses of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (> 10 nmol/L) prolonged the survival of PC12 cells after Aβ25–35 induction, decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, -8, -9, increased the activity of oxidative stress-related superoxide dismutase and catalase, inhibited the production of active oxygen, and reduced nuclear factor kappa B expression. This study indicates that the Notch-1 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in Aβ25–35-induced PC12 apoptosis. PMID:25221582

  13. Notch signaling in skeletal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Notch receptors are single-pass transmembrane proteins that determine cell fate. Upon Notch ligand interactions, proteolytic cleavages release the Notch intracellular domain, which translocates to the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes, including Hairy enhancer of split (Hes) and Hes related to YRPW motif (Hey). Notch is critical for skeletal development and activity of skeletal cells, and dysregulation of Notch signaling is associated with human diseases affecting the skeleton. Inherited or sporadic mutations in components of the Notch signaling pathway are associated with spondylocostal dysostosis, spondylothoracic dysostosis and recessive brachydactyly, diseases characterized by skeletal patterning defects. Inactivating mutations of the Notch ligand JAG1 or of NOTCH2 are associated with Alagille syndrome, and activating mutations in NOTCH2 are associated with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS). Individuals affected by HCS exhibit osteolysis in distal phalanges and osteoporosis. NOTCH is activated in selected tumors, such as osteosarcoma, and in breast cancer cells that form osteolytic bone metastases. In conclusion, Notch regulates skeletal development and bone remodeling, and gain- or loss-of-function mutations of Notch signaling result in important skeletal diseases. PMID:23554451

  14. Overexpression of miR-34c inhibits high glucose-induced apoptosis in podocytes by targeting Notch signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Lian-Yun; Zhu, Tie-Chui; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Wang, Shu-Long; Bao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that microRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. miR-34c has been found to inhibit fibrosis and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of kidney cells. However, the role of miR-34c in diabetic nephropathy has not been well studied. The current study was designed to investigate the role and potential underlying mechanism of miR-34c in regulating diabetic nephropathy. After treating podocytes with high glucose (HG) in vitro, we found that miR-34c was downregulated and that overexpression of miR-34c inhibited HG-induced podocyte apoptosis. The direct interaction between miR-34c and the 3’-untranslated region (UTR) of Notch1 and Jagged1 was validated by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, Notch1 and Jagged1 as putative targets of miR-34c were downregulated by miR-34c overexpression in HG-treated podocytes. Overexpression of miR-34c inhibited HG-induced Notch signaling pathway activation, as indicated by decreased expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and downstream genes including Hes1 and Hey1. Furthermore, miR-34c overexpression increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, and decreased the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and cleaved Caspase-3. Additionally, the phosphorylation of p53 was also downregulated by miR-34c overexpression. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-34c overexpression inhibits the Notch signaling pathway by targeting Notch1 and Jaggged1 in HG-treated podocytes, representing a novel and potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26191142

  15. Electroacupuncture in the repair of spinal cord injury: inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway and promoting neural stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xin; Sun, Tao; Li, Jing-hui; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Yong; Yu, Hua-lin

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture for the treatment of spinal cord injury has a good clinical curative effect, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In our experiments, the spinal cord of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was clamped for 60 seconds. Dazhui (GV14) and Mingmen (GV4) acupoints of rats were subjected to electroacupuncture. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the expression of serum inflammatory factors was apparently downregulated in rat models of spinal cord injury after electroacupuncture. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that electroacupuncture contributed to the proliferation of neural stem cells in rat injured spinal cord, and suppressed their differentiation into astrocytes. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot assays showed that electroacupuncture inhibited activation of the Notch signaling pathway induced by spinal cord injury. These findings indicate that electroacupuncture repaired the injured spinal cord by suppressing the Notch signaling pathway and promoting the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells. PMID:25878587

  16. The Parkinson’s Disease-Associated Protein Kinase LRRK2 Modulates Notch Signaling through the Endosomal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Yoshito; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Meng, Hongrui; Arano, Taku; Uemura, Kengo; Asano, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Kenji; Zhang, Chang-Liang; Matsumoto, Gen; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of familial and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). We have identified two novel LRRK2-associated proteins, a HECT-type ubiquitin ligase, HERC2, and an adaptor-like protein with six repeated Neuralized domains, NEURL4. LRRK2 binds to NEURL4 and HERC2 via the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC) domain and NEURL4, respectively. HERC2 and NEURL4 link LRRK2 to the cellular vesicle transport pathway and Notch signaling, through which the LRRK2 complex promotes the recycling of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1)/Delta (Dl) through the modulation of endosomal trafficking. This process negatively regulates Notch signaling through cis-inhibition by stabilizing Dll1/Dl, which accelerates neural stem cell differentiation and modulates the function and survival of differentiated dopaminergic neurons. These effects are strengthened by the R1441G ROC domain-mutant of LRRK2. These findings suggest that the alteration of Notch signaling in mature neurons is a component of PD etiology linked to LRRK2. PMID:26355680

  17. Notch1 signaling antagonizes transforming growth factor-β pathway and induces apoptosis in rabbit trophoblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tao; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Yuyu; Si, Wei; Wei, Qiang; Ji, Weizhi

    2014-04-15

    During mammalian development, placental growth needs to be tightly controlled by apoptosis. However, despite the potentially significant problems, the strategies used to balance growth and apoptosis have remained elusive. Here we report that activation of the Notch1 signal pathway inhibits transduction of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, which leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in rabbit trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). The subcellular location of notch intracellular domain 1 (NICD1) appears to determine whether TGF-β signaling will be inhibited or not. Moreover, changes in NICD1 subcellular location are regulated by intracellular calcium distribution. Collectively, these results establish a potential mechanism whereby TSCs can balance growth and apoptosis, and thus guarantee the development of the fetus. PMID:24251382

  18. Notch signaling: an emerging therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xun; Wu, Hua; Xu, Hanxiao; Xiong, Huihua; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Wu, Gen Sheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-12-01

    The Notch pathway is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. The Notch signaling pathway is one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in cancer. Alterations include activating mutations and amplification of the Notch pathway, which play key roles in the progression of cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway can overcome chemoresistance. Efforts have been taken to develop Notch inhibitors as a single agent or in combination with clinically used chemotherapeutics to treat cancer. Some Notch inhibitors have been demonstrated to have therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies. This review summarizes the recent studies and clinical evaluations of the Notch inhibitors in cancer. PMID:26341688

  19. Alteration of Notch signaling in skeletal development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianning; Chen, Shan; Lee, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for specifying and regulating organogenesis and tissue renewal. Human and mouse genetic studies have demonstrated mutations in many components of the Notch signaling pathway that cause skeletal patterning defects. More recently, the in vivo effects of Notch signaling on osteoblast specification, proliferation, and differentiation have been demonstrated, in addition to its regulation of osteoclast activity. However, while our understanding of canonical Notch signaling in skeletal biology is rapidly evolving, the role of non-canonical Notch signaling is still poorly understood. In a pathological context, aberration of Notch signaling is also associated with osteosarcoma. These studies raise the question of how Notch may interact with other signaling pathways like Wnt. Finally, manipulation of Notch signaling for bone-related diseases remains complex because of the temporal and context dependent nature of Notch signaling during mesenchymal stem cell and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:20392245

  20. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P.; Ankem, Murali K.; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-01-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  1. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-12-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  2. Co-regulation of the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways promotes supporting cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration in mouse utricles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingfang; Li, Wenyan; Lin, Chen; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Shan; Tang, Mingliang; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    This work sought to determine the crosstalk between the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways in regulating supporting cell (SC) proliferation and hair cell (HC) regeneration in mouse utricles. We cultured postnatal day (P)3 and P60 mouse utricles, damaged the HCs with gentamicin, and treated the utricles with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to inhibit the Notch pathway and with the Wnt agonist QS11 to active the Wnt pathway. We also used Sox2-CreER, Notch1-flox (exon 1), and Catnb-flox (exon 3) transgenic mice to knock out the Notch pathway and activate the Wnt pathway in Sox2+ SCs. Notch inhibition alone increased SC proliferation and HC number in both undamaged and damaged utricles. Wnt activation alone promoted SC proliferation, but the HC number was not significantly increased. Here we demonstrated the cumulative effects of Notch inhibition and Wnt activation in regulating SC proliferation and HC regeneration. Simultaneously inhibiting Notch and overexpressing Wnt led to significantly greater SC proliferation and greater numbers of HCs than manipulating either pathway alone. Similar results were observed in the transgenic mice. This study suggests that the combination of Notch inhibition and Wnt activation can significantly promote SC proliferation and increase the number of regenerated HCs in mouse utricle. PMID:27435629

  3. Co-regulation of the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways promotes supporting cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration in mouse utricles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingfang; Li, Wenyan; Lin, Chen; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Cheng; Sun, Shan; Tang, Mingliang; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    This work sought to determine the crosstalk between the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways in regulating supporting cell (SC) proliferation and hair cell (HC) regeneration in mouse utricles. We cultured postnatal day (P)3 and P60 mouse utricles, damaged the HCs with gentamicin, and treated the utricles with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to inhibit the Notch pathway and with the Wnt agonist QS11 to active the Wnt pathway. We also used Sox2-CreER, Notch1-flox (exon 1), and Catnb-flox (exon 3) transgenic mice to knock out the Notch pathway and activate the Wnt pathway in Sox2+ SCs. Notch inhibition alone increased SC proliferation and HC number in both undamaged and damaged utricles. Wnt activation alone promoted SC proliferation, but the HC number was not significantly increased. Here we demonstrated the cumulative effects of Notch inhibition and Wnt activation in regulating SC proliferation and HC regeneration. Simultaneously inhibiting Notch and overexpressing Wnt led to significantly greater SC proliferation and greater numbers of HCs than manipulating either pathway alone. Similar results were observed in the transgenic mice. This study suggests that the combination of Notch inhibition and Wnt activation can significantly promote SC proliferation and increase the number of regenerated HCs in mouse utricle. PMID:27435629

  4. Integration of Orthogonal Signaling by the Notch and Dpp Pathways in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Stroebele, Elizabeth; Erives, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Suppressor of Hairless and its coactivator, the Notch intracellular domain, are polyglutamine (pQ)-rich factors that target enhancer elements and interact with other locally bound pQ-rich factors. To understand the functional repertoire of such enhancers, we identify conserved regulatory belts with binding sites for the pQ-rich effectors of both Notch and BMP/Dpp signaling, and the pQ-deficient tissue selectors Apterous (Ap), Scalloped (Sd), and Vestigial (Vg). We find that the densest such binding site cluster in the genome is located in the BMP-inducible nab locus, a homolog of the vertebrate transcriptional cofactors NAB1/NAB2. We report three major findings. First, we find that this nab regulatory belt is a novel enhancer driving dorsal wing margin expression in regions of peak phosphorylated Mad in wing imaginal discs. Second, we show that Ap is developmentally required to license the nab dorsal wing margin enhancer (DWME) to read out Notch and Dpp signaling in the dorsal compartment. Third, we find that the nab DWME is embedded in a complex of intronic enhancers, including a wing quadrant enhancer, a proximal wing disc enhancer, and a larval brain enhancer. This enhancer complex coordinates global nab expression via both tissue-specific activation and interenhancer silencing. We suggest that DWME integration of BMP signaling maintains nab expression in proliferating margin descendants that have divided away from Notch–Delta boundary signaling. As such, uniform expression of genes like nab and vestigial in proliferating compartments would typically require both boundary and nonboundary lineage-specific enhancers. PMID:26975664

  5. Inhibition of Notch signaling alters the phenotype of orthotopic tumors formed from glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cells but does not hamper intracranial tumor growth regardless of endogene Notch pathway signature

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Karina; Nedergaard, Mette Kjølhede; Villingshøj, Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Broholm, Helle; Kjær, Andreas; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) are cancer cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties found in the devastating brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). bCSC are proposed a central role in tumor initiation, progression, treatment resistance and relapse and as such present a promising target in GBM research. The Notch signaling pathway is often deregulated in GBM and we have previously characterized GBM-derived bCSC cultures based on their expression of the Notch-1 receptor and found that it could be used as predictive marker for the effect of Notch inhibition. The aim of the present project was therefore to further elucidate the significance of Notch pathway activity for the tumorigenic properties of GBM-derived bCSC. Methods Human-derived GBM xenograft cells previously established as NSC-like neurosphere cultures were used. Notch inhibition was accomplished by exposing the cells to the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT prior to gene expression analysis and intracranial injection into immunocompromised mice. Results By analyzing the expression of several Notch pathway components, we found that the cultures indeed displayed different Notch pathway signatures. However, when DAPT-treated neurosphere cells were injected into the brain of immunocompromised mice, no increase in survival was obtained regardless of Notch pathway signature and Notch inhibition. We did however observe a decrease in the expression of the stem cell marker Nestin, an increase in the proliferative marker Ki-67 and an increased number of abnormal vessels in tumors formed from DAPT-treated, high Notch-1 expressing cultures, when compared with the control. Conclusion Based on the presented results we propose that Notch inhibition partly induces differentiation of bCSC, and selects for a cell type that more strongly induces angiogenesis if the treatment is not sustained. However, this more differentiated cell type might prove to be more sensitive to conventional therapies. PMID

  6. Medicarpin, a Natural Pterocarpan, Heals Cortical Bone Defect by Activation of Notch and Wnt Canonical Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chandra Prakash; Kureel, Jyoti; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Shukla, Priyanka; John, Aijaz A.; Singh, Kavita; Purohit, Dipak; Awasthi, Pallavi; Singh, Divya; Goel, Atul

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the bone regeneration and healing effect of Medicarpin (med) in cortical bone defect model that heals by intramembranous ossification. For the study, female Sprague–Dawley rats were ovariectomized and rendered osteopenic. A drill hole injury was generated in mid femoral bones of all the animals. Med treatment was commenced the day after and continued for 15 days. PTH was taken as a reference standard. Fifteen days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed. Bones were collected for histomorphometry studies at the injury site by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and confocal microscopy. RNA and protein was harvested from newly generated bone. For immunohistochemistry, 5μm sections of decalcified femur bone adjoining the drill hole site were cut. By μCT analysis and calcein labeling of newly generated bone it was found that med promotes bone healing and new bone formation at the injury site and was comparable to PTH in many aspects. Med treatment led to increase in the Runx-2 and osteocalcin signals indicating expansion of osteoprogenitors at the injury site as evaluated by qPCR and immunohistochemical localization. It was observed that med promoted bone regeneration by activating canonical Wnt and notch signaling pathway. This was evident by increased transcript and protein levels of Wnt and notch signaling components in the defect region. Finally, we confirmed that med treatment leads to elevated bone healing in pre-osteoblasts by co localization of beta catenin with osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. In conclusion, med treatment promotes new bone regeneration and healing at the injury site by activating Wnt/canonical and notch signaling pathways. This study also forms a strong case for evaluation of med in delayed union and non-union fracture cases. PMID:26657206

  7. Asperosaponin VI promotes progesterone receptor expression in decidual cells via the notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhou, Chun; Li, Yadi; Gao, Feixia; Wu, Haiwang; Yang, Lilin; Qiu, Weiyu; Zhu, Lin; Du, Xin; Lin, Weixian; Huang, Dandan; Liu, Haibin; Liang, Chun; Luo, Songping

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common clinical condition, but its reasons remain unknown in 37-79% of the affected women. The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is an integral mediator of early pregnancy events, exerting its effects via the progesterone receptor (PR). Dipsaci Radix (DR) has long been used for treating gynecological diseases in Chinese medicine, while its molecular mechanisms and active ingredients are still unclear. We report here the progesterone-like effects of the alcohol extraction and Asperosaponin VI from DR in primary decidual cells and HeLa cell line. We first determined the safe concentration of Asperosaponin VI in the cells with MTT assay and then found by using dual luciferase reporter and Western blotting that Asperosaponin VI significantly increased PR expression. Moreover, we explored the mechanisms of action of the DR extracts and Asperosaponin VI, and the results showed that they could activate Notch signaling, suggesting that they may function by promoting decidualization. PMID:27370099

  8. Kinase active Misshapen regulates Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinava K; Sachan, Nalani; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim

    2015-11-15

    Notch signaling pathway represents a principal cellular communication system that plays a pivotal role during development of metazoans. Drosophila misshapen (msn) encodes a protein kinase, which is related to the budding yeast Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) kinase. In a genetic screen, using candidate gene approach to identify novel kinases involved in Notch signaling, we identified msn as a novel regulator of Notch signaling. Data presented here suggest that overexpression of kinase active form of Msn exhibits phenotypes similar to Notch loss-of-function condition and msn genetically interacts with components of Notch signaling pathway. Kinase active form of Msn associates with Notch receptor and regulate its signaling activity. We further show that kinase active Misshapen leads to accumulation of membrane-tethered form of Notch. Moreover, activated Msn also depletes Armadillo and DE-Cadherin from adherens junctions. Thus, this study provides a yet unknown mode of regulation of Notch signaling by Misshapen. PMID:26431585

  9. Downregulation of leptin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells via the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xian-Jie; Yang, Zhong-Xin; Dong, Yan-Jun; Sun, Ming-Fei; An, Xiao-Kang; Pan, Li-Hong; Zhang, Shuang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have documented that leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of many human cancer types by regulation of numerous signal transduction pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological roles of leptin and the mechanisms attributed to its action in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The expression of leptin was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot in seven NSCLC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in response to leptin knockdown were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The effect of leptin knockdown on the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways was further examined by western blot. Leptin expression was significantly increased in NSCLC cell lines compared with normal human bronchial epithelial cell HBE. Leptin knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines through inactivation of the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Furthermore, gene silencing of Notch signaling with Notch-1 siRNA or inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signaling by JSI-124, an inhibitor of STAT3, resulted in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in NSCLC A549 cells. Our findings suggested that leptin knockdown could become a new approach for the prevention of lung cancer progression, which is likely to be mediated at least partially by inactivation of the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. PMID:27185268

  10. Downregulation of leptin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells via the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xian-Jie; Yang, Zhong-Xin; Dong, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Guo-Yu; Sun, Ming-Fei; An, Xiao-Kang; Pan, Li-Hong; Zhang, Shuang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of many human cancer types by regulation of numerous signal transduction pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological roles of leptin and the mechanisms attributed to its action in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The expression of leptin was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot in seven NSCLC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in response to leptin knockdown were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The effect of leptin knockdown on the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways was further examined by western blot. Leptin expression was significantly increased in NSCLC cell lines compared with normal human bronchial epithelial cell HBE. Leptin knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines through inactivation of the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Furthermore, gene silencing of Notch signaling with Notch-1 siRNA or inhibition of JAK/STAT3 signaling by JSI-124, an inhibitor of STAT3, resulted in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in NSCLC A549 cells. Our findings suggested that leptin knockdown could become a new approach for the prevention of lung cancer progression, which is likely to be mediated at least partially by inactivation of the Notch and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. PMID:27185268

  11. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 increases intestinal goblet cell differentiation through an mTOR/Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuning; Wang, Qingding; Weiss, Heidi L.; Evers, B. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we have shown that the nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) is involved in the regulation of intestinal enterocyte differentiation. Here we show that treatment with sodium chloride (NaCl), which activates NFAT5 signaling, increased mTORC1 repressor regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) protein expression and inhibited mTOR signaling; these alterations were attenuated by knockdown of NFAT5. Knockdown of NFAT5 activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and significantly inhibited REDD1 mRNA expression and protein expression. Consistently, overexpression of NFAT5 increased REDD1 expression. In addition, knockdown of REDD1 activated mTOR and Notch signaling, whereas treatment with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin repressed Notch signaling and increased the expression of the goblet cell differentiation marker mucin 2 (MUC2). Moreover, knockdown of NFAT5 activated Notch signaling and decreased MUC2 expression, while overexpression of NFAT5 inhibited Notch signaling and increased MUC2 expression. Our results demonstrate a role for NFAT5 in the regulation of mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Importantly, these data suggest that NFAT5 participates in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis via the suppression of mTORC1/Notch signaling pathway. PMID:25057011

  12. Growth hormone treatment of premature ovarian failure in a mouse model via stimulation of the Notch-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, TE; WANG, SUWEI; ZHANG, LINA; GUO, LIHE; YU, ZHIHUA; CHEN, CHUAN; ZHENG, JIN

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a condition affecting 1% of women in the general population, causing amenorrhea, hypergonadotropism and hypoestrogenism before the age of 40. Currently, POF cannot be reversed and, although treatments are available, there is an urgent need for improved treatment strategies. Growth hormone (GH) is a pleiotropic hormone that affects a broad spectrum of physiological functions, from carbohydrate and lipid metabolism to the immune response. GH has previously been used to treat POF in non-transgenic preclinical trials, but the biochemical mechanism underlying these effects are unclear. In the present study, a mouse model of POF was generated using cyclophosphamide. Treatment of POF mice with recombinant mouse growth hormone (rmGH) was revealed to markedly reduce POF histopathology in ovarian tissue, relieve ovarian granulosa cell injury, reduce the number of atretic follicles and significantly increase the number of mature oocytes. Furthermore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that plasma estradiol levels increased and plasma follicle stimulating hormone levels decreased with time in a group of mice treated with a medium dose of rmGH (0.8 mg/kg) when compared with the POF model group (P<0.05). In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated elevated levels of Notch-1 signaling pathway factors (Notch1, CBF1, and HES1) in wild-type mice and those treated with medium and high doses of rmGH, but not in those treated with low doses of rmGH. In conclusion, GH may promote ovarian tissue repair, estrogen release and oocyte maturation via activation of the Notch-1 signaling pathway in ovarian tissue. PMID:27347041

  13. MicroRNA-375 overexpression influences P19 cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihua; Song, Guixian; Liu, Ming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Yumei; Shen, Yahui; Zhu, Jingai; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study reported that microRNA-375 (miR-375) is significantly upregulated in ventricular septal myocardial tissues from 22‑week‑old fetuses with ventricular septal defect as compared with normal controls. In the present study, the specific effects of miR‑375 on P19 cell differentiation into cardiomyocyte‑like cells were investigated. Stable P19 cell lines overexpressing miR‑375 or containing empty vector were established, which could be efficiently induced into cardiomyocyte‑like cells in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide in vitro. miR‑375 overexpression was verified using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). Cell proliferation was determined according to total cell counts; cell cycle distribution and apoptosis levels were examined using flow cytometry. Apoptosis‑related morphological changes were observed using Hoechst staining and fluorescence microscopy. During P19 cell differentiation, the cardiomyogenesis‑related mRNAs (cardiac troponin T, GATA binding protein 4, myocyte‑specific enhancer factor 2C) and mRNAs involved in the Notch signaling pathway (Notch2, Delta‑like 1 and hes family bHLH transcription factor 1) were detected at days 0, 4, 6 and 10. Their differential expression was examined using RT‑qPCR; the apoptosis‑related genes BAX and Bcl‑2 were also detected using this method. The corresponding proteins were evaluated by western blotting. Compared with the control group, miR‑375 overexpression inhibited proliferation but promoted apoptosis in P19 cells, and the associated mRNAs and proteins were decreased during differentiation. miR‑375 has an important role in cardiomyocyte differentiation, and can disrupt this process via the Notch signaling pathway. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of congenital heart disease and facilitate the development of new gene therapies. PMID:26531318

  14. LFA-1/ICAM-1 Ligation in Human T Cells Promotes Th1 Polarization through a GSK3β Signaling-Dependent Notch Pathway.

    PubMed

    Verma, Navin K; Fazil, M H U Turabe; Ong, Seow Theng; Chalasani, Madhavi Latha S; Low, Jian Hui; Kottaiswamy, Amuthavalli; P, Praseetha; Kizhakeyil, Atish; Kumar, Sunil; Panda, Aditya K; Freeley, Michael; Smith, Sinead M; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kelleher, Dermot

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report that the integrin LFA-1 cross-linking with its ligand ICAM-1 in human PBMCs or CD4(+) T cells promotes Th1 polarization by upregulating IFN-γ secretion and T-bet expression. LFA-1 stimulation in PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, or the T cell line HuT78 activates the Notch pathway by nuclear translocation of cleaved Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) and upregulation of target molecules Hey1 and Hes1. Blocking LFA-1 by a neutralizing Ab or specific inhibition of Notch1 by a γ-secretase inhibitor substantially inhibits LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated activation of Notch signaling. We further demonstrate that the Notch pathway activation is dependent on LFA-1/ICAM-1-induced inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is mediated via Akt and ERK. Furthermore, in silico analysis in combination with coimmunoprecipitation assays show an interaction between NICD and GSK3β. Thus, there exists a molecular cross-talk between LFA-1 and Notch1 through the Akt/ERK-GSK3β signaling axis that ultimately enhances T cell differentiation toward Th1. Although clinical use of LFA-1 antagonists is limited by toxicity related to immunosuppression, these findings support the concept that Notch inhibitors could be attractive for prevention or treatment of Th1-related immunologic disorders and have implications at the level of local inflammatory responses. PMID:27206767

  15. Interaction of Notch Signaling Modulator Numb with α-Adaptin Regulates Endocytosis of Notch Pathway Components and Cell Fate Determination of Neural Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Lu, Bingwei

    2012-01-01

    The ability to balance self-renewal and differentiation is a hallmark of stem cells. In Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs), Numb/Notch (N) signaling plays a key role in this process. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Numb function in a stem cell setting remain poorly defined. Here we show that α-Adaptin (α-Ada), a subunit of the endocytic AP-2 complex, interacts with Numb through a new mode of interaction to regulate NSC homeostasis. In α-ada mutants, N pathway component Sanpodo and the N receptor itself exhibited altered trafficking, and N signaling was up-regulated in the intermediate progenitors of type II NSC lineages, leading to their transformation into ectopic NSCs. Surprisingly, although the Ear domain of α-Ada interacts with the C terminus of Numb and is important for α-Ada function in the sensory organ precursor lineage, it was dispensable in the NSCs. Instead, α-Ada could regulate Sanpodo, N trafficking, and NSC homeostasis by interacting with Numb through new domains in both proteins previously not known to mediate their interaction. This interaction could be bypassed when α-Ada was directly fused to the phospho-tyrosine binding domain of Numb. Our results identify a critical role for the AP-2-mediated endocytosis in regulating NSC behavior and reveal a new mechanism by which Numb regulates NSC behavior through N. These findings are likely to have important implications for cancer biology. PMID:22474327

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Synaptic Plasticity from VD-Induced Damage via Akt/GSK-3β Pathway and Notch Signaling Pathway in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhua; Xu, Xiaxia; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Zhuo

    2016-08-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) attenuates neuronal injury induced by vascular dementia (VD) in rats, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of H2S was associated with synaptic plasticity and try to interpret the potential underlying mechanisms. Adult male Wistar rats were suffered the ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries. At 24 h after surgery, rats were administered intraperitoneally with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 5.6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), a H2S donor, for 3 weeks in the VD+NaHS group and treated intraperitoneally with saline in the VD group respectively. Our results demonstrated that NaHS significantly decreased the level of glutamate. It obviously ameliorated cognitive flexibility as well as the spatial learning and memory abilities by Morris water maze. Moreover, NaHS significantly improved the long-term depression (LTD), and was able to elevate the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A, which plays a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, NaHS decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, and it could maintain the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Surprisingly, NaHS triggered the canonical Notch pathway by increasing expressions of Jagged-1 and Hes-1. These findings suggest that NaHS prevents synaptic plasticity from VD-induced damage partly via Akt/GSK-3β pathway and Notch signaling pathway.Hydrogen sulfide modulated the ratio of NMDAR 2A/2B and improved the synaptic plasticity via Akt/GSK-3β pathway and Notch signaling pathway in VD rats. PMID:26208699

  17. New Insights into the Mechanism of Notch Signalling in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kavian, Niloufar; Servettaz, Amélie; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an evolutionary conserved signalling mechanism that regulates cellular fate and development in various types of cells. The full spectrum of Notch effects has been well studied over the last decade in the fields of development and embryogenesis. But only recently several studies emphasized the involvement of the Notch signalling pathway in fibrosis. This review summarizes the structure and activation of the Notch family members, and focuses on recent findings regarding the role of Notch in organ fibrogenesis, in humans and in animal models. PMID:22802907

  18. Cell cycle-linked MeCP2 phosphorylation modulates adult neurogenesis involving the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongda; Zhong, Xiaofen; Chau, Kevin Fongching; Santistevan, Nicholas J.; Guo, Weixiang; Kong, Guangyao; Li, Xuekun; Kadakia, Mitul; Masliah, Jamie; Chi, Jingyi; Jin, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Xinyu; Chang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity regulates the phosphorylation states at multiple sites on MeCP2 in postmitotic neurons. The precise control of the phosphorylation status of MeCP2 in neurons is critical for the normal development and function of the mammalian brain. However, it is unknown whether phosphorylation at any of the previously identified sites on MeCP2 can be induced by signals other than neuronal activity in other cell types, and what functions MeCP2 phosphorylation may have in those contexts. Here we show that, in neural progenitor cells isolated from the adult mouse hippocampus, cell cycle-linked phosphorylation at serine 421 on MeCP2 is directly regulated by aurora kinase B, and modulates the balance between proliferation and neural differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway. Our findings suggest MeCP2 S421 phosphorylation may function as a general epigenetic switch accessible by different extracellular stimuli through different signaling pathways for regulating diverse biological functions in different cell types. PMID:25420914

  19. Activation of Notch-Mediated Protective Signaling in the Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Natalie A.; Emmanuel, Gregory; Wu, Weitao; Cottage, Christopher T.; Fischer, Kimberlee; Quijada, Pearl; Muraski, John A.; Alvarez, Roberto; Rubio, Marta; Schaefer, Eric; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch network regulates multiple cellular processes, including cell fate determination, development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and regeneration. These processes are regulated via Notch-mediated activity that involves hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascades. The impact of HGF on Notch signaling was assessed following myocardial infarction as well as in cultured cardiomyocytes. Notch1 is activated in border zone cardiomyocytes coincident with nuclear c-Met following infarction. Intramyocardial injection of HGF enhances Notch1 and Akt activation in adult mouse myocardium. Corroborating evidence in cultured cardiomyocytes shows treatment with HGF or insulin increases levels of Notch effector Hes1 in immunoblots, whereas overexpression of activated Notch intracellular domain prompts a 3-fold increase in phosphorylated Akt. Infarcted hearts injected with adenoviral vector expressing Notch intracellular domain treatment exhibit improved hemodynamic function in comparison with control mice after 4 weeks, implicating Notch signaling in a cardioprotective role following cardiac injury. These results indicate Notch activation in cardiomyocytes is mediated through c-Met and Akt survival signaling pathways, and Notch1 signaling in turn enhances Akt activity. This mutually supportive crosstalk suggests a positive survival feedback mechanism between Notch and Akt signaling in adult myocardium following injury. PMID:18369158

  20. Notch signaling in cardiovascular disease and calcification.

    PubMed

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Weissleder, Ralph; Aikawa, Elena

    2008-08-01

    Recent increase in human lifespan has shifted the spectrum of aging-related disorders to an unprecedented upsurge in cardiovascular diseases, especially calcific aortic valve stenosis, which has an 80% risk of progression to heart failure and death. A current therapeutic option for calcified valves is surgical replacement, which provides only temporary relief. Recent progress in cardiovascular research has suggested that arterial and valve calcification are the result of an active process of osteogenic differentiation, induced by a pro-atherogenic inflammatory response. At molecular level, the calcification process is regulated by a network of signaling pathways, including Notch, Wnt and TGFbeta/BMP pathways, which control the master regulator of osteogenesis Cbfa1/Runx2. Genetic and in vitro studies have implicated Notch signaling in the regulation of macrophage activation and cardiovascular calcification. Individuals with inactivating Notch1 mutations have a high rate of cardiovascular disorders, including valve stenosis and calcification. This article reviews recent progress in the mechanism of cardiovascular calcification and discusses potential molecular mechanisms involved, focusing on Notch receptors. We propose a calcification model where extreme increases in vascular wall cell density due to inflammation-induced cell proliferation can trigger an osteogenic differentiation program mediated by Notch receptors. PMID:19936191

  1. Reverse genetic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans presenilins reveals redundant but unequal roles for sel-12 and hop-1 in Notch-pathway signaling

    PubMed Central

    Westlund, Bethany; Parry, Dianne; Clover, Ralph; Basson, Michael; Johnson, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Mutations in the human presenilin genes PS1 and PS2 cause early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mice indicate that one function of presenilin genes is to facilitate Notch-pathway signaling. Notably, mutations in the C. elegans presenilin gene sel-12 reduce signaling through an activated version of the Notch receptor LIN-12. To investigate the function of a second C. elegans presenilin gene hop-1 and to examine possible genetic interactions between hop-1 and sel-12, we used a reverse genetic strategy to isolate deletion alleles of both loci. Animals bearing both hop-1 and sel-12 deletions displayed new phenotypes not observed in animals bearing either single deletion. These new phenotypes—germ-line proliferation defects, maternal-effect embryonic lethality, and somatic gonad defects—resemble those resulting from a reduction in signaling through the C. elegans Notch receptors GLP-1 and LIN-12. Thus SEL-12 and HOP-1 appear to function redundantly in promoting Notch-pathway signaling. Phenotypic analyses of hop-1 and sel-12 single and double mutant animals suggest that sel-12 provides more presenilin function than does hop-1. PMID:10051671

  2. [Neural stem cells and Notch signalling].

    PubMed

    Traiffort, Elisabeth; Ferent, Julien

    2015-12-01

    Development and repair of the nervous system are based on the existence of neural stem cells (NSCs) able to generate neurons and glial cells. Among the mechanisms that are involved in the control of embryo or adult NSCs, the Notch signalling plays a major role. In embryo, the pathway participates in the maintenance of NSCs during all steps of development of the central nervous system which starts with the production of neurons also called neurogenesis and continues with gliogenesis giving rise to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. During the postnatal and adult period, Notch signalling is still present in the major neurogenic areas, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. In these regions, Notch maintains NSC quiescence, contributes to the heterogeneity of these cells and displays pleiotropic effects during the regeneration process occurring after a lesion. PMID:26672665

  3. Notch and NF-kB signaling pathways regulate miR-223/FBXW7 axis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Palermo, R; Talora, C; Campese, A F; Checquolo, S; Bellavia, D; Tottone, L; Testa, G; Miele, E; Indraccolo, S; Amadori, A; Ferretti, E; Gulino, A; Vacca, A; Screpanti, I

    2014-12-01

    Notch signaling deregulation is linked to the onset of several tumors including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Deregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression is also associated with several cancers, including leukemias. However, the transcriptional regulators of miRNAs, as well as the relationships between Notch signaling and miRNA deregulation, are poorly understood. To identify miRNAs regulated by Notch pathway, we performed microarray-based miRNA profiling of several Notch-expressing T-ALL models. Among seven miRNAs, consistently regulated by overexpressing or silencing Notch3, we focused our attention on miR-223, whose putative promoter analysis revealed a conserved RBPjk binding site, which was nested to an NF-kB consensus. Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on the promoter region of miR-223 show that both Notch and NF-kB are novel coregulatory signals of miR-223 expression, being able to activate cooperatively the transcriptional activity of miR-223 promoter. Notably, the Notch-mediated activation of miR-223 represses the tumor suppressor FBXW7 in T-ALL cell lines. Moreover, we observed the inverse correlation of miR-223 and FBXW7 expression in a panel of T-ALL patient-derived xenografts. Finally, we show that miR-223 inhibition prevents T-ALL resistance to γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment, suggesting that miR-223 could be involved in GSI sensitivity and its inhibition may be exploited in target therapy protocols. PMID:24727676

  4. Notching on Cancer’s Door: Notch Signaling in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Teodorczyk, Marcin; Schmidt, Mirko H. H.

    2015-01-01

    Notch receptors play an essential role in the regulation of central cellular processes during embryonic and postnatal development. The mammalian genome encodes for four Notch paralogs (Notch 1–4), which are activated by three Delta-like (Dll1/3/4) and two Serrate-like (Jagged1/2) ligands. Further, non-canonical Notch ligands such as epidermal growth factor like protein 7 (EGFL7) have been identified and serve mostly as antagonists of Notch signaling. The Notch pathway prevents neuronal differentiation in the central nervous system by driving neural stem cell maintenance and commitment of neural progenitor cells into the glial lineage. Notch is therefore often implicated in the development of brain tumors, as tumor cells share various characteristics with neural stem and progenitor cells. Notch receptors are overexpressed in gliomas and their oncogenicity has been confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo. To this end, special attention is paid to the impact of Notch signaling on stem-like brain tumor-propagating cells as these cells contribute to growth, survival, invasion, and recurrence of brain tumors. Based on the outcome of ongoing studies in vivo, Notch-directed therapies such as γ-secretase inhibitors and blocking antibodies have entered and completed various clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on Notch signaling in brain tumor formation and therapy. PMID:25601901

  5. Oncogenic role of the Notch pathway in primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, JIE; XIA, YUJING; CHEN, KAN; ZHENG, YUANYUAN; WANG, JIANRONG; LU, WENXIA; YIN, QIN; WANG, FAN; ZHOU, YINGQUN; GUO, CHUANYONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer, which includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and fibrolamellar HCC, is one of the most common malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality, worldwide. Despite the development of novel therapies, the prognosis of liver cancer patients remains extremely poor. Thus, investigation of the genetic background and molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this disease has gained significant attention. The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial determinant of cell fate during development and disease in several organs. In the liver, Notch signaling is involved in biliary tree development and tubulogenesis, and is also significant in the development of HCC and ICC. These findings suggest that the modulation of Notch pathway activity may have therapeutic relevance. The present review summarizes Notch signaling during HCC and ICC development and discusses the findings of recent studies regarding Notch expression, which reveal novel insights into its function in liver cancer progression. PMID:27347091

  6. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. PMID:27187362

  7. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. PMID:27187362

  8. Notch Signaling Activation in Pediatric Low-Grade Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Schreck, Karisa C.; Bar, Eli E.; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in development, stem cell biology, and the pathogenesis of several cancers but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomical sites compared to non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res 186 and Res 259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable but significant reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  9. Notch signaling activation in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Brandt, William D; Schreck, Karisa C; Bar, Eli E; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2015-02-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in the development, stem cell biology, and pathogenesis of several cancers, but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomic sites compared with non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res186 and Res259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable, but significant, reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  10. Roles of myofibroblasts and notch and hedgehog signaling pathways in the formation of intrahepatic bile duct lesions in polycystic kidney rats.

    PubMed

    Furubo, Shinichi; Sato, Yasunori; Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic kidney (PCK) rats, an animal model of Caroli's disease, show a dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBD) called "ductal plate malformation." Mesenchymal cells and the Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways in portal tracts are reportedly involved in the normal development of IHBD, although there have been no studies on the roles of these signaling pathways in PCK rats. We immunohistochemically examined the expression of the molecules related to these signaling pathways in portal tracts. All molecules related to these signaling pathways expressed in portal tracts in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (control) were also expressed in PCK rats. Mesenchymal cells (myofibroblasts) were frequently found in the connective tissue of portal tracts of 20 embryonic-day-old (E20D), 1-day-old (1D), and 1-week-old (1W) SD and PCK rats and were abundant in PCK rats. Interestingly, myofibroblasts almost disappeared at in both strains of 3W rats. Jagged1 was expressed in mesenchymal cells in portal tracts and was abundant in PCK rats. Double immunostaining showed that Jagged1-positive cells were myofibroblasts. Notch2 and HES1 were expressed in cholangiocytes of the bile ducts of both rats. Sonic Hedgehog was similarly expressed in the bile ducts of both rats. A well-balanced and time-sequential expression of the Notch and Hedgehog family in portal tracts might be essential for the normal development of IHBD in E20D to 1W SD rats, and an imbalanced interaction of these molecules, particularly increased Jagged1 expression in periductal and periportal myofibroblasts and Notch2 expressed in cholangiocytes, may be involved in the formation of bile duct lesions in PCK rats. PMID:23331119

  11. 3,6-dihydroxyflavone suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junli; Chang, Hui; Peng, Xiaoli; Gu, Yeyun; Yi, Long; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical developmental program in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and in cancer metastasis. Here, our study found that 3,6-DHF could effectively inhibit EMT in BC cells in vitro and in vivo. 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits the formation and proliferation of BCSCs, and consequently reduces the tumor-initiating capacity of tumor cells in NOD/SCID mice. Optical in vivo imaging of cancer metastasis showed that 3,6-DHF administration suppresses the lung metastasis of BC cells in vivo. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF down-regulates Notch1, NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc, consequently decreasing the formation of the functional transcriptional unit of NICD-CSL-MAML, causing Notch signaling inactivation in BC cells. Over-expression of Notch1 or inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of 3,6-DHF on EMT, CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells. These data indicated that 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits EMT and CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells, in which miR-34a-mediated Notch1 down-regulation plays a crucial role. PMID:27345219

  12. 14-3-3{sigma} controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Ying; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2010-02-19

    14-3-3{sigma} (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3{sigma} mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3{sigma} activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3{sigma} led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3{sigma} mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3{sigma} is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  13. 3,6-dihydroxyflavone suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junli; Chang, Hui; Peng, Xiaoli; Gu, Yeyun; Yi, Long; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical developmental program in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and in cancer metastasis. Here, our study found that 3,6-DHF could effectively inhibit EMT in BC cells in vitro and in vivo. 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits the formation and proliferation of BCSCs, and consequently reduces the tumor-initiating capacity of tumor cells in NOD/SCID mice. Optical in vivo imaging of cancer metastasis showed that 3,6-DHF administration suppresses the lung metastasis of BC cells in vivo. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF down-regulates Notch1, NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc, consequently decreasing the formation of the functional transcriptional unit of NICD-CSL-MAML, causing Notch signaling inactivation in BC cells. Over-expression of Notch1 or inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of 3,6-DHF on EMT, CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells. These data indicated that 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits EMT and CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells, in which miR-34a-mediated Notch1 down-regulation plays a crucial role. PMID:27345219

  14. Notch Signaling Maintains Neural Rosette Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Main, Heather; Radenkovic, Jelena; Jin, Shao-bo; Lendahl, Urban; Andersson, Emma R.

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the metazoan body plan requires a complex interplay of morphological changes and patterning, and central to these processes is the establishment of apical/basal cell polarity. In the developing nervous system, apical/basal cell polarity is essential for neural tube closure and maintenance of the neural stem cell population. In this report we explore how a signaling pathway important for nervous system development, Notch signaling, impacts on apical/basal cell polarity in neural differentiation. CSL−/− mouse embryos, which are devoid of canonical Notch signaling, demonstrated a neural tube phenotype consistent with cell polarity and convergent extension defects, including deficiencies in the restricted expression of apical polarity markers in the neuroepithelium. CSL−/− mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, cultured at low density, behaved as wild-type in the establishment of neural progenitors and apical specification, though progression through rosette formation, an in vitro correlate of neurulation, required CSL for correct maintenance of rosette structure and regulation of neuronal differentiation. Similarly, acute pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling led to the breakdown of neural rosettes and accelerated neuronal differentiation. In addition to functional Notch signaling, rosette integrity was found to require actin polymerization and Rho kinase (ROCK) activity. Disruption of rosettes through inhibition of actin polymerization or ROCK activity, however, had no effect on neuronal differentiation, indicating that rosette maintenance is not a prerequisite for normal neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, our data indicate that Notch signaling plays a role not only in differentiation, but also in organization and maintenance of polarity during development of the early nervous system. PMID:23675446

  15. Hepatitis B virus X protein activates Notch signaling by its effects on Notch1 and Notch4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Juan; Xiong, Yimin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yiming; Zheng, Guorong; Xu, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated expression of Notch receptors and abnormal activity of Notch signaling have been observed in a growing number of malignant tumors, however, the expression and activity of Notch in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their relationship with HBV X protein (HBx) are still not fully elucidated. To address this, we examined the overall expression of Notch receptors in HBV-associated HCC tissues, analyzed their relationship with HBx, and further investigated the role of Notch signaling in HBx stable transfected HepG2 cells (HepG2X). The results showed that Notch signaling could be activated by HBx in HepG2 cells. The expression of cytoplasmic Notch1 or nuclear Notch4 was correlated with the expression of HBx in HBV-associated HCC tissues. The expression of cytoplasmic Notch1 or nuclear Notch4 could also be upregulated by HBx in HepG2X cells. The upregulation of Notch1 by HBx was through p38 MAPK pathway. Moreover, HBx was found to directly interact with Notch1, whereas, not with Notch4 in HepG2X cells. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) decreased cell growth, blocked cell cycle progression and induced cell apoptosis in HepG2X cells. The present study indicates that HBx activates Notch signaling by its effects on Notch1 and Notch4, and therefore, recruits Notch signaling as a downstream pathway contributing to its carcinogenic role in HBV-associated HCC. PMID:26530164

  16. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2016-01-01

    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks. PMID:26289531

  17. Notch Signaling in Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gidfar, Sanaz; Afsharkhamseh, Neda; Sanjari, Sara; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Notch1 was previously shown to play a critical role in murine meibomian gland function and maintenance. In this study, we have examined the expression and activation of Notch pathway in human meibomian gland epithelial cells in vitro. Methods An immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell (HMGEC) line was cultured under proliferative and differentiative conditions. Expression of Notch receptors and ligands were evaluated by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The effect of Notch inhibition and induction on oil production was also assessed. Results Human meibomian gland epithelial cell expressed Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like 1, and Delta-like 3. The level of cleaved (activated) Notch1 strongly increased with differentiation. The expression of Notch3 was inversely correlated with proliferation. Induction and inhibition of Notch1 led to an increase and decrease in the amount of oil production, respectively. Conclusions Notch signaling appears to play an important role in human meibomian gland epithelial differentiation and oil production. This may provide a potential therapeutic pathway for treating meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:26943148

  18. Regulation of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter 1 Trafficking by the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Rat Brain Endothelial Cells Requires Cross-talk with Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zejian; Sneve, Mary; Haroldson, Thomas A; Smith, Jeffrey P; Drewes, Lester R

    2016-04-01

    The transport of monocarboxylate fuels such as lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies across brain endothelial cells is mediated by monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1). Although the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for rodent blood-brain barrier development and for the expression of associated nutrient transporters, the role of this pathway in the regulation of brain endothelial MCT1 is unknown. Here we report expression of nine members of the frizzled receptor family by the RBE4 rat brain endothelial cell line. Furthermore, activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RBE4 cells via nuclear β-catenin signaling with LiCl does not alter brain endothelialMct1mRNA but increases the amount of MCT1 transporter protein. Plasma membrane biotinylation studies and confocal microscopic examination of mCherry-tagged MCT1 indicate that increased transporter results from reduced MCT1 trafficking from the plasma membrane via the endosomal/lysosomal pathway and is facilitated by decreased MCT1 ubiquitination following LiCl treatment. Inhibition of the Notch pathway by the γ-secretase inhibitorN-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester negated the up-regulation of MCT1 by LiCl, demonstrating a cross-talk between the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. Our results are important because they show, for the first time, the regulation of MCT1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by the multifunctional canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. PMID:26872974

  19. Small molecule activation of NOTCH signaling inhibits acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Jiang, Jue; Zhan, Guanqun; Yan, Wanyao; Huang, Liang; Hu, Yufeng; Su, Hexiu; Tong, Qingyi; Yue, Ming; Li, Hua; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway is crucial for the onset and progression of T cell leukemia. Yet recent studies also suggest a tumor suppressive role of NOTCH signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reactivation of this pathway offers an attractive opportunity for anti-AML therapies. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that we previously isolated from Zephyranthes candida, exhibiting inhibitory activities in a variety of cancer cells, particularly those from AML. Here, we report NMHC not only selectively inhibits AML cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that NMHC activates the NOTCH signaling. Combination of NMHC and recombinant human NOTCH ligand DLL4 achieves a remarkable synergistic effect on NOTCH activation. Moreover, pre-inhibition of NOTCH by overexpression of dominant negative MAML alleviates NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity in AML. Further mechanistic analysis using structure-based molecular modeling as well as biochemical assays demonstrates that NMHC docks in the hydrophobic cavity within the NOTCH1 negative regulatory region (NRR), thus promoting NOTCH1 proteolytic cleavage. Our findings thus establish NMHC as a potential NOTCH agonist that holds great promises for future development as a novel agent beneficial to patients with AML. PMID:27211848

  20. Small molecule activation of NOTCH signaling inhibits acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qi; Jiang, Jue; Zhan, Guanqun; Yan, Wanyao; Huang, Liang; Hu, Yufeng; Su, Hexiu; Tong, Qingyi; Yue, Ming; Li, Hua; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway is crucial for the onset and progression of T cell leukemia. Yet recent studies also suggest a tumor suppressive role of NOTCH signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reactivation of this pathway offers an attractive opportunity for anti-AML therapies. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that we previously isolated from Zephyranthes candida, exhibiting inhibitory activities in a variety of cancer cells, particularly those from AML. Here, we report NMHC not only selectively inhibits AML cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that NMHC activates the NOTCH signaling. Combination of NMHC and recombinant human NOTCH ligand DLL4 achieves a remarkable synergistic effect on NOTCH activation. Moreover, pre-inhibition of NOTCH by overexpression of dominant negative MAML alleviates NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity in AML. Further mechanistic analysis using structure-based molecular modeling as well as biochemical assays demonstrates that NMHC docks in the hydrophobic cavity within the NOTCH1 negative regulatory region (NRR), thus promoting NOTCH1 proteolytic cleavage. Our findings thus establish NMHC as a potential NOTCH agonist that holds great promises for future development as a novel agent beneficial to patients with AML. PMID:27211848

  1. Notch signaling deregulation in multiple myeloma: A rational molecular target

    PubMed Central

    Garavelli, Silvia; Platonova, Natalia; Paoli, Alessandro; Basile, Andrea; Taiana, Elisa; Neri, Antonino; Chiaramonte, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma (MM) is still an incurable neoplasia due to intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapy. Myeloma cell localization in the bone marrow milieu allows direct interactions between tumor cells and non-tumor bone marrow cells which promote neoplastic cell growth, survival, bone disease, acquisition of drug resistance and consequent relapse. Twenty percent of MM patients are at high-risk of treatment failure as defined by tumor markers or presentation as plasma cell leukemia. Cumulative evidences indicate a key role of Notch signaling in multiple myeloma onset and progression. Unlike other Notch-related malignancies, where the majority of patients carry gain-of-function mutations in Notch pathway members, in MM cell Notch signaling is aberrantly activated due to an increased expression of Notch receptors and ligands; notably, this also results in the activation of Notch signaling in surrounding stromal cells which contributes to myeloma cell proliferation, survival and migration, as well as to bone disease and intrinsic and acquired pharmacological resistance. Here we review the last findings on the mechanisms and the effects of Notch signaling dysregulation in MM and provide a rationale for a therapeutic strategy aiming at inhibiting Notch signaling, along with a complete overview on the currently available Notch-directed approaches. PMID:26308486

  2. Genome-wide expression profiling in the Drosophila eye reveals unexpected repression of notch signaling by the JAK/STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Maria Sol; Zavadil, Jiri; Ekas, Laura A; Bach, Erika A

    2009-09-01

    Although the JAK/STAT pathway regulates numerous processes in vertebrates and invertebrates through modulating transcription, its functionally relevant transcriptional targets remain largely unknown. With one jak and one stat (stat92E), Drosophila provides a powerful system for finding new JAK/STAT target genes. Genome-wide expression profiling on eye discs in which Stat92E is hyperactivated, revealed 584 differentially regulated genes, including known targets domeless, socs36E, and wingless. Other differentially regulated genes (chinmo, lama, Mo25, Imp-L2, Serrate, Delta) were validated and may represent new Stat92E targets. Genetic experiments revealed that Stat92E cell-autonomously represses Serrate, which encodes a Notch ligand. Loss of Stat92E led to de-repression of Serrate in the dorsal eye, resulting in ectopic Notch signaling and aberrant eye growth there. Thus, our micro-array documents a new Stat92E target gene and a previously unidentified inhibitory action of Stat92E on Notch signaling. These data suggest that this study will be a useful resource for the identification of additional Stat92E targets. PMID:19504457

  3. Genome-wide expression profiling in the Drosophila eye reveals unexpected repression of Notch signaling by the JAK/STAT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Maria Sol; Zavadil, Jiri; Ekas, Laura A.; Bach, Erika A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the JAK/STAT pathway regulates numerous processes in vertebrates and invertebrates through modulating transcription, its functionally-relevant transcriptional targets remain largely unknown. With one jak and one stat (stat92E), Drosophila provides a powerful system for finding new JAK/STAT target genes. Genome-wide expression profiling on eye discs in which Stat92E is hyperactivated, revealed 584 differentially-regulated genes, including known targets domeless, socs36E and wingless. Other differentially-regulated genes (chinmo, lama, Mo25, Imp-L2, Serrate, Delta) were validated and may represent new Stat92E targets. Genetic experiments revealed that Stat92E cell-autonomously represses Serrate, which encodes a Notch ligand. Loss of Stat92E led to de-repression of Serrate in the dorsal eye, resulting in ectopic Notch signaling and aberrant eye growth there. Thus, our micro-array documents a new Stat92E target gene and a previously-unidentified inhibitory action of Stat92E on Notch signaling. These data suggest that this study will be a useful resource for the identification of additional Stat92E targets. PMID:19504457

  4. Interactions between bone marrow stromal microenvironment and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: any role for Notch, Wnt and Hh signaling pathways?

    PubMed

    Seke Etet, Paul Faustin; Vecchio, Lorella; Nwabo Kamdje, Armel Hervé

    2012-07-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which is the most common lymphoproliferative disorder, displays characteristics consistent with a defect in programmed cell death and exhibit prolonged survival of affected cells in vivo. When recovered from peripheral blood or lymphoid tissues of patients and cultured in vitro, CLL malignant cells rapidly undergo spontaneous apoptosis. CLL B-cells co-culture with different adherent cell types, collectively referred to as stromal cells, induces leukemia cell survival, migration, and drug resistance. In addition, such survival-promoting microenvironments can rescue leukemia cells from cytotoxic therapy, giving way to disease relapse. Quite surprisingly considering that many anti-cancer drugs, including γ-secretase inhibitors, Cyclopamine and Quercetin, were reported to block Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog anti-apoptotic signaling pathways respectively, the link between the latter anti-apoptotic pathways and bone marrow stromal cells in CLL has been pointed out only recently. Data concerning the pathogenesis of CLL have been critically reviewed in regards to the growing body of evidence indicating deregulations of Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in the stromal microenvironment of affected cells. PMID:22446006

  5. The Wnt and Delta-Notch signalling pathways interact to direct pair-rule gene expression via caudal during segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    PubMed

    Schönauer, Anna; Paese, Christian L B; Hilbrant, Maarten; Leite, Daniel J; Schwager, Evelyn E; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Eibner, Cornelius; Damen, Wim G M; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-07-01

    In short-germ arthropods, posterior segments are added sequentially from a segment addition zone (SAZ) during embryogenesis. Studies in spiders such as Parasteatoda tepidariorum have provided insights into the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying segment addition, and revealed that Wnt8 is required for dynamic Delta (Dl) expression associated with the formation of new segments. However, it remains unclear how these pathways interact during SAZ formation and segment addition. Here, we show that Delta-Notch signalling is required for Wnt8 expression in posterior SAZ cells, but represses the expression of this Wnt gene in anterior SAZ cells. We also found that these two signalling pathways are required for the expression of the spider orthologues of even-skipped (eve) and runt-1 (run-1), at least in part via caudal (cad). Moreover, it appears that dynamic expression of eve in this spider does not require a feedback loop with run-1, as is found in the pair-rule circuit of the beetle Tribolium Taken together, our results suggest that the development of posterior segments in Parasteatoda is directed by dynamic interactions between Wnt8 and Delta-Notch signalling that are read out by cad, which is necessary but probably not sufficient to regulate the expression of eve and run-1 Our study therefore provides new insights towards better understanding the evolution and developmental regulation of segmentation in other arthropods, including insects. PMID:27287802

  6. The EGF receptor and notch signaling pathways control the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow during Drosophila eye development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J P; Moses, K

    2001-07-01

    The onset of pattern formation in the developing Drosophila retina begins with the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow, the leading edge of a wave of retinal development that transforms a uniform epithelium, the eye imaginal disc into a near crystalline array of ommatidial elements. The initiation of this wave of morphogenesis is under the control of the secreted morphogens Hedgehog (Hh), Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Wingless (Wg). We show that the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Notch signaling cascades are crucial components that are also required to initiate retinal development. We also show that the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow is the sum of two genetically separable processes: (1) the 'birth' of pattern formation at the posterior margin of the eye imaginal disc; and (2) the subsequent 'reincarnation' of retinal development across the epithelium. PMID:11526075

  7. Notch signaling promotes airway mucous metaplasia and inhibits alveolar development.

    PubMed

    Guseh, J Sawalla; Bores, Sam A; Stanger, Ben Z; Zhou, Qiao; Anderson, William J; Melton, Douglas A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2009-05-01

    The airways are conduits that transport atmospheric oxygen to the distal alveolus. Normally, airway mucous cells are rare. However, diseases of the airway are often characterized by mucous metaplasia, in which there are dramatic increases in mucous cell numbers. As the Notch pathway is known to regulate cell fate in many contexts, we misexpressed the active intracellular domain of the mouse Notch1 receptor in lung epithelium. Notch misexpression resulted in an increase in mucous cells and a decrease in ciliated cells in the airway. Similarly, mouse embryonic tracheal explants and adult human airway epithelium treated with Notch agonists displayed increased mucous cell numbers and decreased ciliated cell numbers. Notch antagonists had the opposite effect. Notably, Notch antagonists blocked IL13-induced mucous metaplasia. IL13 has a well-established role as an inflammatory mediator of mucous metaplasia and functions through Stat6-mediated gene transcription. We found that Notch ligands, however, are able to cause mucous metaplasia in Stat6-null cultured trachea, thus identifying a novel pathway that stimulates mucous metaplasia. Notch signaling may therefore play an important role in airway disease and, by extension, Notch antagonists may have therapeutic value. Conversely, in the distal lung, Notch misexpression prevented the differentiation of alveolar cell types. Instead, the distal lung formed cysts composed of cells that were devoid of alveolar markers but that expressed some, but not all, markers of proximal airway epithelium. Occasional distal cystic cells appeared to differentiate into normal proximal airway cells, suggesting that ectopic Notch signaling arrests the normal differentiation of distal lung progenitors before they initiate an alveolar program. PMID:19369400

  8. Notch1 Pathway Protects against Burn-Induced Myocardial Injury by Repressing Reactive Oxygen Species Production through JAK2/STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Han, Shichao; Guo, Haitao; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Guan, Hao; Jia, Yanhui; Gao, Jianxin; Yang, Tao; Zhu, Xiongxiang; Hu, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in burn-induced myocardial injury, but the cellular mechanisms that control reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging are not fully understood. This study demonstrated that blockade of Notch signaling via knockout of the transcription factor RBP-J or a pharmacological inhibitor aggravated postburn myocardial injury, which manifested as deteriorated serum CK, CK-MB, and LDH levels and increased apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Interruption of Notch signaling increased intracellular ROS production, and a ROS scavenger reversed the exacerbated myocardial injury after Notch signaling blockade. These results suggest that Notch signaling deficiency aggravated postburn myocardial injury through increased ROS levels. Notch signaling blockade also decreased MnSOD expression in vitro and in vivo. Notably, Notch signaling blockade downregulated p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 expression. Inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling with AG490 markedly decreased MnSOD expression, increased ROS production, and aggravated myocardial injury. AG490 plus GSI exerted no additional effects. These results demonstrate that Notch signaling protects against burn-induced myocardial injury through JAK2/STAT3 signaling, which activates the expression of MnSOD and leads to decreased ROS levels. PMID:27057278

  9. Cyclosporin A Disrupts Notch Signaling and Vascular Lumen Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Raghav; Botros, Mark A.; Nacev, Benjamin A.; Albig, Allan R.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CSA) suppresses immune function by blocking the cyclophilin A and calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathways. In addition to immunosuppression, CSA has also been shown to have a wide range of effects in the cardiovascular system including disruption of heart valve development, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and angiogenesis inhibition. Circumstantial evidence has suggested that CSA might control Notch signaling which is also a potent regulator of cardiovascular function. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine if CSA controls Notch and to dissect the molecular mechanism(s) by which CSA impacts cardiovascular homeostasis. We found that CSA blocked JAG1, but not Dll4 mediated Notch1 NICD cleavage in transfected 293T cells and decreased Notch signaling in zebrafish embryos. CSA suppression of Notch was linked to cyclophilin A but not calcineurin/NFAT inhibition since N-MeVal-4-CsA but not FK506 decreased Notch1 NICD cleavage. To examine the effect of CSA on vascular development and function, double transgenic Fli1-GFP/Gata1-RFP zebrafish embryos were treated with CSA and monitored for vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and overall cardiovascular function. Vascular patterning was not obviously impacted by CSA treatment and contrary to the anti-angiogenic activity ascribed to CSA, angiogenic sprouting of ISV vessels was normal in CSA treated embryos. Most strikingly, CSA treated embryos exhibited a progressive decline in blood flow that was associated with eventual collapse of vascular luminal structures. Vascular collapse in zebrafish embryos was partially rescued by global Notch inhibition with DAPT suggesting that disruption of normal Notch signaling by CSA may be linked to vascular collapse. However, multiple signaling pathways likely cause the vascular collapse phenotype since both cyclophilin A and calcineurin/NFAT were required for normal vascular function. Collectively, these results show that CSA is a novel inhibitor of Notch signaling and

  10. A Dual Role for NOTCH Signaling in Joint Cartilage Maintenance and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Chen, Jianquan; Mirando, Anthony; Wang, Cuicui; Zuscik, Michael J.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of NOTCH signaling in postnatal murine joints results in osteoarthritis (OA), indicating a requirement for NOTCH during joint cartilage maintenance. Unexpectedly, NOTCH components are significantly up-regulated in human and murine post-traumatic OA, suggesting either a reparative or pathological role for NOTCH activation in OA. Here we investigated the potential dual role for NOTCH in joint maintenance and OA by generating two mouse models overexpressing the NOTCH1 intracellular domain within postnatal joint cartilage; one with sustained NOTCH activation that likely resembles pathological NOTCH signaling and one with transient NOTCH activation that more closely reflects physiological NOTCH signaling. Sustained NOTCH signaling in joint cartilage leads to an early and progressive OA pathology, while on the contrary, transient NOTCH activation enhances cartilage matrix synthesis and promotes joint maintenance under normal physiological conditions. Using RNA-seq, immunohistochemical, and biochemical approaches we identified several novel targets potentially responsible for NOTCH-mediated cartilage degradation, fibrosis, and OA progression, including components of the IL6/STAT3 and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways; factors that may also contribute to post-traumatic OA development. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dual role for the NOTCH pathway in joint cartilage and identify important downstream NOTCH effectors as potential targets for disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:26198357

  11. NUMB is a break of WNT-Notch signaling cycle.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    Notch, FGF and WNT signaling pathways cross-talk during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis. Notch-ligand binding to Notch receptors leads to the cleavage of Notch receptors and the following nuclear translocation of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) to induce transcriptional activation of Notch target genes. Notch signaling inhibitors, NUMB and NUMB-like (NUMBL), are docking proteins with PTB domain. We searched for the TCF/LEF-binding site within the promoter region of NUMB and NUMBL genes. Because two TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within human NUMB promoter based on bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint), comparative integromics analyses on NUMB orthologs were further performed. Chimpanzee NUBM gene, consisting of 13 exons, was identified within NW_115880.1 genome sequence. XM_510045.1 was not the correct coding sequence for chimpanzee NUMB. Chimpanzee NUMB gene was found to encode a 651-amino-acid protein showing 99.5, 93.9 and 82.6% total-amino-acid identity with human NUMB, mouse Numb and chicken numb, respectively. Human NUMB mRNA was expressed in placenta, ES cells, neural tissues, trachea, testis, uterus, thymus, coronary artery as well as in a variety of tumors, such as cervical cancer, tong tumor, brain tumor, colorectal and breast cancer. Although distal TCF/LEF-binding site within human NUMB promoter was conserved only among primate NUMB orthologs, proximal TCF/LEF-binding site was conserved among primate and rodent NUMB orthologs. NUMB, JAG1, FGF18, FGF20 and SPRY4 are potent targets of the canonical WNT signaling pathway in progenitor cells. NUMB inhibits Notch signaling in progenitor cells to induce differentiation, while JAG1 activates Notch signaling in stem cells to maintain self-renewal potential. Because Notch signaling inhibitor NUMB was identified as the safe apparatus for the WNT - Notch signaling cycle, epigenetic silencing, deletion and loss-of-function mutation of NUMB gene could lead to carcinogenesis

  12. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elizabeth J; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  13. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  14. Role of Notch signaling during lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Varkha; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Katara, Gajendra K; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Hirsch, Emmet; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling pathways exert effects throughout pregnancy and are activated in response to TLR ligands. To investigate the role of Notch signaling in preterm labor, Notch receptors (Notch1-4), its ligand Delta-like protein-1, transcriptional repressor hairy and enhancer of split-1, and Notch deregulator Numb were assessed. Preterm labor was initiated on gestation d 14.5 by 1 of 2 methods: 1) inflammation-induced preterm labor: intrauterine injection of LPS (a TLR4 agonist) and 2) hormonally induced preterm labor: subcutaneous injection of mifepristone. Delta-like protein-1, Notch1, and hairy and enhancer of split-1 were elevated significantly, and Numb was decreased in the uterus and placenta of inflammation-induced preterm labor mice but remained unchanged in hormonally induced preterm labor compared with their respective controls. F4/80(+) macrophage polarization was skewed in the uterus of inflammation-induced preterm labor toward M1-positive (CD11c(+)) and double-positive [CD11c(+) (M1) and CD206(+) (M2)] cells. This process is dependent on activation of Notch signaling, as shown by suppression of M1 and M2 macrophage-associated cytokines in decidual macrophages in response to γ-secretase inhibitor (an inhibitor of Notch receptor processing) treatment ex vivo. γ-Secretase inhibitor treatment also diminished the LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in decidual and placental cells cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, treatment with recombinant Delta-like protein-1 ligand enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response. Notch ligands (Jagged 1 and 2 and Delta-like protein-4) and vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor involved in angiogenesis were reduced significantly in the uterus and placenta during inflammation-induced preterm labor. These results suggest that up-regulation of Notch-related inflammation and down-regulation of angiogenesis factors may be associated with inflammation-induced preterm labor but not with

  15. Lef1 Contributes to the Differentiation of Bulge Stem Cells by Nuclear Translocation and Cross-Talk with the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Yu, Jin; Shi, Chunying; Huang, Yaqin; Wang, Yun; Yang, Tian; Yang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoid enhancer binding factor-1 (Lef1) is an essential regulatory protein in the Wnt signal pathway, which controls cell growth and differentiation. Investigators in the field of skin biology have confirmed that multipotent bulge stem cells (BSCs) are responsible for hair follicle development and regeneration. However, the role of Lef1 remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pattern of Lef1 expression at different stages of the hair growth cycle. Lef1 was strongly expressed during anagen but attenuated in both catagen- and telogen-phase hair follicles in vivo. When stem cells were induced to differentiate toward a hair fate in a co-culture system, Lef1 was notably up-regulated and accumulated in the nucleus, appearing to activate the target protein c-myc and jagged1. Simultaneously, the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were co-activated, as confirmed by the increased expression of β-catenin and notch1. Plasmids expressing Lef1 and ΔNLef1, a construct in which the β-catenin-binding domain of Lef1 was deleted, were used to evaluate the effects of Lef1 on stem cell differentiation. Lef1 overexpression promoted bulge stem cell differentiation toward a hair fate, which was accompanied by the subsequent migration of β-catenin into the nucleus, whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Lef1 plays an important role in bulge stem cell differentiation, promoting β-catenin translocation into the nucleus, activating downstream signaling molecules, eventually causing hair follicle bulge stem cells to adopt the hair fate. PMID:23630438

  16. LKB1 and Notch Pathways Interact and Control Biliary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Poncy, Alexis; Charawi, Sara; Dahmani, Rajae; Traore, Massiré; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drouet, Valérie; Dumont, Florent; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Colnot, Sabine; Terris, Benoit; Coulouarn, Cédric; Lemaigre, Frédéric; Perret, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background LKB1 is an evolutionary conserved kinase implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including inhibition of cell proliferation, regulation of cell polarity and metabolism. When Lkb1 is inactivated in the liver, glucose homeostasis is perturbed, cellular polarity is affected and cholestasis develops. Cholestasis occurs as a result from deficient bile duct development, yet how LKB1 impacts on biliary morphogenesis is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the phenotype of mice in which deletion of the Lkb1 gene has been specifically targeted to the hepatoblasts. Our results confirmed that lack of LKB1 in the liver results in bile duct paucity leading to cholestasis. Immunostaining analysis at a prenatal stage showed that LKB1 is not required for differentiation of hepatoblasts to cholangiocyte precursors but promotes maturation of the primitive ductal structures to mature bile ducts. This phenotype is similar to that obtained upon inactivation of Notch signaling in the liver. We tested the hypothesis of a functional overlap between the LKB1 and Notch pathways by gene expression profiling of livers deficient in Lkb1 or in the Notch mediator RbpJκ and identified a mutual cross-talk between LKB1 and Notch signaling. In vitro experiments confirmed that Notch activity was deficient upon LKB1 loss. Conclusion LKB1 and Notch share a common genetic program in the liver, and regulate bile duct morphogenesis. PMID:26689699

  17. TSG attenuates LPC-induced endothelial cells inflammatory damage through notch signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Song, Fan; Xu, Shouzhu; Nian, Lun; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induces inflammation in endothelial cells (ECs) but the mechanism is not fully understood. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in chronic EC inflammation, but its functions in LPC-induced endothelial inflammatory damage and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside's (TSG) protective effect during LPC-induced inflammatory damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is largely unknown. We report that Notch signaling activation contributed to LPC-induced injury in HUVECs, and that TSG protected HUVECs from LPC-induced injury by antagonizing Notch signaling activation by LPC. γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch signaling pathway, and Notch1 siRNA were used to inhibit Notch activity. HUVECs were exposed to LPC in the presence or absence of TSG, DAPT, and Notch1 siRNA. LPC treatment of HUVECs resulted in reduced cell viability, and Notch1 and Hes1 upregulation. Either silencing of Notch1 by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT prevented the loss of cell viability, and induction of apoptosis, and enhanced expression Notch1, Hes1 and MCP-1 by LPC in HUVECs. Similarly, TSG reduced LPC stimulation of Notch1, Hes1, and MCP-1 expression, prevented the release of IL-6 and CRP and rescued HUVECs from LPC-induced cell damage. Our data indicate that the Notch signaling pathway is a crucial mediator of endothelial inflammatory damage and that TSG protects against endothelial inflammatory damage by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that targeting Notch signaling by natural products such as TSG is a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation associated diseases, including atherosclerosis. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):37-50, 2016. PMID:26662286

  18. From Fly Wings to Targeted Cancer Therapies: A Centennial for Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Lim, Jing Shan; Sage, Julien; Aifantis, Iannis

    2014-01-01

    Since Notch phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster were identified 100 years, Notch signaling has been extensively characterized as a regulator of cell fate decisions in a variety of organisms and tissues. However, in the past 20 years, accumulating evidence has linked alterations in the Notch pathway to tumorigenesis. In this Perspective, we discuss the pro-tumorigenic and tumor suppressive functions of Notch signaling and dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie these functions in hematopoietic cancers and solid tumors. Finally, we link these mechanisms and observations to possible therapeutic strategies targeting the Notch pathway in human cancers. PMID:24651013

  19. Notch signaling: switching an oncogene to a tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Lobry, Camille; Oh, Philmo; Mansour, Marc R.; Look, A. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in several tissues and cell types. Notch is a binary cell-fate determinant, and its hyperactivation has been implicated as oncogenic in several cancers including breast cancer and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Recently, several studies also unraveled tumor-suppressor roles for Notch signaling in different tissues, including tissues where it was before recognized as an oncogene in specific lineages. Whereas involvement of Notch as an oncogene in several lymphoid malignancies (T-ALL, B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, splenic marginal zone lymphoma) is well characterized, there is growing evidence involving Notch signaling as a tumor suppressor in myeloid malignancies. It therefore appears that Notch signaling pathway’s oncogenic or tumor-suppressor abilities are highly context dependent. In this review, we summarize and discuss latest advances in the understanding of this dual role in hematopoiesis and the possible consequences for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:24608975

  20. Cellular Notch responsiveness is defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signals

    PubMed Central

    Mckenzie, Grahame; Ward, George; Stallwood, Yvette; Briend, Emmanuel; Papadia, Sofia; Lennard, Andrew; Turner, Martin; Champion, Brian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2006-01-01

    Background Notch plays a wide-ranging role in controlling cell fate, differentiation and development. The PI3K-Akt pathway is a similarly conserved signalling pathway which regulates processes such as differentiation, proliferation and survival. Mice with disrupted Notch and PI3K signalling show phenotypic similarities during haematopoietic cell development, suggesting functional interaction between these pathways. Results We show that cellular responsiveness to Notch signals depends on the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cells as diverse as CHO cells, primary T-cells and hippocampal neurons. Induction of the endogenous PI3K-Akt pathway in CHO cells (by the insulin pathway), in T-cells (via TCR activation) or in neurons (via TrKB activation) potentiates Notch-dependent responses. We propose that the PI3K-Akt pathway exerts its influence on Notch primarily via inhibition of GSK3-beta, a kinase known to phosphorylate and regulate Notch signals. Conclusion The PI3K-Akt pathway acts as a "gain control" for Notch signal responses. Since physiological levels of intracellular Notch are often low, coincidence with PI3K-activation may be crucial for induction of Notch-dependent responses. PMID:16507111

  1. Expression and significance of DLL4--Notch signaling pathway in the differentiation of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes induced by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang; Chen, Gecai

    2015-01-01

    hUCMSCs were isolated and purified from the umbilical cords of normal or cesarean term deliveries under sterile conditions. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that CD13, CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105 were highly expressed on the surface of passage-3 hUCMSCs, but negative for CD31, CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. Immunocytochemistry showed that 5-azacytidine (5-aza) could induce the cTnI expression of hUCMSCs. RT-PCR showed that a stable higher level expression of DLL4 and Notch1 gene in 5-aza-induced group was observed compared to that in the control group. There was a higher expression level in the induced group. Compared with control group, the expression levels of Notch1 were, respectively, increased 6.60, 7.36, 7.595, and 7.805 times at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after intervention of 5-aza. Statistically higher Ct value of Notch1 mRNA in induced group was observed in comparison with that of the control group (0.51 ± 0.21 vs 7.85 ± 0.35, t = 35.98, P < 0.01). The expression level of DLL4 increased stably compared with the control group. Compared with control group, the expression levels of DLL4 were, respectively, increased 11.53, 10.1, 10.17, and 11.46 times at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after intervention of 5-aza. There was a significant difference of DLL4 Ct value between the 5-aza-induced group and the control group (1.60 ± 0.49 vs 12.42 ± 0.73, t = 11.71, P < 0.01). In conclusion, hUCMSCs can be differentiated into myocardial cells in vitro. The DLL4-Notch signaling pathway may be involved in the differentiation of hUCMSCs into cardiomyocytes induced by 5-aza. PMID:25343938

  2. Notch1 endocytosis is induced by ligand and is required for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G; Major, J A; Iyer, K; James, A C; Pursglove, S E; Moreau, J L M; Dunwoodie, S L

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signalling pathway is widely utilised during embryogenesis in situations where cell-cell interactions are important for cell fate specification and differentiation. DSL ligand endocytosis into the ligand-expressing cell is an important aspect of Notch signalling because it is thought to supply the force needed to separate the Notch heterodimer to initiate signal transduction. A functional role for receptor endocytosis during Notch signal transduction is more controversial. Here we have used live-cell imaging to examine trafficking of the Notch1 receptor in response to ligand binding. Contact with cells expressing ligands induced internalisation and intracellular trafficking of Notch1. Notch1 endocytosis was accompanied by transendocytosis of ligand into the Notch1-expressing signal-receiving cell. Ligand caused Notch1 endocytosis into SARA-positive endosomes in a manner dependent on clathrin and dynamin function. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis in the receptor-expressing cell impaired ligand-induced Notch1 signalling. Our findings resolve conflicting observations from mammalian and Drosophila studies by demonstrating that ligand-dependent activation of Notch1 signalling requires receptor endocytosis. Endocytosis of Notch1 may provide a force on the ligand:receptor complex that is important for potent signal transduction. PMID:26522918

  3. Characterization of Notch Signaling During Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line MG63.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Alessia; Pellati, Agnese; Bagheri, Leila; Rizzo, Paola; Caliceti, Cristiana; Massari, Leo; De Mattei, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Osteogenic differentiation is a multi-step process controlled by a complex molecular framework. Notch is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway playing a prominent role in cell fate and differentiation, although the mechanisms by which this pathway regulates osteogenesis remain controversial. This study aimed to investigate, in vitro, the involvement of Notch pathway during all the developmental stages of osteogenic differentiation in human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Cells were cultured in basal condition (control) and in osteoinductive medium (OM). Notch inhibitors were also added in OM to block Notch pathway. During osteogenic differentiation, early (alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen type I) and late osteogenic markers (osteocalcin levels and matrix mineralization), as well as the gene expression of the main osteogenic transcription factors (Runx2, Osterix, and Dlx5) increased. Time dependent changes in the expression of specific Notch receptors were identified in OM versus control with a significant reduction in the expression of Notch1 and Notch3 receptors in the early phase of differentiation, and an increase of Notch2 and Notch4 receptors in the late phase. Among Notch nuclear target genes, Hey1 expression was significantly higher in OM than control, while Hes5 expression decreased. Osteogenic markers were reduced and Hey1 was significantly inhibited by Notch inhibitors, suggesting a role for Notch through the canonical pathway. In conclusion, Notch pathway might be involved with a dual role in osteogenesis of MG63, through the activation of Notch2, Notch4, and Hey1, inducing osteoblast differentiation and the depression of Notch1, Notch3, and Hes5, maintaining an undifferentiated status. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2652-2663, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946465

  4. Large-Scale Functional RNAi Screen in C. elegans Identifies TGF-β and Notch Signaling Pathways as Modifiers of CACNA1A.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria da Conceição; Morais, Sara; Sequeiros, Jorge; Alonso, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Variants inCACNA1Athat encodes the pore-forming α1-subunit of human voltage-gated Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca(2+)channels cause several autosomal-dominant neurologic disorders, including familial hemiplegic migraine type 1, episodic ataxia type 2, and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. To identify modifiers of incoordination in movement disorders, we performed a large-scale functional RNAi screen, using theCaenorhabditis elegansstrain CB55, which carries a truncating mutation in theunc-2gene, the worm ortholog for the humanCACNA1A The screen was carried out by the feeding method in 96-well liquid culture format, using the ORFeome v1.1 feeding library, and time-lapse imaging of worms in liquid culture was used to assess changes in thrashing behavior. We looked for genes that, when silenced, either ameliorated the slow and uncoordinated phenotype ofunc-2, or interacted to produce a more severe phenotype. Of the 350 putative hits from the primary screen, 37 genes consistently showed reproducible results. At least 75% of these are specifically expressed in theC. elegansneurons. Functional network analysis and gene ontology revealed overrepresentation of genes involved in development, growth, locomotion, signal transduction, and vesicle-mediated transport. We have expanded the functional network of genes involved in neurodegeneration leading to cerebellar ataxia related tounc-2/CACNA1A, further confirming the involvement of the transforming growth factor β pathway and adding a novel signaling cascade, the Notch pathway. PMID:27005779

  5. Large-Scale Functional RNAi Screen in C. elegans Identifies TGF-β and Notch Signaling Pathways as Modifiers of CACNA1A

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Maria da Conceição; Morais, Sara; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Variants in CACNA1A that encodes the pore-forming α1-subunit of human voltage-gated Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels cause several autosomal-dominant neurologic disorders, including familial hemiplegic migraine type 1, episodic ataxia type 2, and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. To identify modifiers of incoordination in movement disorders, we performed a large-scale functional RNAi screen, using the Caenorhabditis elegans strain CB55, which carries a truncating mutation in the unc-2 gene, the worm ortholog for the human CACNA1A. The screen was carried out by the feeding method in 96-well liquid culture format, using the ORFeome v1.1 feeding library, and time-lapse imaging of worms in liquid culture was used to assess changes in thrashing behavior. We looked for genes that, when silenced, either ameliorated the slow and uncoordinated phenotype of unc-2, or interacted to produce a more severe phenotype. Of the 350 putative hits from the primary screen, 37 genes consistently showed reproducible results. At least 75% of these are specifically expressed in the C. elegans neurons. Functional network analysis and gene ontology revealed overrepresentation of genes involved in development, growth, locomotion, signal transduction, and vesicle-mediated transport. We have expanded the functional network of genes involved in neurodegeneration leading to cerebellar ataxia related to unc-2/CACNA1A, further confirming the involvement of the transforming growth factor β pathway and adding a novel signaling cascade, the Notch pathway. PMID:27005779

  6. Notch signalling in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and other haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2010-01-01

    Notch receptors participate in a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Deregulated Notch signalling has been implicated in many diseases, but the clearest example of a pathogenic role is found in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-LL), in which the majority of human and murine tumours have acquired mutations that lead to aberrant increases in Notch1 signalling. Remarkably, it appears that the selective pressure for Notch mutations is virtually unique among cancers to T-LL, presumably reflecting a special context-dependent role for Notch in normal T cell progenitors. Nevertheless, there are some recent reports suggesting that Notch signalling has subtle yet important roles in other forms of hematologic malignancy as well. Here, we review the role of Notch signalling in various blood cancers, focusing on T-LL with an eye toward targeted therapeutics. PMID:20967796

  7. NOTCH signaling in skeletal progenitors is critical for fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuicui; Inzana, Jason A; Mirando, Anthony J; Ren, Yinshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Jie; O'Keefe, Regis J; Awad, Hani A; Hilton, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Fracture nonunions develop in 10%-20% of patients with fractures, resulting in prolonged disability. Current data suggest that bone union during fracture repair is achieved via proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitors within periosteal and soft tissues surrounding bone, while bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) and other skeletal progenitors may also contribute. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a critical maintenance factor for BMSCs during skeletal development, although the precise role for NOTCH and the requisite nature of BMSCs following fracture is unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOTCH and/or BMSCs are required for fracture repair by performing nonstabilized and stabilized fractures on NOTCH-deficient mice with targeted deletion of RBPjk in skeletal progenitors, maturing osteoblasts, and committed chondrocytes. We determined that removal of NOTCH signaling in BMSCs and subsequent depletion of this population result in fracture nonunion, as the fracture repair process was normal in animals harboring either osteoblast- or chondrocyte-specific deletion of RBPjk. Together, this work provides a genetic model of a fracture nonunion and demonstrates the requirement for NOTCH and BMSCs in fracture repair, irrespective of fracture stability and vascularity. PMID:26950423

  8. NOTCH signaling in skeletal progenitors is critical for fracture repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuicui; Inzana, Jason A.; Mirando, Anthony J.; Liu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Jie; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Awad, Hani A.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture nonunions develop in 10%–20% of patients with fractures, resulting in prolonged disability. Current data suggest that bone union during fracture repair is achieved via proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitors within periosteal and soft tissues surrounding bone, while bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) and other skeletal progenitors may also contribute. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a critical maintenance factor for BMSCs during skeletal development, although the precise role for NOTCH and the requisite nature of BMSCs following fracture is unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOTCH and/or BMSCs are required for fracture repair by performing nonstabilized and stabilized fractures on NOTCH-deficient mice with targeted deletion of RBPjk in skeletal progenitors, maturing osteoblasts, and committed chondrocytes. We determined that removal of NOTCH signaling in BMSCs and subsequent depletion of this population result in fracture nonunion, as the fracture repair process was normal in animals harboring either osteoblast- or chondrocyte-specific deletion of RBPjk. Together, this work provides a genetic model of a fracture nonunion and demonstrates the requirement for NOTCH and BMSCs in fracture repair, irrespective of fracture stability and vascularity. PMID:26950423

  9. Notch2 signaling contributes to cell growth, invasion, and migration in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jing; Song, Min; Xie, Jian; Huang, Xiao-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Meng; Gan, Rui-Huan; Zhao, Yong; Lin, Li-Song; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Xu; Zheng, Da-Li; Lu, You-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have explored whether the Notch signaling pathway has a tumor-suppressive or an oncogenic role in various tumors; however, the role of the Notch signaling pathway in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is still unknown. In this study, we attempt to define the role of Notch2 signaling in cell growth, invasion, and migration in SACC. We compared Notch2 expression in clinical SACC samples with that of normal samples by using immunohistochemical staining. Then, we down-regulated Notch2 expression to observe the effect of Notch2 on proliferation, invasion, migration, and the expression of known target genes of Notch signal pathway. According to our results, Notch2 expression was higher in SACC tissues compared with normal tissues. Knockdown of Notch2 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro and down-regulated the expression of HEY2 and CCND1. The results of this study suggest that Notch2 has an essential role in the cell growth, invasion, and migration of SACC. Notch2 may therefore be a potential target gene for the treatment of SACC by interfering with cell growth and metastasis. PMID:26427670

  10. Role of Wnt and Notch signaling in regulating hair cell regeneration in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Zhang, Shasha; He, Zuhong; Tang, Mingliang; Chai, Renjie

    2016-09-01

    Sensory hair cells in the inner ear are responsible for sound recognition. Damage to hair cells in adult mammals causes permanent hearing impairment because these cells cannot regenerate. By contrast, newborn mammals possess limited regenerative capacity because of the active participation of various signaling pathways, including Wnt and Notch signaling. The Wnt and Notch pathways are highly sophisticated and conserved signaling pathways that control multiple cellular events necessary for the formation of sensory hair cells. Both signaling pathways allow resident supporting cells to regenerate hair cells in the neonatal cochlea. In this regard, Wnt and Notch signaling has gained increased research attention in hair cell regeneration. This review presents the current understanding of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways in the auditory portion of the inner ear and discusses the possibilities of controlling these pathways with the hair cell fate determiner Atoh1 to regulate hair cell regeneration in the mammalian cochlea. PMID:27527363

  11. Opposing activities of Notch and Wnt signaling regulate intestinal stem cells and gut homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Biehs, Brian; Chiu, Cecilia; Siebel, Christian W; Wu, Yan; Costa, Mike; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-04-01

    Proper organ homeostasis requires tight control of adult stem cells and differentiation through the integration of multiple inputs. In the mouse small intestine, Notch and Wnt signaling are required both for stem cell maintenance and for a proper balance of differentiation between secretory and absorptive cell lineages. In the absence of Notch signaling, stem cells preferentially generate secretory cells at the expense of absorptive cells. Here, we use function-blocking antibodies against Notch receptors to demonstrate that Notch blockade perturbs intestinal stem cell function by causing a derepression of the Wnt signaling pathway, leading to misexpression of prosecretory genes. Importantly, attenuation of the Wnt pathway rescued the phenotype associated with Notch blockade. These studies bring to light a negative regulatory mechanism that maintains stem cell activity and balanced differentiation, and we propose that the interaction between Wnt and Notch signaling described here represents a common theme in adult stem cell biology. PMID:25818302

  12. A Role for Notch Signalling in Breast Cancer and Endocrine Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ahmet; Simões, Bruno M.; Clarke, Robert B.; Brennan, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in the Notch signalling pathway within the breast cancer field. This interest stemmed initially from the observation that Notch signalling is aberrantly activated in breast cancer and its effects on various cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer stem cell activity. However more recently, elevated Notch signalling has been correlated with therapy resistance in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. As a result, inhibiting Notch signalling with therapeutic agents is being explored as a promising treatment option for breast cancer patients. PMID:26880941

  13. Discrete Notch signaling requirements in the specification of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert D; Melick, Chase H; Clements, Wilson K; Stachura, David L; Distel, Martin; Panáková, Daniela; MacRae, Calum; Mork, Lindsey A; Crump, J Gage; Traver, David

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) require multiple molecular inputs for proper specification, including activity of the Notch signaling pathway. A requirement for the Notch1 and dispensability of the Notch2 receptor has been demonstrated in mice, but the role of the remaining Notch receptors has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that three of the four Notch receptors are independently required for the specification of HSCs in the zebrafish. The orthologues of the murine Notch1 receptor, Notch1a and Notch1b, are each required intrinsically to fate HSCs, just prior to their emergence from aortic hemogenic endothelium. By contrast, the Notch3 receptor is required earlier within the developing somite to regulate HSC emergence in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Epistatic analyses demonstrate that Notch3 function lies downstream of Wnt16, which is required for HSC specification through its regulation of two Notch ligands, dlc and dld. Collectively, these findings demonstrate for the first time that multiple Notch signaling inputs are required to specify HSCs and that Notch3 performs a novel role within the somite to regulate the neighboring precursors of hemogenic endothelium. PMID:25230933

  14. Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

    2009-01-01

    A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,…

  15. Synchronized Targeting of Notch and ERBB Signaling Suppresses Melanoma Tumor Growth through Inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keman; Wong, Poki; Salvaggio, Christine; Salhi, Amel; Osman, Iman; Bedogni, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant advances in melanoma therapy, melanoma remains the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a 5-year survival rate of only 15%. Thus, novel treatments are required to address this disease. Notch and ERBB are evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades required for the maintenance of melanocyte precursors. We show that active Notch1 (Notch1(NIC)) and active (phosphorylated) ERBB3 and ERBB2 correlate significantly and are similarly expressed in both mutated and wild-type BRAF melanomas, suggesting these receptors are co-reactivated in melanoma to promote survival. Whereas blocking either pathway triggers modest effects, combining a ?-secretase inhibitor to block Notch activation and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to inhibit ERBB3/2 elicits synergistic effects, reducing cell viability by 90% and hampering melanoma tumor growth. Specific inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3 mimics these results, suggesting these are the critical factors triggering melanoma tumor expansion. Notch and ERBB inhibition blunts AKT and NF?B signaling. Constitutive expression of NF?B partially rescues cell death. Blockade of both Notch and ERBB signaling inhibits the slow cycling JARID1B-positive cell population, which is critical for long-term maintenance of melanoma growth. We propose that blocking these pathways is an effective approach to treatment of melanoma patients regardless of whether they carry mutated or wild-type BRAF. PMID:26967479

  16. Synchronized targeting of Notch and ERBB signaling suppresses melanoma tumor growth through inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keman; Wong, Poki; Salvaggio, Christine; Salhi, Amel; Osman, Iman; Bedogni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advances in melanoma therapy, melanoma remains the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a five-year survival of only 15%. Novel treatments are therefore required to address this disease. Notch and ERBB are evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades required for the maintenance of melanocyte precursors. We show that active Notch1 (Notch1NIC) and active (phosphorylated) ERBB3 and ERBB2 correlate significantly and are similarly expressed in both mutated and wild type BRAF melanomas, suggesting these receptors are co-reactivated in melanoma to promote survival. Indeed, while blocking either pathway triggers modest effects, combining a γ-secretase inhibitor to block Notch activation, and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to inhibit ERBB3/2 elicits synergistic effects, reducing cell viability by 90% and by hampering melanoma tumor growth. Specific inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3 mimics these results, suggesting these are the critical factors triggering melanoma tumor expansion. Notch and ERBB inhibition blunts AKT and NFκB signaling; Constitutive expression of NFκB partially rescues cell death. Finally, blockade of both Notch and ERBB signaling inhibits the slow cycling JARID1B positive cell population, which is critical for long-term maintenance of melanoma growth. We propose that blocking these pathways is an effective approach to treat melanoma patients regardless of whether they carry mutated or wild type BRAF. PMID:26967479

  17. Inhibition of Notch signaling pathway attenuates sympathetic hyperinnervation together with the augmentation of M2 macrophages in rats post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Hu, Hesheng; Li, Xiaolu; Xue, Mei; Cheng, Wenjuan; Wang, Ye; Xuan, Yongli; Li, Xinran; Yang, Na; Shi, Yugen; Yan, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation-dominated sympathetic sprouting adjacent to the necrotic region following myocardial infarction (MI) has been implicated in the etiology of arrhythmias resulting in sudden cardiac death; however, the mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Although being a key immune mediator, the role of Notch has yet to be explored. We investigated whether Notch regulates macrophage responses to inflammation and affects cardiac sympathetic reinnervation in rats undergoing MI. MI was induced by coronary artery ligation. A high level of Notch intracellular domain was observed in the macrophages that infiltrated the infarct area at 3 days post-MI. The administration of the Notch inhibitor N-N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl)-S-phenylglycine-t-butyl ester (DAPT) (intravenously 30 min before MI and then daily until death) decreased the number of macrophages and significantly increased the M2 macrophage activation profile in the early stages and attenuated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF). Eventually, NGF-induced sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted, as assessed by the immunofluorescence of tyrosine hydroxylase. At 7 days post-MI, the arrhythmia score of programmed electric stimulation in the vehicle-treated infarcted rats was higher than that in rats treated with DAPT. Further deterioration in cardiac function and decreases in the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were also detected. In vitro studies revealed that LPS/IFN-γ upregulated the surface expression of NGF in M1 macrophages in a Notch-dependent manner. We concluded that Notch inhibition during the acute inflammatory response phase is associated with the downregulation of NGF, probably through a macrophage-dependent pathway, thus preventing the process of sympathetic hyperinnervation. PMID:26491050

  18. Notch signaling represses GATA4-induced expression of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    George, Rajani M; Hahn, Katherine L; Rawls, Alan; Viger, Robert S; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne

    2015-10-01

    Notch2 and Notch3 and genes of the Notch signaling network are dynamically expressed in developing follicles, where they are essential for granulosa cell proliferation and meiotic maturation. Notch receptors, ligands, and downstream effector genes are also expressed in testicular Leydig cells, predicting a potential role in regulating steroidogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine if Notch signaling in small follicles regulates the proliferation response of granulosa cells to FSH and represses the up-regulation steroidogenic gene expression that occurs in response to FSH as the follicle grows. Inhibition of Notch signaling in small preantral follicles led to the up-regulation of the expression of genes in the steroid biosynthetic pathway. Similarly, progesterone secretion by MA-10 Leydig cells was significantly inhibited by constitutively active Notch. Together, these data indicated that Notch signaling inhibits steroidogenesis. GATA4 has been shown to be a positive regulator of steroidogenic genes, including STAR protein, P450 aromatase, and 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We observed that Notch downstream effectors HEY1, HEY2, and HEYL are able to differentially regulate these GATA4-dependent promoters. These data are supported by the presence of HEY/HES binding sites in these promoters. These studies indicate that Notch signaling has a role in the complex regulation of the steroidogenic pathway. PMID:26183893

  19. Canonical Notch Signaling Is Dispensable for Early Cell Fate Specifications in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shaolin; Stahl, Mark; Lu, Linchao; Stanley, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The canonical Notch signaling pathway mediated by Delta- and Jagged-like Notch ligands determines a variety of cell fates in metazoa. In Caenorhabditis elegans and sea urchins, canonical Notch signaling is essential for different cell fate specifications during early embryogenesis or the formation of endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm germ layers. Transcripts of Notch signaling pathway genes are present during mouse blastogenesis, suggesting that the canonical Notch signaling pathway may also function in early mammalian development. To test this directly, we used conditional deletion in oocytes carrying a ZP3Cre recombinase transgene to generate mouse embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic protein O-fucosyltransferase 1, a cell-autonomous and essential component of canonical Notch receptor signaling. Homozygous mutant embryos derived from eggs lacking Pofut1 gene transcripts developed indistinguishably from the wild type until approximately embryonic day 8.0, a postgastrulation stage after the formation of the three germ layers. Thus, in contrast to the case with C. elegans and sea urchins, canonical Notch signaling is not required in mammals for earliest cell fate specifications or for formation of the three germ layers. The use of canonical Notch signaling for early cell fate specifications by lower organisms may represent co-option of a regulatory pathway originally used later in development by all metazoa. PMID:16227600

  20. Heterogeneity of Notch signaling in astrocytes and the effects of GFAP and vimentin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lebkuechner, Isabell; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Möllerström, Elin; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos

    2015-10-01

    Astrocytes have multiple roles in the CNS including control of adult neurogenesis. We recently showed that astrocyte inhibition of neurogenesis through Notch signaling depends on the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Here, we used real-time quantitative PCR to analyze gene expression in individual mouse astrocytes in primary cultures and in GFAP(POS) or Aldh1L1(POS) astrocytes freshly isolated from uninjured, contralesional and lesioned hippocampus 4 days after entorhinal cortex lesion. To determine the Notch signaling competence of individual astrocytes, we measured the mRNA levels of Notch ligands and Notch1 receptor. We found that whereas most cultured and freshly isolated astrocytes were competent to receive Notch signals, only a minority of astrocytes were competent to send Notch signals. Injury increased the fraction of astrocyte subpopulation unable to send and receive Notch signals, thus resembling primary astrocytes in vitro. Astrocytes deficient of GFAP and vimentin showed decreased Notch signal sending competence and altered expression of Notch signaling pathway-related genes Dlk2, Notch1, and Sox2. Furthermore, we identified astrocyte subpopulations based on their mRNA and protein expression of nestin and HB-EGF. This study improves our understanding of astrocyte heterogeneity, and points to astrocyte cytoplasmic intermediate filaments as targets for neural cell replacement strategies. PMID:26118771

  1. Enhancement of Notch receptor maturation and signaling sensitivity by Cripto-1

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Lee, Joseph M.; Bianco, Caterina; Gonzales, Monica; Castro, Nadia P.; Rangel, Maria Cristina; Sakamoto, Kei; Sun, Youping; Callahan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Nodal and Notch signaling pathways play essential roles in vertebrate development. Through a yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified Notch3 as a candidate binding partner of the Nodal coreceptor Cripto-1. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the binding of Cripto-1 with all four mammalian Notch receptors. Deletion analyses revealed that the binding of Cripto-1 and Notch1 is mediated by the Cripto-1/FRL-1/Cryptic domain of Cripto-1 and the C-terminal region of epidermal growth factor–like repeats of Notch1. Binding of Cripto-1 to Notch1 occurred mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi network. Cripto-1 expression resulted in the recruitment of Notch1 protein into lipid raft microdomains and enhancement of the furin-like protein convertase-mediated proteolytic maturation of Notch1 (S1 cleavage). Enhanced S1 cleavage resulted in the sensitization to ligand-induced activation of Notch signaling. In addition, knockdown of Cripto-1 expression in human and mouse embryonal carcinoma cells desensitized the ligand-induced Notch signaling activation. These results suggest a novel role of Cripto-1 in facilitating the posttranslational maturation of Notch receptors. PMID:19948478

  2. Honokiol inhibits melanoma stem cells by targeting notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Venugopal, Anand; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Umar, Shahid; Jensen, Roy A; Anant, Shrikant; Mammen, Joshua M V

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. Here, we determined the effects of honokiol (HNK), a biphenolic natural compound on melanoma cells and stemness. HNK significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, viability, clonogenicity and induced autophagy. In addition, HNK significantly inhibited melanosphere formation in a dose dependent manner. Western blot analyses also demonstrated reduction in stem cell markers CD271, CD166, Jarid1b, and ABCB5. We next examined the effect of HNK on Notch signaling, a pathway involved in stem cell self-renewal. Four different Notch receptors exist in cells, which when cleaved by a series of enzymatic reactions catalyzed by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Converting Enzyme (TACE) and γ-secretase protein complex, results in the release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which then translocates to the nucleus and induces target gene expression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in HNK treated cells there is a significant reduction in the expression of cleaved Notch-2. In addition, there was a reduction in the expression of downstream target proteins, Hes-1 and cyclin D1. Moreover, HNK treatment suppressed the expression of TACE and γ-secretase complex proteins in melanoma cells. To confirm that suppression of Notch-2 activation is critical for HNK activity, we overexpressed NICD1, NICD2, and performed HNK treatment. NICD2, but not NICD1, partially restored the expression of Hes-1 and cyclin D1, and increased melanosphere formation. Taken together, these data suggest that HNK is a potent inhibitor of melanoma cells, in part, through the targeting of melanoma stem cells by suppressing Notch-2 signaling. PMID:25491779

  3. Notch1-Snail1-E-cadherin pathway in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Qi; Zhang, Wu; Lui, Eric L H; Zhu, Yongqiang; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiaoming; Sun, Jisan; Yang, Sitian; Poon, Ronnie T P; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-08-01

    Notch signaling, a critical pathway for tissue development, also contributes to tumorigenesis in many cancers, but its pathological function in liver cancer is not well defined. In our study, Notch1 expression and its clinicopathological parameters were evaluated in 82 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Plasmid-based siNotch1 shRNA was transiently or stably transfected into metastatic HCC cells and subsequently evaluated for the effects on orthotopic liver tumor metastasis in a mouse model as well as the effects on downstream pathways. Aberrant high expression of Notch1 was significantly associated with metastatic disease parameters in HCC patients, such as tumor-node-metastasis Stages III-IV and tumor venous invasion. Knocking-down Notch1 reduced cell motility in vitro and orthotopic tumor metastasis from the liver to the lung in vivo in a mouse model. In metastatic HCC cells, abnormal expression of Notch1 was associated with increased expression of Snail1 and repressed expression of E-cadherin; the Notch1-Snail1-E-cadherin association can also be found in HCC patient tumors. Inhibition of Notch1 by shRNA abolished Snail1 expression, which further resulted in the re-establishment of repressed E-cadherin in metastatic HCC cells. Thus, abnormal Notch1 expression was strongly associated with HCC metastatic disease, which might be mediated through the Notch1-Snail1-E-cadherin pathway. Knock-down of Notch1 reversed HCC tumor metastasis in a mouse model. Therefore, these data suggest that effective targeting of Notch signaling might also inhibit tumor metastasis. PMID:22052196

  4. Notch Signaling Mediates Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Cancer Cachexia Caused by Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rashmi; March, Daniel; Voigt, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia is mediated by the interaction between muscle stem cells and various tumor factors. Although Notch signaling has been known as a key regulator of both cancer development and muscle stem cell activity, the potential involvement of Notch signaling in cancer cachexia and concomitant muscle atrophy has yet to be elucidated. The murine K7M2 osteosarcoma cell line was used to generate an orthotopic model of sarcoma-associated cachexia, and the role of Notch signaling was evaluated. Skeletal muscle atrophy was observed in the sarcoma-bearing mice, and Notch signaling was highly active in both tumor tissues and the atrophic skeletal muscles. Systemic inhibition of Notch signaling reduced muscle atrophy. In vitro coculture of osteosarcoma cells with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) isolated from normal mice resulted in decreased myogenic potential of MDSCs, while the application of Notch inhibitor was able to rescue this repressed myogenic potential. We further observed that Notch-activating factors reside in the exosomes of osteosarcoma cells, which activate Notch signaling in MDSCs and subsequently repress myogenesis. Our results revealed that signaling between tumor and muscle via the Notch pathway may play an important role in mediating the skeletal muscle atrophy seen in cancer cachexia. PMID:27378829

  5. Notch Signaling Mediates Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Cancer Cachexia Caused by Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaodong; Agarwal, Rashmi; March, Daniel; Rothenberg, Adam; Voigt, Clifford; Tebbets, Jessica; Huard, Johnny; Weiss, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia is mediated by the interaction between muscle stem cells and various tumor factors. Although Notch signaling has been known as a key regulator of both cancer development and muscle stem cell activity, the potential involvement of Notch signaling in cancer cachexia and concomitant muscle atrophy has yet to be elucidated. The murine K7M2 osteosarcoma cell line was used to generate an orthotopic model of sarcoma-associated cachexia, and the role of Notch signaling was evaluated. Skeletal muscle atrophy was observed in the sarcoma-bearing mice, and Notch signaling was highly active in both tumor tissues and the atrophic skeletal muscles. Systemic inhibition of Notch signaling reduced muscle atrophy. In vitro coculture of osteosarcoma cells with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) isolated from normal mice resulted in decreased myogenic potential of MDSCs, while the application of Notch inhibitor was able to rescue this repressed myogenic potential. We further observed that Notch-activating factors reside in the exosomes of osteosarcoma cells, which activate Notch signaling in MDSCs and subsequently repress myogenesis. Our results revealed that signaling between tumor and muscle via the Notch pathway may play an important role in mediating the skeletal muscle atrophy seen in cancer cachexia. PMID:27378829

  6. Hepatitis B Virus HBx Activates Notch Signaling via Delta-Like 4/Notch1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kongkavitoon, Pornrat; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Palaga, Tanapat

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis virus B (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). HBx protein encoded in HBV genome is one of the key viral factors leading to malignant transformation of infected cells. HBx functions by interfering with cellular functions, causing aberration in cellular behaviour and transformation. Notch signalling is a well-conserved pathway involved in cellular differentiation, cell survival and cell death operating in various types of cells. Aberration in the Notch signalling pathways is linked to various tumors, including HCC. The role of HBx on the Notch signalling in HCC, however, is still controversial. In this study, we reported that HBV genome-containing HCC cell line HepG2 (HepG2.2.15) expressed higher Notch1 and Delta-like 4 (Dll4), compared to the control HepG2 without HBV genome. This upregulation coincided with increased appearance of the cleavage of Notch1, indicating constitutively activated Notch signalling. Silencing of HBx specifically reduced the level of Dll4 and cleaved Notch1. The increase in Dll4 level was confirmed in clinical specimens of HCC lesion, in comparison with non-tumor lesions. Using specific signalling pathway inhibitors, we found that MEK1/2, PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways are critical for HBx-mediated Dll4 upregulation. Silencing of HBx clearly decreased the level of phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2. Upon silencing of Dll4 in HepG2.2.15, decreased cleaved Notch1, increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were observed, suggesting a critical role of HBx-Dll4-Notch1 axis in regulating cell survival in HCC. Furthermore, clonogenic assay confirmed the important role of Dll4 in regulating cell survival of HBV-genome containing HCC cell line. Taken together, we reported a link between HBx and the Notch signalling in HCC that affects cell survival of HCC, which can be a potential target for therapy. PMID:26766040

  7. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 participates in the maintenance of breast cancer stem cells through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway and expression of Snail1 and Twist1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengkui; Zhang, Chao; Zou, Xuesen; Jiang, Guixiang; Xu, Zongquan; Li, Wenting; Xie, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The stem cell populations in cancerous tissues and cell lines vary widely and are often associated with aggressive cases of breast cancer. Despite research on the topic, the mechanism underlying the regulation of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) population within tumors remains to be fully elucidated. To investigate the function of special AT‑rich sequence‑binding protein‑1 (SATB1) in the maintenance of the BCSC population, SATB1 was overexpressed with lentivirus in MCF‑7 cells or knocked down with shRNA‑lentivirus in BT‑549 cells. The effects of SATB1 overexpression or knockdown on mammosphere formation, the size of the of BCSC population, cell invasion and tumorigenesis were investigated. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway and expression of Snail1 and Twist1 were also examined in the cells. Overexpression of SATB1 in MCF‑7 cells was observed to increase mammosphere formation, the size of the BCSC population, cell invasion and tumorigenesis, accompanied by an increase in the activation of Notch signaling and expression levels of Snail1 and Twist1. Conversely, knockdown of SATB1 in BT‑549 cells produced the opposite effects. The results indicated that expression of SATB1 may increase the size of the BCSC population via the activation of the Notch signaling pathway and by increasing expression levels of Snail1 and Twist1. PMID:25586771

  8. PKCζ regulates Notch receptor routing and activity in a Notch signaling-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Sjöqvist, Marika; Antfolk, Daniel; Ferraris, Saima; Rraklli, Vilma; Haga, Cecilia; Antila, Christian; Mutvei, Anders; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Holmberg, Johan; Jin, Shaobo; Eriksson, John E; Lendahl, Urban; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Activation of Notch signaling requires intracellular routing of the receptor, but the mechanisms controlling the distinct steps in the routing process is poorly understood. We identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch receptor intracellular routing. When PKCζ was inhibited in the developing chick central nervous system and in cultured myoblasts, Notch-stimulated cells were allowed to undergo differentiation. PKCζ phosphorylates membrane-tethered forms of Notch and regulates two distinct routing steps, depending on the Notch activation state. When Notch is activated, PKCζ promotes re-localization of Notch from late endosomes to the nucleus and enhances production of the Notch intracellular domain, which leads to increased Notch activity. In the non-activated state, PKCζ instead facilitates Notch receptor internalization, accompanied with increased ubiquitylation and interaction with the endosomal sorting protein Hrs. Collectively, these data identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch trafficking and demonstrate that distinct steps in intracellular routing are differentially modulated depending on Notch signaling status. PMID:24662486

  9. Regulation of Notch signaling and endocytosis by the Lgl neoplastic tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Marta; Parsons, Linda M; Grzeschik, Nicola A; Richardson, Helena E

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved neoplastic tumor suppressor protein, Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl), plays roles in cell polarity and tissue growth via regulation of the Hippo pathway. In our recent study, we showed that in the developing Drosophila eye epithelium, depletion of Lgl leads to increased ligand-dependent Notch signaling. lgl mutant tissue also exhibits an accumulation of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, early-multivesicular body markers and acidic vesicles. We showed that elevated Notch signaling in lgl− tissue can be rescued by feeding larvae the vesicle de-acidifying drug chloroquine, revealing that Lgl attenuates Notch signaling by limiting vesicle acidification. Strikingly, chloroquine also rescued the lgl− overgrowth phenotype, suggesting that the Hippo pathway defects were also rescued. In this extraview, we provide additional data on the regulation of Notch signaling and endocytosis by Lgl, and discuss possible mechanisms by which Lgl depletion contributes to signaling pathway defects and tumorigenesis. PMID:25789785

  10. A novel reporter of notch signalling indicates regulated and random notch activation during vertebrate neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Building the complex vertebrate nervous system involves the regulated production of neurons and glia while maintaining a progenitor cell population. Neurogenesis starts asynchronously in different regions of the embryo and occurs over a long period of time, allowing progenitor cells to be exposed to multiple extrinsic signals that regulate the production of different cell types. Notch-mediated cell-cell signalling is one of the mechanisms that maintain the progenitor pool, however, little is known about how the timing of Notch activation is related to the cell cycle and the distinct modes of cell division that generate neurons. An essential tool with which to investigate the role of Notch signalling on cell by cell basis is the development a faithful reporter of Notch activity. Results Here we present a novel reporter for Notch activity based on the promoter of the well characterised Notch target chick Hes5-1, coupled with multiple elements that confer instability, including a destabilized nuclear Venus fluorescent protein and the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Hes5-1. We demonstrate that this reporter faithfully recapitulates the endogenous expression of Hes5-1 and that it robustly responds to Notch activation in the chick neural tube. Analysis of the patterns of Notch activity revealed by this reporter indicates that although Notch is most frequently activated prior to mitosis it can be activated at any time within the cell cycle. Notch active progenitors undergoing mitosis generate two daughters that both continue to experience Notch signalling. However, cells lacking Notch activity before and during mitosis generate daughters with dissimilar Notch activity profiles. Conclusions A novel Notch reporter with multiple destabilisation elements provides a faithful read-out of endogenous Notch activity on a cell-by-cell basis, as neural progenitors progress through the cell cycle in the chick neural tube. Notch activity patterns in this cell population

  11. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Activates Canonical Notch Signaling To Downregulate TLR2/4 Expression and Promote Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lina, Taslima T.; Dunphy, Paige S.; Luo, Tian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival. We found that nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) occurs in response to E. chaffeensis or recombinant TRP120, resulting in upregulation of Notch signaling pathway components and target genes notch1, adam17, hes, and hey. Significant differences in canonical Notch signaling gene expression levels (>40%) were observed during early and late stages of infection, indicating activation of the Notch pathway. We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against γ-secretase enzyme, Notch transcription factor complex, Notch1, and ADAM17, we demonstrated that Notch signaling is required for ehrlichial survival. We studied the downstream effects and found that E. chaffeensis TRP120-mediated activation of the Notch pathway causes inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways required for PU.1 and subsequent Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) expression. This investigation reveals a novel mechanism whereby E. chaffeensis exploits the Notch pathway to evade the host innate immune response for intracellular survival. PMID:27381289

  12. The Notch-mediated hyperplasia circuitry in Drosophila reveals a Src-JNK signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Diana M; Pallavi, SK; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling controls a wide range of cell fate decisions during development and disease via synergistic interactions with other signaling pathways. Here, through a genome-wide genetic screen in Drosophila, we uncover a highly complex Notch-dependent genetic circuitry that profoundly affects proliferation and consequently hyperplasia. We report a novel synergistic relationship between Notch and either of the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src42A and Src64B to promote hyperplasia and tissue disorganization, which results in cell cycle perturbation, JAK/STAT signal activation, and differential regulation of Notch targets. Significantly, the JNK pathway is responsible for the majority of the phenotypes and transcriptional changes downstream of Notch-Src synergy. We previously reported that Notch-Mef2 also activates JNK, indicating that there are commonalities within the Notch-dependent proliferation circuitry; however, the current data indicate that Notch-Src accesses JNK in a significantly different fashion than Notch-Mef2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05996.001 PMID:26222204

  13. Notch3/Jagged1 circuitry reinforces notch signaling and sustains T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC-overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

  14. Promoting Angiogenesis via Manipulation of VEGF Responsiveness with Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lan; Arany, Praveen R.; Wang, Yuan-Shuo; Mooney, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting angiogenesis via delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other angiogenic factors is both a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases and a critical aspect for tissue regeneration. The recent demonstration that VEGF signaling is modulated by the Notch signaling pathway, however, suggests that inhibiting Notch signaling may enhance regional neovascularization, by altering the responsiveness of local endothelial cells to angiogenic stimuli. We tested this possibility with in vitro assays using human endothelial cells, as well as in a rodent hindlimb ischemia model. Treatment of cultured human endothelial cells with DAPT, a gamma secretase inhibitor, increased cell migration and sprout formation in response to VEGF stimulation with a biphasic dependence on DAPT concentration. Further, delivery of an appropriate combination of DAPT and VEGF from an injectable alginate hydrogel system into ischemic hindlimbs led to a faster recovery of blood flow than VEGF or DAPT alone; perfusion levels reached 80% of the normal level by week 4 with combined DAPT and VEGF delivery. Direct intramuscular or intraperitoneal injection of DAPT did not result in the same level of improvement, suggesting that appropriate presentation of DAPT (gel delivery) is important for its activity. DAPT delivery from the hydrogels also did not lead to any adverse side effects, in contrast to systemic introduction of DAPT. Altogether, these results suggest a new approach to promote angiogenesis by controlling Notch signaling, and may provide new options to treat patients with diseases that diminish angiogenic responsiveness. PMID:19481797

  15. The NOTCH pathway is recurrently mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Arcaini, Luca; Rossi, Davide; Lucioni, Marco; Nicola, Marta; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Fiaccadori, Valeria; Riboni, Roberta; Ramponi, Antonio; Ferretti, Virginia V.; Cresta, Stefania; Casaluci, Gloria Margiotta; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Gotti, Manuel; Merli, Michele; Maffi, Aldo; Arra, Mariarosa; Varettoni, Marzia; Rattotti, Sara; Morello, Lucia; Guerrera, Maria Luisa; Sciarra, Roberta; Gaidano, Gianluca; Cazzola, Mario; Paulli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been found to be associated with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, mostly marginal zone lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Deregulation of signaling pathways involved in normal marginal zone development (NOTCH pathway, NF-κB, and BCR signaling) has been demonstrated in splenic marginal zone lymphoma. We studied mutations of NOTCH pathway signaling in 46 patients with hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and in 64 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma unrelated to HCV. NOTCH2 mutations were detected in 9 of 46 (20%) hepatitis C virus-positive patients, and NOTCH1 mutations in 2 of 46 (4%). By contrast, only one of 64 HCV-negative patients had a NOTCH1 or NOTCH2 mutation. The frequency of the NOTCH pathway lesions was significantly higher in hepatitis C virus-positive patients (P=0.002). The 5-year overall survival was 27% (95%CI: 5%–56%) for hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients carrying a NOTCH pathway mutation versus 62% (95%CI: 42%–77%) for those without these genetic lesions. By univariate analysis, age over 60 years, NOTCH2 mutation, and any mutation of the NOTCH pathway (NOTCH2, NOTCH1, SPEN) were associated with shorter overall survival. Mutation of the NOTCH pathway retained an independent significance (P=0.029). In conclusion, a subset of patients with hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma displays a molecular signature of splenic marginal zone and has a worse clinical outcome. PMID:25381127

  16. A Potential Role for Notch Signaling in the Pathogenesis and Regulation of Hemangiomas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, June K.; Kitajewski, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Hemangiomas are the most common benign tumor of infancy, yet its pathogenesis and the mechanisms governing proliferation and involution are not well understood. It is believed that hemangiomas arise out of clonal, abnormal hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs). The underlying anomaly of the HemEC is not known, although studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF signaling may influence HemECs. Moreover, there are numerous subtypes of hemangiomas, with differences in natural history, potential for morbidity, and prognosis, and little is known how this relates to HemEC. The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway across species from worms to mammals. Notch signaling has been shown to play a role during embryogenesis in directing vascular patterning and development and arterial and venous cell fate determination. Postnatally, it has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis in multiple malignancies. Notch signaling triggers tumor angiogenesis at least in part to stimulation by VEGF, thus establishing that there is a cross talk between the VEGF and Notch pathways. Given the presence of VEGF and its receptors in hemangiomas and known VEGF-Notch cross talk in tumor angiogenesis, the authors hypothesize that Notch signaling may contribute to hemangioma proliferation and involution. Preliminary studies of resected hemangioma specimens by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) show that all 4 Notch receptors and 2 Notch ligands, Jagged1 and Delta-like ligand 4, are expressed by hemangiomas. These findings support a role for Notch in hemangiomas, meriting further analysis of the functional relevance of Notch signaling in hemangiomas. PMID:19169152

  17. Notch1 Signaling Is Activated in Cells Expressing Embryonic Stem Cell Proteins in Human Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Peng, Jianhua; Zhang, Huxiang; Zhu, Yi; Wan, Li; Chen, Jianfu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Lin, Renyu; Li, He; Mao, XiaoOu; Jin, Kunlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of Notch1 signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry on surgically resected NPC using antibodies against embryonic stem (ES) cell proteins and against Notch1 signaling components. Results: We found that ES cell protein markers SOX2 and OCT4 were expressed in a subpopulation of cells for all three subtypes of NPC but barely in the normal control. Double immunostaining shows that SOX2- and OCT4-positive cells coexpressed proliferative markers, suggesting that human NPC may contain cancer stem–like cells. In addition, we found that Notch1 signaling was activated in NPC. Confocal images show that the Notch1 signaling activated form and Hes1, a downstream target of Notch1 signaling, was predominantly found in SOX2- and OCT4-positive cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the Notch1 signaling pathway might be a regulator of cancer stem–like cells in NPC. PMID:20211102

  18. Notch1 counteracts WNT/β-catenin signaling through chromatin modification in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-A; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Yoon-Young; Seong, Jinwoo; Chang, Hee Jin; Oh, Young Min; Stange, Daniel E.; Park, Jae-Gahb; Hwang, Daehee; Kong, Young-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Crosstalk between the Notch and wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) signaling pathways has been investigated for many developmental processes. However, this negative correlation between Notch and WNT/β-catenin signaling activity has been studied primarily in normal developmental and physiological processes in which negative feedback loops for both signaling pathways are intact. We found that Notch1 signaling retained the capability of suppressing the expression of WNT target genes in colorectal cancers even when β-catenin destruction by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) complex was disabled. Activation of Notch1 converted high-grade adenoma into low-grade adenoma in an Apcmin mouse colon cancer model and suppressed the expression of WNT target genes in human colorectal cancer cells through epigenetic modification recruiting histone methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1). Extensive microarray analysis of human colorectal cancers also showed a negative correlation between the Notch1 target gene, Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein 1 (NRARP), and WNT target genes. Notch is known to be a strong promoter of tumor initiation, but here we uncovered an unexpected suppressive role of Notch1 on WNT/β-catenin target genes involved in colorectal cancer. PMID:22863622

  19. Pleiotropic roles of Notch signaling in normal, malignant, and developmental hematopoiesis in the human

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Rahul; Guezguez, Borhane; Lee, Jung Bok; Hopkins, Claudia I; Bhatia, Mickie

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved across species and plays an important role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. It has been implicated in several different hematopoietic processes including early hematopoietic development as well as adult hematological malignancies in humans. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the role of Notch signaling in the human hematopoietic system with an emphasis on hematopoietic initiation from human pluripotent stem cells and regulation within the bone marrow. Based on recent insights, we summarize potential strategies for treatment of human hematological malignancies toward the concept of targeting Notch signaling for fate regulation. PMID:25252682

  20. Xanthohumol Inhibits Notch Signaling and Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Gamblin, T. Clark; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement in therapeutic strategies, median survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains less than one year. Therefore, molecularly targeted compounds with less toxic profiles are needed. Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in various cancers types in vitro. XN treatment in healthy mice and humans yielded favorable pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. Therefore, we determined to study the effects of XN and understand the mechanism of its action in HCC. The effects of XN on a panel of HCC cell lines were assessed for cell viability, colony forming ability, and cellular proliferation. Cell lysates were analyzed for pro-apoptotic (c-PARP and cleaved caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic markers (survivin, cyclin D1, and Mcl-1). XN concentrations of 5μM and above significantly reduced the cell viability, colony forming ability and also confluency of all four HCC cell lines studied. Furthermore, growth suppression due to apoptosis was evidenced by increased expression of pro-apoptotic and reduced expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, XN treatment inhibited the Notch signaling pathway as evidenced by the decrease in the expression of Notch1 and HES-1 proteins. Ectopic expression of Notch1 in HCC cells reverses the anti-proliferative effect of XN as evidenced by reduced growth suppression compared to control. Taken together these results suggested that XN mediated growth suppression is appeared to be mediated by the inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Therefore, our findings warrants further studies on XN as a potential agent for the treatment for HCC. PMID:26011160

  1. Regulation of NOTCH signaling by reciprocal inhibition of HES1 and Deltex 1 and its role in osteosarcoma invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Yang, Y; Nolo, R; Zweidler-McKay, P A; Hughes, D P M

    2010-05-20

    The highly conserved NOTCH signaling pathway has many essential functions in the development of diverse cells, tissues and organs from Drosophila to humans, and dysregulated NOTCH signaling contributes to several disorders, including vascular and bone defects, as well as several cancers. Here we describe a novel mechanism of NOTCH regulation by reciprocal inhibition of two NOTCH downstream effectors: Deltex1 and HES1. This mechanism appears to regulate invasion of osteosarcoma cells, as Deltex1 blocks osteosarcoma invasiveness by downregulating NOTCH/HES1 signaling. The inhibitory effect of endogenous Deltex1 on NOTCH signaling is mediated through binding with the intracellular domain of NOTCH and ubiquitination and degradation of NOTCH receptors. Conversely, we show that the NOTCH target gene HES1 causes transcriptional inhibition of Deltex1 by directly binding to the promoter of Deltex1. An HES1 binding site is identified 400 bp upstream of the transcription start site of Deltex1. HES1-mediated repression of Deltex1 requires the C-terminal H3/H4 and WRPW domains of HES1, which associate with the TLE/Groucho corepressors. Taken together, we define a molecular mechanism regulating NOTCH signaling by reciprocal inhibition of the NOTCH target genes HES1 and Deltex1 in mammalian cells. This mechanism may have important clinical implications for targeting NOTCH signaling in osteosarcoma and other cancers. PMID:20208568

  2. miRNA-34c regulates Notch signaling during bone development

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yangjin; Yang, Tao; Zeng, Huan-Chang; Campeau, Philippe M.; Chen, Yuqing; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian C.; Munivez, Elda; Tao, Jianning; Lee, Brendan H.

    2012-01-01

    During bone homeostasis, osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation is coupled and regulated by multiple signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors. Here, we show that microRNA 34 (miR-34) is significantly induced by BMP2 during osteoblast differentiation. In vivo, osteoblast-specific gain of miR-34c in mice leads to an age-dependent osteoporosis due to the defective mineralization and proliferation of osteoblasts and increased osteoclastogenesis. In osteoblasts, miR-34c targets multiple components of the Notch signaling pathway, including Notch1, Notch2 and Jag1 in a direct manner, and influences osteoclast differentiation in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-34c is critical during osteoblastogenesis in part by regulating Notch signaling in bone homeostasis. Furthermore, miR-34c-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of Notch signaling in osteoblasts is one possible mechanism to modulate the proliferative effect of Notch in the committed osteoblast progenitors which may be important in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas. Therefore, understanding the functional interaction of miR-34 and Notch signaling in normal bone development and in bone cancer could potentially lead to therapies modulating miR-34 signaling. PMID:22498974

  3. Notch Signaling Components: Diverging Prognostic Indicators in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Yan; Wu, Tao; Li, Qing; Wang, Min-Cong; Jing, Li; Ruan, Zhi-Ping; Yao, Yu; Nan, Ke-Jun; Guo, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies. PMID:27196489

  4. Fibulin-3 promotes glioma growth and resistance through a novel paracrine regulation of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Nandhu, Mohan S; Sim, Hosung; Agudelo-Garcia, Paula A; Saldivar, Joshua C; Dolan, Claire E; Mora, Maria E; Nuovo, Gerard J; Cole, Susan E; Viapiano, Mariano S

    2012-08-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive and chemoresistant brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis. Targeting of the soluble factors that trigger invasion and resistance, therefore, could have a significant impact against the infiltrative glioma cells that are a major source of recurrence. Fibulin-3 is a matrix protein that is absent in normal brain but upregulated in gliomas and promotes tumor invasion by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that fibulin-3 is a novel soluble activator of Notch signaling that antagonizes DLL3, an autocrine inhibitor or Notch, and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in a Notch-dependent manner. Using a strategy for inducible knockdown, we found that controlled downregulation of fibulin-3 reduced Notch signaling and led to increased apoptosis, reduced self-renewal of glioblastoma-initiating cells, and impaired growth and dispersion of intracranial tumors. In addition, fibulin-3 expression correlated with expression levels of Notch-dependent genes and was a marker of Notch activation in patient-derived glioma samples. These findings underscore a major role for the tumor extracellular matrix in regulating glioma invasion and resistance to apoptosis via activation of the key Notch pathway. More importantly, this work describes a noncanonical, soluble activator of Notch in a cancer model and shows how Notch signaling can be reduced by targeting tumor-specific accessible molecules in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22665268

  5. Non-Canonical Notch Signaling in Cancer and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Furkan; Osborne, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Canonical Notch signaling is initiated by γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the Notch receptor, leading to the release of the active intra-cellular domain of Notch that migrates to the nucleus and interacts with RBP-Jκ, resulting in the activation of downstream target genes. While canonical Notch signaling is well known to play an active role in several steps during development as well in multiple cell fate decisions, recent evidence from both invertebrate and vertebrate systems indicates that non-canonical, RBP-Jκ-independent signaling is important in several cellular processes including oncogenesis and activation of T lymphocytes. These observations raise the possibility that, through an understanding of non-canonical Notch signaling, novel strategies for inhibiting Notch signaling may prove useful in the design of therapies targeted to block aberrant Notch activity. In this mini-review, we will examine the current data demonstrating a non-canonical role for Notch signaling in both cancer and the immune system and suggest a better understanding of non-canonical signaling may reveal novel strategies to block Notch signaling in disease. PMID:25538890

  6. Rme-8 depletion perturbs Notch recycling and predisposes to pathogenic signaling.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lamarca, Maria J; Snowdon, Laura A; Seib, Ekatarina; Klein, Thomas; Bray, Sarah J

    2015-07-20

    Notch signaling is a major regulator of cell fate, proliferation, and differentiation. Like other signaling pathways, its activity is strongly influenced by intracellular trafficking. Besides contributing to signal activation and down-regulation, differential fluxes between trafficking routes can cause aberrant Notch pathway activation. Investigating the function of the retromer-associated DNAJ protein Rme-8 in vivo, we demonstrate a critical role in regulating Notch receptor recycling. In the absence of Rme-8, Notch accumulated in enlarged tubulated Rab4-positive endosomes, and as a consequence, signaling was compromised. Strikingly, when the retromer component Vps26 was depleted at the same time, Notch no longer accumulated and instead was ectopically activated. Likewise, depletion of ESCRT-0 components Hrs or Stam in combination with Rme-8 also led to high levels of ectopic Notch activity. Together, these results highlight the importance of Rme-8 in coordinating normal endocytic recycling route and reveal that its absence predisposes toward conditions in which pathological Notch signaling can occur. PMID:26169355

  7. Rme-8 depletion perturbs Notch recycling and predisposes to pathogenic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Lamarca, Maria J.; Snowdon, Laura A.; Seib, Ekatarina; Klein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a major regulator of cell fate, proliferation, and differentiation. Like other signaling pathways, its activity is strongly influenced by intracellular trafficking. Besides contributing to signal activation and down-regulation, differential fluxes between trafficking routes can cause aberrant Notch pathway activation. Investigating the function of the retromer-associated DNAJ protein Rme-8 in vivo, we demonstrate a critical role in regulating Notch receptor recycling. In the absence of Rme-8, Notch accumulated in enlarged tubulated Rab4-positive endosomes, and as a consequence, signaling was compromised. Strikingly, when the retromer component Vps26 was depleted at the same time, Notch no longer accumulated and instead was ectopically activated. Likewise, depletion of ESCRT-0 components Hrs or Stam in combination with Rme-8 also led to high levels of ectopic Notch activity. Together, these results highlight the importance of Rme-8 in coordinating normal endocytic recycling route and reveal that its absence predisposes toward conditions in which pathological Notch signaling can occur. PMID:26169355

  8. Inhibition of CK2α down-regulates Notch1 signalling in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shulin; Long, Hao; Yang, Yi-Lin; Wang, Yucheng; Hsieh, David; Li, Weiming; Au, Alfred; Stoppler, Hubert J; Xu, Zhidong; Jablons, David M; You, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is frequently elevated in a variety of human cancers. The Notch1 signalling pathway has been implicated in stem cell maintenance and its aberrant activation has been shown in several types of cancer including lung cancer. Here, we show, for the first time, that CK2α is a positive regulator of Notch1 signalling in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299. We found that Notch1 protein level was reduced after CK2α silencing. Down-regulation of Notch1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated after the silencing of CK2α in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, small-molecule CK2α inhibitor CX-4945 led to a dose-dependent inhibition of Notch1 transcriptional activity. Conversely, forced overexpression of CK2α resulted in an increase in Notch1 transcriptional activity. Finally, the inhibition of CK2α led to a reduced proportion of stem-like CD44 + /CD24− cell population. Thus, we report that the inhibition of CK2α down-regulates Notch1 signalling and subsequently reduces a cancer stem-like cell population in human lung cancer cells. Our data suggest that CK2α inhibitors may be beneficial to the lung cancer patients with activated Notch1 signalling. PMID:23651443

  9. Notch signaling indirectly promotes chondrocyte hypertrophy via regulation of BMP signaling and cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xifu; Wang, Jinwu; Luo, Zhengliang; Wang, Yongjun; Morandi, Massimo M.; Marymont, John V.; Hilton, Matthew J.; Dong, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation is critical for chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Recently we identified the Notch signaling pathway as an important regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during mouse cartilage development. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we assessed the role for Notch signaling regulation of the cell cycle during chondrocyte differentiation. Real-time RT-PCR data showed that over-expression of the Notch Intracellular Domain (NICD) significantly induced the expression of p57, a cell cycle inhibitor, in chondrocytes. Flow cytometric analyses further confirmed that over-expression of NICD in chondrocytes enhances the G0/G1 cell cycle transition and cell cycle arrest. In contrast, treatment of chondrocytes with the Notch inhibitor, DAPT, decreased both endogenous and BMP2-induced SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation and knockdown of SMAD 1/5/8 impaired NICD-induced chondrocyte differentiation and p57 expression. Co-immunoprecipitation using p-SMAD 1/5/8 and NICD antibodies further showed a strong interaction of these proteins during chondrocyte maturation. Finally, RT-PCR and Western blot results revealed a significant reduction in the expression of the SMAD-related phosphatase, PPM1A, following NICD over-expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Notch signaling induces cell cycle arrest and thereby initiates chondrocyte hypertrophy via BMP/SMAD-mediated up-regulation of p57. PMID:27146698

  10. The potential role of impaired Notch signalling in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    This review presents recent evidence of impaired Notch signalling in atopic dermatitis (AD), which is proposed to represent the "a-topic" defect linking both epidermal and immunological barrier dysfunctions in AD. AD epidermis exhibits a marked deficiency of Notch receptors. Mouse models with genetically suppressed Notch signalling exhibit dry skin, signs of scratching, skin barrier abnormalities, increased transepidermal water loss and TH2 cell-mediated immunological changes closely resembling human AD. Notch signals are critically involved in the differentiation of regulatory T cells, in the feedback inhibition of activated innate immunity, in late epidermal differentiation associated with filaggrin- and stratum corneum barrier lipid processing. Most importantly, Notch deficiency induces keratinocyte-mediated release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). TSLP promotes TH2 cell-driven immune responses associated with enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-31. Both TSLP and IL-31 stimulate sensory cutaneous neurons involved in the induction of itch. Notably, Notch1 is a repressor of activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is upregulated in AD epidermis. Without Notch-mediated suppression of AP-1 this transcription factor promotes excess expression of TH2 cell-related cytokines. Impaired Notch signalling negatively affects the homeostasis of aquaporin 3 and of the tight junction component claudin-1, thus explains disturbed skin barrier function with increased transepidermal water loss and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation as well as increased cutaneous susceptibility for viral infections. Thus, accumulating evidence links deficient Notch signalling to key pathological features of AD. PMID:24853951

  11. Notch1 Pathway Activity Determines the Regulatory Role of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Melanoma Growth and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongwei; Kong, Ranran; Ferrari, Massimiliano L.; Radtke, Freddy; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Liu, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) play a crucial role in regulating cancer progression, yet the molecular determinant that governs the tumor regulatory role of CAF remains unknown. Using a mouse melanoma model in which exogenous melanoma cells were grafted on the skin of two lines of mice where the genetic activation or inactivation of Notch1 signaling specifically occurs in natural host stromal fibroblasts, we demonstrated that Notch1 pathway activity could determine the tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressing phenotype in CAF. CAF carrying elevated Notch1 activity significantly inhibited melanoma growth and invasion, while those with a null Notch1 promoted melanoma invasion. These findings identify the Notch1 pathway as a molecular determinant that controls the regulatory role of CAF in melanoma skin growth and invasion, unveiling Notch1 signaling as a potential therapeutic target for melanoma and potentially other solid tumors. PMID:26562315

  12. 6-Shogaol Inhibits Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cell-Like Spheroids by Modulation of Notch Signaling Pathway and Induction of Autophagic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anasuya; Vasudevan, Smreti; Sengupta, Suparna

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) pose a serious obstacle to cancer therapy as they can be responsible for poor prognosis and tumour relapse. In this study, we have investigated inhibitory activity of the ginger-derived compound 6-shogaol against breast cancer cells both in monolayer and in cancer-stem cell-like spheroid culture. The spheroids were generated from adherent breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol was effective in killing both breast cancer monolayer cells and spheroids at doses that were not toxic to noncancerous cells. The percentages of CD44+CD24-/low cells and the secondary sphere content were reduced drastically upon treatment with 6-shogaol confirming its action on CSCs. Treatment with 6-shogaol caused cytoplasmic vacuole formation and cleavage of microtubule associated protein Light Chain3 (LC3) in both monolayer and spheroid culture indicating that it induced autophagy. Kinetic analysis of the LC3 expression and a combination treatment with chloroquine revealed that the autophagic flux instigated cell death in 6-shogaol treated breast cancer cells in contrast to the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-induced cell death got suppressed in the presence of chloroquine and a very low level of apoptosis was exhibited even after prolonged treatment of the compound, suggesting that autophagy is the major mode of cell death induced by 6-shogaol in breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol reduced the expression levels of Cleaved Notch1 and its target proteins Hes1 and Cyclin D1 in spheroids, and the reduction was further pronounced in the presence of a γ-secretase inhibitor. Secondary sphere formation in the presence of the inhibitor was also further reduced by 6-shogaol. Together, these results indicate that the inhibitory action of 6-shogaol on spheroid growth and sustainability is conferred through γ-secretase mediated down-regulation of Notch signaling. The efficacy of 6-shogaol in monolayer and cancer stem cell-like spheroids raise hope for its

  13. 6-Shogaol Inhibits Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cell-Like Spheroids by Modulation of Notch Signaling Pathway and Induction of Autophagic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anasuya; Vasudevan, Smreti; Sengupta, Suparna

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) pose a serious obstacle to cancer therapy as they can be responsible for poor prognosis and tumour relapse. In this study, we have investigated inhibitory activity of the ginger-derived compound 6-shogaol against breast cancer cells both in monolayer and in cancer-stem cell-like spheroid culture. The spheroids were generated from adherent breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol was effective in killing both breast cancer monolayer cells and spheroids at doses that were not toxic to noncancerous cells. The percentages of CD44+CD24-/low cells and the secondary sphere content were reduced drastically upon treatment with 6-shogaol confirming its action on CSCs. Treatment with 6-shogaol caused cytoplasmic vacuole formation and cleavage of microtubule associated protein Light Chain3 (LC3) in both monolayer and spheroid culture indicating that it induced autophagy. Kinetic analysis of the LC3 expression and a combination treatment with chloroquine revealed that the autophagic flux instigated cell death in 6-shogaol treated breast cancer cells in contrast to the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-induced cell death got suppressed in the presence of chloroquine and a very low level of apoptosis was exhibited even after prolonged treatment of the compound, suggesting that autophagy is the major mode of cell death induced by 6-shogaol in breast cancer cells. 6-shogaol reduced the expression levels of Cleaved Notch1 and its target proteins Hes1 and Cyclin D1 in spheroids, and the reduction was further pronounced in the presence of a γ-secretase inhibitor. Secondary sphere formation in the presence of the inhibitor was also further reduced by 6-shogaol. Together, these results indicate that the inhibitory action of 6-shogaol on spheroid growth and sustainability is conferred through γ-secretase mediated down-regulation of Notch signaling. The efficacy of 6-shogaol in monolayer and cancer stem cell-like spheroids raise hope for its

  14. Aberrant Notch signaling in glioblastoma stem cells contributes to tumor recurrence and invasion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Hao; Zhan, Ren-Ya

    2016-08-01

    Upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway in cancer stem cells and side population (SP) cells has a major role in maintenance, self-renewal and chemoresistance. The present study isolated a cancer stem cell-like SP accounting for 4.1% of a glioblastoma cell population using a Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion assay. In this glioblastoma SP, the expression of of Notch1 signaling proteins Notch1 intracellular domain and Hes‑1 was markedly upregulated. Furthermore, knockdown of Notch1 by RNA interference significantly diminished the neurosphere formation ability, self‑renewal and chemoresistance of the SP cells. In addition, the expression of the stem‑cell surface genes Oct‑4, Sox2 and Nanog in SP cells was significantly reduced and the sensitivity to the SP cells to chemotherapeutics was enhanced following Notch1 knockdown. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that upregulation of Notch1 is involved in the chemotherapy resistance and tumor recurrence of glioblastoma. Hence, the development of novel anti‑cancer drugs targeting the Notch1 signaling pathway may be a promising strategy for curing glioblastoma. PMID:27315154

  15. Notch signaling contributes to lung cancer clonogenic capacity in vitro but may be circumvented in tumorigenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Osanyingbemi-Obidi, Joyce; Dobromilskaya, Irina; Illei, Peter B.; Hann, Christine L.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a critical embryonic developmental regulatory pathway that has been implicated in oncogenesis. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recent evidence suggests that Notch signaling may contribute to maintenance of a cancer stem or progenitor cell compartment required for tumorigenesis. We explored whether intact Notch signaling is required for NSCLC clonogenic and tumorigenic potential in vitro and in vivo using a series of genetically modified model systems. In keeping with previous observations, we find that Notch3 in particular is upregulated in human lung cancer lines, and that down regulation of Notch signaling using a selective γ-secretase inhibitor (MRK-003) is associated with decreased proliferation and clonogenic capacity in vitro. We demonstrate that this phenotype is rescued with the expression of NICD3, a constitutively active cleaved form of Notch3 not affected by γ-secretase inhibition. Using an inducible LSL-KRASG12D model of lung cancer in vivo, we demonstrate a transient upregulation of Notch pathway activity in early tumor precursor lesions. However, a more rigorous test of the requirement for Notch signaling in lung oncogenesis, crossing the LSL-KRASG12D mouse model with a transgenic with a similarly inducible global dominant negative suppressor of Notch activity, LSL-DNMAML (dominant negative mastermind-like), reveals no evidence of Notch pathway requirement for lung tumor initiation or growth in vivo. Distinct Notch family members may have different, and potentially opposing, activities in oncogenesis, and targeted inhibition of individual Notch family members may be a more effective anti-cancer strategy than global pathway suppression. PMID:21994468

  16. Notch signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of human osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Engin, Feyza; Bertin, Terry; Ma, Ou; Jiang, Ming Ming; Wang, Lisa; Sutton, Richard E.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Lee, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in developmental processes and adult tissue homeostasis. Altered Notch signaling has been associated with various diseases including cancer. While the importance of altered Notch signaling in cancers of hematopoietic and epithelial origins has been established, its role in tumors of mesenchymal origin is less clear. Here, we report that human osteosarcoma cell lines and primary human osteosarcoma tumor samples show significant up-regulation of Notch, its target genes and Osterix. Notch inhibition by γ-secretase inhibitors or by using lentiviral mediated expression of dominant negative Mastermind-like protein (DN-MAML) decreases osteosarcoma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, established human tumor xenografts in nude mice show decreased tumor growth after chemical or genetic inhibition of Notch signaling. Finally, transcriptional profiling of osteosarcomas from p53 mutant mice confirmed up-regulation of Notch1 target genes Hes1, Hey1 and its ligand Dll4. Our data suggest that activation of Notch signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of human osteosarcomas and its inhibition may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of this mesenchymal tumor. PMID:19228774

  17. EGCG Attenuates Uric Acid-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses by Medicating the NOTCH Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hua; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Yanqiu; Zong, Min; Li, Shijie; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can prevent the UA-induced inflammatory effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the involved mechanisms in vitro. Methods. HUVEC were subjected to uric acid (UA) with or without EGCG treatment. RT-PCR and western blots were performed to determine the level of inflammation marker. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Functional studies of the role of Notch-1 in HUVEC lines were performed using RNA interference analyses. Results. UA significantly increased the expressions of IL-6, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and MCP-1 and the production of ROS in HUVEC. Meanwhile, the expression of Notch-1 and its downstream effects significantly increased. Using siRNA, inhibition of Notch-1 signaling significantly impeded the expressions of inflammatory cytokines under UA treatment. Interestingly, EGCG suppressed the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and the generation of ROS. Western blot analysis of Notch-1 showed that EGCG significantly decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines through Notch-1 signaling pathways. Conclusions. In summary, our findings indicated that Notch-1 plays an important role in the UA-induced inflammatory response, and the downregulation of Notch-1 by EGCG could be an effective approach to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress induced by UA. PMID:26539255

  18. Ionizing Radiation Shifts the PAI-1/ID-1 Balance and Activates Notch Signaling in Endothelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Kruse, Jacqueline; Sprong, Debbie; Russell, Nicola S.; Dijke, Peter ten; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) and Notch signaling pathways are important regulators of vascular homeostasis and vessel remodeling; mutations in these pathways can lead to vascular disorders. Similar vascular phenotypes develop in the normal tissues of cancer patients as a long-term effect of radiotherapy. Irradiation most severely affects the capillaries, which become leaky and dilated and might eventually rupture. To investigate the mechanism of such capillary damage, we studied the effect of TGF-{beta} and Notch signaling in microvascular endothelial cells. Methods and Materials: Human microvascular endothelial cells were irradiated with 5 or 10 Gy and activation of TGF-{beta} and Notch signaling pathways was assessed by biochemical methods and a cell migration assay. Results: Ionizing radiation induced Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation and increased mRNA and protein expression of the activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) target gene plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). At the same time, we observed diminished Smad1/5/8 activation and downregulation of the ALK1 downstream target, inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (ID-1). We also measured an upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 and the target gene Hey1. Decreased inhibitor of DNA binding-1 levels coincided with a reduced ability of the cells to migrate. Conclusion: Ionizing radiation shifts the balance from ALK1 to ALK5 signaling and activates the Notch pathway in endothelial cells. This combination of anti-angiogenic signals contributes to reduced cell migration after irradiation.

  19. Inhibition of Notch Signaling During Mouse Incisor Renewal Leads to Enamel Defects.

    PubMed

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Meng, Bo; Wen, Timothy; Lim, Young-Jun; Naveau, Adrien; Espinoza, Ruben; Cox, Timothy C; Sone, Eli D; Ganss, Bernhard; Siebel, Christian W; Klein, Ophir D

    2016-01-01

    The continuously growing rodent incisor is an emerging model for the study of renewal of mineralized tissues by adult stem cells. Although the Bmp, Fgf, Shh, and Wnt pathways have been studied in this organ previously, relatively little is known about the role of Notch signaling during incisor renewal. Notch signaling components are expressed in enamel-forming ameloblasts and the underlying stratum intermedium (SI), which suggested distinct roles in incisor renewal and enamel mineralization. Here, we injected adult mice with inhibitory antibodies against several components of the Notch pathway. This blockade led to defects in the interaction between ameloblasts and the SI cells, which ultimately affected enamel formation. Furthermore, Notch signaling inhibition led to the downregulation of desmosome-specific proteins such as PERP and desmoplakin, consistent with the importance of desmosomes in the integrity of ameloblast-SI attachment and enamel formation. Together, our data demonstrate that Notch signaling is critical for proper enamel formation during incisor renewal, in part by regulating desmosome-specific components, and that the mouse incisor provides a model system to dissect Jag-Notch signaling mechanisms in the context of mineralized tissue renewal. PMID:26179131

  20. CoREST acts as a positive regulator of Notch signaling in the follicle cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Domanitskaya, Elena; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2012-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in a variety of developmental events. The context-dependent activities of positive and negative modulators dramatically increase the diversity of cellular responses to Notch signaling. In a screen for mutations affecting the Drosophila melanogaster follicular epithelium, we isolated a mutation in CoREST that disrupts the Notch-dependent mitotic-to-endocycle switch of follicle cells at stage 6 of oogenesis. We show that Drosophila CoREST positively regulates Notch signaling, acting downstream of the proteolytic cleavage of Notch but upstream of Hindsight activity; the Hindsight gene is a Notch target that coordinates responses in the follicle cells. We show that CoREST genetically interacts with components of the Notch repressor complex, Hairless, C-terminal Binding Protein and Groucho. In addition, we demonstrate that levels of H3K27me3 and H4K16 acetylation are dramatically increased in CoREST mutant follicle cells. Our data indicate that CoREST acts as a positive modulator of the Notch pathway in the follicular epithelium as well as in wing tissue, and suggests a previously unidentified role for CoREST in the regulation of Notch signaling. Given its high degree of conservation among species, CoREST probably also functions as a regulator of Notch-dependent cellular events in other organisms. PMID:22331351

  1. Notch Signaling and Hes Labeling in the Normal and Drug-Damaged Organ of Corti

    PubMed Central

    Batts, Shelley A.; Shoemaker, Christopher R.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2009-01-01

    During the development of the inner ear, the Notch cell signaling pathway is responsible for the specification of the pro-sensory domain and influences cell fate decisions. It is assumed that Notch signaling ends during maturity and cannot be reinitiated to alter the fate of new or existing cells in the organ of Corti. This is in contrast to non-mammalian species which reinitiate Delta1-Notch1 signaling in response to trauma in the auditory epithelium, resulting in hair cell regeneration through transdifferentiation and/or mitosis. We report immunohistochemical data and Western protein analysis showing that in the aminoglycoside-damaged guinea pig organ of Corti, there is an increase in proteins involved in Notch activation occurring within 24 hours of a chemical hair cell lesion. The signaling response is characterized by the increased presence of Jagged1 ligand in pillar and Deiters cells, Notch1 signal in surviving supporting cell nuclei, and the absence of Jagged2 and Delta-like1. The pro-sensory bHLH protein Atoh1 was absent at all time points following an ototoxic lesion, while the repressor bHLH transcription factors Hes1 and Hes5 were detected in surviving supporting cell nuclei in the former inner and outer hair cell areas, respectively. Notch pathway proteins peaked at 2 weeks, decreased at 1 month, and nearly disappeared by 2 months. These results indicate that the mammalian auditory epithelium retains the ability to regulate Notch signaling and Notch-dependent Hes activity in response to cellular trauma and that the signaling is transient. Additionally, since Hes activity antagonizes the transcription of prosensory Atoh1, the presence of Hes after a lesion may prohibit the occurrence of transdifferentiation in the surviving supporting cells. PMID:19185606

  2. Direct regulation of interleukin-6 expression by Notch signaling in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wongchana, Wipawee; Palaga, Tanapat

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic, pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by various types of cells, including macrophages. Within the IL-6 gene promoter region, the signature binding motif of CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1 (CSL), a key DNA-binding protein in the Notch signaling pathway, was identified and found to overlap with a consensus nuclear factor (NF)-κB-binding site. Notch signaling is highly conserved and is involved in the regulation of biological functions in immune cells. In this study, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the regulation of the IL-6 transcript in murine macrophages. The upregulation of Notch1 protein levels and the appearance of cleaved Notch1 (Val1744) correlated well with the increased IL-6 mRNA expression levels in murine primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMφ) after activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) together with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Treatment of BMMφ with the γ-secretase inhibitor IL-CHO to suppress the transduction of Notch signaling resulted in a partial decrease in the level of IL-6 mRNA and the amount of IL-6 protein produced. In contrast, the overexpression of a constitutively activated intracellular Notch1 protein (NIC) in the RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line resulted in significantly higher IL-6 transcript expression levels than in cells transfected with the empty vector control. The NF-κB inhibitor completely abrogated IL-6 mRNA expression induced by the overexpression of NIC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an anti-Notch1 antibody demonstrated that Notch1 is associated with the IL-6 promoter in RAW264.7 cells activated by LPS/IFN-γ but not in unstimulated cells. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that Notch1 positively regulates IL-6 expression via NF-κB in activated macrophages. PMID:21983868

  3. Notch signaling in group 3 innate lymphoid cells modulates their plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chea, Sylvestre; Perchet, Thibaut; Petit, Maxime; Verrier, Thomas; Guy-Grand, Delphine; Banchi, Elena-Gaia; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Di Santo, James P; Cumano, Ana; Golub, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is conserved throughout evolution, and it controls various processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, and proliferation. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells lacking antigen receptors that fulfill effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. Type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) reinforce the epithelial barrier and maintain homeostasis with intestinal microbiota. We demonstrated that the population of natural cytotoxicity receptor-positive (NCR(+)) ILC3s in mice is composed of two subsets that have distinct developmental requirements. A major subset depended on the activation of Notch2 in NCR(-) ILC3 precursors in the lamina propria of the small intestine to stimulate expression of the genes encoding the transcription factors T-bet, RORγt, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Notch signaling contributed to the transition of NCR(-) cells into NCR(+) cells, the more proinflammatory subset, in a cell-autonomous manner. In the absence of Notch signaling, this subset of NCR(-) ILC3s did not acquire the gene expression profile of NCR(+) ILC3s. A second subset of NCR(+) ILC3s did not depend on Notch for their development or for increased transcription factor abundance; however, their production of cytokines and cell surface abundance of NCRs were decreased in the absence of Notch signaling. Together, our data suggest that Notch is a regulator of the plasticity of ILC3s by controlling NCR(+) cell fate. PMID:27141929

  4. Transient inactivation of Notch signaling synchronizes differentiation of neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Branden R.; Hartman, Byron H.; Georgi, Sean A.; Lan, Michael S.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary In the developing nervous system, the balance between proliferation and differentiation is critical to generate the appropriate numbers and types of neurons and glia. Notch signaling maintains the progenitor pool throughout this process. While many components of the Notch pathway have been identified, the downstream molecular events leading to neural differentiation are not well understood. We have taken advantage of a small molecule inhibitor, DAPT, to block Notch activity in retinal progenitor cells, and analyzed the resulting molecular and cellular changes over time. DAPT treatment causes a massive, coordinated differentiation of progenitors that produces cell types appropriate for their developmental stage. Transient exposure of retina to DAPT for specific time periods allowed us to define the period of Notch inactivation that is required for a permanent commitment to differentiate. Inactivation of Notch signaling revealed a cascade of proneural bHLH transcription factor gene expression that correlates with stages in progenitor cell differentiation. Microarray/QPCR analysis confirms the changes in Notch signaling components, and reveals new molecular targets for investigating neuronal differentiation. Thus, transient inactivation of Notch signaling synchronizes progenitor cell differentiation, and allows for a systematic analysis of key steps in this process. PMID:17280659

  5. Notch signaling promotes osteoclast maturation and resorptive activity.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Jason W; Ahn, Jaimo; Hankenson, Kurt D

    2015-11-01

    The role of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation is controversial with conflicting experimental evidence indicating both stimulatory and inhibitory roles. Differences in experimental protocols and in vivo versus in vitro models may explain the discrepancies between studies. In this study, we investigated cell autonomous roles of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation and function by altering Notch signaling during osteoclast differentiation using stimulation with immobilized ligands Jagged1 or Delta-like1 or by suppression with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or transcriptional inhibitor SAHM1. Stimulation of Notch signaling in committed osteoclast precursors resulted in larger osteoclasts with a greater number of nuclei and resorptive activity whereas suppression resulted in smaller osteoclasts with fewer nuclei and suppressed resorptive activity. Conversely, stimulation of Notch signaling in osteoclast precursors prior to induction of osteoclastogenesis resulted in fewer osteoclasts. Our data support a mechanism of context-specific Notch signaling effects wherein Notch stimulation inhibits commitment to osteoclast differentiation, but enhances the maturation and function of committed precursors. PMID:25914241

  6. The canonical Notch pathway effector RBP-J regulates neuronal plasticity and expression of GABA transporters in hippocampal networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuxi; Wang, Yue; Worley, Paul F; Mattson, Mark P; Gaiano, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Activation of the Notch pathway in neurons is essential for learning and memory in various species from invertebrates to mammals. However, it remains unclear how Notch signaling regulates neuronal plasticity, and whether the transcriptional regulator and canonical pathway effector RBP-J plays a role. Here, we report that conditional disruption of RBP-J in the postnatal hippocampus leads to defects in long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and in learning and memory. Using gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified two GABA transporters, GAT2 and BGT1, as putative Notch/RBP-J pathway targets, which may function downstream of RBP-J to limit the accumulation of GABA in the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results reveal an essential role for canonical Notch/RBP-J signaling in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and suggest that role, at least in part, is mediated by the regulation of GABAergic signaling. PMID:25515406

  7. The canonical Notch pathway effector RBP-J regulates neuronal plasticity and expression of GABA transporters in hippocampal networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuxi; Wang, Yue; Worley, Paul F.; Mattson, Mark P.; Gaiano, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the Notch pathway in neurons is essential for learning and memory in various species from invertebrates to mammals. However, it remains unclear how Notch signaling regulates neuronal plasticity, and whether the transcriptional regulator and canonical pathway effector RBP-J plays a role. Here we report that conditional disruption of RBP-J in the postnatal hippocampus leads to defects in long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), and in learning and memory. Using gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified two GABA transporters, GAT2 and BGT1, as putative Notch/RBP-J pathway targets, which may function downstream of RBP-J to limit the accumulation of GABA in the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results reveal an essential role for canonical Notch/RBP-J signaling in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and suggest that role, at least in part, is mediated by the regulation of GABAergic signaling. PMID:25515406

  8. Notch Signaling in Inflammation-Induced Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mukesh K.; Agrawal, Varkha; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Katara, Gajendra K.; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D.; Hirsch, Emmet

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in regulation of innate immune responses and trophoblast function during pregnancy. To identify the role of Notch signaling in preterm labor, Notch receptors (Notch1-4), its ligands (DLL (Delta-like protein)-1/3/4), Jagged 1/2) and Notch-induced transcription factor Hes1 were assessed during preterm labor. Preterm labor was initiated on gestation day 14.5 by intrauterine (IU) injection of peptidoglycan (PGN) and polyinosinic:cytidylic acid (poly(I:C). Notch1, Notch2, Notch4, DLL-1 and nuclear localization of Hes1 were significantly elevated in uterus and placenta during PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm labor. Ex vivo, Gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) (inhibitor of Notch receptor processing) significantly diminished the PGN+poly(I:C)-induced secretion of M1- and M2-associated cytokines in decidual macrophages, and of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (MIP-1β) in decidual and placental cells. Conversely, angiogenesis factors including Notch ligands Jagged 1/2 and DLL-4 and VEGF were significantly reduced in uterus and placenta during PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm labor. In vivo GSI treatment prevents PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm delivery by 55.5% and increased the number of live fetuses in-utero significantly compared to respective controls 48 hrs after injections. In summary, Notch signaling is activated during PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm labor, resulting in upregulation of pro-inflammatory responses, and its inhibition improves in-utero survival of live fetuses. PMID:26472156

  9. Notch Signaling in Inflammation-Induced Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Agrawal, Varkha; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Katara, Gajendra K; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Beaman, Kenneth D; Hirsch, Emmet

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in regulation of innate immune responses and trophoblast function during pregnancy. To identify the role of Notch signaling in preterm labor, Notch receptors (Notch1-4), its ligands (DLL (Delta-like protein)-1/3/4), Jagged 1/2) and Notch-induced transcription factor Hes1 were assessed during preterm labor. Preterm labor was initiated on gestation day 14.5 by intrauterine (IU) injection of peptidoglycan (PGN) and polyinosinic:cytidylic acid (poly(I:C). Notch1, Notch2, Notch4, DLL-1 and nuclear localization of Hes1 were significantly elevated in uterus and placenta during PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm labor. Ex vivo, Gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) (inhibitor of Notch receptor processing) significantly diminished the PGN+poly(I:C)-induced secretion of M1- and M2-associated cytokines in decidual macrophages, and of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (MIP-1β) in decidual and placental cells. Conversely, angiogenesis factors including Notch ligands Jagged 1/2 and DLL-4 and VEGF were significantly reduced in uterus and placenta during PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm labor. In vivo GSI treatment prevents PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm delivery by 55.5% and increased the number of live fetuses in-utero significantly compared to respective controls 48 hrs after injections. In summary, Notch signaling is activated during PGN+poly(I:C)-induced preterm labor, resulting in upregulation of pro-inflammatory responses, and its inhibition improves in-utero survival of live fetuses. PMID:26472156

  10. Key regulators of sensitization and tolerance: GM-CSF, IL-10, TGF-β and the Notch signaling pathway in adjuvant-free experimental models of respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Guibas, George V; Makris, Michael; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2013-06-01

    Conventional experimental models of respiratory allergy have contributed greatly to our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of allergic airway diseases; nevertheless, they are contingent upon unnatural sensitization techniques, entailing adjuvant-aided intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of antigen. Currently, there is a growing appreciation of the impact of tolerance mechanics in the pathophysiology of respiratory allergy. Thus, inasmuch as adjuvants exert a robust tolerance-modifying action, a transition from the conventional method of experimental sensitization to one that is more naturally and clinically relevant becomes important. We therefore opted to survey the literature and identify agents that could interfere with sensitization mechanics following non-adjuvant-aided airway exposure of laboratory rodents to aeroallergen. GM-CSF was found to exert robust Th2-polarizing action in this setting. Conversely, IL-10 fulfilled an important, albeit not so clear-cut, tolerance-favoring role; TGF-β was also identified as a likely instigator of tolerogenesis. The role of Notch signaling in the sensitization versus tolerance dilemma appeared to be important but diverse. Collectively, these factors appeared to profoundly and diversely modulate the balance between tolerance and sensitization in naturally relevant experimental models of allergic airway disease. PMID:23768176

  11. Co-ordinating Notch, BMP, and TGFβ Signalling During Heart Valve Development

    PubMed Central

    Garside, Victoria C.; Chang, Alex C.; Karsan, Aly; Hoodless, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects affect approximately 1–5% of human newborns each year and of these cardiac defects, 20–30% are due to heart valve abnormalities. Recent literature indicates that key factors and pathways that regulate valve development are also implicated in congenital heart defects and valve disease. Currently, there are limited options for treatment of valve disease and therefore, having a better understanding of valve development can contribute critical insight into congenital valve defects and disease. There are three major signalling pathways required for early specification and initiation of Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transformation (EMT) in the cardiac cushions: BMP, TGFβ, and Notch signalling. BMPs secreted from the myocardium setup the environment for the overlying endocardium to become activated, Notch signalling initiates EMT, and both BMP and TGFβ signalling synergizes with Notch to promote the transition of endothelia to mesenchyme and to promote mesenchymal cell invasiveness. Together, these three essential signalling pathways help to form the cardiac cushions and populate them with mesenchyme and, consequently, set off the cascade of events required to develop mature heart valves. Furthermore, integration and cross-talk between these pathways generate highly stratified and delicate valve leaflets and septa of the heart. Here, we discuss BMP, TGFβ, and Notch signalling pathways during mouse cardiac cushion formation and how they together produce a coordinated EMT response in the developing mouse valves. PMID:23161060

  12. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Takam Kamga, Paul; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Nwabo Kamdje, Armel Hervé; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-04-19

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB.These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  13. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Paul Takam; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB. These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  14. The Bro1-Domain Protein, EGO-2, Promotes Notch Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2007-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, as in other animals, Notch-type signaling mediates numerous inductive events during development. The mechanism of Notch-type signaling involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor and subsequent transport of the receptor intracellular domain to the nucleus, where it acts as a transcriptional regulator. Notch-type signaling activity is modulated by post-translational modifications and endocytosis of ligand and receptor. We previously identified the ego-2 (enhancer of glp-1) gene as a positive regulator of germline proliferation that interacts genetically with the GLP-1/Notch signaling pathway in the germline. Here, we show that ego-2 positively regulates signaling in various tissues via both GLP-1 and the second C. elegans Notch-type receptor, LIN-12. ego-2 activity also promotes aspects of development not known to require GLP-1 or LIN-12. The EGO-2 protein contains a Bro1 domain, which is known in other systems to localize to certain endosomal compartments. EGO-2 activity in the soma promotes GLP-1 signaling in the germline, consistent with a role for EGO-2 in production of active ligand. Another C. elegans Bro1-domain protein, ALX-1, is known to interact physically with LIN-12/Notch. We document a complex phenotypic interaction between ego-2 and alx-1, consistent with their relationship being antagonistic with respect to some developmental processes and agonistic with respect to others. PMID:17603118

  15. Disrupting Jagged1-Notch signaling impairs spatial memory formation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Sargin, Derya; Botly, Leigh C P; Higgs, Gemma; Marsolais, Alexander; Frankland, Paul W; Egan, Sean E; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2013-07-01

    It is well-known that Notch signaling plays a critical role in brain development and growing evidence implicates this signaling pathway in adult synaptic plasticity and memory formation. The Notch1 receptor is activated by two subclasses of ligands, Delta-like (including Dll1 and Dll4) and Jagged (including Jag1 and Jag2). Ligand-induced Notch1 receptor signaling is modulated by a family of Fringe proteins, including Lunatic fringe (Lfng). Although Dll1, Jag1 and Lfng are critical regulators of Notch signaling, their relative contribution to memory formation in the adult brain is unknown. To investigate the roles of these important components of Notch signaling in memory formation, we examined spatial and fear memory formation in adult mice with reduced expression of Dll1, Jag1, Lfng and Dll1 plus Lfng. We also examined motor activity, anxiety-like behavior and sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle response in these mice. Of the lines of mutant mice tested, we found that only mice with reduced Jag1 expression (mice heterozygous for a null mutation in Jag1, Jag1(+/-)) showed a selective impairment in spatial memory formation. Importantly, all other behavior including open field activity, conditioned fear memory (both context and discrete cue), acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition, was normal in this line of mice. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that Jag1-Notch signaling is critical for memory formation in the adult brain. PMID:23567106

  16. Reprint of: disrupting Jagged1-Notch signaling impairs spatial memory formation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Sargin, Derya; Botly, Leigh C P; Higgs, Gemma; Marsolais, Alexander; Frankland, Paul W; Egan, Sean E; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that Notch signaling plays a critical role in brain development and growing evidence implicates this signaling pathway in adult synaptic plasticity and memory formation. The Notch1 receptor is activated by two subclasses of ligands, Delta-like (including Dll1 and Dll4) and Jagged (including Jag1 and Jag2). Ligand-induced Notch1 receptor signaling is modulated by a family of Fringe proteins, including Lunatic fringe (Lfng). Although Dll1, Jag1 and Lfng are critical regulators of Notch signaling, their relative contribution to memory formation in the adult brain is unknown. To investigate the roles of these important components of Notch signaling in memory formation, we examined spatial and fear memory formation in adult mice with reduced expression of Dll1, Jag1, Lfng and Dll1 plus Lfng. We also examined motor activity, anxiety-like behavior and sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle response in these mice. Of the lines of mutant mice tested, we found that only mice with reduced Jag1 expression (mice heterozygous for a null mutation in Jag1, Jag1(+/-)) showed a selective impairment in spatial memory formation. Importantly, all other behavior including open field activity, conditioned fear memory (both context and discrete cue), acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition, was normal in this line of mice. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that Jag1-Notch signaling is critical for memory formation in the adult brain. PMID:23850596

  17. Notch2 signaling promotes osteoclast resorption via activation of PYK2.

    PubMed

    Jin, Won Jong; Kim, Bongjun; Kim, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hong-Hee; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Zang Hee

    2016-05-01

    Notch signaling plays a central role in various cell fate decisions, including skeletal development. Recently, Notch signaling was implicated in osteoclast differentiation and maturation, including the resorption activity of osteoclasts. However, the specific involvement of notch signaling in resorption activity was not fully investigated. Here, we investigated the roles of Notch signaling in the resorption activity of osteoclasts by use of the gamma-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ). Attenuating Notch signaling by DBZ suppressed the expression of NFATc1, a master transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation. However, overexpression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 did not fully rescue the effects of DBZ. DBZ suppressed the autophosphorylation of PYK2, which is essential for the formation of the podosome belt and sealing zone, with reduced c-Src/PYK2 interaction. We found that RANKL increases PYK2 activation accompanied by increased NICD2 production in osteoclasts. Overexpression of NICD2 in osteoclasts rescued DBZ-mediated suppression of resorption activity with promotion of PYK2 autophosphorylation and microtubule acetylation. Consistent with the in vitro results, DBZ strongly suppressed bone destruction in an interleukin-1-induced bone loss model. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Notch2 in osteoclasts plays a role in the control of resorption activity via the PYK2-c-Src-microtubule signaling pathway. PMID:26829213

  18. The Mammalian Orthologs of Drosophila Lgd, CC2D1A and CC2D1B, Function in the Endocytic Pathway, but Their Individual Loss of Function Does Not Affect Notch Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Drusenheimer, Nadja; Migdal, Bernhard; Jäckel, Sandra; Tveriakhina, Lena; Scheider, Kristina; Schulz, Katharina; Gröper, Jieny; Köhrer, Karl; Klein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    CC2D1A and CC2D1B belong to the evolutionary conserved Lgd protein family with members in all multi-cellular animals. Several functions such as centrosomal cleavage, involvement in signalling pathways, immune response and synapse maturation have been described for CC2D1A. Moreover, the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog Lgd was shown to be involved in the endosomal trafficking of the Notch receptor and other transmembrane receptors and physically interacts with the ESCRT-III component Shrub/CHMP4. To determine if this function is conserved in mammals we generated and characterized Cc2d1a and Cc2d1b conditional knockout mice. While Cc2d1b deficient mice displayed no obvious phenotype, we found that Cc2d1a deficient mice as well as conditional mutants that lack CC2D1A only in the nervous system die shortly after birth due to respiratory distress. This finding confirms the suspicion that the breathing defect is caused by the central nervous system. However, an involvement in centrosomal function could not be confirmed in Cc2d1a deficient MEF cells. To analyse an influence on Notch signalling, we generated intestine specific Cc2d1a mutant mice. These mice did not display any alterations in goblet cell number, proliferating cell number or expression of the Notch reporter Hes1-emGFP, suggesting that CC2D1A is not required for Notch signalling. However, our EM analysis revealed that the average size of endosomes of Cc2d1a mutant cells, but not Cc2d1b mutant cells, is increased, indicating a defect in endosomal morphogenesis. We could show that CC2D1A and its interaction partner CHMP4B are localised on endosomes in MEF cells, when the activity of the endosomal protein VPS4 is reduced. This indicates that CC2D1A cycles between the cytosol and the endosomal membrane. Additionally, in rescue experiments in D. melanogaster, CC2D1A and CC2D1B were able to functionally replace Lgd. Altogether our data suggest a functional conservation of the Lgd protein family in the ESCRT

  19. TGFBIp regulates differentiation of EPC (CD133(+) C-kit(+) Lin(-) cells) to EC through activation of the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Choi, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the circulatory system have been suggested to maintain vascular homeostasis and contribute to adult vascular regeneration and repair. These processes require that EPCs recognize the extracellular matrix (ECM), migrate, differentiate, and undergo tube morphogenesis. The ECM plays a critical role by providing biochemical and biophysical cues that regulate cellular behavior. Here, we tested the importance of transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) in regulation of the differentiation and angiogenic potential of human cord blood-derived EPCs (CD133(+) C-kit(+) Lin(-) cells). EPCs displayed increased endothelial differentiation when plated on TGFBIp compared to fibronectin. EPCs also exhibited increased adhesion and migration upon TGFBIp stimulation. Moreover, TGFBIp induced phosphorylation of the intracellular signaling molecules SRC, FAK, AKT, JNK, and ERK in EPCs. Using integrin-neutralizing antibodies, we showed that the effects of TGFBIp on EPCs are mediated by integrins α4 and α5. Furthermore, TGFBIp increased the adhesion, migration, and tube formation of CD34(+) mouse bone marrow stem cells in vitro. Gene expression analysis of EPCs plated on TGFBIp revealed that EPCs stimulated by TGFBIp exhibit increased expression of Notch ligands, such as delta-like 1 (DLL1) and Jagged1 (JAG1), through nuclear factor-kappa B signaling activation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that locally generated TGFBIp at either wounds or tumor sites may contribute to differentiation and angiogenic function of EPCs by augmenting the recruitment of EPCs and regulating the expression of endothelial genes DLL1 and JAG1. PMID:25786978

  20. Caveolin-1 regulates neural differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells into neurons by modulating Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyang; Kan, Quancheng; Sun, Yingpu; Han, Rui; Zhang, Guangyu; Peng, Tao; Jia, Yanjie

    2013-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to differentiate into neurons in vitro. However, the mechanism underlying MSC differentiation remains controversial. A recent analysis has shown that Notch signaling is involved in regulating the differentiation of MSCs. This study examines the potential mechanism of the differentiation of MSCs into neurons, and it considers the role of caveolin-1 in this process. We investigated neuron differentiation and Notch signaling by detecting the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), Neuron-specific Enolase (NSE), Notch-1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). We found that by down-regulating caveolin-1 during induction, MSCs were prone to neural differentiation and expressed high levels of neuronal markers. Meanwhile, the expression levels of Notch-1, NICD and Hes5 decreased. Our results indicate that down-regulation of caveolin-1 promotes the neuronal differentiation of MSCs by modulating the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:23031836

  1. Notch-HES1 signaling axis controls hemato-endothelial fate decisions of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Bok; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra E; Lee, Jong-Hee; McIntyre, Brendan A S; Schnerch, Angelique; Hong, Seok-Ho; Park, In-Hyun; Daley, George Q; Bernstein, Irwin D; Bhatia, Mickie

    2013-08-15

    Notch signaling regulates several cellular processes including cell fate decisions and proliferation in both invertebrates and mice. However, comparatively less is known about the role of Notch during early human development. Here, we examined the function of Notch signaling during hematopoietic lineage specification from human pluripotent stem cells of both embryonic and adult fibroblast origin. Using immobilized Notch ligands and small interfering RNA to Notch receptors we have demonstrated that Notch1, but not Notch2, activation induced hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1) expression and generation of committed hematopoietic progenitors. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches, this was shown to be attributed to Notch-signaling regulation through HES1, which dictated cell fate decisions from bipotent precursors either to the endothelial or hematopoietic lineages at the clonal level. Our study reveals a previously unappreciated role for the Notch pathway during early human hematopoiesis, whereby Notch signaling via HES1 represents a toggle switch of hematopoietic vs endothelial fate specification. PMID:23733337

  2. Retraction: "Down-regulation of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis via inactivation of Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways" by Wang et al.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on January 5, 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 5A to be inappropriately manipulated. REFERENCE Wang Z, Li Y, Banerjee S, Kong D, Ahmad A, Nogueira V, Hay N, Sarkar FH. 2010. Down-regulation of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis via inactivation of Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. J Cell Biochem 109:726-736; doi: 10.1002/jcb.22451. PMID:27301887

  3. Renal tubular Notch signaling triggers a prosenescent state after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sörensen-Zender, Inga; Rong, Song; Susnik, Nathan; Zender, Steffen; Pennekamp, Petra; Melk, Anette; Haller, Hermann; Schmitt, Roland

    2014-04-15

    The aging kidney has a diminished regenerative potential and an increased tendency to develop tubular atrophy and fibrosis after acute injury. In this study, we found that activation of tubular epithelial Notch1 signaling was prolonged in the aging kidney after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage. To analyze the consequences of sustained Notch activation, we generated mice with conditional inducible expression of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) in proximal tubules. NICD kidneys were analyzed 1 and 4 wk after renal IR. Conditional NICD expression was associated with aggravated tubular damage, a fibrotic phenotype, and the expression of cellular senescence markers p21 and p16(INK4a). In wild-type mice pharmacological inhibition of Notch using the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) improved tubulo-interstitial damage and antagonized the prosenescent pathway activation after IR. In vitro, activation of Notch signaling with delta-like-ligand-4 caused prosenescent changes in tubular cells while inhibition with DAPT attenuated these changes. In conclusion, our data suggest that sustained epithelial Notch activation after IR might contribute to the inferior outcome of old kidneys after injury. Sustained epithelial activation of Notch is associated with a prosenescent phenotype and maladaptive repair. PMID:24573392

  4. Lhx2 Is an Essential Factor for Retinal Gliogenesis and Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Jimmy; Zibetti, Cristina; Clark, Brian S.; Hwang, Woochang; Miranda-Angulo, Ana L.; Qian, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Müller glia (MG) are the only glial cell type produced by the neuroepithelial progenitor cells that generate the vertebrate retina. MG are required to maintain retinal homeostasis and support the survival of retinal neurons. Furthermore, in certain vertebrate classes, MG function as adult stem cells, mediating retinal regeneration in response to injury. However, the mechanisms that regulate MG development are poorly understood because there is considerable overlap in gene expression between retinal progenitor cells and differentiated MG. We show that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 is required for the development of MG in the mouse retina. Temporally controlled knock-out studies reveal a requirement for Lhx2 during all stages of MG development, ranging from the proliferation of gliocompetent retinal progenitors, activation of Müller-specific gene expression, and terminal differentiation of MG morphological features. We show that Lhx2 regulates gliogenesis in part by regulating directly the expression of Notch pathway genes including Notch1, Dll1, and Dll3 and gliogenic transcription factors such as Hes1, Hes5, Sox8, and Rax. Conditional knock-out of Lhx2 resulted in a rapid downregulation of Notch pathway genes and loss of Notch signaling. We further demonstrate that Müller gliogenesis induced by misexpression of the potently gliogenic Notch pathway transcriptional effector Hes5 requires Lhx2 expression. These results indicate that Lhx2 not only directly regulates expression of Notch signaling pathway components, but also acts together with the gliogenic Notch pathway to drive MG specification and differentiation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Müller glia (MG) are radial glial cells located in the vertebrate retina that are essential for the function and survival of retinal neurons. We found the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 to be expressed in both retinal progenitor cells and MG. Using conditional knock-outs, we show that Lhx2 is required

  5. Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell transplantation and T cell alloimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ebens, Christen; Maillard, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling can regulate both hematopoietic progenitors and alloimmune T cells in the setting of allogeneic bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Ex vivo culture of multipotent blood progenitors with immobilized Delta-like ligands induces supraphysiological Notch signals and can markedly enhance progenitor expansion. Infusion of Notch-expanded progenitors shortened myelosuppression in preclinical and early clinical studies, while accelerating T cell reconstitution in preclinical models. Notch also plays an essential role in vivo to regulate pathogenic alloimmune T cells that mediate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the most severe complication of allo-HCT. In mouse allo-HCT models, Notch inhibition in donor-derived T cells or transient blockade of Delta-like ligands after transplantation profoundly decreased GVHD incidence and severity, without causing global immunosuppression. These findings identify Notch in T cells as an attractive therapeutic target to control GVHD. In this review, we discuss these contrasting functions of Notch signaling with high translational significance in allo-HCT patients. PMID:24050990

  6. Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

    2011-01-01

    Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is

  7. Iterative Role of Notch Signaling in Spinal Motor Neuron Diversification.

    PubMed

    Tan, G Christopher; Mazzoni, Esteban O; Wichterle, Hynek

    2016-07-26

    The motor neuron progenitor domain in the ventral spinal cord gives rise to multiple subtypes of motor neurons and glial cells. Here, we examine whether progenitors found in this domain are multipotent and which signals contribute to their cell-type-specific differentiation. Using an in vitro neural differentiation model, we demonstrate that motor neuron progenitor differentiation is iteratively controlled by Notch signaling. First, Notch controls the timing of motor neuron genesis by repressing Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and maintaining Olig2-positive progenitors in a proliferative state. Second, in an Ngn2-independent manner, Notch contributes to the specification of median versus hypaxial motor column identity and lateral versus medial divisional identity of limb-innervating motor neurons. Thus, motor neuron progenitors are multipotent, and their diversification is controlled by Notch signaling that iteratively increases cellular diversity arising from a single neural progenitor domain. PMID:27425621

  8. Physiological Notch signaling promotes gliogenesis in the developing peripheral and central nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Merritt K.; Kelly, Yeager; Morrison, Sean J.

    2009-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the Notch pathway can promote gliogenesis by peripheral (PNS) and central (CNS) nervous system progenitors. This raises the question of whether physiological Notch signaling regulates gliogenesis in vivo. To test this, we conditionally deleted Rbpsuh (Rbpj) from mouse PNS or CNS progenitors using Wnt1-Cre or Nestin-Cre. Rbpsuh encodes a DNA-binding protein (RBP/J) that is required for canonical signaling by all Notch receptors. In most regions of the developing PNS and spinal cord, Rbpsuh deletion caused only mild defects in neurogenesis, but severe defects in gliogenesis. These resulted from defects in glial specification or differentiation, not premature depletion of neural progenitors, because we were able to culture undifferentiated progenitors from the PNS and spinal cord despite their failure to form glia in vivo. In spinal cord progenitors, Rbpsuh was required to maintain Sox9 expression during gliogenesis, demonstrating that Notch signaling promotes the expression of a glial-specification gene. These results demonstrate that physiological Notch signaling is required for gliogenesis in vivo, independent of the role of Notch in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural progenitors. PMID:17537790

  9. Lhx2 Is an Essential Factor for Retinal Gliogenesis and Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Jimmy; Zibetti, Cristina; Clark, Brian S; Hwang, Woochang; Miranda-Angulo, Ana L; Qian, Jiang; Blackshaw, Seth

    2016-02-24

    Müller glia (MG) are the only glial cell type produced by the neuroepithelial progenitor cells that generate the vertebrate retina. MG are required to maintain retinal homeostasis and support the survival of retinal neurons. Furthermore, in certain vertebrate classes, MG function as adult stem cells, mediating retinal regeneration in response to injury. However, the mechanisms that regulate MG development are poorly understood because there is considerable overlap in gene expression between retinal progenitor cells and differentiated MG. We show that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 is required for the development of MG in the mouse retina. Temporally controlled knock-out studies reveal a requirement for Lhx2 during all stages of MG development, ranging from the proliferation of gliocompetent retinal progenitors, activation of Müller-specific gene expression, and terminal differentiation of MG morphological features. We show that Lhx2 regulates gliogenesis in part by regulating directly the expression of Notch pathway genes including Notch1, Dll1, and Dll3 and gliogenic transcription factors such as Hes1, Hes5, Sox8, and Rax. Conditional knock-out of Lhx2 resulted in a rapid downregulation of Notch pathway genes and loss of Notch signaling. We further demonstrate that Müller gliogenesis induced by misexpression of the potently gliogenic Notch pathway transcriptional effector Hes5 requires Lhx2 expression. These results indicate that Lhx2 not only directly regulates expression of Notch signaling pathway components, but also acts together with the gliogenic Notch pathway to drive MG specification and differentiation. PMID:26911688

  10. Activation of Notch1 signaling in stromal fibroblasts inhibits melanoma growth by upregulating WISP-1.

    PubMed

    Shao, H; Cai, L; Grichnik, J M; Livingstone, A S; Velazquez, O C; Liu, Z-J

    2011-10-20

    The tumor microenvironment is emerging as an important target for cancer therapy. Fibroblasts (Fbs) within the tumor stroma are critically involved in promoting tumor growth and angiogenesis through secretion of soluble factors, synthesis of extracellular matrix and direct cell-cell interaction. In this work, we aim to alter the biological activity of stromal Fbs by modulating the Notch1 signaling pathway. We show that Fbs engineered to constitutively activate the Notch1 pathway significantly inhibit melanoma growth and tumor angiogenesis. We determine that the inhibitory effect of 'Notch-engineered' Fbs is mediated by increased secretion of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) as the effects of Notch1 activation in Fbs are reversed by shRNA-mediated blockade of WISP-1. When 'Notch-engineered' Fbs are co-grafted with melanoma cells in SCID mice, shRNA-mediated blockade of WISP-1 reverses the tumor-suppressive phenotype of the 'Notch-engineered' Fbs, significantly increases melanoma growth and tumor angiogenesis. Consistent with these findings, supplement of recombinant WISP-1 protein inhibits melanoma cell growth in vitro. In addition, WISP-1 is modestly expressed in melanoma-activated Fbs but highly expressed in inactivated Fbs. Evaluation of human melanoma skin biopsies indicates that expression of WISP-1 is significantly lower in melanoma nests and surrounding areas filled with infiltrated immune cells than in the adjacent dermis unaffected by the melanoma. Overall, our study shows that constitutive activation of the Notch1 pathway confers Fbs with a suppressive phenotype to melanoma growth, partially through WISP-1. Thus, targeting tumor stromal Fbs by activating Notch signaling and/or increasing WISP-1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach to combat melanoma. PMID:21516124

  11. Systemic Inhibition of Canonical Notch Signaling Results in Sustained Callus Inflammation and Alters Multiple Phases of Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dishowitz, Michael I.; Mutyaba, Patricia L.; Takacs, Joel D.; Barr, Andrew M.; Engiles, Julie B.; Ahn, Jaimo; Hankenson, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an important regulator of embryological bone development, and many aspects of development are recapitulated during bone repair. We have previously reported that Notch signaling components are upregulated during bone fracture healing. However, the significance of the Notch pathway in bone regeneration has not been described. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the importance of Notch signaling in regulating bone fracture healing by using a temporally controlled inducible transgenic mouse model (Mx1-Cre;dnMAMLf/-) to impair RBPjκ-mediated canonical Notch signaling. The Mx1 promoter was synthetically activated resulting in temporally regulated systemic dnMAML expression just prior to creation of bilateral tibial fractures. This allowed for mice to undergo unaltered embryological and post-natal skeletal development. Results showed that systemic Notch inhibition prolonged expression of inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil cell inflammation, and reduced the proportion of cartilage formation within the callus at 10 days-post-fracture (dpf) Notch inhibition did not affect early bone formation at 10dpf, but significantly altered bone maturation and remodeling at 20dpf. Increased bone volume fraction in dnMAML fractures, which was due to a moderate decrease in callus size with no change in bone mass, coincided with increased trabecular thickness but decreased connectivity density, indicating that patterning of bone was altered. Notch inhibition decreased total osteogenic cell density, which was comprised of more osteocytes rather than osteoblasts. dnMAML also decreased osteoclast density, suggesting that osteoclast activity may also be important for altered fracture healing. It is likely that systemic Notch inhibition had both direct effects within cell types as well as indirect effects initiated by temporally upstream events in the fracture healing cascade. Surprisingly, Notch inhibition did not alter cell proliferation

  12. The coding genome of splenic marginal zone lymphoma: activation of NOTCH2 and other pathways regulating marginal zone development

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Davide; Trifonov, Vladimir; Fangazio, Marco; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Rasi, Silvia; Spina, Valeria; Monti, Sara; Vaisitti, Tiziana; Arruga, Francesca; Famà, Rosella; Ciardullo, Carmela; Greco, Mariangela; Cresta, Stefania; Piranda, Daniela; Holmes, Antony; Fabbri, Giulia; Messina, Monica; Rinaldi, Andrea; Wang, Jiguang; Agostinelli, Claudio; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Serra, Roberto; Franceschetti, Silvia; Deambrogi, Clara; Daniele, Giulia; Gattei, Valter; Marasca, Roberto; Facchetti, Fabio; Arcaini, Luca; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Pileri, Stefano A.; Deaglio, Silvia; Foà, Robin; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a B cell malignancy of unknown pathogenesis, and thus an orphan of targeted therapies. By integrating whole-exome sequencing and copy-number analysis, we show that the SMZL exome carries at least 30 nonsilent gene alterations. Mutations in NOTCH2, a gene required for marginal-zone (MZ) B cell development, represent the most frequent lesion in SMZL, accounting for ∼20% of cases. All NOTCH2 mutations are predicted to cause impaired degradation of the NOTCH2 protein by eliminating the C-terminal PEST domain, which is required for proteasomal recruitment. Among indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, NOTCH2 mutations are restricted to SMZL, thus representing a potential diagnostic marker for this lymphoma type. In addition to NOTCH2, other modulators or members of the NOTCH pathway are recurrently targeted by genetic lesions in SMZL; these include NOTCH1, SPEN, and DTX1. We also noted mutations in other signaling pathways normally involved in MZ B cell development, suggesting that deregulation of MZ B cell development pathways plays a role in the pathogenesis of ∼60% SMZL. These findings have direct implications for the treatment of SMZL patients, given the availability of drugs that can target NOTCH, NF-κB, and other pathways deregulated in this disease. PMID:22891273

  13. Wnt-Notch signalling crosstalk in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Collu, Giovanna M; Hidalgo-Sastre, Ana; Brennan, Keith

    2014-09-01

    The Notch and Wnt pathways are two of only a handful of highly conserved signalling pathways that control cell-fate decisions during animal development (Pires-daSilva and Sommer in Nat Rev Genet 4: 39-49, 2003). These two pathways are required together to regulate many aspects of metazoan development, ranging from germ layer patterning in sea urchins (Peter and Davidson in Nature 474: 635-639, 2011) to the formation and patterning of the fly wing (Axelrod et al in Science 271:1826-1832, 1996; Micchelli et al in Development 124:1485-1495, 1997; Rulifson et al in Nature 384:72-74, 1996), the spacing of the ciliated cells in the epidermis of frog embryos (Collu et al in Development 139:4405-4415, 2012) and the maintenance and turnover of the skin, gut lining and mammary gland in mammals (Clayton et al in Nature 446:185-189, 2007; Clevers in Cell 154:274-284, 2013; Doupe et al in Dev Cell 18:317-323, 2010; Lim et al in Science 342:1226-1230, 2013; Lowell et al in Curr Biol 10:491-500, 2000; van et al in Nature 435:959-963, 2005; Yin et al in Nat Methods 11:106-112, 2013). In addition, many diseases, including several cancers, are caused by aberrant signalling through the two pathways (Bolós et al in Endocr Rev 28: 339-363, 2007; Clevers in Cell 127: 469-480, 2006). In this review, we will outline the two signalling pathways, describe the different points of interaction between them, and cover how these interactions influence development and disease. PMID:24942883

  14. Mechanism of Notch Pathway Activation and Its Role in the Regulation of Olfactory Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The neural plasticity of sensory systems is being increasingly recognized as playing a role in learning and memory. We have previously shown that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila melanogaster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. In this paper we address how long-term exposure to odor activates Notch and how Notch in conjunction with chronic odor mediates olfactory plasticity. We show that upon chronic odor exposure a non-canonical Notch pathway mediates an increase in the volume of glomeruli by a mechanism that is autonomous to ORNs. In addition to activating a pathway that is autonomous to ORNs, chronic odor exposure also activates the Notch ligand Delta in second order projection neurons (PNs), but this does not appear to require acetylcholine receptor activation in PNs. Delta on PNs then feeds back to activate canonical Notch signaling in ORNs, which restricts the extent of the odor induced increase in glomerular volume. Surprisingly, even though the pathway that mediates the increase in glomerular volume is autonomous to ORNs, nonproductive transsynaptic Delta/Notch interactions that do not activate the canonical pathway can block the increase in volume. In conjunction with chronic odor, the canonical Notch pathway also enhances cholinergic activation of PNs. We present evidence suggesting that this is due to increased acetylcholine release from ORNs. In regulating physiological plasticity, Notch functions solely by the canonical pathway, suggesting that there is no direct connection between morphological and physiological plasticity. PMID:26986723

  15. Mechanism of Notch Pathway Activation and Its Role in the Regulation of Olfactory Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Simon; Lieber, Toby

    2016-01-01

    The neural plasticity of sensory systems is being increasingly recognized as playing a role in learning and memory. We have previously shown that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila melanogaster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. In this paper we address how long-term exposure to odor activates Notch and how Notch in conjunction with chronic odor mediates olfactory plasticity. We show that upon chronic odor exposure a non-canonical Notch pathway mediates an increase in the volume of glomeruli by a mechanism that is autonomous to ORNs. In addition to activating a pathway that is autonomous to ORNs, chronic odor exposure also activates the Notch ligand Delta in second order projection neurons (PNs), but this does not appear to require acetylcholine receptor activation in PNs. Delta on PNs then feeds back to activate canonical Notch signaling in ORNs, which restricts the extent of the odor induced increase in glomerular volume. Surprisingly, even though the pathway that mediates the increase in glomerular volume is autonomous to ORNs, nonproductive transsynaptic Delta/Notch interactions that do not activate the canonical pathway can block the increase in volume. In conjunction with chronic odor, the canonical Notch pathway also enhances cholinergic activation of PNs. We present evidence suggesting that this is due to increased acetylcholine release from ORNs. In regulating physiological plasticity, Notch functions solely by the canonical pathway, suggesting that there is no direct connection between morphological and physiological plasticity. PMID:26986723

  16. Dampening the Signals Transduced through Hedgehog via MicroRNA miR-7 Facilitates Notch-Induced Tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Da Ros, Vanina G.; Gutierrez-Perez, Irene; Ferres-Marco, Dolors; Dominguez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fine-tuned Notch and Hedgehog signalling pathways via attenuators and dampers have long been recognized as important mechanisms to ensure the proper size and differentiation of many organs and tissues. This notion is further supported by identification of mutations in these pathways in human cancer cells. However, although it is common that the Notch and Hedgehog pathways influence growth and patterning within the same organ through the establishment of organizing regions, the cross-talk between these two pathways and how the distinct organizing activities are integrated during growth is poorly understood. Here, in an unbiased genetic screen in the Drosophila melanogaster eye, we found that tumour-like growth was provoked by cooperation between the microRNA miR-7 and the Notch pathway. Surprisingly, the molecular basis of this cooperation between miR-7 and Notch converged on the silencing of Hedgehog signalling. In mechanistic terms, miR-7 silenced the interference hedgehog (ihog) Hedgehog receptor, while Notch repressed expression of the brother of ihog (boi) Hedgehog receptor. Tumourigenesis was induced co-operatively following Notch activation and reduced Hedgehog signalling, either via overexpression of the microRNA or through specific down-regulation of ihog, hedgehog, smoothened, or cubitus interruptus or via overexpression of the cubitus interruptus repressor form. Conversely, increasing Hedgehog signalling prevented eye overgrowth induced by the microRNA and Notch pathway. Further, we show that blocking Hh signal transduction in clones of cells mutant for smoothened also enhance the organizing activity and growth by Delta-Notch signalling in the wing primordium. Together, these findings uncover a hitherto unsuspected tumour suppressor role for the Hedgehog signalling and reveal an unanticipated cooperative antagonism between two pathways extensively used in growth control and cancer. PMID:23667323

  17. Notch1 Autoactivation via Transcriptional Regulation of Furin, Which Sustains Notch1 Signaling by Processing Notch1-Activating Proteases ADAM10 and Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hong; Tang, Xiaoying; Ma, Jun; Shaverdashvili, Khvaramze; Zhang, Keman

    2015-01-01

    Notch1 is an evolutionarily conserved transmembrane receptor involved in melanoma growth. Notch1 is first cleaved by furin in the Golgi apparatus to produce the biologically active heterodimer. Following ligand binding, Notch1 is cleaved at the cell membrane by proteases such as ADAM10 and -17 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), the latter of which we recently identified as a novel protease involved in Notch1 processing. The final cleavage is γ-secretase dependent and releases the active Notch intracellular domain (NIC). We now demonstrate that Notch1 directly regulates furin expression. Aside from activating Notch1, furin cleaves and activates several proteases, including MT1-MMP, ADAM10, and ADAM17. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and a reporter assay, we demonstrate that Notch1 binds at position −1236 of the furin promoter and drives furin expression. The Notch1-dependent enhancement of furin expression increases the activities of MT1-MMP and ADAM10 but not that of ADAM17, as demonstrated by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of furin, and promotes the cleavage of Notch1 itself. These data highlight a novel positive-feedback loop whereby Notch1-dependent furin expression can induce Notch1 signaling by increasing Notch1 processing and by potentiating the activity of the proteases responsible for Notch1 activation. This leads to Notch1 signal amplification, which can promote melanoma tumor growth and progression, as demonstrated by the inhibition of cell migration and invasion upon furin inhibition downstream of Notch1. Disruption of such feedback signaling might represent an avenue for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26283728

  18. Control of peripheral tolerance by regulatory T cell-intrinsic Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Wang, Sen; Georgiev, Peter; Sefik, Esen; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-11-01

    Receptors of the Notch family direct the differentiation of helper T cell subsets, but their influence on regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) responses is obscure. We found here that lineage-specific deletion of components of the Notch pathway enhanced T(reg) cell-mediated suppression of type 1 helper T cell (T(H)1 cell) responses and protected against their T(H)1 skewing and apoptosis. In contrast, expression in T(reg) cells of a gain-of-function transgene encoding the Notch1 intracellular domain resulted in lymphoproliferation, exacerbated T(H)1 responses and autoimmunity. Cell-intrinsic canonical Notch signaling impaired T(reg) cell fitness and promoted the acquisition by T(reg) cells of a T(H)1 cell-like phenotype, whereas non-canonical Notch signaling dependent on the adaptor Rictor activated the kinase AKT-transcription factor Foxo1 axis and impaired the epigenetic stability of Foxp3. Our findings establish a critical role for Notch signaling in controlling peripheral T(reg) cell function. PMID:26437242

  19. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagadec, Chann; Vlashi, Erina; Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  20. Notch signal strength controls cell fate in the haemogenic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Gama-Norton, Leonor; Ferrando, Eva; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Liu, Zhenyi; Liu, Zenhy; Guiu, Jordi; Islam, Abul B M M K; Lee, Sung-Uk; Yan, Minhong; Guidos, Cynthia J; López-Bigas, Nuria; Maeda, Takahiro; Espinosa, Lluis; Kopan, Raphael; Bigas, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of the arterial and haemogenic endothelium fates concurrently occur in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region prior to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation. The arterial programme depends on Dll4 and the haemogenic endothelium/HSC on Jag1-mediated Notch1 signalling. How Notch1 distinguishes and executes these different programmes in response to particular ligands is poorly understood. By using two Notch1 activation trap mouse models with different sensitivity, here we show that arterial endothelial cells and HSCs originate from distinct precursors, characterized by different Notch1 signal strengths. Microarray analysis on AGM subpopulations demonstrates that the Jag1 ligand stimulates low Notch strength, inhibits the endothelial programme and is permissive for HSC specification. In the absence of Jag1, endothelial cells experience high Dll4-induced Notch activity and select the endothelial programme, thus precluding HSC formation. Interference with the Dll4 signal by ligand-specific blocking antibodies is sufficient to inhibit the endothelial programme and favour specification of the haematopoietic lineage. PMID:26465397

  1. Notch signaling regulates M2 type macrophage polarization during the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhou, Qingjun; Yuan, Gongqiang; Dong, Muchen; Shi, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). M2 macrophages can promote tissue remodeling and repair. In this study, CD206 positive M2 type macrophages were found in preretinal fibrous membranes of the mouse model of PVR induced by the intravitreal injection of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Notch signaling determines M2 macrophage polarization. The specific inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by the intravitreal injection of γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT attenuated RPE cells-induced PVR formation as demonstrated by the decreased expression of α-SMA, and inhibited M2 type macrophage infiltation as demonstrated by the decreased expression of Arg-1. Notch signaling may modulate PVR formation by regulating M2 type macrophage polarization. PMID:26410397

  2. Integrative genetic, epigenetic and pathological analysis of paraganglioma reveals complex dysregulation of NOTCH signaling.

    PubMed

    Cama, Alessandro; Verginelli, Fabio; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Napolitano, Francesco; Morgano, Annalisa; D'Orazio, Andria; Vacca, Michele; Perconti, Silvia; Pepe, Felice; Romani, Federico; Vitullo, Francesca; di Lella, Filippo; Visone, Rosa; Mannelli, Massimo; Neumann, Hartmut P H; Raiconi, Giancarlo; Paties, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Veronese, Angelo; Sanna, Mario; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2013-10-01

    Head and neck paragangliomas, rare neoplasms of the paraganglia composed of nests of neurosecretory and glial cells embedded in vascular stroma, provide a remarkable example of organoid tumor architecture. To identify genes and pathways commonly deregulated in head and neck paraganglioma, we integrated high-density genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) analysis with microRNA and immunomorphological studies. Gene-centric CNV analysis of 24 cases identified a list of 104 genes most significantly targeted by tumor-associated alterations. The "NOTCH signaling pathway" was the most significantly enriched term in the list (P = 0.002 after Bonferroni or Benjamini correction). Expression of the relevant NOTCH pathway proteins in sustentacular (glial), chief (neuroendocrine) and endothelial cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in 47 head and neck paraganglioma cases. There were no relationships between level and pattern of NOTCH1/JAG2 protein expression and germline mutation status in the SDH genes, implicated in paraganglioma predisposition, or the presence/absence of immunostaining for SDHB, a surrogate marker of SDH mutations. Interestingly, NOTCH upregulation was observed also in cases with no evidence of CNVs at NOTCH signaling genes, suggesting altered epigenetic modulation of this pathway. To address this issue we performed microarray-based microRNA expression analyses. Notably 5 microRNAs (miR-200a,b,c and miR-34b,c), including those most downregulated in the tumors, correlated to NOTCH signaling and directly targeted NOTCH1 in in vitro experiments using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, lentiviral transduction of miR-200s and miR-34s in patient-derived primary tympano-jugular paraganglioma cell cultures was associated with NOTCH1 downregulation and increased levels of markers of cell toxicity and cell death. Taken together, our results provide an integrated view of common molecular alterations associated with head and neck paraganglioma and

  3. Involvement of the Notch pathway in terminal astrocytic differentiation: role of PKA

    PubMed Central

    Angulo-Rojo, Carla; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Aguirre, Adán; Ortega, Arturo; López-Bayghen, Esther

    2013-01-01

    The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling system essential for modulating neurogenesis and promoting astrogenesis. Similarly, the cAMP signaling cascade can promote astrocytic commitment in several cell culture models, such as the C6 glioma cell line. These cells have the capacity to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, characteristics that allow their use as a glial progenitor model. In this context, we explore here the plausible involvement of cAMP in Notch-dependent signal transactions. The exposure of C6 cells to a non-hydrolysable cAMP analogue resulted in a sustained augmentation of Notch activity, as detected by nuclear translocation of its intracellular domain portion (NICD) and transcriptional activity. The cAMP effect is mediated through the activation of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for Notch cleavage and is sensitive to inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. As expected, Notch cleavage and nuclear translocation resulted in the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of one of its target genes, the transcription factor Hair and enhancer of split 5. Moreover, the glutamate uptake activity, as well as the expression of astrocytic markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100β protein and GLAST was also enhanced in cAMP-exposed cells. Our results clearly suggest that during the process of C6 astrocytic differentiation, cAMP activates the PKA/γ-secretase/NICD/RBPJκ pathway and Notch1 expression, leading to transcriptional activation of the genes responsible for glial progenitor cell fate decision. PMID:24286475

  4. The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 integrates inputs from TGFbeta/Activin and Wnt pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonaro, Michael Tewari, Shruti Atamna, Wafa Lazarova, Darina L.

    2011-06-10

    Unlike the well-characterized nuclear function of the Notch intracellular domain, it has been difficult to identify a nuclear role for the ligands of Notch. Here we provide evidence for the nuclear function of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in colon cancer (CC) cells exposed to butyrate. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Delta-like 1 (Dll1icd) augments the activity of Wnt signaling-dependent reporters and that of the promoter of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene. Data suggest that Dll1icd upregulates CTGF promoter activity through both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanism is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Smad2/3 proteins and Dll1 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses that revealed the occupancy of Dll1icd on CTGF promoter sequences containing a Smad binding element. The indirect upregulation of CTGF expression by Dll1 is likely due to the ability of Dll1icd to increase Wnt signaling, a pathway that targets CTGF. CTGF expression is induced in butyrate-treated CC cells and results from clonal growth assays support a role for CTGF in the cell growth-suppressive role of butyrate. In conclusion, integration of the Notch, Wnt, and TGFbeta/Activin signaling pathways is in part mediated by the interactions of Dll1 with Smad2/3 and Tcf4.

  5. Relaxin inhibits cardiac fibrosis and endothelial–mesenchymal transition via the Notch pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X; Chen, X; Cai, JJ; Chen, LZ; Gong, YS; Wang, LX; Gao, Z; Zhang, HQ; Huang, WJ; Zhou, H

    2015-01-01

    Background Relaxin (RLX) can prevent cardiac fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the possible mechanism and signal transduction pathway of RLX inhibiting cardiac fibrosis. Methods Isoproterenol (5 mg·kg−1·d−1) was used to establish the cardiac fibrosis model in rats, which were administered RLX. The cardiac function, related targets of cardiac fibrosis, and endothelial–mesenchymal transition (EndMT) were measured. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) was used to induce EndMT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which were pretreated with RLX, 200 ng·mL−1, then with the inhibitor of Notch. Transwell cell migration was used to evaluate cell migration. CD31 and vimentin content was determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Notch protein level was examined by Western blot analysis. Results RLX improved cardiac function in rats with cardiac fibrosis; it reduced the content of collagen I and III, increased the microvascular density of the myocardium, and suppressed the EndMT in heart tissue. In vitro, RLX decreased the mobility of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by TGF-β, increased the expression of endothelial CD31, and decreased vimentin content. Compared to TGF-β and RLX co-culture alone, TGF-β + RLX + Notch inhibitor increased cell mobility and the EndMT, but decreased the levels of Notch-1, HES-1, and Jagged-1 proteins. Conclusion RLX may inhibit the cardiac fibrosis via EndMT by Notch-mediated signaling. PMID:26316699

  6. MicroRNA-146a and -21 cooperate to regulate vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via modulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian; Zhang, Kui; Zheng, Jubing; Dong, Ran

    2015-04-01

    A number of microRNAs (miRs) have been shown to participate in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a key step in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, by targeting certain genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of miR‑146a and miR‑21 in VSMC growth and to study the underlying mechanisms. The expression levels of four previously reported, differentially expressed microRNAs in atherosclerotic plaque (miR‑146a/b, miR‑21, miR‑34a and miR‑210) were measured in two groups: An atherosclerotic plaque group (n=10) and a normal control group (n=10). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that the relative expression levels of miR‑146a and miR‑21 in atherosclerotic plaque samples were significantly upregulated to ~260 and 250%, respectively, compared with those in normal controls. Notch2 and Jag1 were confirmed to be target genes of miR‑146a and miR‑21 through the use of a luciferase assay, PCR and western blot analysis. Additionally, VSMCs transfected with miR‑146a expressed significantly lower levels of Notch2 protein and presented an accelerated cell proliferation, which could be attributed to a reduction in the levels of cell cycle arrest. Cotransfection of miR‑146a and miR‑21 further promoted cell cycle progression in addition to VSMC proliferation. In conclusion, the present study revealed that miR‑146a and miR‑21 were significantly upregulated in atherosclerotic plaque, and cooperated to accelerate VSMC growth and cell cycle progression by targeting Notch2 and Jag1. PMID:25523239

  7. Disruption of Cell-Cell Contact-mediated Notch Signaling via Hydrogel Encapsulation Reduces Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Amanda X.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Chen, Caressa S.; Shubin, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Daniel S.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cell contact-mediated Notch signaling is essential for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis during development. However, subsequent deactivation of Notch signaling is also required to allow for stem cell chondrogenic progression. Recent literature has shown that Notch signaling can also influence Wnt/β-catenin signaling, critical for MSC differentiation, through perturbations in cell-cell contacts. Traditionally, abundant cell-cell contacts, consistent with development, are emulated in vitro using pellet cultures for chondrogenesis. However, cells are often encapsulated within biomaterials-based scaffolds, such as hydrogels, to improve therapeutic cell localization in vivo. To explore the role of Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the context of hydrogel-encapsulated MSC chondrogenesis, we compared signaling and differentiation capacity of MSCs in both hydrogels and traditional pellet cultures. We demonstrate that encapsulation within poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels reduces cell-cell contacts, and both Notch (7.5-fold) and Wnt/β-catenin (84.7-fold) pathway activation. Finally, we demonstrate that following establishment of cell-cell contacts and transient Notch signaling in pellet cultures, followed by Notch signaling deactivation, resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in MSC chondrogenesis. Taken together, these findings support that cellular condensation, and the establishment of initial cell-cell contacts is critical for MSC chondrogenesis, and this process is inhibited by hydrogel encapsulation. PMID:25504509

  8. The disintegrin/metalloproteinase Adam10 is essential for epidermal integrity and Notch-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Silvio; Niessen, Michaela T.; Prox, Johannes; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Schmitz, Annika; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Blobel, Carl P.; Jorissen, Ellen; de Strooper, Bart; Niessen, Carien M.; Saftig, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The disintegrin and metalloproteinase Adam10 has been implicated in the regulation of key signaling pathways that determine skin morphogenesis and homeostasis. To address the in vivo relevance of Adam10 in the epidermis, we have selectively disrupted Adam10 during skin morphogenesis and in adult skin. K14-Cre driven epidermal Adam10 deletion leads to perinatal lethality, barrier impairment and absence of sebaceous glands. A reduction of spinous layers, not associated with differences in either proliferation or apoptosis, indicates that loss of Adam10 triggers a premature differentiation of spinous keratinocytes. The few surviving K14-Adam10-deleted mice and mice in which Adam10 was deleted postnatally showed loss of hair, malformed vibrissae, epidermal hyperproliferation, cyst formation, thymic atrophy and upregulation of the cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), thus indicating non cell-autonomous multi-organ disease resulting from a compromised barrier. Together, these phenotypes closely resemble skin specific Notch pathway loss-of-function phenotypes. Notch processing is indeed strongly reduced resulting in decreased levels of Notch intracellular domain fragment and functional Notch signaling. The data identify Adam10 as the major Site-2 processing enzyme for Notch in the epidermis in vivo, and thus as a central regulator of skin development and maintenance. PMID:21205794

  9. Instigation of Notch signaling in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and other human tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Pekkonen, Pirita; Ojala, Päivi M

    2012-10-01

    The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling circuit with a critical role in cell-fate determination and tumor initiation. Notch is reported to regulate various key events in tumor progression, such as angiogenesis, maintenance of cancer stem cells, resistance to therapeutic agents and metastasis. This review describes the intimate interplay of human tumor viruses with the Notch signaling pathway. Special attention is paid to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and rare lymphoproliferative disorders. The past decade of active research has led to significant advances in understanding how Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus exploits the Notch pathway to regulate its replication phase and to modulate the host cellular microenvironment to make it more favorable for viral persistence and spreading. PMID:23030424

  10. NRF2-mediated Notch pathway activation enhances hematopoietic reconstitution following myelosuppressive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Thimmulappa, Rajesh K.; Kumar, Vineet; Cui, Wanchang; Kumar, Sarvesh; Kombairaju, Ponvijay; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph; Matsui, William; Macvittie, Thomas; Malhotra, Sanjay V.; Biswal, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    A nuclear disaster may result in exposure to potentially lethal doses of ionizing radiation (IR). Hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) is characterized by severe myelosuppression, which increases the risk of infection, bleeding, and mortality. Here, we determined that activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2–related factor 2 (NRF2) signaling enhances hematopoietic stem progenitor cell (HSPC) function and mitigates IR-induced myelosuppression and mortality. Augmenting NRF2 signaling in mice, either by genetic deletion of the NRF2 inhibitor Keap1 or by pharmacological NRF2 activation with 2-trifluoromethyl-2′-methoxychalone (TMC), enhanced hematopoietic reconstitution following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Strikingly, even 24 hours after lethal IR exposure, oral administration of TMC mitigated myelosuppression and mortality in mice. Furthermore, TMC administration to irradiated transgenic Notch reporter mice revealed activation of Notch signaling in HSPCs and enhanced HSPC expansion by increasing Jagged1 expression in BM stromal cells. Administration of a Notch inhibitor ablated the effects of TMC on hematopoietic reconstitution. Taken together, we identified a mechanism by which NRF2-mediated Notch signaling improves HSPC function and myelosuppression following IR exposure. Our data indicate that targeting this pathway may provide a countermeasure against the damaging effects of IR exposure. PMID:24463449

  11. Genome-wide analysis of Notch signalling in Drosophila by transgenic RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Mummery-Widmer, Jennifer L.; Yamazaki, Masakazu; Stoeger, Thomas; Novatchkova, Maria; Bhalerao, Sheetal; Chen, Doris; Dietzl, Georg; Dickson, Barry J.; Knoblich, Juergen A.

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens have identified near-complete sets of genes involved in cellular processes. However, this methodology has not yet been used to study complex developmental processes in a tissue-specific manner. Here we report the use of a library of Drosophila strains expressing inducible hairpin RNAi constructs to study the Notch signalling pathway during external sensory organ development. We assigned putative loss-of-function phenotypes to 21.2% of the protein-coding Drosophila genes. Using secondary assays, we identified 6 new genes involved in asymmetric cell division and 23 novel genes regulating the Notch signalling pathway. By integrating our phenotypic results with protein interaction data, we constructed a genome-wide, functionally validated interaction network governing Notch signalling and asymmetric cell division. We used clustering algorithms to identify nuclear import pathways and the COP9 signallosome as Notch regulators. Our results show that complex developmental processes can be analysed on a genome-wide level and provide a unique resource for functional annotation of the Drosophila genome. PMID:19363474

  12. Notch Activity Modulates the Responsiveness of Neural Progenitors to Sonic Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jennifer H.; Yang, Linlin; Dessaud, Eric; Chuang, Katherine; Moore, Destaye M.; Rohatgi, Rajat; Briscoe, James; Novitch, Bennett G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Throughout the developing nervous system, neural stem and progenitor cells give rise to diverse classes of neurons and glia in a spatially and temporally coordinated manner. In the ventral spinal cord, much of this diversity emerges through the morphogen actions of Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Interpretation of the Shh gradient depends on both the amount of ligand and duration of exposure, but the mechanisms permitting prolonged responses to Shh are not well understood. We demonstrate that Notch signaling plays an essential role in this process, enabling neural progenitors to attain sufficiently high levels of Shh pathway activity needed to direct the ventral-most cell fates. Notch activity regulates subcellular localization of the Shh receptor Patched1, gating the translocation of the key effector Smoothened to primary cilia and its downstream signaling activities. These data reveal an unexpected role for Notch shaping the interpretation of the Shh morphogen gradient and influencing cell fate determination. PMID:25936505

  13. Loss of Notch3 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Promotes Severe Heart Failure Upon Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ragot, Hélène; Monfort, Astrid; Baudet, Mathilde; Azibani, Fériel; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Régine; Polidano, Evelyne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Vodovar, Nicolas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension, which is a risk factor of heart failure, provokes adaptive changes at the vasculature and cardiac levels. Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 deletion is protective in pulmonary hypertension while deleterious in arterial hypertension. Although this latter phenotype was attributed to renal and cardiac alterations, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. At baseline, both genotypes exhibited a cardiac arteriolar rarefaction associated with oxidative stress. In response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, the heart of Notch3 knockout and SM-RBPJκ knockout mice did not adapt to pressure overload and developed heart failure, which could lead to an early and fatal acute decompensation of heart failure. This cardiac maladaptation was characterized by an absence of media hypertrophy of the media arteries, the transition of smooth muscle cells toward a synthetic phenotype, and an alteration of angiogenic pathways. A subset of mice exhibited an early fatal acute decompensated heart failure, in which the same alterations were observed, although in a more rapid timeframe. Altogether, these observations indicate that Notch3 plays a major role in coronary adaptation to pressure overload. These data also show that the hypertrophy of coronary arterial media on pressure overload is mandatory to initially maintain a normal cardiac function and is regulated by the Notch3/RBPJκ pathway. PMID:27296994

  14. Control of Neural Daughter Cell Proliferation by Multi-level Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bivik, Caroline; MacDonald, Ryan B.; Gunnar, Erika; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, Francois; Thor, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Notch pathway controls proliferation during development and in adulthood, and is frequently affected in many disorders. However, the genetic sensitivity and multi-layered transcriptional properties of the Notch pathway has made its molecular decoding challenging. Here, we address the complexity of Notch signaling with respect to proliferation, using the developing Drosophila CNS as model. We find that a Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade specifically controls daughter, but not progenitor proliferation. Additionally, we find that different E(spl)-HLH genes are required in different neuroblast lineages. The Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade alters daughter proliferation by regulating four key cell cycle factors: Cyclin E, String/Cdc25, E2f and Dacapo (mammalian p21CIP1/p27KIP1/p57Kip2). ChIP and DamID analysis of Su(H) and E(spl)-HLH indicates direct transcriptional regulation of the cell cycle genes, and of the Notch pathway itself. These results point to a multi-level signaling model and may help shed light on the dichotomous proliferative role of Notch signaling in many other systems. PMID:27070787

  15. Control of Neural Daughter Cell Proliferation by Multi-level Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH Signaling.

    PubMed

    Bivik, Caroline; MacDonald, Ryan B; Gunnar, Erika; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, Francois; Thor, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Notch pathway controls proliferation during development and in adulthood, and is frequently affected in many disorders. However, the genetic sensitivity and multi-layered transcriptional properties of the Notch pathway has made its molecular decoding challenging. Here, we address the complexity of Notch signaling with respect to proliferation, using the developing Drosophila CNS as model. We find that a Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade specifically controls daughter, but not progenitor proliferation. Additionally, we find that different E(spl)-HLH genes are required in different neuroblast lineages. The Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade alters daughter proliferation by regulating four key cell cycle factors: Cyclin E, String/Cdc25, E2f and Dacapo (mammalian p21CIP1/p27KIP1/p57Kip2). ChIP and DamID analysis of Su(H) and E(spl)-HLH indicates direct transcriptional regulation of the cell cycle genes, and of the Notch pathway itself. These results point to a multi-level signaling model and may help shed light on the dichotomous proliferative role of Notch signaling in many other systems. PMID:27070787

  16. Wakayama symposium: role of canonical Notch signaling in conjucntival goblet cell differentiation and dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yang

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes a recent finding regarding the intrinsic canonical Notch signaling pathway in regulating normal ocular surface morphogenesis and its role in the pathogenesis of goblet cell deficiency-associated keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, or dry eye). Specifically, we used novel transgenic mice to investigate the mechanism of how the Notch1 activation may serve as the upstream control of expression of transcription factors Krüppel-like factors 4 or 5 (Klf4 or Klf5) which in turn controls goblet cell differentiation and activates mucin 5/ac synthesis during ocular surface morphogenesis. PMID:26818247

  17. Folic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Notch Signaling and Cell Proliferation in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-wei; Zhang, Xu-mei; Ren, Da-lin; X. Wilson, John

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14–16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system. PMID:20838574

  18. MicroRNA-34a suppresses the breast cancer stem cell-like characteristics by downregulating Notch1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Le; Mao, Jun; Tao, Yajun; Song, Bo; Ma, Wei; Lu, Ying; Zhao, Lijing; Li, Jiazhi; Yang, Baoxue; Li, Lianhong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play pivotal roles in cancer stem cell regulation. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-34a (miR-34a) is downregulated in human breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether and how miR-34a regulates breast cancer stem cells. Notch signaling is one of the most important pathways in stem cell maintenance and function. In this study, we verified that miR-34a directly and functionally targeted Notch1 in MCF-7 cells. We reported that miR-34a negatively regulated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and breast cancer stem cell propagation by downregulating Notch1. The expression of miR-34a was negatively correlated with tumor stages, metastasis, and Notch1 expression in breast cancer tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-34a increased chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel (PTX) by downregulating the Notch1 pathway. Mammosphere formation and expression of the stemness factor ALDH1 were also reduced in the cells treated with miR-34a and PTX compared to those treated with PTX alone. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-34a inhibited breast cancer stemness and increased the chemosensitivity to PTX partially by downregulating the Notch1 pathway, suggesting that miR-34a/Notch1 play an important role in regulating breast cancer stem cells. Thus miR-34a is a potential target for prevention and therapy of breast cancer. PMID:25783790

  19. The emerging role of Notch pathway in ageing: Focus on the related mechanisms in age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Madonna, Rosalinda; Melino, Gerry; Caruso, Calogero

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which is fundamental for the development of all tissues, organs and systems of human body. Recently, a considerable and still growing number of studies have highlighted the contribution of Notch signaling in various pathological processes of the adult life, such as age-related diseases. In particular, the Notch pathway has emerged as major player in the maintenance of tissue specific homeostasis, through the control of proliferation, migration, phenotypes and functions of tissue cells, as well as in the cross-talk between inflammatory cells and the innate immune system, and in onset of inflammatory age-related diseases. However, until now there is a confounding evidence about the related mechanisms. Here, we discuss mechanisms through which Notch signaling acts in a very complex network of pathways, where it seems to have the crucial role of hub. Thus, we stress the possibility to use Notch pathway, the related molecules and pathways constituting this network, both as innovative (predictive, diagnostic and prognostic) biomarkers and targets for personalised treatments for age-related diseases. PMID:27328278

  20. Cancer stem cell signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Matsui, William H

    2016-09-01

    Tissue development and homeostasis are governed by the actions of stem cells. Multipotent cells are capable of self-renewal during the course of one's lifetime. The accurate and appropriate regulation of stem cell functions is absolutely critical for normal biological activity. Several key developmental or signaling pathways have been shown to play essential roles in this regulatory capacity. Specifically, the Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, Hedgehog, Wnt, Notch, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/phosphatase and tensin homolog, and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways have all been shown experimentally to mediate various stem cell properties, such as self-renewal, cell fate decisions, survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Unsurprisingly, many of these crucial signaling pathways are dysregulated in cancer. Growing evidence suggests that overactive or abnormal signaling within and among these pathways may contribute to the survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are a relatively rare population of cancer cells capable of self-renewal, differentiation, and generation of serially transplantable heterogeneous tumors of several types of cancer. PMID:27611937

  1. Rnd3 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation through notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongjun; Hu, Chengping; Yang, Huaping; Cao, Liming; Li, Yuanyuan; Deng, Pengbo; Huang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in the West and around the world. The expression of Rnd3 and its ectopic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be explored. Here, we reported that Rnd3 was down-regulated in three NSCLC cell lines: H358, H520 and A549. The down-regulation of Rnd3 led to hyper-activation of Rho Kinase and Notch signaling. The reintroduction of Rnd3 or selective inhibition of Notch signaling, but not Rho Kinase signaling, blocked the proliferation of H358 and H520 cells. Mechanistically, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein abundance in H358 cells was regulated by Rnd3-mediated NICD proteasome degradation. Rnd3 regulated H358 and H520 cell proliferation through a Notch1/NICD/Hes1 signaling axis independent of Rho Kinase. PMID:25372032

  2. Rnd3 Regulates Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation through Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yongjun; Hu, Chengping; Yang, Huaping; Cao, Liming; Li, Yuanyuan; Deng, Pengbo; Huang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in the West and around the world. The expression of Rnd3 and its ectopic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be explored. Here, we reported that Rnd3 was down-regulated in three NSCLC cell lines: H358, H520 and A549. The down-regulation of Rnd3 led to hyper-activation of Rho Kinase and Notch signaling. The reintroduction of Rnd3 or selective inhibition of Notch signaling, but not Rho Kinase signaling, blocked the proliferation of H358 and H520 cells. Mechanistically, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein abundance in H358 cells was regulated by Rnd3-mediated NICD proteasome degradation. Rnd3 regulated H358 and H520 cell proliferation through a Notch1/NICD/Hes1 signaling axis independent of Rho Kinase. PMID:25372032

  3. Competition between Jagged-Notch and Endothelin1 Signaling Selectively Restricts Cartilage Formation in the Zebrafish Upper Face

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Lindsey; Askary, Amjad; Zuniga, Elizabeth; Balczerski, Bartosz; Bump, Paul; Nichols, James T.; Crump, J. Gage

    2016-01-01

    The intricate shaping of the facial skeleton is essential for function of the vertebrate jaw and middle ear. While much has been learned about the signaling pathways and transcription factors that control facial patterning, the downstream cellular mechanisms dictating skeletal shapes have remained unclear. Here we present genetic evidence in zebrafish that three major signaling pathways − Jagged-Notch, Endothelin1 (Edn1), and Bmp − regulate the pattern of facial cartilage and bone formation by controlling the timing of cartilage differentiation along the dorsoventral axis of the pharyngeal arches. A genomic analysis of purified facial skeletal precursors in mutant and overexpression embryos revealed a core set of differentiation genes that were commonly repressed by Jagged-Notch and induced by Edn1. Further analysis of the pre-cartilage condensation gene barx1, as well as in vivo imaging of cartilage differentiation, revealed that cartilage forms first in regions of high Edn1 and low Jagged-Notch activity. Consistent with a role of Jagged-Notch signaling in restricting cartilage differentiation, loss of Notch pathway components resulted in expanded barx1 expression in the dorsal arches, with mutation of barx1 rescuing some aspects of dorsal skeletal patterning in jag1b mutants. We also identified prrx1a and prrx1b as negative Edn1 and positive Bmp targets that function in parallel to Jagged-Notch signaling to restrict the formation of dorsal barx1+ pre-cartilage condensations. Simultaneous loss of jag1b and prrx1a/b better rescued lower facial defects of edn1 mutants than loss of either pathway alone, showing that combined overactivation of Jagged-Notch and Bmp/Prrx1 pathways contribute to the absence of cartilage differentiation in the edn1 mutant lower face. These findings support a model in which Notch-mediated restriction of cartilage differentiation, particularly in the second pharyngeal arch, helps to establish a distinct skeletal pattern in the upper

  4. Interplay of Notch and FGF signaling restricts cell fate and MAPK activation in the Drosophila trachea.

    PubMed

    Ikeya, T; Hayashi, S

    1999-10-01

    The patterned branching in the Drosophila tracheal system is triggered by the FGF-like ligand Branchless that activates a receptor tyrosine kinase Breathless and the MAP kinase pathway. A single fusion cell at the tip of each fusion branch expresses the zinc-finger gene escargot, leads branch migration in a stereotypical pattern and contacts with another fusion cell to mediate fusion of the branches. A high level of MAP kinase activation is also limited to the tip of the branches. Restriction of such cell specialization events to the tip is essential for tracheal tubulogenesis. Here we show that Notch signaling plays crucial roles in the singling out process of the fusion cell. We found that Notch is activated in tracheal cells by Branchless signaling through stimulation of &Dgr; expression at the tip of tracheal branches and that activated Notch represses the fate of the fusion cell. In addition, Notch is required to restrict activation of MAP kinase to the tip of the branches, in part through the negative regulation of Branchless expression. Notch-mediated lateral inhibition in sending and receiving cells is thus essential to restrict the inductive influence of Branchless on the tracheal tubulogenesis. PMID:10498681

  5. Notch-signalling is required for head regeneration and tentacle patterning in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Münder, Sandra; Tischer, Susanne; Grundhuber, Maresa; Büchels, Nathalie; Bruckmeier, Nadine; Eckert, Stefanie; Seefeldt, Carolin A; Prexl, Andrea; Käsbauer, Tina; Böttger, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Local self-activation and long ranging inhibition provide a mechanism for setting up organising regions as signalling centres for the development of structures in the surrounding tissue. The adult hydra hypostome functions as head organiser. After hydra head removal it is newly formed and complete heads can be regenerated. The molecular components of this organising region involve Wnt-signalling and β-catenin. However, it is not known how correct patterning of hypostome and tentacles are achieved in the hydra head and whether other signals in addition to HyWnt3 are needed for re-establishing the new organiser after head removal. Here we show that Notch-signalling is required for re-establishing the organiser during regeneration and that this is due to its role in restricting tentacle activation. Blocking Notch-signalling leads to the formation of irregular head structures characterised by excess tentacle tissue and aberrant expression of genes that mark the tentacle boundaries. This indicates a role for Notch-signalling in defining the tentacle pattern in the hydra head. Moreover, lateral inhibition by HvNotch and its target HyHes are required for head regeneration and without this the formation of the β-catenin/Wnt dependent head organiser is impaired. Work on prebilaterian model organisms has shown that the Wnt-pathway is important for setting up signalling centres for axial patterning in early multicellular animals. Our data suggest that the integration of Wnt-signalling with Notch-Delta activity was also involved in the evolution of defined body plans in animals. PMID:24012879

  6. Oscillatory Notch-pathway activity in a delay model of neuronal differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momiji, Hiroshi; Monk, Nicholas A. M.

    2009-08-01

    Lateral inhibition resulting from a double-negative feedback loop underlies the assignment of different fates to cells in many developmental processes. Previous studies have shown that the presence of time delays in models of lateral inhibition can result in significant oscillatory transients before patterned steady states are reached. We study the impact of local feedback loops in a model of lateral inhibition based on the Notch signaling pathway, elucidating the roles of intracellular and intercellular delays in controlling the overall system behavior. The model exhibits both in-phase and out-of-phase oscillatory modes and oscillation death. Interactions between oscillatory modes can generate complex behaviors such as intermittent oscillations. Our results provide a framework for exploring the recent observation of transient Notch-pathway oscillations during fate assignment in vertebrate neurogenesis.

  7. The bHLH Transcription Factor NeuroD Governs Photoreceptor Genesis and Regeneration Through Delta-Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott M.; Alvarez-Delfin, Karen; Saade, Carole J.; Thomas, Jennifer L.; Thummel, Ryan; Fadool, James M.; Hitchcock, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor genesis in the retina requires precise regulation of progenitor cell competence, cell cycle exit, and differentiation, although information around the mechanisms that govern these events currently is lacking. In zebrafish, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor NeuroD governs photoreceptor genesis, but the signaling pathways through which NeuroD functions are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify these pathways, and during photoreceptor genesis, Notch signaling was investigated as the putative mediator of NeuroD function. Methods In embryos, genetic mosaic analysis was used to determine if NeuroD functions is cell- or non–cell-autonomous. Morpholino-induced NeuroD knockdown, CRISPR/Cas9 mutation, and pharmacologic and transgenic approaches were used, followed by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), to identify mechanisms through which NeuroD functions. In adults, following photoreceptor ablation and NeuroD knockdown, similar methods as above were used to identify NeuroD function during photoreceptor regeneration. Results In embryos, NeuroD function is non–cell-autonomous, NeuroD knockdown increases Notch pathway gene expression, Notch inhibition rescues the NeuroD knockdown-induced deficiency in cell cycle exit but not photoreceptor maturation, and Notch activation and CRISPR/Cas9 mutation of neurod recapitulate NeuroD knockdown. In adults, NeuroD knockdown prevents cell cycle exit and photoreceptor regeneration and increases Notch pathway gene expression, and Notch inhibition rescues this phenotype. Conclusions These data demonstrate that during embryonic development, NeuroD governs photoreceptor genesis via non–cell-autonomous mechanisms and that, during photoreceptor development and regeneration, Notch signaling is a mechanistic link between NeuroD and cell cycle exit. In contrast, during embryonic development, NeuroD governs photoreceptor maturation via mechanisms

  8. Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; L'Heureux, Sarah; Ashworth, Todd; Malecki, Michael J.; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; McArthur, Debbie G.; Histen, Gavin; Mitchell, Jennifer L.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia. Principal Findings The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity. Conclusions/Significance S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with

  9. Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; L'Heureux, Sarah; Ashworth, Todd; Malecki, Michael J.; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; McArthur, Debbie G.; Histen, Gavin; Mitchell, Jennifer L.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2009-09-25

    Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia. The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity. S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with models for receptor activation in which ligand-binding or

  10. Homozygous NOTCH3 null mutation and impaired NOTCH3 signaling in recessive early-onset arteriopathy and cavitating leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pippucci, Tommaso; Maresca, Alessandra; Magini, Pamela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Donadio, Vincenzo; Palombo, Flavia; Papa, Valentina; Incensi, Alex; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Preziuso, Carmela; Pisano, Annalinda; Ragno, Michele; Liguori, Rocco; Giordano, Carla; Tonon, Caterina; Lodi, Raffaele; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Carelli, Valerio; Seri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is essential for vascular physiology. Neomorphic heterozygous mutations in NOTCH3, one of the four human NOTCH receptors, cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Hypomorphic heterozygous alleles have been occasionally described in association with a spectrum of cerebrovascular phenotypes overlapping CADASIL, but their pathogenic potential is unclear. We describe a patient with childhood-onset arteriopathy, cavitating leukoencephalopathy with cerebral white matter abnormalities presented as diffuse cavitations, multiple lacunar infarctions and disseminated microbleeds. We identified a novel homozygous c.C2898A (p.C966*) null mutation in NOTCH3 abolishing NOTCH3 expression and causing NOTCH3 signaling impairment. NOTCH3 targets acting in the regulation of arterial tone (KCNA5) or expressed in the vasculature (CDH6) were downregulated. Patient's vessels were characterized by smooth muscle degeneration as in CADASIL, but without deposition of granular osmiophilic material (GOM), the CADASIL hallmark. The heterozygous parents displayed similar but less dramatic trends in decrease in the expression of NOTCH3 and its targets, as well as in vessel degeneration. This study suggests a functional link between NOTCH3 deficiency and pathogenesis of vascular leukoencephalopathies. PMID:25870235