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Sample records for notch target genes

  1. Identification of novel Notch target genes in T cell leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Nicholas; Zeef, Leo; Portillo, Virginia; Fennessy, Carl; Warrander, Fiona; Hoyle, Sarah; Buckle, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Background Dysregulated Notch signalling is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of T cell leukaemia. At a cellular level, Notch signalling promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cells. In this study we aimed to identify novel transcriptional targets of Notch signalling in the T-ALL cell line, Jurkat. Results RNA was prepared from Jurkat cells retrovirally transduced with an empty vector (GFP-alone) or vectors containing constitutively active forms of Notch (N1ΔE or N3ΔE), and used for Affymetrix microarray analysis. A subset of genes found to be regulated by Notch was chosen for real-time PCR validation and in some cases, validation at the protein level, using several Notch-transduced T-ALL and non-T-ALL leukaemic cell lines. As expected, several known transcriptional target of Notch, such as HES1 and Deltex, were found to be overexpressed in Notch-transduced cells, however, many novel transcriptional targets of Notch signalling were identified using this approach. These included the T cell costimulatory molecule CD28, the anti-apoptotic protein GIMAP5, and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (1D1). Conclusion The identification of such downstream Notch target genes provides insights into the mechanisms of Notch function in T cell leukaemia, and may help identify novel therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:19508709

  2. A NOTCH1 gene copy number gain is a prognostic indicator of worse survival and a predictive biomarker to a Notch1 targeting antibody in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arcaroli, John J.; Tai, W.M.; McWilliams, Ryan; Bagby, Stacey; Blatchford, Patrick J.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Purkey, Alicia; Quackenbush, Kevin S.; Song, Eun-Kee; Pitts, Todd M.; Gao, Dexiang; Lieu, Chris; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik Choon; Zheng, Xianxian; Zhang, Qin; Ozeck, Mark; Olson, Peter; Jiang, Zhi-Qin; Kopetz, Scott; Jimeno, Antonio; Keysar, Stephen; Eckhardt, Gail; Messersmith, Wells A.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the Notch1 receptor has been shown to facilitate the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been identified as an independent predictor of disease progression and worse survival. Although mutations in the NOTCH1 receptor have not been described in CRC, we have previously discovered a NOTCH1 gene copy number gain in a portion of CRC tumor samples. Here, we demonstrated that a NOTCH1 gene copy number gain is significantly associated with worse survival and a high percentage of gene duplication in a cohort of patients with advanced CRC. In our CRC patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) model, tumors harboring a NOTCH1 gain exhibited significant elevation of the Notch1 receptor, JAG1 ligand and cleaved Notch1 activity. In addition, a significant association was identified between a gain in NOTCH1 gene copy number and sensitivity to a Notch1-targeting antibody. These findings suggest that patients with metastatic CRC that harbor a gain in NOTCH1 gene copy number have worse survival and that targeting this patient population with a Notch1 antibody may yield improved outcomes. PMID:26152787

  3. A NOTCH1 gene copy number gain is a prognostic indicator of worse survival and a predictive biomarker to a Notch1 targeting antibody in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arcaroli, John J; Tai, W M; McWilliams, Ryan; Bagby, Stacey; Blatchford, Patrick J; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Purkey, Alicia; Quackenbush, Kevin S; Song, Eun-Kee; Pitts, Todd M; Gao, Dexiang; Lieu, Chris; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik Choon; Zheng, Xianxian; Zhang, Qin; Ozeck, Mark; Olson, Peter; Jiang, Zhi-Qin; Kopetz, Scott; Jimeno, Antonio; Keysar, Stephen; Eckhardt, Gail; Messersmith, Wells A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the Notch1 receptor has been shown to facilitate the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been identified as an independent predictor of disease progression and worse survival. Although mutations in the NOTCH1 receptor have not been described in CRC, we have previously discovered a NOTCH1 gene copy number gain in a portion of CRC tumor samples. Here, we demonstrated that a NOTCH1 gene copy number gain is significantly associated with worse survival and a high percentage of gene duplication in a cohort of patients with advanced CRC. In our CRC patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) model, tumors harboring a NOTCH1 gain exhibited significant elevation of the Notch1 receptor, JAG1 ligand and cleaved Notch1 activity. In addition, a significant association was identified between a gain in NOTCH1 gene copy number and sensitivity to a Notch1-targeting antibody. These findings suggest that patients with metastatic CRC that harbor a gain in NOTCH1 gene copy number have worse survival and that targeting this patient population with a Notch1 antibody may yield improved outcomes. PMID:26152787

  4. Genes implicated in stem cell identity and temporal programme are directly targeted by Notch in neuroblast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Housden, Benjamin E.; Garinis, George; Stojnic, Robert; Delidakis, Christos; Bray, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Notch signalling is involved in a multitude of developmental decisions and its aberrant activation is linked to many diseases, including cancers. One example is the neural stem cell tumours that arise from constitutive Notch activity in Drosophila neuroblasts. To investigate how hyperactivation of Notch in larval neuroblasts leads to tumours, we combined results from profiling the upregulated mRNAs and mapping the regions bound by the core Notch pathway transcription factor Su(H). This identified 246 putative direct Notch targets. These genes were highly enriched for transcription factors and overlapped significantly with a previously identified regulatory programme dependent on the proneural transcription factor Asense. Included were genes associated with the neuroblast maintenance and self-renewal programme that we validated as Notch regulated in vivo. Another group were the so-called temporal transcription factors, which have been implicated in neuroblast maturation. Normally expressed in specific time windows, several temporal transcription factors were ectopically expressed in the stem cell tumours, suggesting that Notch had reprogrammed their normal temporal regulation. Indeed, the Notch-induced hyperplasia was reduced by mutations affecting two of the temporal factors, which, conversely, were sufficient to induce mild hyperplasia on their own. Altogether, the results suggest that Notch induces neuroblast tumours by directly promoting the expression of genes that contribute to stem cell identity and by reprogramming the expression of factors that could regulate maturity. PMID:26657768

  5. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Jasmin S.; Nagel, Anja C.; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H)MAPK-ko and a phospho-mimetic Su(H)MAPK-ac isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vgBE-lacZ). In general, Su(H)MAPK-ko induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H)MAPK-ac was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vgBE-lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DERact) or the MAPK (rlSEM) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  6. Local overexpression of Su(H)-MAPK variants affects Notch target gene expression and adult phenotypes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Auer, Jasmin S; Nagel, Anja C; Schulz, Adriana; Wahl, Vanessa; Preiss, Anette

    2015-12-01

    In Drosophila, Notch and EGFR signalling pathways are closely intertwined. Their relationship is mostly antagonistic, and may in part be based on the phosphorylation of the Notch signal transducer Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] by MAPK. Su(H) is a transcription factor that together with several cofactors regulates the expression of Notch target genes. Here we address the consequences of a local induction of three Su(H) variants on Notch target gene expression. To this end, wild-type Su(H), a phospho-deficient Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) and a phospho-mimetic Su(H) (MAPK-ac) isoform were overexpressed in the central domain of the wing anlagen. The expression of the Notch target genes cut, wingless, E(spl)m8-HLH and vestigial, was monitored. For the latter two, reporter genes were used (E(spl)m8-lacZ, vg (BE) -lacZ). In general, Su(H) (MAPK-) (ko) induced a stronger response than wild-type Su(H), whereas the response to Su(H) (MAPK-ac) was very weak. Notch target genes cut, wingless and vg (BE) -lacZ were ectopically activated, whereas E(spl)m8-lacZ was repressed by overexpression of Su(H) proteins. In addition, in epistasis experiments an activated form of the EGF-receptor (DER (act) ) or the MAPK (rl (SEM) ) and individual Su(H) variants were co-overexpressed locally, to compare the resultant phenotypes in adult flies (thorax, wings and eyes) as well as to assay the response of the Notch target gene cut in cell clones. PMID:26702412

  7. Prostate tumor OVerexpressed-1 (PTOV1) down-regulates HES1 and HEY1 notch targets genes and promotes prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background PTOV1 is an adaptor protein with functions in diverse processes, including gene transcription and protein translation, whose overexpression is associated with a higher proliferation index and tumor grade in prostate cancer (PC) and other neoplasms. Here we report its interaction with the Notch pathway and its involvement in PC progression. Methods Stable PTOV1 knockdown or overexpression were performed by lentiviral transduction. Protein interactions were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down and/or immunofluorescence. Endogenous gene expression was analyzed by real time RT-PCR and/or Western blotting. Exogenous promoter activities were studied by luciferase assays. Gene promoter interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP). In vivo studies were performed in the Drosophila melanogaster wing, the SCID-Beige mouse model, and human prostate cancer tissues and metastasis. The Excel package was used for statistical analysis. Results Knockdown of PTOV1 in prostate epithelial cells and HaCaT skin keratinocytes caused the upregulation, and overexpression of PTOV1 the downregulation, of the Notch target genes HEY1 and HES1, suggesting that PTOV1 counteracts Notch signaling. Under conditions of inactive Notch signaling, endogenous PTOV1 associated with the HEY1 and HES1 promoters, together with components of the Notch repressor complex. Conversely, expression of active Notch1 provoked the dismissal of PTOV1 from these promoters. The antagonist role of PTOV1 on Notch activity was corroborated in the Drosophila melanogaster wing, where human PTOV1 exacerbated Notch deletion mutant phenotypes and suppressed the effects of constitutively active Notch. PTOV1 was required for optimal in vitro invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth of PC-3 cells, activities counteracted by Notch, and for their efficient growth and metastatic spread in vivo. In prostate tumors, the overexpression of PTOV1 was associated with decreased expression

  8. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P.; Ankem, Murali K.; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-01-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  9. Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Suman, Suman; Das, Trinath P; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-12-01

    The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC), hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for targeting several pro-survival signaling cascades, and recent studies demonstrated that agents that inhibit Notch signaling result in growth inhibition in preclinical models of CRC. In this review, we focus on the importance of Notch as a preventive and therapeutic target for colon cancer and on the effect of WA on this signaling pathway in the context of colon cancer. PMID:25395896

  10. Autophagy Sustains Hematopoiesis Through Targeting Notch.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Cai, Jinyang; Zhang, Suping; Yuan, Na; Fang, Yixuan; Wang, Zhijian; Li, Xin; Cao, Dan; Xu, Fei; Lin, Weiwei; Song, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Jian; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Wenli; Hu, Shaoyan; Zhang, Xueguang; Wang, Jianrong

    2015-11-15

    Autophagy is required for hematopoietic stem cell multilineage differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Using a conditional mouse model and human leukemia cells, we uncovered a mechanistic link between autophagy and hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. Loss of autophagy in mouse hematopoietic stem cells diminished the bone marrow generation of functional blood cells, in particular lymphocytes, and resulted in a leukemic phenotype and elevated Notch signaling. Physiological autophagy activity in mice was inversely correlated with Notch signaling during adult hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, while pathologically low autophagy was associated with upregulated Notch signaling in dysfunctional hematopoietic stem cells of acute leukemia patients. Furthermore, we show that autophagy directly degraded intracellular Notch, the active form of Notch receptor cleaved from the full-length Notch molecule by γ-secretase. Finally, we show that hematopoietic multilineage differentiation potential was restored in autophagy defective hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells when their Notch signaling was abrogated either pharmacologically with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or genetically with RNA interference of Notch effector RBPJ. Hence, we propose that autophagy sustains hematopoiesis by direct targeting Notch. PMID:26178296

  11. Regulation of the Notch target gene Hes-1 by TGF{alpha} induced Ras/MAPK signaling in human neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stockhausen, Marie-Therese; Sjoelund, Jonas; Axelson, Hakan . E-mail: hakan.axelson@molmed.mas.lu.se

    2005-10-15

    Ras and Notch signaling have recently been shown to cooperate in the maintenance of neoplastic transformation. Here, we show that TGF{alpha}, a known activator of Ras signaling, can drive cell proliferation and at the same time induce the expression of the Notch target Hes-1 in the neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2)c. The up-regulation of Hes-1 occurred both at the transcriptional and protein levels and by use of EGFR and MEK inhibitors we could show that the Hes-1 response was dependent on activation of the MAP kinase ERK. Blocking Notch activation by {gamma}-secretase inhibition did not profoundly affect the Hes-1 levels, neither in untreated nor in TGF{alpha} treated cells. The up-regulation of Hes-1 was associated with down-regulation of its pro-neuronal target gene Hash-1. Taken together, these results show that TGF{alpha} is a potent mitogen of neuroblastoma cells and suggest a connection between activation of ERK and Hes-1, thus providing a link between the Ras and Notch signaling pathways.

  12. Targeting Notch to overcome radiation resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yahyanejad, Sanaz; Theys, Jan; Vooijs, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy represents an important therapeutic strategy in the treatment of cancer cells. However, it often fails to eliminate all tumor cells because of the intrinsic or acquired treatment resistance, which is the most common cause of tumor recurrence. Emerging evidences suggest that the Notch signaling pathway is an important pathway mediating radiation resistance in tumor cells. Successful targeting of Notch signaling requires a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to be safe and effective. Here we summarize the role of Notch in mediating resistance to radiotherapy, the different strategies to block Notch in cancer cells and how treatment scheduling can improve tumor response. Finally, we discuss a need for reliable Notch related biomarkers in specific tumors to measure pathway activity and to allow identification of a subset of patients who are likely to benefit from Notch targeted therapies. PMID:26713603

  13. A phospho-dependent mechanism involving NCoR and KMT2D controls a permissive chromatin state at Notch target genes

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Franz; Rodriguez, Patrick; Giaimo, Benedetto Daniele; Antonello, Zeus A.; Mira, Laura; Mittler, Gerhard; Thiel, Verena N.; Collins, Kelly J.; Tabaja, Nassif; Cizelsky, Wiebke; Rothe, Melanie; Kühl, Susanne J.; Kühl, Michael; Ferrante, Francesca; Hein, Kerstin; Kovall, Rhett A.; Dominguez, Maria; Borggrefe, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptional shift from repression to activation of target genes is crucial for the fidelity of Notch responses through incompletely understood mechanisms that likely involve chromatin-based control. To activate silenced genes, repressive chromatin marks are removed and active marks must be acquired. Histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4) demethylases are key chromatin modifiers that establish the repressive chromatin state at Notch target genes. However, the counteracting histone methyltransferase required for the active chromatin state remained elusive. Here, we show that the RBP-J interacting factor SHARP is not only able to interact with the NCoR corepressor complex, but also with the H3K4 methyltransferase KMT2D coactivator complex. KMT2D and NCoR compete for the C-terminal SPOC-domain of SHARP. We reveal that the SPOC-domain exclusively binds to phosphorylated NCoR. The balance between NCoR and KMT2D binding is shifted upon mutating the phosphorylation sites of NCoR or upon inhibition of the NCoR kinase CK2β. Furthermore, we show that the homologs of SHARP and KMT2D in Drosophila also physically interact and control Notch-mediated functions in vivo. Together, our findings reveal how signaling can fine-tune a committed chromatin state by phosphorylation of a pivotal chromatin-modifier. PMID:26912830

  14. A phospho-dependent mechanism involving NCoR and KMT2D controls a permissive chromatin state at Notch target genes.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Franz; Rodriguez, Patrick; Giaimo, Benedetto Daniele; Antonello, Zeus A; Mira, Laura; Mittler, Gerhard; Thiel, Verena N; Collins, Kelly J; Tabaja, Nassif; Cizelsky, Wiebke; Rothe, Melanie; Kühl, Susanne J; Kühl, Michael; Ferrante, Francesca; Hein, Kerstin; Kovall, Rhett A; Dominguez, Maria; Borggrefe, Tilman

    2016-06-01

    The transcriptional shift from repression to activation of target genes is crucial for the fidelity of Notch responses through incompletely understood mechanisms that likely involve chromatin-based control. To activate silenced genes, repressive chromatin marks are removed and active marks must be acquired. Histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4) demethylases are key chromatin modifiers that establish the repressive chromatin state at Notch target genes. However, the counteracting histone methyltransferase required for the active chromatin state remained elusive. Here, we show that the RBP-J interacting factor SHARP is not only able to interact with the NCoR corepressor complex, but also with the H3K4 methyltransferase KMT2D coactivator complex. KMT2D and NCoR compete for the C-terminal SPOC-domain of SHARP. We reveal that the SPOC-domain exclusively binds to phosphorylated NCoR. The balance between NCoR and KMT2D binding is shifted upon mutating the phosphorylation sites of NCoR or upon inhibition of the NCoR kinase CK2β. Furthermore, we show that the homologs of SHARP and KMT2D in Drosophila also physically interact and control Notch-mediated functions in vivo Together, our findings reveal how signaling can fine-tune a committed chromatin state by phosphorylation of a pivotal chromatin-modifier. PMID:26912830

  15. Honokiol inhibits melanoma stem cells by targeting notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Venugopal, Anand; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Umar, Shahid; Jensen, Roy A; Anant, Shrikant; Mammen, Joshua M V

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. Here, we determined the effects of honokiol (HNK), a biphenolic natural compound on melanoma cells and stemness. HNK significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, viability, clonogenicity and induced autophagy. In addition, HNK significantly inhibited melanosphere formation in a dose dependent manner. Western blot analyses also demonstrated reduction in stem cell markers CD271, CD166, Jarid1b, and ABCB5. We next examined the effect of HNK on Notch signaling, a pathway involved in stem cell self-renewal. Four different Notch receptors exist in cells, which when cleaved by a series of enzymatic reactions catalyzed by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Converting Enzyme (TACE) and γ-secretase protein complex, results in the release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which then translocates to the nucleus and induces target gene expression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in HNK treated cells there is a significant reduction in the expression of cleaved Notch-2. In addition, there was a reduction in the expression of downstream target proteins, Hes-1 and cyclin D1. Moreover, HNK treatment suppressed the expression of TACE and γ-secretase complex proteins in melanoma cells. To confirm that suppression of Notch-2 activation is critical for HNK activity, we overexpressed NICD1, NICD2, and performed HNK treatment. NICD2, but not NICD1, partially restored the expression of Hes-1 and cyclin D1, and increased melanosphere formation. Taken together, these data suggest that HNK is a potent inhibitor of melanoma cells, in part, through the targeting of melanoma stem cells by suppressing Notch-2 signaling. PMID:25491779

  16. Oncogenic activation of the Notch1 gene by deletion of its promoter in Ikaros-deficient T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Jeannet, Robin; Mastio, Jérôme; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Oravecz, Attila; Ashworth, Todd; Geimer Le Lay, Anne-Solen; Jost, Bernard; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Ghysdael, Jacques; Gridley, Thomas; Honjo, Tasuku; Radtke, Freddy; Aster, Jon C.; Kastner, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The Notch pathway is frequently activated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs). Of the Notch receptors, Notch1 is a recurrent target of gain-of-function mutations and Notch3 is expressed in all T-ALLs, but it is currently unclear how these receptors contribute to T-cell transformation in vivo. We investigated the role of Notch1 and Notch3 in T-ALL progression by a genetic approach, in mice bearing a knockdown mutation in the Ikaros gene that spontaneously develop Notch-dependent T-ALL. While deletion of Notch3 has little effect, T cell–specific deletion of floxed Notch1 promoter/exon 1 sequences significantly accelerates leukemogenesis. Notch1-deleted tumors lack surface Notch1 but express γ-secretase–cleaved intracellular Notch1 proteins. In addition, these tumors accumulate high levels of truncated Notch1 transcripts that are caused by aberrant transcription from cryptic initiation sites in the 3′ part of the gene. Deletion of the floxed sequences directly reprograms the Notch1 locus to begin transcription from these 3′ promoters and is accompanied by an epigenetic reorganization of the Notch1 locus that is consistent with transcriptional activation. Further, spontaneous deletion of 5′ Notch1 sequences occurs in approximately 75% of Ikaros-deficient T-ALLs. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the oncogenic activation of the Notch1 gene after deletion of its main promoter. PMID:20829372

  17. Notch stimulates growth by direct regulation of genes involved in the control of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Slaninova, Vera; Krafcikova, Michaela; Perez-Gomez, Raquel; Steffal, Pavel; Trantirek, Lukas; Bray, Sarah J; Krejci, Alena

    2016-02-01

    Glycolytic shift is a characteristic feature of rapidly proliferating cells, such as cells during development and during immune response or cancer cells, as well as of stem cells. It results in increased glycolysis uncoupled from mitochondrial respiration, also known as the Warburg effect. Notch signalling is active in contexts where cells undergo glycolytic shift. We decided to test whether metabolic genes are direct transcriptional targets of Notch signalling and whether upregulation of metabolic genes can help Notch to induce tissue growth under physiological conditions and in conditions of Notch-induced hyperplasia. We show that genes mediating cellular metabolic changes towards the Warburg effect are direct transcriptional targets of Notch signalling. They include genes encoding proteins involved in glucose uptake, glycolysis, lactate to pyruvate conversion and repression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The direct transcriptional upregulation of metabolic genes is PI3K/Akt independent and occurs not only in cells with overactivated Notch but also in cells with endogenous levels of Notch signalling and in vivo. Even a short pulse of Notch activity is able to elicit long-lasting metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect. Loss of Notch signalling in Drosophila wing discs as well as in human microvascular cells leads to downregulation of glycolytic genes. Notch-driven tissue overgrowth can be rescued by downregulation of genes for glucose metabolism. Notch activity is able to support growth of wing during nutrient-deprivation conditions, independent of the growth of the rest of the body. Notch is active in situations that involve metabolic reprogramming, and the direct regulation of metabolic genes may be a common mechanism that helps Notch to exert its effects in target tissues. PMID:26887408

  18. Notch stimulates growth by direct regulation of genes involved in the control of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle

    PubMed Central

    Slaninova, Vera; Krafcikova, Michaela; Perez-Gomez, Raquel; Steffal, Pavel; Trantirek, Lukas; Bray, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Glycolytic shift is a characteristic feature of rapidly proliferating cells, such as cells during development and during immune response or cancer cells, as well as of stem cells. It results in increased glycolysis uncoupled from mitochondrial respiration, also known as the Warburg effect. Notch signalling is active in contexts where cells undergo glycolytic shift. We decided to test whether metabolic genes are direct transcriptional targets of Notch signalling and whether upregulation of metabolic genes can help Notch to induce tissue growth under physiological conditions and in conditions of Notch-induced hyperplasia. We show that genes mediating cellular metabolic changes towards the Warburg effect are direct transcriptional targets of Notch signalling. They include genes encoding proteins involved in glucose uptake, glycolysis, lactate to pyruvate conversion and repression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The direct transcriptional upregulation of metabolic genes is PI3K/Akt independent and occurs not only in cells with overactivated Notch but also in cells with endogenous levels of Notch signalling and in vivo. Even a short pulse of Notch activity is able to elicit long-lasting metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect. Loss of Notch signalling in Drosophila wing discs as well as in human microvascular cells leads to downregulation of glycolytic genes. Notch-driven tissue overgrowth can be rescued by downregulation of genes for glucose metabolism. Notch activity is able to support growth of wing during nutrient-deprivation conditions, independent of the growth of the rest of the body. Notch is active in situations that involve metabolic reprogramming, and the direct regulation of metabolic genes may be a common mechanism that helps Notch to exert its effects in target tissues. PMID:26887408

  19. A novel target for oral cancer chemoprevention? Notch quite, yet….

    PubMed

    William, William N; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2015-04-01

    The two major goals of oral cancer chemoprevention efforts are the ability to segregate the high-risk patients and the identification of an effective pharmacologic agent that halts progression to invasive cancer. Considerable progress has recently been achieved in profiling invasive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, particularly with the use of high-throughput technologies. A similar molecular characterization of potentially malignant oral epithelial lesions (OPML; leukoplakia and erythroplakia) is yet to be accomplished. It is postulated, though, that molecular profiling could lead to the discovery of novel markers of cancer risk that could also serve as potential targets for chemoprevention. In this perspective, we comment on the work by Izumchenko and colleagues that reports a high prevalence of NOTCH1 gain-of-function mutations in Chinese patients with OPMLs. Although additional studies are needed to validate the findings, the study is the first to link alterations in this gene in oral premalignancy. These findings could serve as a first prototype of a single gene mutation as a potential target in clinical chemoprevention setting. PMID:25712052

  20. Targeting Notch1 inhibits invasion and angiogenesis of human breast cancer cells via inhibition Nuclear Factor-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Su, Chuanfu; Shan, Yuqing; Yang, Shouxiang; Ma, Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Notch-1, a type-1 transmembrane protein, plays critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies, including breast cancer; however, the precise mechanism by which Notch-1 causes tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis remain unclear. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are critically involved in the processes of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, we investigated whether targeting Notch-1 could be mechanistically associated with the down-regulation of NF-κB, IL-8, VEGF, and MMP-9, resulting in the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis of breast cancer cells. Our data showed that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inactivation of NF-κB activity and inhibits the expression of its target genes, such as IL-8, VEGF and MMP-9. We also found that down-regulation of Notch-1 decreased cell invasion, and vice versa Consistent with these results, we also found that the down-regulation of Notch-1 not only decreased MMP-9 mRNA and its protein expression but also inhibited MMP-9 active form. Moreover, conditioned medium from Notch-1 siRNA-transfected breast cancer cells showed reduced levels of IL-8 and VEGF and, in turn, inhibited the tube formation of HUVECs, suggesting that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium from Notch-1 cDNA-transfected breast cancer cells showed increased levels of IL-8 and VEGF and, in turn, promoted the tube formation of HUVECs, suggesting that Notch-1 overexpression leads to the promotion of angiogenesis.We therefore concluded that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inactivation NF-κB and its target genes (IL-8, MMP-9 and VEGF), resulting in the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:27398151

  1. Notch Signaling and the Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Notch 1 to 4 receptors are important determinants of cell fate and function, and Notch signaling plays an important role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. After direct interactions with ligands of the Jagged and Delta-like families, a series of cleavages release the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which translocates to the nucleus where it induces transcription of Notch target genes. Classic gene targets of Notch are hairy and enhancer of split (Hes) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey). In cells of the osteoblastic lineage, Notch activation inhibits cell differentiation and causes cancellous bone osteopenia because of impaired bone formation. In osteocytes, Notch1 has distinct effects that result in an inhibition of bone resorption secondary to an induction of osteoprotegerin and suppression of sclerostin with a consequent enhancement of Wnt signaling. Notch1 inhibits, whereas Notch2 enhances, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Congenital disorders of loss- and gain-of-Notch function present with severe clinical manifestations, often affecting the skeleton. Enhanced Notch signaling is associated with osteosarcoma, and Notch can influence the invasive potential of carcinoma of the breast and prostate. Notch signaling can be controlled by the use of inhibitors of Notch activation, small peptides that interfere with the formation of a transcriptional complex, or antibodies to the extracellular domain of specific Notch receptors or to Notch ligands. In conclusion, Notch plays a critical role in skeletal development and homeostasis, and serious skeletal disorders can be attributed to alterations in Notch signaling. PMID:27074349

  2. Notch1 is associated with the multidrug resistance of hypoxic osteosarcoma by regulating MRP1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Guo, D; Tang, B; Zhang, Y; Zhang, K; Nie, L

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia and Notch signaling pathway are closely related and both participate in cell proliferation and drug resistance of tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia and Notch signaling pathway in cell proliferation and drug resistance of osteosarcoma (OS) remain unclear. In this study, to further evaluate the role of hypoxia and Notch1 on drug resistance of OS, we investigated the influence of inhibiting Notch1 pathway by Notch1 small interference RNA (siRNA) on human MG-63 OS cells in hypoxia. Our data showed that hypoxia promoted OS cell proliferation, induced the G0/G1-S-G2/M phase transition, and increased multidrug resistance of human OS cells. Western blot analysis suggested that hypoxia increased the expression of HIF-1α, Notch1, and multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) in human OS cells. Notch1 siRNA inhibits proliferation and increases apoptosis of hypoxic OS cells. Finally, these hypoxic OS cells can be sensitized to multidrug treatment through inhibition of the Notch protein expression by siRNA. Repression of the Notch protein expression resulted in down-regulation of MRP1 protein. These data support the conclusion that Notch signaling is up-regulated in human OS cells under hypoxia and Notch1 may represent a viable target to overcome chemoresistant OS cells in a hypoxic niche by regulating MRP1 gene expression. PMID:27468877

  3. Differential effects of targeting Notch receptors in a mouse model of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huntzicker, Erik G.; Hötzel, Kathy; Choy, Lisa; Che, Li; Ross, Jed; Pau, Gregoire; Sharma, Neeraj; Siebel, Christian W.; Chen, Xin; French, Dorothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancer encompasses both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC). The Notch signaling pathway, known to be important for the proper development of liver architecture, is also a potential driver of primary liver cancer. However, with four known Notch receptors and several Notch ligands, it is not clear which Notch pathway members play the predominant role in liver cancer. To address this question we utilized antibodies to specifically target Notch1, Notch2, Notch3 or Jag1 in a mouse model of primary liver cancer driven by AKT and NRas. We show that inhibition of Notch2 reduces tumor burden by eliminating highly malignant hepatocellular carcinoma- and cholangiocarcinoma-like tumors. Inhibition of the Notch ligand Jag 1 had a similar effect, consistent with Jag1 acting in cooperation with Notch2. This effect was specific to Notch2, as Notch3 inhibition did not decrease tumor burden. Unexpectedly, Notch1 inhibition altered the relative proportion of tumor types, reducing HCC-like tumors but dramatically increasing CC-like tumors. Finally, we show that Notch2 and Jag1 are expressed in, and Notch2 signaling is activated in, a subset of human HCC samples. Conclusions: These findings underscore the distinct roles of different Notch receptors in the liver and suggest that inhibition of Notch2 signaling represents a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:25311838

  4. Aberrant expression of Notch1, HES1, and DTX1 genes in glioblastoma formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Narayanappa, Rajeswari; Rout, Pritilata; Aithal, Madhuri G S; Chand, Ashis Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor accounting for more than 54 % of all gliomas. Despite aggressive treatments, median survival remains less than 1 year. This might be due to the unavailability of effective molecular diagnostic markers and targeted therapy. Thus, it is essential to discover molecular mechanisms underlying disease by identifying dysregulated pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Notch signaling is one such pathway which plays an important role in determining cell fates. Since it is found to play a critical role in many cancers, we investigated the role of Notch genes in glioblastoma with an aim to identify biomarkers that can improve diagnosis. Using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of Notch genes including receptors (Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, and Notch4), ligands (JAG1, JAG2, and DLL3), downstream targets (HES1 and HEY2), regulator Deltex1 (DTX1), inhibitor NUMB along with transcriptional co-activator MAML1, and a component of gamma-secretase complex APH1A in 15 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) patient samples. Relative quantification was done by the 2(-ΔΔCt) method; the data are presented as fold change in gene expression normalized to an internal control gene and relative to the calibrator. The data revealed aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma compared to normal brain. More than 85 % of samples showed high Notch1 (P = 0.0397) gene expression and low HES1 (P = 0.011) and DTX1 (P = 0.0001) gene expression. Our results clearly show aberrant expression of Notch genes in glioblastoma which can be used as putative biomarkers together with histopathological observation to improve diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and patient prognosis. PMID:26662803

  5. Complementary Genomic Screens Identify SERCA as a Therapeutic Target in NOTCH1 Mutated Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roti, Giovanni; Carlton, Anne; Ross, Kenneth N.; Markstein, Michele; Pajcini, Kostandin; Su, Angela H.; Perrimon, Norbert; Pear, Warren S.; Kung, Andrew L.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Aster, Jon C.; Stegmaier, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Notch1 is a rational therapeutic target in several human cancers, but as a transcriptional regulator, it poses a drug discovery challenge. To identify Notch1 modulators, we performed two cell-based, high-throughput screens for small-molecule inhibitors and cDNA enhancers of a NOTCH1 allele bearing a leukemia-associated mutation. SERCA calcium channels emerged at the intersection of these complementary screens. SERCA inhibition preferentially impairs the maturation and activity of mutated Notch1 receptors and induces a G0/G1 arrest in NOTCH1-mutated human leukemia cells. A small-molecule SERCA inhibitor has on-target activity in two mouse models of human leukemia and interferes with Notch signaling in Drosophila. These studies “credential” SERCA as a therapeutic target in cancers associated with NOTCH1 mutations. PMID:23434461

  6. Notch signaling: an emerging therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xun; Wu, Hua; Xu, Hanxiao; Xiong, Huihua; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Wu, Gen Sheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-12-01

    The Notch pathway is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. The Notch signaling pathway is one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in cancer. Alterations include activating mutations and amplification of the Notch pathway, which play key roles in the progression of cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway can overcome chemoresistance. Efforts have been taken to develop Notch inhibitors as a single agent or in combination with clinically used chemotherapeutics to treat cancer. Some Notch inhibitors have been demonstrated to have therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies. This review summarizes the recent studies and clinical evaluations of the Notch inhibitors in cancer. PMID:26341688

  7. From Fly Wings to Targeted Cancer Therapies: A Centennial for Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Lim, Jing Shan; Sage, Julien; Aifantis, Iannis

    2014-01-01

    Since Notch phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster were identified 100 years, Notch signaling has been extensively characterized as a regulator of cell fate decisions in a variety of organisms and tissues. However, in the past 20 years, accumulating evidence has linked alterations in the Notch pathway to tumorigenesis. In this Perspective, we discuss the pro-tumorigenic and tumor suppressive functions of Notch signaling and dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie these functions in hematopoietic cancers and solid tumors. Finally, we link these mechanisms and observations to possible therapeutic strategies targeting the Notch pathway in human cancers. PMID:24651013

  8. Preclinical profile of a potent gamma-secretase inhibitor targeting notch signaling with in vivo efficacy and pharmacodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Luistro, Leopoldo; He, Wei; Smith, Melissa; Packman, Kathryn; Vilenchik, Maria; Carvajal, Daisy; Roberts, John; Cai, James; Berkofsky-Fessler, Windy; Hilton, Holly; Linn, Michael; Flohr, Alexander; Jakob-Røtne, Roland; Jacobsen, Helmut; Glenn, Kelli; Heimbrook, David; Boylan, John F

    2009-10-01

    Notch signaling is an area of great interest in oncology. RO4929097 is a potent and selective inhibitor of gamma-secretase, producing inhibitory activity of Notch signaling in tumor cells. The RO4929097 IC50 in cell-free and cellular assays is in the low nanomolar range with >100-fold selectivity with respect to 75 other proteins of various types (receptors, ion channels, and enzymes). RO4929097 inhibits Notch processing in tumor cells as measured by the reduction of intracellular Notch expression by Western blot. This leads to reduced expression of the Notch transcriptional target gene Hes1. RO4929097 does not block tumor cell proliferation or induce apoptosis but instead produces a less transformed, flattened, slower-growing phenotype. RO4929097 is active following oral dosing. Antitumor activity was shown in 7 of 8 xenografts tested on an intermittent or daily schedule in the absence of body weight loss or Notch-related toxicities. Importantly, efficacy is maintained after dosing is terminated. Angiogenesis reverse transcription-PCR array data show reduced expression of several key angiogenic genes. In addition, comparative microarray analysis suggests tumor cell differentiation as an additional mode of action. These preclinical results support evaluation of RO4929097 in clinical studies using an intermittent dosing schedule. A multicenter phase I dose escalation study in oncology is under way. PMID:19773430

  9. Targeting Notch degradation system provides promise for breast cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Shen, Jia-Xin; Wen, Xiao-Fen; Guo, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Notch receptor signaling pathways play an important role, not only in normal breast development but also in breast cancer development and progression. As a group of ligand-induced proteins, different subtypes of mammalian Notch (Notch1-4) are sensitive to subtle changes in protein levels. Thus, a clear understanding of mechanisms of Notch protein turnover is essential for understanding normal and pathological mechanisms of Notch functions. It has been suggested that there is a close relationship between the carcinogenesis and the dysregulation of Notch degradation. However, this relationship remains mostly undefined in the context of breast cancer, as protein degradation is mediated by numerous signaling pathways as well as certain molecule modulators (activators/inhibitors). In this review, we summarize the published data regarding the regulation of Notch family member degradation in breast cancer, while emphasizing areas that are likely to provide new therapeutic modalities for mechanism-based anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27263934

  10. WNT antagonist, DKK2, is a Notch signaling target in intestinal stem cells: augmentation of a negative regulation system for canonical WNT signaling pathway by the Notch-DKK2 signaling loop in primates.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Notch and WNT signaling pathways are key components of the stem cell signaling network. Canonical WNT signaling to intestinal progenitor cells leads to transcriptional activation of the JAG1 gene, encoding Serrate-type Notch ligand. JAG1 then binds to the Notch receptor on adjacent stem cells to induce Notch receptor proteolyses for the release of Notch intracellular domain (NICD). NICD is associated with CSL/RBPSUH and Mastermind (MAML1, MAML2, or MAML3) to activate Notch target genes, such as HES1 and HES5. Although WNT-dependent Notch signaling activation in intestinal stem cells is clarified, the effects of Notch signaling activation on WNT signaling in progenitor cells remain unclear. We searched for Notch-response element (NRE) in the promoter region of genes encoding secreted WNT signaling inhibitors, including DKK1, DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1. Double NREs were identified within human DKK2 promoter by bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). The human DKK2 gene was characterized as Notch signaling target in intestinal stem cells. Because DKK2 is a key player in the stem cell signaling network, the DKK2 gene at human chromosome 4q25 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene inactivated due to epigenetic silencing and/or deletion. The chimpanzee DKK2 gene was identified within the NW_105990.1 genome sequence, while the cow Dkk2 gene was identified within the AC156664.2 and AC158038.2 genome sequences. Chimpanzee DKK2 and cow Dkk2 showed 98.5% and 95.8% total-amino-acid identity with human DKK2, respectively. Double NREs in human DKK2 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee DKK2 promoter, partially in rat Dkk2 promoter, but not in cow and mouse Dkk2 promoters. The Notch-DKK2 signaling loop, created or potentiated in primates, was complementary to WNT-DKK1 and BMP-IHH-SFRP1 signaling loops for negative regulation of canonical WNT signaling pathway. Together, these facts indicate that DKK2 promoter evolution resulted in the

  11. Notch signaling deregulation in multiple myeloma: A rational molecular target

    PubMed Central

    Garavelli, Silvia; Platonova, Natalia; Paoli, Alessandro; Basile, Andrea; Taiana, Elisa; Neri, Antonino; Chiaramonte, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma (MM) is still an incurable neoplasia due to intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapy. Myeloma cell localization in the bone marrow milieu allows direct interactions between tumor cells and non-tumor bone marrow cells which promote neoplastic cell growth, survival, bone disease, acquisition of drug resistance and consequent relapse. Twenty percent of MM patients are at high-risk of treatment failure as defined by tumor markers or presentation as plasma cell leukemia. Cumulative evidences indicate a key role of Notch signaling in multiple myeloma onset and progression. Unlike other Notch-related malignancies, where the majority of patients carry gain-of-function mutations in Notch pathway members, in MM cell Notch signaling is aberrantly activated due to an increased expression of Notch receptors and ligands; notably, this also results in the activation of Notch signaling in surrounding stromal cells which contributes to myeloma cell proliferation, survival and migration, as well as to bone disease and intrinsic and acquired pharmacological resistance. Here we review the last findings on the mechanisms and the effects of Notch signaling dysregulation in MM and provide a rationale for a therapeutic strategy aiming at inhibiting Notch signaling, along with a complete overview on the currently available Notch-directed approaches. PMID:26308486

  12. Notch and the Skeleton▿

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Notch receptors are transmembrane receptors that regulate cell fate decisions. There are four Notch receptors in mammals. Upon binding to members of the Delta and Jagged family of transmembrane proteins, Notch is cleaved and the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) is released. NICD then translocates to the nucleus, where it associates with the CBF-1, Suppressor of Hairless, and Lag-2 (CSL) and Mastermind-Like (MAML) proteins. This complex activates the transcription of Notch target genes, such as Hairy Enhancer of Split (Hes) and Hes-related with YRPF motif (Hey). Notch signaling is critical for the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Misexpression of Notch in skeletal tissue indicates a role as an inhibitor of skeletal development and postnatal bone formation. Overexpression of Notch inhibits endochondral bone formation and osteoblastic differentiation, causing severe osteopenia. Conditional inactivation of Notch in the skeleton causes an increase in cancellous bone volume and enhanced osteoblastic differentiation. Notch ligands are expressed in the hematopoietic stem cell niche and are critical for the regulation of hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is the underlying cause of diseases affecting the skeletal tissue, including Alagille syndrome, spondylocostal dysostosis, and possibly, osteosarcoma. PMID:19995916

  13. Overexpression of miR-34c inhibits high glucose-induced apoptosis in podocytes by targeting Notch signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Lian-Yun; Zhu, Tie-Chui; Zhang, Rui-Fang; Wang, Shu-Long; Bao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that microRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. miR-34c has been found to inhibit fibrosis and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of kidney cells. However, the role of miR-34c in diabetic nephropathy has not been well studied. The current study was designed to investigate the role and potential underlying mechanism of miR-34c in regulating diabetic nephropathy. After treating podocytes with high glucose (HG) in vitro, we found that miR-34c was downregulated and that overexpression of miR-34c inhibited HG-induced podocyte apoptosis. The direct interaction between miR-34c and the 3’-untranslated region (UTR) of Notch1 and Jagged1 was validated by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, Notch1 and Jagged1 as putative targets of miR-34c were downregulated by miR-34c overexpression in HG-treated podocytes. Overexpression of miR-34c inhibited HG-induced Notch signaling pathway activation, as indicated by decreased expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and downstream genes including Hes1 and Hey1. Furthermore, miR-34c overexpression increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, and decreased the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and cleaved Caspase-3. Additionally, the phosphorylation of p53 was also downregulated by miR-34c overexpression. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-34c overexpression inhibits the Notch signaling pathway by targeting Notch1 and Jaggged1 in HG-treated podocytes, representing a novel and potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26191142

  14. Correlation of Notch1/Hes1 Genes Expression Levels in Egyptian Paediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed and Persistent Primary Immune(Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Gawdat, Rania Mohsen; Hammam, Amira Ahmed; Ezzat, Dina Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Notch signalling is involved in the development of several autoimmune diseases, one of such diseases is ITP. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the expression levels of Notch1 receptor and its target Hes1 gene in Egyptian paediatric ITP patients. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse the expression levels of Notch1 and Hes1 in 42 children with primary ITP (22 newly diagnosed and 20 persistent) cases. Twenty age and sex matched non-ITP controls were included. The expression levels of Notch1 were higher in newly diagnosed and persistent cases than controls with high statistical significant difference (P value < 0.001, P < 0.001) respectively, similarly as regards the expression levels of HES1 (P value < 0.001, P < 0.007) respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Notch1 and Hes1 expression levels in newly diagnosed cases (r = 0.587, P value = 0.004). There was an association between levels of both genes in most of ITP patients but Hes1 was markedly elevated than Notch1 in few cases. High expression levels of Notch1/Hes1 indicated the important role of Notch signalling in both newly diagnosed and persistent ITP. High expression levels of Hes1 than Notch1 may shed light on its value as a therapeutic target for future research in ITP. PMID:27429531

  15. Notch signaling represses GATA4-induced expression of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    George, Rajani M; Hahn, Katherine L; Rawls, Alan; Viger, Robert S; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne

    2015-10-01

    Notch2 and Notch3 and genes of the Notch signaling network are dynamically expressed in developing follicles, where they are essential for granulosa cell proliferation and meiotic maturation. Notch receptors, ligands, and downstream effector genes are also expressed in testicular Leydig cells, predicting a potential role in regulating steroidogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine if Notch signaling in small follicles regulates the proliferation response of granulosa cells to FSH and represses the up-regulation steroidogenic gene expression that occurs in response to FSH as the follicle grows. Inhibition of Notch signaling in small preantral follicles led to the up-regulation of the expression of genes in the steroid biosynthetic pathway. Similarly, progesterone secretion by MA-10 Leydig cells was significantly inhibited by constitutively active Notch. Together, these data indicated that Notch signaling inhibits steroidogenesis. GATA4 has been shown to be a positive regulator of steroidogenic genes, including STAR protein, P450 aromatase, and 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We observed that Notch downstream effectors HEY1, HEY2, and HEYL are able to differentially regulate these GATA4-dependent promoters. These data are supported by the presence of HEY/HES binding sites in these promoters. These studies indicate that Notch signaling has a role in the complex regulation of the steroidogenic pathway. PMID:26183893

  16. Notch1 targeting siRNA delivery nanoparticles for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ju; Park, Jong-Sung; Lee, So Jin; Jang, Jiyeon; Park, Jin Su; Back, Seung Hyun; Bahn, Gahee; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-10-28

    Notch pathway plays a pivotal role in synoviocytes involved in progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we designed the Notch1 targeting siRNA delivery nanoparticles (siRNA-NPs) in order to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. The siRNA-NPs were successfully produced by encapsulating polymerized siRNA (poly-siRNA) into thiolated glycol chitosan (tGC) nanoparticles in aqueous condition. The in vitro Notch1 inhibition of siRNA-NPs in murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) was confirmed using confocal microscopy and real time PCR. Fluorescently labeled siRNA-NPs were successfully transfected in RAW 264.7 and modulated the expression of Notch1 in mRNA level. For in vivo study, siRNA-NPs exhibited the higher targeting efficiency in the arthritic joins of CIA mice, confirmed by the near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch1 with siRNA-NPs resulted in retarded progression of inflammation, bone erosion, and cartilage damage in CIA mice. Novel Notch1 targeting siRNA delivery system of siRNA-NPs showed effective RA treatment by suppressing Notch1 signaling pathway without undesirable severe toxicity. Thus, Notch1 inhibiting siRNA-NPs demonstrated the great potential in RA therapeutics that was hard to be achieved using conventional drugs. PMID:26282098

  17. Notch-1 inhibition by Withaferin-A: a therapeutic target against colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koduru, Srinivas; Kumar, Raj; Srinivasan, Sowmyalakshmi; Evers, Mark B; Damodaran, Chendil

    2011-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in the development of colon cancer; targeting the Notch pathway may sensitize colon cancers to various adjuvant agents. The focus of our current study is to identify natural compounds that target Notch signaling and that might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of colon cancer. Withaferin-A (WA) is a bioactive compound derived from Withania somnifera, which inhibits Notch-1 signaling and downregulates pro-survival pathways, such as Akt/NF-κB/Bcl-2, in three colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116, SW-480 and SW-620). In addition, WA downregulated expression of mTOR signaling components, pS6K and p4E-BP1 and activated JNK-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells. We also established the molecular link between Notch/Akt/mTOR signaling by complementary approaches (i.e., overexpression of Notch-1 or inhibition of Notch-1 by siRNA). Our results suggest that WA inhibits Notch-mediated pro-survival signaling, which facilitates JNK mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. These results underscore the anti-cancer activity of WA, which exhibits potential for further development for targeted chemotherapy and/or chemoprevention strategies in the context of colon cancer. PMID:20053782

  18. Notch inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells by targeting Twist1.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Xu, Ying; Fu, Qin; Chang, Martin; Wang, Yongjun; Shang, Xifu; Wan, Chao; Marymont, John V; Dong, Yufeng

    2015-03-01

    While Notch signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of cartilage formation, its downstream targets are unknown. To address this we performed gain and losses of function experiments and demonstrate that Notch inhibition of chondrogenesis acts via up-regulation of the transcription factor Twist1. Upon Notch activation, murine limb bud mesenchymal progenitor cells in micromass culture displayed an inhibition of chondrogenesis. Twist1 was found to be exclusively expressed in mesenchymal progenitor cells at the onset stage of chondrogenesis during Notch activation. Inhibition of Notch signaling in these cells significantly reduced protein expression of Twist1. Furthermore, the inhibition effect of NICD1 on MPC chondrogenesis was markedly reduced by knocking down of Twist1. Constitutively active Notch signaling significantly enhanced Twist1 promoter activity; whereas mutation studies indicated that a putative NICD/RBPjK binding element in the promoter region is required for the Notch-responsiveness of the Twist1 promoter. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further confirmed that the Notch intracellular domain influences Twist1 by directly binding to the Twist1 promoter. These data provide a novel insight into understanding the molecular mechanisms behind Notch inhibition of the onset of chondrogenesis. PMID:25596548

  19. The Notch Ligand Jagged1 as a Target for Anti-Tumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Demin; Masiero, Massimo; Banham, Alison H.; Harris, Adrian L.

    2014-01-01

    The Notch pathway is increasingly attracting attention as a source of therapeutic targets for cancer. Ligand-induced Notch signaling has been implicated in various aspects of cancer biology; as a consequence, pan-Notch inhibitors and therapeutic antibodies targeting one or more of the Notch receptors have been investigated for cancer therapy. Alternatively, Notch ligands provide attractive options for therapy in cancer treatment due to their more restricted expression and better-defined functions, as well as their low rate of mutations in cancer. One of the Notch ligands, Jagged1 (JAG1), is overexpressed in many cancer types, and plays an important role in several aspects of tumor biology. In fact, JAG1-stimulated Notch activation is directly implicated in tumor growth through maintaining cancer stem cell populations, promoting cell survival, inhibiting apoptosis, and driving cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, JAG1 can indirectly affect cancer by influencing tumor microenvironment components such as tumor vasculature and immune cell infiltration. This article gives an overview of JAG1 and its role in tumor biology, and its potential as a therapeutic target. PMID:25309874

  20. NOTCH1 Regulates Matrix Gla Protein and Calcification Gene Networks in Human Valve Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Mark P.; Theodoris, Christina V.; Liu, Lei; Collins, William J.; Blue, Kathleen W.; Lee, Joon Ho; Meng, Xianzhong; Robbins, Robert C.; Ivey, Kathryn N.; Srivastava, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Valvular and vascular calcification are common causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Developing effective treatments requires understanding the molecular underpinnings of these processes. Shear stress is thought to play a role in inhibiting calcification. Furthermore, NOTCH1 regulates vascular and valvular endothelium, and human mutations in NOTCH1 can cause calcific aortic valve disease. Here, we determined the genome-wide impact of altering shear stress and NOTCH signaling on aortic valve endothelium. mRNA-sequencing of human aortic valve endothelial cells (HAVECs) with or without knockdown of NOTCH1, in the presence or absence of shear stress, revealed NOTCH1-dependency of the atherosclerosis-related gene connexin 40 (GJA5), and numerous repressors of endochondral ossification. Among these, Matrix GLA Protein (MGP) is highly expressed in aortic valve and vasculature, and inhibits soft tissue calcification by sequestering bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Altering NOTCH1 levels affected MGP mRNA and protein in HAVECs. Furthermore, shear stress activated NOTCH signaling and MGP in a NOTCH1-dependent manner. NOTCH1 positively regulated endothelial MGP in vivo through specific binding motifs upstream of MGP. Our studies suggest that shear stress activates NOTCH1 in primary human aortic valve endothelial cells leading to downregulation of osteoblast-like gene networks that play a role in tissue calcification. PMID:25871831

  1. Quinomycin A targets Notch signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Dandawate, Prasad R; Dhar, Animesh; Tawfik, Ossama W; Parab, Rajashri R; Mishra, Prabhu Dutt; Ranadive, Prafull; Sharma, Rajiv; Mahajan, Girish; Umar, Shahid; Weir, Scott J; Sugumar, Aravind; Jensen, Roy A; Padhye, Subhash B; Balakrishnan, Arun; Anant, Shrikant; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam

    2016-01-19

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) appear to explain many aspects of the neoplastic evolution of tumors and likely account for enhanced therapeutic resistance following treatment. Dysregulated Notch signaling, which affects CSCs plays an important role in pancreatic cancer progression. We have determined the ability of Quinomycin to inhibit CSCs and the Notch signaling pathway. Quinomycin treatment resulted in significant inhibition of proliferation and colony formation in pancreatic cancer cell lines, but not in normal pancreatic epithelial cells. Moreover, Quinomycin affected pancreatosphere formation. The compound also decreased the expression of CSC marker proteins DCLK1, CD44, CD24 and EPCAM. In addition, flow cytometry studies demonstrated that Quinomycin reduced the number of DCLK1+ cells. Furthermore, levels of Notch 1-4 receptors, their ligands Jagged1, Jagged2, DLL1, DLL3, DLL4 and the downstream target protein Hes-1 were reduced. The γ-secretase complex proteins, Presenilin 1, Nicastrin, Pen2, and APH-1, required for Notch activation also exhibited decreased expression. Ectopic expression of the Notch Intracellular Domain (NICD) partially rescued the cells from Quinomycin mediated growth suppression. To determine the effect of Quinomycin on tumor growth in vivo, nude mice carrying tumor xenografts were administered Quinomycin intraperitoneally every day for 21 days. Treatment with the compound significantly inhibited tumor xenograft growth, coupled with significant reduction in the expression of CSC markers and Notch signaling proteins. Together, these data suggest that Quinomycin is a potent inhibitor of pancreatic cancer that targets the stem cells by inhibiting Notch signaling proteins. PMID:26673007

  2. miR-935 suppresses gastric signet ring cell carcinoma tumorigenesis by targeting Notch1 expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Yu, Jianchun; Kang, Weiming; Liu, Yuqin; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Li

    2016-01-29

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRCC) is a unique pathological type of gastric carcinoma that is extremely invasive and has a poor prognosis. Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been closely linked to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer and has been considered as a powerful prognostic marker. The function of miR-935 has never been reported in cancer before. We found, using microRNA array, that expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell lines is lower than in non-GSRCC cell lines, and enhanced expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell-lines inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We also identified Notch1 as a direct target of miR-935. Knockdown of Notch1 reduced proliferation, migration/invasion of GSRCC cells, and overexpression Notch1's activated form (Notch intracellular domain) could rescue miR-935's tumor suppressive effect on GSRCC. Expression of miR-935 was lower in gastric carcinoma tissue than in paired normal tissue samples, and lower in GSRCC than in non-GSRCC. Our results demonstrate the inverse correlation between the expression of miR-935 and Notch1 in gastric tissues. We conclude that miR-935 inhibits gastric carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting Notch1, suggesting potential applications of the miR-935-Notch1 pathway in gastric cancer clinical diagnosis and therapeutics, especially in gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. PMID:26742429

  3. Targeting notch pathway enhances rapamycin antitumor activity in pancreas cancers through PTEN phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreas cancer is one of most aggressive human cancers with the survival rate for patients with metastatic pancreas cancer at 5-6 months. The poor survival demonstrates a clear need for better target identification, drug development and new therapeutic strategies. Recent discoveries have shown that the role for Notch pathway is important in both development and cancer. Its contribution to oncogenesis also involves crosstalks with other growth factor pathways, such as Akt and its modulator, PTEN. The mounting evidence supporting a role for Notch in cancer promotion and survival suggests that targeting this pathway alone or in combination with other therapeutics represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Results Using a pancreas cancer tissue microarray, we noted that Jagged1, Notch3 and Notch4 are overexpressed in pancreas tumors (26%, 84% and 31% respectively), whereas Notch1 is expressed in blood vessels. While there was no correlation between Notch receptor expression and survival, stage or tumor grade, Notch3 was associated with Jagged1 and EGFR expression, suggesting a unique relationship between Notch3 and Jagged1. Inhibition of the Notch pathway genetically and with gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) resulted in tumor suppression and enhanced cell death. The observed anti-tumor activity appeared to be through Akt and modulation of PTEN phosphorylation. We discovered that transcriptional regulation of RhoA by Notch is important for PTEN phosphorylation. Finally, the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin enhanced the effect of GSI on RhoA expression, resulting in down regulation of phospho-Akt and increased in vitro tumor cytotoxity. Conclusions Notch pathway plays an important role in maintaining pancreas tumor phenotype. Targeting this pathway represents a reasonable strategy for the treatment of pancreas cancers. Notch modulates the Akt pathway through regulation of PTEN phosphorylation, an observation that has not been made previously. Furthermore, we

  4. Dissecting the mechanisms of Notch induced hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Djiane, Alexandre; Krejci, Alena; Bernard, Frédéric; Fexova, Silvie; Millen, Katherine; Bray, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the Notch pathway on proliferation depends on cellular context, being growth promotion in some, including several cancers, and growth inhibition in others. Such disparate outcomes are evident in Drosophila wing discs, where Notch overactivation causes hyperplasia despite having localized inhibitory effects on proliferation. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we have used genomic strategies to identify the Notch-CSL target genes directly activated during wing disc hyperplasia. Among them were genes involved in both autonomous and non-autonomous regulation of proliferation, growth and cell death, providing molecular explanations for many characteristics of Notch induced wing disc hyperplasia previously reported. The Notch targets exhibit different response patterns, which are shaped by both positive and negative feed-forward regulation between the Notch targets themselves. We propose, therefore, that both the characteristics of the direct Notch targets and their cross-regulatory relationships are important in coordinating the pattern of hyperplasia. PMID:23232763

  5. Notch promotes recurrence of dormant tumor cells following HER2/neu-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Abravanel, Daniel L; Belka, George K; Pan, Tien-chi; Pant, Dhruv K; Collins, Meredith A; Sterner, Christopher J; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer mortality is principally due to recurrent tumors that arise from a reservoir of residual tumor cells that survive therapy. Remarkably, breast cancers can recur after extended periods of clinical remission, implying that at least some residual tumor cells pass through a dormant phase prior to relapse. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that contribute to breast cancer recurrence are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of recurrent mammary tumorigenesis in combination with bioinformatics analyses of breast cancer patients, we have identified a role for Notch signaling in mammary tumor dormancy and recurrence. Specifically, we found that Notch signaling is acutely upregulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu pathway inhibition, that Notch signaling remains activated in a subset of dormant residual tumor cells that persist following HER2/neu downregulation, that activation of Notch signaling accelerates tumor recurrence, and that inhibition of Notch signaling by either genetic or pharmacological approaches impairs recurrence in mice. Consistent with these findings, meta-analysis of microarray data from over 4,000 breast cancer patients revealed that elevated Notch pathway activity is independently associated with an increased rate of recurrence. Together, these results implicate Notch signaling in tumor recurrence from dormant residual tumor cells and provide evidence that dormancy is a targetable stage of breast cancer progression. PMID:25961456

  6. Targeting atypical protein kinase C iota reduces viability in glioblastoma stem-like cells via a notch signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Emma; Lang, Verena; Bohlen, Jonathan; Bethke, Frederic; Puccio, Laura; Tichy, Diana; Herold-Mende, Christel; Hielscher, Thomas; Lichter, Peter; Goidts, Violaine

    2016-10-15

    In a previous study, Protein Kinase C iota (PRKCI) emerged as an important candidate gene for glioblastoma (GBM) stem-like cell (GSC) survival. Here, we show that PKCι is overexpressed and activated in patient derived GSCs compared with normal neural stem cells and normal brain lysate, and that silencing of PRKCI in GSCs causes apoptosis, along with loss of clonogenicity and reduced proliferation. Notably, PRKCI silencing reduces tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. PKCι has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer, resulting in the identification of an inhibitor, aurothiomalate (ATM), which disrupts the PKCι/ERK signaling axis. However, we show that, although sensitive to pharmacological inhibition via a pseudosubstrate peptide inhibitor, GSCs are much less sensitive to ATM, suggesting that PKCι acts along a different signaling axis in GSCs. Gene expression profiling of PRKCI-silenced GSCs revealed a novel role of the Notch signaling pathway in PKCι mediated GSC survival. A proximity ligation assay showed that Notch1 and PKCι are in close proximity in GSCs. Targeting PKCι in the context of Notch signaling could be an effective way of attacking the GSC population in GBM. PMID:27299852

  7. Notch signaling and proneural genes work together to control the neural building blocks for the initial scaffold in the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Michelle; Hamdi-Rozé, Houda; Dupé, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate embryonic prosencephalon gives rise to the hypothalamus, which plays essential roles in sensory information processing as well as control of physiological homeostasis and behavior. While patterning of the hypothalamus has received much attention, initial neurogenesis in the developing hypothalamus has mostly been neglected. The first differentiating progenitor cells of the hypothalamus will give rise to neurons that form the nucleus of the tract of the postoptic commissure (nTPOC) and the nucleus of the mammillotegmental tract (nMTT). The formation of these neuronal populations has to be highly controlled both spatially and temporally as these tracts will form part of the ventral longitudinal tract (VLT) and act as a scaffold for later, follower axons. This review will cumulate and summarize the existing data available describing initial neurogenesis in the vertebrate hypothalamus. It is well-known that the Notch signaling pathway through the inhibition of proneural genes is a key regulator of neurogenesis in the vertebrate central nervous system. It has only recently been proposed that loss of Notch signaling in the developing chick embryo causes an increase in the number of neurons in the hypothalamus, highlighting an early function of the Notch pathway during hypothalamus formation. Further analysis in the chick and mouse hypothalamus confirms the expression of Notch components and Ascl1 before the appearance of the first differentiated neurons. Many newly identified proneural target genes were also found to be expressed during neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus. Given the critical role that hypothalamic neural circuitry plays in maintaining homeostasis, it is particularly important to establish the targets downstream of this Notch/proneural network. PMID:25520625

  8. Multifunctional Core/Shell Nanoparticles Cross-linked Polyetherimide-folic Acid as Efficient Notch-1 siRNA Carrier for Targeted Killing of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Li, Ying; Li, Tingting; Xu, Min; Chen, Yin; Wu, Chunhui; Dang, Xitong; Liu, Yiyao

    2014-01-01

    In gene therapy, how genetic therapeutics can be efficiently and safely delivered into target tissues/cells remains a major obstacle to overcome. To address this issue, nanoparticles consisting of non-covalently coupled polyethyleneimine (PEI) and folic acid (FA) to the magnetic and fluorescent core/shell of Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC) was tested for their ability to deliver Notch-1 shRNA. Our results showed that Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA/Notch-1 shRNA nanoparticles are 64 nm in diameter with well dispersed and superparamagnetic. These nanoparticles with on significant cytotoxicity are capable of delivering Notch-1 shRNA into human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells with high efficiency while effectively protected shRNA from degradation by exogenous DNaseI and nucleases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorescence microscopy showed significant preferential uptake of Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA/Notch-1 shRNA nanocomplex by MDA-MB-231 cells. Transfected MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited significantly decreased expression of Notch-1, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis, leading to the killing of MDA-MB-231 cells. In light of the magnetic targeting capabilities of Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA, our results show that by complexing with a second molecular targeting therapeutic, such as Notch-1 shRNA in this report, Fe3O4@SiO2(FITC)/PEI-FA can be exploited as a novel, non-viral, and concurrent targeting delivery system for targeted gene therapy as well as for MR imaging in cancer diagnosis. PMID:25400232

  9. NOTCH1 inhibition enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents by targeting head neck cancer stem cell

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Cong-Fa; Ma, Si-Rui; Bu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Yu, Guang-Tao; Liu, Bing; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered responsible for tumor initiation and chemoresistance. This study was aimed to investigate the possibility of targeting head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by NOTCH1 pathway inhibition and explore the synergistic effect of combining NOTCH inhibition with conventional chemotherapy. NOTCH1/HES1 elevation was found in human HNSCC, especially in tissue post chemotherapy and lymph node metastasis, which is correlated with CSCs markers. NOTCH1 inhibitor DAPT (GSI-IX) significantly reduces CSCs population and tumor self-renewal ability in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry analysis showed that NOTCH1 inhibition reduces CSCs frequency either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, namely, cisplatin, docetaxel, and 5-fluorouracil. The combined strategy of NOTCH1 blockade and chemotherapy synergistically attenuated chemotherapy-enriched CSC population, promising a potential therapeutic exploitation in future clinical trial. PMID:27108536

  10. Synchronized Targeting of Notch and ERBB Signaling Suppresses Melanoma Tumor Growth through Inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keman; Wong, Poki; Salvaggio, Christine; Salhi, Amel; Osman, Iman; Bedogni, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant advances in melanoma therapy, melanoma remains the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a 5-year survival rate of only 15%. Thus, novel treatments are required to address this disease. Notch and ERBB are evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades required for the maintenance of melanocyte precursors. We show that active Notch1 (Notch1(NIC)) and active (phosphorylated) ERBB3 and ERBB2 correlate significantly and are similarly expressed in both mutated and wild-type BRAF melanomas, suggesting these receptors are co-reactivated in melanoma to promote survival. Whereas blocking either pathway triggers modest effects, combining a ?-secretase inhibitor to block Notch activation and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to inhibit ERBB3/2 elicits synergistic effects, reducing cell viability by 90% and hampering melanoma tumor growth. Specific inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3 mimics these results, suggesting these are the critical factors triggering melanoma tumor expansion. Notch and ERBB inhibition blunts AKT and NF?B signaling. Constitutive expression of NF?B partially rescues cell death. Blockade of both Notch and ERBB signaling inhibits the slow cycling JARID1B-positive cell population, which is critical for long-term maintenance of melanoma growth. We propose that blocking these pathways is an effective approach to treatment of melanoma patients regardless of whether they carry mutated or wild-type BRAF. PMID:26967479

  11. Synchronized targeting of Notch and ERBB signaling suppresses melanoma tumor growth through inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Keman; Wong, Poki; Salvaggio, Christine; Salhi, Amel; Osman, Iman; Bedogni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advances in melanoma therapy, melanoma remains the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a five-year survival of only 15%. Novel treatments are therefore required to address this disease. Notch and ERBB are evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades required for the maintenance of melanocyte precursors. We show that active Notch1 (Notch1NIC) and active (phosphorylated) ERBB3 and ERBB2 correlate significantly and are similarly expressed in both mutated and wild type BRAF melanomas, suggesting these receptors are co-reactivated in melanoma to promote survival. Indeed, while blocking either pathway triggers modest effects, combining a γ-secretase inhibitor to block Notch activation, and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to inhibit ERBB3/2 elicits synergistic effects, reducing cell viability by 90% and by hampering melanoma tumor growth. Specific inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3 mimics these results, suggesting these are the critical factors triggering melanoma tumor expansion. Notch and ERBB inhibition blunts AKT and NFκB signaling; Constitutive expression of NFκB partially rescues cell death. Finally, blockade of both Notch and ERBB signaling inhibits the slow cycling JARID1B positive cell population, which is critical for long-term maintenance of melanoma growth. We propose that blocking these pathways is an effective approach to treat melanoma patients regardless of whether they carry mutated or wild type BRAF. PMID:26967479

  12. Two novel mutations and a previously unreported intronic polymorphism in the NOTCH3 gene.

    PubMed

    Roy, B; Maksemous, N; Smith, R A; Menon, S; Davies, G; Griffiths, L R

    2012-04-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary disease of small vessel caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene (NCBI Gene ID: 4854) located on chromosome 19p13.1. NOTCH3 consists of 33 exons which encode a protein of 2321 amino acids. Exons 3 and 4 were found to be mutation hotspots, containing more than 65% of all CADASIL mutations. We performed direct sequencing on an ABI 3130 Genetic Analyser to screen for mutations and polymorphisms on 300 patients who were clinically suspected to have CADASIL. First, exons 3 and 4 were screened in NOTCH3 and if there were no variations found, then extended CADASIL testing (exons 2, 11, 18 and 19) was offered to patients. Here we report two novel non-synonymous mutations identified in the NOTCH3 gene. The first mutation, located in exon 4 was found in a 49-year-old female and causes an alanine to valine amino acid change at position 202 (605C>T). The second mutation, located in exon 11, was found in a 66-year-old female and causes a cysteine to arginine amino acid change at position 579 (1735T>C). We also report a 46-year-old male with a known polymorphism Thr101Thr (rs3815188) and an unreported polymorphism NM_000435.2:c.679+60G>A observed in intron 4 of the NOTCH3 gene. Although Ala202Ala (rs1043994) is a common polymorphism in the NOTCH3 gene, our reported novel mutation (Ala202Val) causes an amino acid change at the same locus. Our other reported mutation (Cys579Arg) correlates well with other known mutations in NOTCH3, as the majority of the CADASIL-associated mutations in NOTCH3 generally occur in the EGF-like (epidermal growth factor-like) repeat domain, causing a change in the number of cysteine residues. The intronic polymorphism NM_000435.2:c.679+60G>A lies close to the intron-exon boundary and may affect the splicing mechanism in the NOTCH3 gene. PMID:22373597

  13. Notch signaling in skeletal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Notch receptors are single-pass transmembrane proteins that determine cell fate. Upon Notch ligand interactions, proteolytic cleavages release the Notch intracellular domain, which translocates to the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes, including Hairy enhancer of split (Hes) and Hes related to YRPW motif (Hey). Notch is critical for skeletal development and activity of skeletal cells, and dysregulation of Notch signaling is associated with human diseases affecting the skeleton. Inherited or sporadic mutations in components of the Notch signaling pathway are associated with spondylocostal dysostosis, spondylothoracic dysostosis and recessive brachydactyly, diseases characterized by skeletal patterning defects. Inactivating mutations of the Notch ligand JAG1 or of NOTCH2 are associated with Alagille syndrome, and activating mutations in NOTCH2 are associated with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS). Individuals affected by HCS exhibit osteolysis in distal phalanges and osteoporosis. NOTCH is activated in selected tumors, such as osteosarcoma, and in breast cancer cells that form osteolytic bone metastases. In conclusion, Notch regulates skeletal development and bone remodeling, and gain- or loss-of-function mutations of Notch signaling result in important skeletal diseases. PMID:23554451

  14. Novel mutation of the NOTCH3 gene in a Polish family with CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Julia; Błażejewska-Hyżorek, Beata; Cudna, Agnieszka; Lusawa, Małgorzata; Lewandowska, Eliza; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Członkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small blood vessels disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 (NOTCH 3). We present a Polish family with a previously unreported novel mutation in exon 12 c.1851C>C/G of the NOTCH3 gene and varying disease expression. One of the two family members with the confirmed mutation presented with all the main CADASIL symptoms; while, his affected father was nearly asymptomatic. Both family members had epilepsy, coronary artery disease, and abdominal aorta aneurysm. Our observation confirms there is phenotypic variability in CADASIL not only between, but also within, families carrying the same mutation. PMID:27375140

  15. The Role of Notch Receptors in Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HONGFANG; ZANG, CHONGZHI; LIU, X. SHIRLEY; ASTER, JON C.

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling has pleiotropic context-specific functions that have essential roles in many processes, including embryonic development and maintenance and homeostasis of adult tissues. Aberrant Notch signaling (both hyper- and hypoactive) is implicated in a number of human developmental disorders and many cancers. Notch receptor signaling is mediated by tightly regulated proteolytic cleavages that lead to the assembly of a nuclear Notch transcription complex, which drives the expression of downstream target genes and thereby executes Notch’s functions. Thus, understanding regulation of gene expression by Notch is central to deciphering how Notch carries out its many activities. Here, we summarize the recent findings pertaining to the complex interplay between the Notch transcriptional complex and interacting factors involved in transcriptional regulation, including co-activators, cooperating transcription factors, and chromatin regulators, and discuss emerging data pertaining to the role of Notch-regulated noncoding RNAs in transcription. PMID:25418913

  16. Regulation of Nematostella neural progenitors by SoxB, Notch and bHLH genes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gemma Sian; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    Notch signalling, SoxB and Group A bHLH 'proneural' genes are conserved regulators of the neurogenic program in many bilaterians. However, the ancestry of their functions and interactions is not well understood. We address this question in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a representative of the Cnidaria, the sister clade to the Bilateria. It has previously been found that the SoxB orthologue NvSoxB(2) is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in Nematostella and promotes the development of both neurons and nematocytes, whereas Notch signalling has been implicated in the negative regulation of neurons and the positive regulation of nematocytes. Here, we clarify the role of Notch by reporting that inhibition of Notch signalling increases the numbers of both neurons and nematocytes, as well as increasing the number of NvSoxB(2)-expressing cells. This suggests that Notch restricts neurogenesis by limiting the generation of NPCs. We then characterise NvAth-like (Atonal/Neurogenin family) as a positive regulator of neurogenesis that is co-expressed with NvSoxB(2) in a subset of dividing NPCs, while we find that NvAshA (Achaete-scute family) and NvSoxB(2) are co-expressed in non-dividing cells only. Reciprocal knockdown experiments reveal a mutual requirement for NvSoxB(2) and NvAth-like in neural differentiation; however, the primary expression of each gene is independent of the other. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signalling and NvSoxB(2) regulate Nematostella neural progenitors via parallel yet interacting mechanisms; with different aspects of these interactions being shared with Drosophila and/or vertebrate neurogenesis. PMID:26443634

  17. Association of the NOTCH4 Gene Polymorphism rs204993 with Schizophrenia in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Fan, Qian Rui; Li, Wen Hao; Lu, Ning; Fu, Dong Ke; Kang, Yan Jie; Wang, Na; Li, Teng; Wen, Xiao Peng; Li, Da Xu

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH4 regulates signaling pathways associated with neuronal maturation, a process involved in the development and patterning of the central nervous system. The NOTCH4 gene has also been identified as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SCZ). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between NOTCH4 polymorphisms and SCZ in the Chinese Han population. The rs2071287 and rs204993 polymorphisms of the NOTCH4 gene were analyzed in 443 patients with SCZ and 628 controls of Han Chinese descent. Single SNP allele-, genotype-, and gender-specific associations were analyzed using different models (i.e., additive, dominant, and recessive models). This association study revealed that the rs204993 polymorphism is significantly associated with susceptibility for SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 is associated with a higher risk for SCZ (P = 0.027; OR = 1.460; 95% CI, 1.043-2.054). Our data are consistent with those obtained in previous studies that suggested that rs204993 is associated with SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 demonstrates a higher risk. Further large-scale association analyses in Han Chinese populations are warranted. PMID:26605328

  18. Integration of a Notch-dependent mesenchymal gene program and Bmp2-driven cell invasiveness regulates murine cardiac valve formation.

    PubMed

    Luna-Zurita, Luis; Prados, Belén; Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Luxán, Guillermo; del Monte, Gonzalo; Benguría, Alberto; Adams, Ralf H; Pérez-Pomares, José María; de la Pompa, José Luis

    2010-10-01

    Cardiac valve formation is crucial for embryonic and adult heart function. Valve malformations constitute the most common congenital cardiac defect, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating valve formation and homeostasis. Here, we show that endocardial Notch1 and myocardial Bmp2 signal integration establish a valve-forming field between 2 chamber developmental domains. Patterning occurs through the activation of endocardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) exclusively in prospective valve territories. Mice with constitutive endocardial Notch1 activity ectopically express Hey1 and Heyl. They also display an activated mesenchymal gene program in ventricles and a partial (noninvasive) EMT in vitro that becomes invasive upon BMP2 treatment. Snail1, TGF-β2, or Notch1 inhibition reduces BMP2-induced ventricular transformation and invasion, whereas BMP2 treatment inhibits endothelial Gsk3β, stabilizing Snail1 and promoting invasiveness. Integration of Notch and Bmp2 signals is consistent with Notch1 signaling being attenuated after myocardial Bmp2 deletion. Notch1 activation in myocardium extends Hey1 expression to nonchamber myocardium, represses Bmp2, and impairs EMT. In contrast, Notch deletion abrogates endocardial Hey gene transcription and extends Bmp2 expression to the ventricular endocardium. This embryonic Notch1-Bmp2-Snail1 relationship may be relevant in adult valve disease, in which decreased NOTCH signaling causes valve mesenchyme cell formation, fibrosis, and calcification. PMID:20890042

  19. Modulation of gene expression via overlapping binding sites exerted by ZNF143, Notch1 and THAP11.

    PubMed

    Ngondo-Mbongo, Richard Patryk; Myslinski, Evelyne; Aster, Jon C; Carbon, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    ZNF143 is a zinc-finger protein involved in the transcriptional regulation of both coding and non-coding genes from polymerase II and III promoters. Our study deciphers the genome-wide regulatory role of ZNF143 in relation with the two previously unrelated transcription factors Notch1/ICN1 and thanatos-associated protein 11 (THAP11) in several human and murine cells. We show that two distinct motifs, SBS1 and SBS2, are associated to ZNF143-binding events in promoters of >3000 genes. Without co-occupation, these sites are also bound by Notch1/ICN1 in T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells as well as by THAP11, a factor involved in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. We present evidence that ICN1 binding overlaps with ZNF143 binding events at the SBS1 and SBS2 motifs, whereas the overlap occurs only at SBS2 for THAP11. We demonstrate that the three factors modulate expression of common target genes through the mutually exclusive occupation of overlapping binding sites. The model we propose predicts that the binding competition between the three factors controls biological processes such as rapid cell growth of both neoplastic and stem cells. Overall, our study establishes a novel relationship between ZNF143, THAP11 and ICN1 and reveals important insights into ZNF143-mediated gene regulation. PMID:23408857

  20. Modulation of gene expression via overlapping binding sites exerted by ZNF143, Notch1 and THAP11

    PubMed Central

    Ngondo-Mbongo, Richard Patryk; Myslinski, Evelyne; Aster, Jon C.; Carbon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    ZNF143 is a zinc-finger protein involved in the transcriptional regulation of both coding and non-coding genes from polymerase II and III promoters. Our study deciphers the genome-wide regulatory role of ZNF143 in relation with the two previously unrelated transcription factors Notch1/ICN1 and thanatos-associated protein 11 (THAP11) in several human and murine cells. We show that two distinct motifs, SBS1 and SBS2, are associated to ZNF143-binding events in promoters of >3000 genes. Without co-occupation, these sites are also bound by Notch1/ICN1 in T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells as well as by THAP11, a factor involved in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. We present evidence that ICN1 binding overlaps with ZNF143 binding events at the SBS1 and SBS2 motifs, whereas the overlap occurs only at SBS2 for THAP11. We demonstrate that the three factors modulate expression of common target genes through the mutually exclusive occupation of overlapping binding sites. The model we propose predicts that the binding competition between the three factors controls biological processes such as rapid cell growth of both neoplastic and stem cells. Overall, our study establishes a novel relationship between ZNF143, THAP11 and ICN1 and reveals important insights into ZNF143-mediated gene regulation. PMID:23408857

  1. Epithelial expression and chromosomal location of human TLE genes: Implications for notch signaling and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanling; Dehni, Ghassan; Stifani, S.

    1996-01-01

    The TLE genes are the human homologues of Drosophila groucho, a member of the Notch signaling pathway. This pathway controls a number of different cell-fate choices in invertebrates and vertebrates. We are interested in investigating the functions of the TLE gene family during epithelial determination and carcinogenesis. We show that expression of individual TLE genes correlates with immature epithelial cells that are progressing toward their terminally differentiated state, suggesting a role during epithelial differentiation. In both normal tissues and conditions resulting from incorrect or incomplete maturation events, such as metaplastic and neoplastic transformations, TLE expression is elevated and coincides with Notch expression, implicating these molecules in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in epithelial cells. We also show that TLE1 and TLE2 are organized in a tandem array at chromosomal location 19p13.3, while TLE3 maps to 15q22. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  2. R54C Mutation of NOTCH3 Gene in the First Rungus Family with CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tan, Ai-Huey; Lim, Chun-Shen; Chua, Kek-Heng; Lee, Ping-Chin; Ramli, Norlisah; Rajahram, Giri Shan; Hussin, Fatimah Tina; Wong, Kum-Thong; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B.; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary stroke caused by mutations in NOTCH3 gene. We report the first case of CADASIL in an indigenous Rungus (Kadazan-Dusun) family in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia confirmed by a R54C (c.160C>T, p.Arg54Cys) mutation in the NOTCH3. This mutation was previously reported in a Caucasian and two Korean cases of CADASIL. We recruited two generations of the affected Rungus family (n = 9) and found a missense mutation (c.160C>T) in exon 2 of NOTCH3 in three siblings. Two of the three siblings had severe white matter abnormalities in their brain MRI (Scheltens score 33 and 50 respectively), one of whom had a young stroke at the age of 38. The remaining sibling, however, did not show any clinical features of CADASIL and had only minimal changes in her brain MRI (Scheltens score 17). This further emphasized the phenotype variability among family members with the same mutation in CADASIL. This is the first reported family with CADASIL in Rungus subtribe of Kadazan-Dusun ethnicity with a known mutation at exon 2 of NOTCH3. The penetrance of this mutation was not complete during the course of this study. PMID:26270344

  3. Stochastic Regulation of her1/7 Gene Expression Is the Source of Noise in the Zebrafish Somite Clock Counteracted by Notch Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Robert P.; Hanisch, Anja; Soza-Ried, Cristian; Sahai, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The somite segmentation clock is a robust oscillator used to generate regularly-sized segments during early vertebrate embryogenesis. It has been proposed that the clocks of neighbouring cells are synchronised via inter-cellular Notch signalling, in order to overcome the effects of noisy gene expression. When Notch-dependent communication between cells fails, the clocks of individual cells operate erratically and lose synchrony over a period of about 5 to 8 segmentation clock cycles (2–3 hours in the zebrafish). Here, we quantitatively investigate the effects of stochasticity on cell synchrony, using mathematical modelling, to investigate the likely source of such noise. We find that variations in the transcription, translation and degradation rate of key Notch signalling regulators do not explain the in vivo kinetics of desynchronisation. Rather, the analysis predicts that clock desynchronisation, in the absence of Notch signalling, is due to the stochastic dissociation of Her1/7 repressor proteins from the oscillating her1/7 autorepressed target genes. Using in situ hybridisation to visualise sites of active her1 transcription, we measure an average delay of approximately three minutes between the times of activation of the two her1 alleles in a cell. Our model shows that such a delay is sufficient to explain the in vivo rate of clock desynchronisation in Notch pathway mutant embryos and also that Notch-mediated synchronisation is sufficient to overcome this stochastic variation. This suggests that the stochastic nature of repressor/DNA dissociation is the major source of noise in the segmentation clock. PMID:26588097

  4. The Notch signaling pathway as a mediator of tumor survival

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Sharon R.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and responsible for cell fate determination in the developing embryo and mature tissue. At the molecular level, ligand binding activates Notch signaling by liberating the Notch intracellular domain, which then translocates into the nucleus and activates gene transcription. Despite the elegant simplicity of this pathway, which lacks secondary messengers or a signaling cascade, Notch regulates gene expression in a highly context- and cell-type-dependent manner. Notch signaling is frequently dysregulated, most commonly by overactivation, across many cancers and confers a survival advantage on tumors, leading to poorer outcomes for patients. Recent studies demonstrate how Notch signaling increases tumor cell proliferation and provide evidence that active Notch signaling maintains the cancer stem-cell pool, induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and promotes chemoresistance. These studies imply that pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling may refine control of cancer therapy and improve patient survival. Gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) are drugs that inhibit Notch signaling and may be successful in controlling cancer cell growth in conjunction with standard chemotherapy, but substantial side effects have hampered their widespread use. Recent efforts have been aimed at the development of antibodies against specific Notch receptors and ligands with the hope of limiting side effects while providing the same therapeutic benefit as GSIs. Together, studies characterizing Notch signaling and modulation have offered hope that refined methods targeting Notch may become powerful tools in anticancer therapeutics. PMID:23585460

  5. Gene expression analysis reveals that Delta/Notch signalling is not involved in onychophoran segmentation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2016-03-01

    Delta/Notch (Dl/N) signalling is involved in the gene regulatory network underlying the segmentation process in vertebrates and possibly also in annelids and arthropods, leading to the hypothesis that segmentation may have evolved in the last common ancestor of bilaterian animals. Because of seemingly contradicting results within the well-studied arthropods, however, the role and origin of Dl/N signalling in segmentation generally is still unclear. In this study, we investigate core components of Dl/N signalling by means of gene expression analysis in the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis, a close relative to the arthropods. We find that neither Delta or Notch nor any other investigated components of its signalling pathway are likely to be involved in segment addition in onychophorans. We instead suggest that Dl/N signalling may be involved in posterior elongation, another conserved function of these genes. We suggest further that the posterior elongation network, rather than classic Dl/N signalling, may be in the control of the highly conserved segment polarity gene network and the lower-level pair-rule gene network in onychophorans. Consequently, we believe that the pair-rule gene network and its interaction with Dl/N signalling may have evolved within the arthropod lineage and that Dl/N signalling has thus likely been recruited independently for segment addition in different phyla. PMID:26935716

  6. Notch Ankyrin Repeat Domain Variation Influences Leukemogenesis and Myc Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Bodnar, Nick; Xu, Lanwei; Karnell, Fredrick; Milholland, John M.; Maillard, Ivan; Histen, Gavin; Nam, Yunsun; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The functional interchangeability of mammalian Notch receptors (Notch1-4) in normal and pathophysiologic contexts such as cancer is unsettled. We used complementary in vivo, cell-based and structural analyses to compare the abilities of activated Notch1-4 to support T cell development, induce T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL), and maintain T-ALL cell growth and survival. Principal Findings We find that the activated intracellular domains of Notch1-4 (ICN1-4) all support T cell development in mice and thymic organ culture. However, unlike ICN1-3, ICN4 fails to induce T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) and is unable to rescue the growth of Notch1-dependent T-ALL cell lines. The ICN4 phenotype is mimicked by weak gain-of-function forms of Notch1, suggesting that it stems from a failure to transactivate one or more critical target genes above a necessary threshold. Experiments with chimeric receptors demonstrate that the Notch ankyrin repeat domains differ in their leukemogenic potential, and that this difference correlates with activation of Myc, a direct Notch target that has an important role in Notch-associated T-ALL. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the leukemogenic potentials of Notch receptors vary, and that this functional difference stems in part from divergence among the highly conserved ankyrin repeats, which influence the transactivation of specific target genes involved in leukemogenesis. PMID:22022427

  7. Notch3/Jagged1 circuitry reinforces notch signaling and sustains T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC-overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

  8. A study of the role of Notch1 and JAG1 gene methylation in development of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huapeng; Li, Kun; Shen, Shiqiang

    2016-04-01

    This study is to explore the roles of gene methylation of Notch1 and JAG1 in development of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast. Quantitative analysis the DNA methylation levels of Notch1 and JAG1 gene by the MassARRAY method in invasive ductal carcinoma of breast (IDC; n = 89), atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast (ADH; n = 11), and ordinary ductal hyperplasia of breast (UDH; n = 20). The expressions of JAG1 and Notch1 protein in four breast tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry SP method. (1) Positive expression rates of Notch1 protein in IDC and DCIS were 88.7 % (79/89) and 70.0 % (14/20), respectively, which were significantly higher than the levels in ADH (36.0 %, 4/11) and UDH (25.0 %, 5/20; P < 0.05). Notch1 protein expression was significant positively correlated with lymph node metastasis, pathological grades, and TNM stages of IDC. (2) Positive expression rates of JAG1 protein in IDC and DCIS were 89.9 % (80/89) and 75.0 % (15/20), respectively, which were significantly higher than those of ADH (45.0 %, 5/11) and UDH (30.0 %, 6/20; P < 0.05). JAG1 protein expression was significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis, pathological grades and TNM stages of IDC. There is an overall hypomethylation alteration of Notch1 and JAG gene in IDC, with corresponding over-expression of Notch1 and JAG1 protein. This inverse correlation shows that the alteration of protein expression results from hypomethylation oncogene Notch1 and JAG1, and this change may play an important role in occurrence and progression of breast cancer. PMID:26971121

  9. Targeting Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt pathways in cancer stem cells: clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Miele, Lucio; Harris, Pamela Jo; Jeong, Woondong; Bando, Hideaki; Kahn, Michael; Yang, Sherry X.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been increasingly identified in many malignancies. Although the origin and plasticity of these cells remain controversial, tumour heterogeneity and the presence of small populations of cells with stem-like characteristics is established in most malignancies. CSCs display many features of embryonic or tissue stem cells, and typically demonstrate persistent activation of one or more highly conserved signal transduction pathways involved in development and tissue homeostasis, including the Notch, Hedgehog (HH), and Wnt pathways. CSCs generally have slow growth rates and are resistant to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Thus, new treatment strategies targeting these pathways to control stem-cell replication, survival and differentiation are under development. Herein, we provide an update on the latest advances in the clinical development of such approaches, and discuss strategies for overcoming CSC-associated primary or acquired resistance to cancer treatment. Given the crosstalk between the different embryonic developmental signalling pathways, as well as other pathways, designing clinical trials that target CSCs with rational combinations of agents to inhibit possible compensatory escape mechanisms could be of particular importance. We also share our views on the future directions for targeting CSCs to advance the clinical development of these classes of agents. PMID:25850553

  10. Interactions between the juvenile Batten disease gene, CLN3, and the Notch and JNK signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, Richard I.; Vivancos, Valérie; O'Hare, Megan B.; Tear, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the gene CLN3 are responsible for the neurodegenerative disorder juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis or Batten disease. CLN3 encodes a multi-spanning and hydrophobic transmembrane protein whose function is unclear. As a consequence, the cell biology that underlies the pathology of the disease is not well understood. We have developed a genetic gain-of-function system in Drosophila to identify functional pathways and interactions for CLN3. We have identified previously unknown interactions between CLN3 and the Notch and Jun N-terminal kinase signalling pathways and have uncovered a potential role for the RNA splicing and localization machinery in regulating CLN3 function. PMID:19028667

  11. Simultaneous targeted activation of Notch1 and Vhl-disruption in the kidney proximal epithelial tubular cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elinn; Rönö, Birgitte; Johansson, Martin; Lindgren, David; Möller, Christina; Axelson, Håkan; Smith, Emma M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer, representing approximately 75% of all renal neoplasms. ccRCC is known to be strongly associated with silencing of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene, yet VHL deficiency alone does not seem to be sufficient to drive the oncogenic transformation of normal renal epithelium and induce renal tumorigenesis. We, and others, have previously suggested that constitutive activation of the Notch signaling pathway, alongside with VHL loss, contribute to the oncogenic features of ccRCC. Here we report a prevailing hyperactivation of the Notch1 receptor in human ccRCC relative to the healthy counterpart. To explore the consequences of the elevated Notch1 signaling observed in ccRCC patient material, we made use of a conditional mouse model based on concurrent ectopic expression of constitutively active Notch1 (NICD1) and deletion of the Vhl gene. Histological examination of the kidneys of the conditional mice demonstrate the existence of nests of dysplastic cells with a clear cytoplasm as a consequence of lipid accumulation, thus displaying a one important hallmark of human ccRCC. PMID:27491826

  12. Simultaneous targeted activation of Notch1 and Vhl-disruption in the kidney proximal epithelial tubular cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elinn; Rönö, Birgitte; Johansson, Martin; Lindgren, David; Möller, Christina; Axelson, Håkan; Smith, Emma M K

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer, representing approximately 75% of all renal neoplasms. ccRCC is known to be strongly associated with silencing of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene, yet VHL deficiency alone does not seem to be sufficient to drive the oncogenic transformation of normal renal epithelium and induce renal tumorigenesis. We, and others, have previously suggested that constitutive activation of the Notch signaling pathway, alongside with VHL loss, contribute to the oncogenic features of ccRCC. Here we report a prevailing hyperactivation of the Notch1 receptor in human ccRCC relative to the healthy counterpart. To explore the consequences of the elevated Notch1 signaling observed in ccRCC patient material, we made use of a conditional mouse model based on concurrent ectopic expression of constitutively active Notch1 (NICD1) and deletion of the Vhl gene. Histological examination of the kidneys of the conditional mice demonstrate the existence of nests of dysplastic cells with a clear cytoplasm as a consequence of lipid accumulation, thus displaying a one important hallmark of human ccRCC. PMID:27491826

  13. Notch Signaling Components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Yan; Wu, Tao; Li, Qing; Wang, Min-Cong; Jing, Li; Ruan, Zhi-Ping; Yao, Yu; Nan, Ke-Jun; Guo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies. PMID:27196489

  14. The Selector Gene apterous and Notch Are Required to Locally Increase Mechanical Cell Bond Tension at the Drosophila Dorsoventral Compartment Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Marcus; Aliee, Maryam; Rudolf, Katrin; Bialas, Lisa; Jülicher, Frank; Dahmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The separation of cells with distinct fates and functions is important for tissue and organ formation during animal development. Regions of different fates within tissues are often separated from another along straight boundaries. These compartment boundaries play a crucial role in tissue patterning and growth by stably positioning organizers. In Drosophila, the wing imaginal disc is subdivided into a dorsal and a ventral compartment. Cells of the dorsal, but not ventral, compartment express the selector gene apterous. Apterous expression sets in motion a gene regulatory cascade that leads to the activation of Notch signaling in a few cell rows on either side of the dorsoventral compartment boundary. Both Notch and apterous mutant clones disturb the separation of dorsal and ventral cells. Maintenance of the straight shape of the dorsoventral boundary involves a local increase in mechanical tension at cell bonds along the boundary. The mechanisms by which cell bond tension is locally increased however remain unknown. Here we use a combination of laser ablation of cell bonds, quantitative image analysis, and genetic mutants to show that Notch and Apterous are required to increase cell bond tension along the dorsoventral compartment boundary. Moreover, clonal expression of the Apterous target gene capricious results in cell separation and increased cell bond tension at the clone borders. Finally, using a vertex model to simulate tissue growth, we find that an increase in cell bond tension at the borders of cell clones, but not throughout the cell clone, can lead to cell separation. We conclude that Apterous and Notch maintain the characteristic straight shape of the dorsoventral compartment boundary by locally increasing cell bond tension. PMID:27552097

  15. The Selector Gene apterous and Notch Are Required to Locally Increase Mechanical Cell Bond Tension at the Drosophila Dorsoventral Compartment Boundary.

    PubMed

    Michel, Marcus; Aliee, Maryam; Rudolf, Katrin; Bialas, Lisa; Jülicher, Frank; Dahmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The separation of cells with distinct fates and functions is important for tissue and organ formation during animal development. Regions of different fates within tissues are often separated from another along straight boundaries. These compartment boundaries play a crucial role in tissue patterning and growth by stably positioning organizers. In Drosophila, the wing imaginal disc is subdivided into a dorsal and a ventral compartment. Cells of the dorsal, but not ventral, compartment express the selector gene apterous. Apterous expression sets in motion a gene regulatory cascade that leads to the activation of Notch signaling in a few cell rows on either side of the dorsoventral compartment boundary. Both Notch and apterous mutant clones disturb the separation of dorsal and ventral cells. Maintenance of the straight shape of the dorsoventral boundary involves a local increase in mechanical tension at cell bonds along the boundary. The mechanisms by which cell bond tension is locally increased however remain unknown. Here we use a combination of laser ablation of cell bonds, quantitative image analysis, and genetic mutants to show that Notch and Apterous are required to increase cell bond tension along the dorsoventral compartment boundary. Moreover, clonal expression of the Apterous target gene capricious results in cell separation and increased cell bond tension at the clone borders. Finally, using a vertex model to simulate tissue growth, we find that an increase in cell bond tension at the borders of cell clones, but not throughout the cell clone, can lead to cell separation. We conclude that Apterous and Notch maintain the characteristic straight shape of the dorsoventral compartment boundary by locally increasing cell bond tension. PMID:27552097

  16. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2016-01-01

    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks. PMID:26289531

  17. Notch regulation of bone development and remodeling and related skeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2012-02-01

    Notch signaling mediates cell-to-cell interactions that are critical for embryonic development and tissue renewal. In the canonical signaling pathway, the Notch receptor is cleaved following ligand binding, resulting in the release and nuclear translocation of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). NICD induces gene expression by forming a ternary complex with the DNA binding protein CBF1/Rbp-Jk, Suppressor of Hairless, Lag1, and Mastermind-Like (Maml). Hairy Enhancer of Split (Hes) and Hes related with YRPW motif (Hey) are classic Notch targets. Notch canonical signaling plays a central role in skeletal development and bone remodeling by suppressing the differentiation of skeletal cells. The skeletal phenotype of mice misexpressing Hes1 phenocopies partially the effects of Notch misexpression, suggesting that Hey proteins mediate most of the skeletal effects of Notch. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is associated with diseases affecting human skeletal development, such as Alagille syndrome, brachydactyly and spondylocostal dysostosis. Somatic mutations in Notch receptors and ligands are found in tumors of the skeletal system. Overexpression of NOTCH1 is associated with osteosarcoma, and overexpression of NOTCH3 or JAGGED1 in breast cancer cells favors the formation of osteolytic bone metastasis. Activating mutations in NOTCH2 cause Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal defects and fractures, and JAG1 polymorphisms, are associated with variations in bone mineral density. In conclusion, Notch is a regulator of skeletal development and bone remodeling, and abnormal Notch signaling is associated with developmental and postnatal skeletal disorders. PMID:22002679

  18. Gene targeting with retroviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

  19. A functional polymorphism in the pre‑miR‑146a gene influences the prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme by interfering with the balance between Notch1 and Notch2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongyao; Li, Weihua; Wu, Chunming

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between a polymorphism (rs2910164) in the microRNA (miR)‑146a precursor and the prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), as well as to examine the possible underlying mechanism in a Chinese population. A total of 380 patients with histologically confirmed GBM were recruited between 2008 and 2012, and were genotyped for the rs2910164 polymorphism using Sanger sequencing. The Kaplan‑Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS), and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of miR‑146a polymorphisms on OS. It was identified that the rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with a decreased OS among the patients with GBM (P=0.002). It was confirmed that Notch1 and Notch2 were targets of miR‑146a and it was demonstrated that the introduction of miR‑146a mimic suppressed the levels of Notch1 and Notch2 to different extents, resulting in a reduced Notch1/Notch2 ratio with an increase in miR‑146a mimic concentration in U251 cells. Additionally, resected tumor specimens were collected from 138 GBM patients and the expression levels of miR‑146a, Notch1 and Notch2 were examined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Consistent with the in vitro study, lower levels of miR‑146a, higher levels of Notch1 and Notch2, and a higher Notch1/Notch2 ratio were identified in the CC genotype group compared with those of the GG/GC group. In the present study, the rs2910164 C allele was found to be associated with a reduced survival rate in patients with GBM, and the observed association between the CC genotype and poorer prognosis of GBM was at least partially mediated by the decreased expression of miR‑146a, which interfered with the balance of Notch1 and Notch2. PMID:26165719

  20. Characterization of Notch Signaling During Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line MG63.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Alessia; Pellati, Agnese; Bagheri, Leila; Rizzo, Paola; Caliceti, Cristiana; Massari, Leo; De Mattei, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Osteogenic differentiation is a multi-step process controlled by a complex molecular framework. Notch is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway playing a prominent role in cell fate and differentiation, although the mechanisms by which this pathway regulates osteogenesis remain controversial. This study aimed to investigate, in vitro, the involvement of Notch pathway during all the developmental stages of osteogenic differentiation in human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Cells were cultured in basal condition (control) and in osteoinductive medium (OM). Notch inhibitors were also added in OM to block Notch pathway. During osteogenic differentiation, early (alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen type I) and late osteogenic markers (osteocalcin levels and matrix mineralization), as well as the gene expression of the main osteogenic transcription factors (Runx2, Osterix, and Dlx5) increased. Time dependent changes in the expression of specific Notch receptors were identified in OM versus control with a significant reduction in the expression of Notch1 and Notch3 receptors in the early phase of differentiation, and an increase of Notch2 and Notch4 receptors in the late phase. Among Notch nuclear target genes, Hey1 expression was significantly higher in OM than control, while Hes5 expression decreased. Osteogenic markers were reduced and Hey1 was significantly inhibited by Notch inhibitors, suggesting a role for Notch through the canonical pathway. In conclusion, Notch pathway might be involved with a dual role in osteogenesis of MG63, through the activation of Notch2, Notch4, and Hey1, inducing osteoblast differentiation and the depression of Notch1, Notch3, and Hes5, maintaining an undifferentiated status. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2652-2663, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946465

  1. Roles of NOTCH1 as a Therapeutic Target and a Biomarker for Lung Cancer: Controversies and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lixia; Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common types of human malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related death. Patients with surgically resectable early stage lung cancer are more likely curable, but currently only a small population of patients can be diagnosed at such a stage, partly due to our incomplete understanding of the biology of lung cancer and the lack of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Recent studies have shown that NOTCH1 is a critical regulator of human carcinogenesis and has been implicated in multiple steps of cancer development and progression. Herein, we review recent findings about the role of NOTCH1 in lung cancer and discuss its potential usefulness as both a therapeutic target and a biomarker for lung cancer. PMID:26491213

  2. The MSX1 homeobox transcription factor is a downstream target of PHOX2B and activates the Delta-Notch pathway in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Revet, Ingrid; Huizenga, Gerda; Chan, Alvin; Koster, Jan; Volckmann, Richard; Sluis, Peter van; Ora, Ingrid; Versteeg, Rogier; Geerts, Dirk

    2008-02-15

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS). One of the master regulator genes for peripheral SNS differentiation, the homeobox transcription factor PHOX2B, is mutated in familiar and sporadic neuroblastomas. Here we report that inducible expression of PHOX2B in the neuroblastoma cell line SJNB-8 down-regulates MSX1, a homeobox gene important for embryonic neural crest development. Inducible expression of MSX1 in SJNB-8 caused inhibition of both cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Affymetrix micro-array and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that MSX1 strongly up-regulated the Delta-Notch pathway genes DLK1, NOTCH3, and HEY1. In addition, the proneural gene NEUROD1 was down-regulated. Western blot analysis showed that MSX1 induction caused cleavage of the NOTCH3 protein to its activated form, further confirming activation of the Delta-Notch pathway. These experiments describe for the first time regulation of the Delta-Notch pathway by MSX1, and connect these genes to the PHOX2B oncogene, indicative of a role in neuroblastoma biology. Affymetrix micro-array analysis of a neuroblastic tumour series consisting of neuroblastomas and the more benign ganglioneuromas showed that MSX1, NOTCH3 and HEY1 are more highly expressed in ganglioneuromas. This suggests a block in differentiation of these tumours at distinct developmental stages or lineages.

  3. notch3 is essential for oligodendrocyte development and vascular integrity in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zaucker, Andreas; Mercurio, Sara; Sternheim, Nitzan; Talbot, William S.; Marlow, Florence L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutations in the human NOTCH3 gene cause CADASIL syndrome (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy). CADASIL is an inherited small vessel disease characterized by diverse clinical manifestations including vasculopathy, neurodegeneration and dementia. Here we report two mutations in the zebrafish notch3 gene, one identified in a previous screen for mutations with reduced expression of myelin basic protein (mbp) and another caused by a retroviral insertion. Reduced mbp expression in notch3 mutant embryos is associated with fewer oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Despite an early neurogenic phenotype, mbp expression recovered at later developmental stages and some notch3 homozygous mutants survived to adulthood. These mutants, as well as adult zebrafish carrying both mutant alleles together, displayed a striking stress-associated accumulation of blood in the head and fins. Histological analysis of mutant vessels revealed vasculopathy, including: an enlargement (dilation) of vessels in the telencephalon and fin, disorganization of the normal stereotyped arrangement of vessels in the fin, and an apparent loss of arterial morphological structure. Expression of hey1, a well-known transcriptional target of Notch signaling, was greatly reduced in notch3 mutant fins, suggesting that Notch3 acts via a canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote normal vessel structure. Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence of dilated vessels in notch3 mutant fins and revealed that the vessel walls of presumed arteries showed signs of deterioration. Gaps in the arterial wall and the presence of blood cells outside of vessels in mutants indicated that compromised vessel structure led to hemorrhage. In notch3 heterozygotes, we found elevated expression of both notch3 itself and target genes, indicating that specific alterations in gene expression due to partial loss of Notch3 function might contribute to the

  4. Targeting Tumor Initiating Cells through Inhibition of Cancer Testis Antigens and Notch Signaling: A Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Michela; Mirandola, Leonardo; Reidy, Adair; Suvorava, Natallia; Konala, Venu; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Grizzi, Fabio; Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Nugyen, Diane D; Dalhbeck, Scott; Cobos, Everardo; Figueroa, Jose A; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) differ from normal stem cells (SCs) in their ability to initiate tumorigenesis, invasive growth, metastasis and the acquisition of chemo and/or radio-resistance. Over the past years, several studies have indicated the potential role of the Notch system as a key regulator of cellular stemness and tumor development. Furthermore, the expression of cancer testis antigens (CTA) in TICs, and their role in SC differentiation and biology, has become an important area of investigation. Here, we propose a model in which CTA expression and Notch signaling interacts to maintain the sustainability of self-replicating tumor populations, ultimately leading to the development of metastasis, drug resistance and cancer progression. We hypothesize that Notch-CTA interactions in TICs offer a novel opportunity for meaningful therapeutic interventions in cancer. PMID:25901861

  5. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase psi is required for Delta/Notch signalling and cyclic gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Aerne, Birgit; Ish-Horowicz, David

    2004-07-01

    Segmentation in vertebrate embryos is controlled by a biochemical oscillator ('segmentation clock') intrinsic to the cells in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm, and is manifested in cyclic transcription of genes involved in establishing somite polarity and boundaries. We show that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase psi (RPTPpsi) gene is essential for normal functioning of the somitogenesis clock in zebrafish. We show that reduction of RPTPpsi activity using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides results in severe disruption of the segmental pattern of the embryo, and loss of cyclic gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm. Analysis of cyclic genes in RPTPpsi morphant embryos indicates an important requirement for RPTPpsi in the control of the somitogenesis clock upstream of or in parallel with Delta/Notch signalling. Impairing RPTPpsi activity also interferes with convergent extension during gastrulation. We discuss this dual requirement for RPTPpsi in terms of potential functions in Notch and Wnt signalling. PMID:15226256

  6. Non-Canonical Notch Signaling in Cancer and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Furkan; Osborne, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Canonical Notch signaling is initiated by γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the Notch receptor, leading to the release of the active intra-cellular domain of Notch that migrates to the nucleus and interacts with RBP-Jκ, resulting in the activation of downstream target genes. While canonical Notch signaling is well known to play an active role in several steps during development as well in multiple cell fate decisions, recent evidence from both invertebrate and vertebrate systems indicates that non-canonical, RBP-Jκ-independent signaling is important in several cellular processes including oncogenesis and activation of T lymphocytes. These observations raise the possibility that, through an understanding of non-canonical Notch signaling, novel strategies for inhibiting Notch signaling may prove useful in the design of therapies targeted to block aberrant Notch activity. In this mini-review, we will examine the current data demonstrating a non-canonical role for Notch signaling in both cancer and the immune system and suggest a better understanding of non-canonical signaling may reveal novel strategies to block Notch signaling in disease. PMID:25538890

  7. Regulation of NOTCH signaling by reciprocal inhibition of HES1 and Deltex 1 and its role in osteosarcoma invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Yang, Y; Nolo, R; Zweidler-McKay, P A; Hughes, D P M

    2010-05-20

    The highly conserved NOTCH signaling pathway has many essential functions in the development of diverse cells, tissues and organs from Drosophila to humans, and dysregulated NOTCH signaling contributes to several disorders, including vascular and bone defects, as well as several cancers. Here we describe a novel mechanism of NOTCH regulation by reciprocal inhibition of two NOTCH downstream effectors: Deltex1 and HES1. This mechanism appears to regulate invasion of osteosarcoma cells, as Deltex1 blocks osteosarcoma invasiveness by downregulating NOTCH/HES1 signaling. The inhibitory effect of endogenous Deltex1 on NOTCH signaling is mediated through binding with the intracellular domain of NOTCH and ubiquitination and degradation of NOTCH receptors. Conversely, we show that the NOTCH target gene HES1 causes transcriptional inhibition of Deltex1 by directly binding to the promoter of Deltex1. An HES1 binding site is identified 400 bp upstream of the transcription start site of Deltex1. HES1-mediated repression of Deltex1 requires the C-terminal H3/H4 and WRPW domains of HES1, which associate with the TLE/Groucho corepressors. Taken together, we define a molecular mechanism regulating NOTCH signaling by reciprocal inhibition of the NOTCH target genes HES1 and Deltex1 in mammalian cells. This mechanism may have important clinical implications for targeting NOTCH signaling in osteosarcoma and other cancers. PMID:20208568

  8. Targeting Notch1 and proteasome as an effective strategy to suppress T-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    George, Suraj Konnath; Teng, Rong; You, Xuefen; Xu, Mengqi; Liu, Hong; Sun, Xiaoping; Amin, Hesham M.; Shi, Wenyu

    2015-01-01

    The T-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasms (T-LPN) are characterized by a poor clinical outcome. Current therapeutics are mostly non-selective and may induce harmful side effects. It has been reported that NOTCH1 activation mutations frequently associate T-LPN. Because anti-Notch1 based therapies such as γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) are less efficient and induce considerable side effects, we hypothesized that combining low concentrations of GSI and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) may provide an effective and tolerable approach to treat T-LPN. Hence, we analyzed the in vitro and in vivo effects of GSI-I and BTZ, alone or in combination, against T-LPN. GSI-I and BTZ synergistically decreased cell viability, proliferation, and colony formation, and induced apoptosis in T-LPN cell lines. Furthermore, combining GSI-I and BTZ decreased the viability of primary T-LPN cells from patients. These effects were accompanied by deregulation of Notch1, AKT, ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB survival pathways. Moreover, combination treatment inhibited T-LPN tumor growth in nude mice. In all experiments, combining low concentrations of GSI-I and BTZ was superior to using a single agent. Our data support that a synergistic antitumor activity exists between GSI-I and BTZ, and provide a rationale for successful utilization of dual Notch1 and proteasome inhibition to treat T-LPN. PMID:25879451

  9. Notch2 signaling contributes to cell growth, invasion, and migration in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jing; Song, Min; Xie, Jian; Huang, Xiao-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Meng; Gan, Rui-Huan; Zhao, Yong; Lin, Li-Song; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Xu; Zheng, Da-Li; Lu, You-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have explored whether the Notch signaling pathway has a tumor-suppressive or an oncogenic role in various tumors; however, the role of the Notch signaling pathway in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is still unknown. In this study, we attempt to define the role of Notch2 signaling in cell growth, invasion, and migration in SACC. We compared Notch2 expression in clinical SACC samples with that of normal samples by using immunohistochemical staining. Then, we down-regulated Notch2 expression to observe the effect of Notch2 on proliferation, invasion, migration, and the expression of known target genes of Notch signal pathway. According to our results, Notch2 expression was higher in SACC tissues compared with normal tissues. Knockdown of Notch2 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro and down-regulated the expression of HEY2 and CCND1. The results of this study suggest that Notch2 has an essential role in the cell growth, invasion, and migration of SACC. Notch2 may therefore be a potential target gene for the treatment of SACC by interfering with cell growth and metastasis. PMID:26427670

  10. Notch Signaling in Pancreatic Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu-Yan; Zhai, Wen-Jun; Teng, Chun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a significant role in embryonic cell fate determination and adult tissue homeostasis. Various studies have demonstrated the deep involvement of Notch signaling in the development of the pancreas and the lateral inhibition of Notch signaling in pancreatic progenitor differentiation and maintenance. The targeted inactivation of the Notch pathway components promotes premature differentiation of the endocrine pancreas. However, there is still the contrary opinion that Notch signaling specifies the endocrine lineage. Here, we review the current knowledge of the Notch signaling pathway in pancreatic development and its crosstalk with the Wingless and INT-1 (Wnt) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathways. PMID:26729103

  11. Notch signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of human osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Engin, Feyza; Bertin, Terry; Ma, Ou; Jiang, Ming Ming; Wang, Lisa; Sutton, Richard E.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Lee, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in developmental processes and adult tissue homeostasis. Altered Notch signaling has been associated with various diseases including cancer. While the importance of altered Notch signaling in cancers of hematopoietic and epithelial origins has been established, its role in tumors of mesenchymal origin is less clear. Here, we report that human osteosarcoma cell lines and primary human osteosarcoma tumor samples show significant up-regulation of Notch, its target genes and Osterix. Notch inhibition by γ-secretase inhibitors or by using lentiviral mediated expression of dominant negative Mastermind-like protein (DN-MAML) decreases osteosarcoma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, established human tumor xenografts in nude mice show decreased tumor growth after chemical or genetic inhibition of Notch signaling. Finally, transcriptional profiling of osteosarcomas from p53 mutant mice confirmed up-regulation of Notch1 target genes Hes1, Hey1 and its ligand Dll4. Our data suggest that activation of Notch signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of human osteosarcomas and its inhibition may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of this mesenchymal tumor. PMID:19228774

  12. Notch1 counteracts WNT/β-catenin signaling through chromatin modification in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-A; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Yoon-Young; Seong, Jinwoo; Chang, Hee Jin; Oh, Young Min; Stange, Daniel E.; Park, Jae-Gahb; Hwang, Daehee; Kong, Young-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Crosstalk between the Notch and wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) signaling pathways has been investigated for many developmental processes. However, this negative correlation between Notch and WNT/β-catenin signaling activity has been studied primarily in normal developmental and physiological processes in which negative feedback loops for both signaling pathways are intact. We found that Notch1 signaling retained the capability of suppressing the expression of WNT target genes in colorectal cancers even when β-catenin destruction by the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) complex was disabled. Activation of Notch1 converted high-grade adenoma into low-grade adenoma in an Apcmin mouse colon cancer model and suppressed the expression of WNT target genes in human colorectal cancer cells through epigenetic modification recruiting histone methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 (SETDB1). Extensive microarray analysis of human colorectal cancers also showed a negative correlation between the Notch1 target gene, Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein 1 (NRARP), and WNT target genes. Notch is known to be a strong promoter of tumor initiation, but here we uncovered an unexpected suppressive role of Notch1 on WNT/β-catenin target genes involved in colorectal cancer. PMID:22863622

  13. Short hairpin RNA targeting Notch2 inhibits U87 human glioma cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    LI, XUEZHEN; HE, XIN; TIAN, WEI; WANG, JIANZHEN

    2014-01-01

    Notch signaling has been reported to be oncogenic or tumor suppressive, depending on the tissue context. To investigate the effects of Notch2 knockdown on U87 human glioma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and the associated mechanisms, U87 cells were stably transfected with p green fluorescent protein (GFP)-V-RS Notch2 short hairpin (sh) RNA plasmid and pGFP-V-RS scramble-shRNA plasmid. The former was referred to as the Notch2-shRNA group and the latter as the negative-shRNA group. mRNA and protein expression, cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide analysis and flow cytometry using propidium iodide, respectively. Tumor volume, tumor weight and cumulative survival rate were determined in a nude mouse xenograft tumor model. Notch2 mRNA and protein expression in the Notch2-shRNA group were reduced by 87.6 and 94.5% compared with the negative-shRNA group (P<0.001). Notch2 knockdown significantly inhibited U87 cell proliferation after three days of culture (P<0.05). Notch2 silencing induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase by upregulation of p21 protein expression and downregulation of mini chromosome maintenance complex 2 and cyclin-D1 protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Notch2 also induced U87 cell apoptosis. On day 50 after inoculation, tumor weight in the Notch2-shRNA group was significantly lower than that in the negative-shRNA group (0.55±0.10 vs. 1.23±0.52 g; P<0.01). The cumulative survival rate was significantly longer in the Notch2-shRNA group compared with the negative-shRNA group (log rank test P=0.01). In conclusion, Notch2 silencing inhibited U87 glioma cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Thus, Notch2 may be a key therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. PMID:25323114

  14. The Small Molecule IMR-1 Inhibits the Notch Transcriptional Activation Complex to Suppress Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Luisana; Da Silva, Thiago G; Wang, Zhiqiang; Han, Xiaoqing; Jin, Ke; VanWye, Jeffrey; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Weaver, Kelly; Oashi, Taiji; Lopes, Pedro E M; Orton, Darren; Neitzel, Leif R; Lee, Ethan; Landgraf, Ralf; Robbins, David J; MacKerell, Alexander D; Capobianco, Anthony J

    2016-06-15

    In many cancers, aberrant Notch activity has been demonstrated to play a role in the initiation and maintenance of the neoplastic phenotype and in cancer stem cells, which may allude to its additional involvement in metastasis and resistance to therapy. Therefore, Notch is an exceedingly attractive therapeutic target in cancer, but the full range of potential targets within the pathway has been underexplored. To date, there are no small-molecule inhibitors that directly target the intracellular Notch pathway or the assembly of the transcriptional activation complex. Here, we describe an in vitro assay that quantitatively measures the assembly of the Notch transcriptional complex on DNA. Integrating this approach with computer-aided drug design, we explored potential ligand-binding sites and screened for compounds that could disrupt the assembly of the Notch transcriptional activation complex. We identified a small-molecule inhibitor, termed Inhibitor of Mastermind Recruitment-1 (IMR-1), that disrupted the recruitment of Mastermind-like 1 to the Notch transcriptional activation complex on chromatin, thereby attenuating Notch target gene transcription. Furthermore, IMR-1 inhibited the growth of Notch-dependent cell lines and significantly abrogated the growth of patient-derived tumor xenografts. Taken together, our findings suggest that a novel class of Notch inhibitors targeting the transcriptional activation complex may represent a new paradigm for Notch-based anticancer therapeutics, warranting further preclinical characterization. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3593-603. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197169

  15. Notch and TGF-β pathways cooperatively regulate receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-κ (PTPRK) gene expression in human primary keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiru; Xue, Siliang; Zhou, Jin; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-κ (PTPRK) specifically and directly dephosphorylates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thereby limiting EGFR function in primary human keratinocytes. PTPRK expression is increased by the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway and cell–cell contact. Because the Notch receptor pathway is responsive to cell–cell contact and regulates keratinocyte growth and differentiation, we investigated the interplay between Notch and TGF-β pathways in regulation of PTPRK expression in human keratinocytes. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitors substantially reduced cell contact induction of PTPRK gene expression. In sparse keratinocyte cultures, addition of soluble Notch-activating ligand jagged one peptide (Jag1) induced PTPRK. Of interest, cell contact–induced expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 inhibited contact-induced expression of PTPRK. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch signaling, via knockdown of Notch1 or by γ-secretase inhibitors, significantly reduced TGF-β–induced PTPRK gene expression, indicating that Notch and TGF-β pathways function together to regulate PTPRK. Of importance, the combination of Jag1 plus TGF-β results in greater PTPRK expression and lower EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation than either ligand alone. These data indicate that Notch and TGF-β act in concert to stimulate induction of PTPRK, which suppresses EGFR activation in human keratinocytes. PMID:25609089

  16. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2011-10-14

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy. PMID:21945932

  17. Search for Basonuclin Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junwen; Zhang, Shengliang; Schultz, Richard M.; Tseng, Hung

    2006-01-01

    Basonuclin (Bnc 1) is a transcription factor that has an unusual ability to interact with promoters of both RNA polymerases I and II. The action of basonuclin is mediated through three pairs of evolutionarily conserved zinc fingers, which produce three DNase I footprints on the promoters of rDNA and the basonuclin gene. Using these DNase footprints, we built a computational model for the basonuclin DNA-binding module, which was used to identify in silico potential RNA polymerase II target genes in the human and mouse promoter databases. The target genes of basonuclin show that it regulates the expression of proteins involved in chromatin structure, transcription/DNA-binding, ion-channels, adhesion/cell-cell junction, signal transduction and intracellular transport. Our results suggest that basonuclin, like MYC, may coordinate transcriptional activities among the three RNA polymerases. But basonuclin regulates a distinctive set of pathways, which differ from that regulated by MYC. PMID:16919236

  18. Notch in the intestine: regulation of homeostasis and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Noah, Taeko K; Shroyer, Noah F

    2013-01-01

    The small and large intestines are tubular organs composed of several tissue types. The columnar epithelium that lines the inner surface of the intestines distinguishes the digestive physiology of each region of the intestine and consists of several distinct cell types that are rapidly and continually renewed by intestinal stem cells that reside near the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn. Notch signaling controls the fate of intestinal stem cells by regulating the expression of Hes genes and by repressing Atoh1. Alternate models of Notch pathway control of cell fate determination are presented. Roles for Notch signaling in development of the intestine, including mesenchymal and neural cells, are discussed. The oncogenic activities of Notch in colorectal cancer, as well as the tumor suppressive activities of Atoh1, are reviewed. Therapeutic targeting of the Notch pathway in colorectal cancers is discussed, along with potential caveats. PMID:23190077

  19. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (DLL4) as a target in angiogenesis-based cancer therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicz, Romuald; Kowalczyk-Ziomek, Grażyna; Helewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex multistep process by which new capillary structures arise from pre-existing vessels in response to angiogenic stimuli. This process plays a key role during tumorigenesis because the vascular network within the tumor enables malignant cells to establish distant metastases. Thus, it is not surprising that targeting tumors with angiogenesis-based therapy remains a significant area of preclinical and clinical studies. One of the most prominent factors considered as a promising target in such therapy is the Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (DLL4). Emerging evidence suggests that blockade of DLL4 in tumors results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis which affects tumor growth, even in tumors which are insensitive to anti-VEGF therapy. Nevertheless, the careful evaluation of adverse effects on normal organs’ physiology in relation to therapeutic doses of DLL4 inhibitors will be critical for advancement of DLL4 blocking agents in clinical practice. PMID:24596507

  20. Meta-analysis reveals the correlation of Notch signaling with non-small cell lung cancer progression and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xun; Wu, Hua; Xu, Hanxiao; Han, Na; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have assessed the clinicopathological and prognostic value of Notch1 and Notch3 expression in Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but their results remain controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to address the above issues by using a total of 19 studies involving 3663 patients. The correlations between Notch1 and Notch3 expression and clinicopathological features and NSCLC prognosis were analyzed. The meta-analysis indicated that higher expression of Notch1 was associated with greater possibility of lymph node metastasis and higher TNM stages. Moreover, patients with Notch1 overexpression and Notch3 overexpression showed significantly poor overall survival (Notch1: HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.57, p = 0.468 and I2 = 0.0%; Notch3: HR, 1.57; 95%CI, 1.04-2.36, p = 0.445 and I2 = 0.0%). Furthermore, there are statistically significant association between overall survival of NSCLC patients and the expression of Notch signaling ligand DLL3 and target gene HES1. Our meta-analysis supports that Notch signaling is a valuable bio-marker to predict progression and targeting Notch signaling could benefit subpopulation of NSCLC patients. PMID:25996086

  1. SEPT4 is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin

    2012-04-01

    Notch receptor-mediated signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that regulates diverse developmental processes and its dysregulation has been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders and cancers. Notch functions in these processes by activating expression of its target genes. Septin 4 (SEPT4) is a polymerizing GTP-binding protein that serves as scaffold for diverse molecules and is involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. After activation of the Notch signal, the expression of SEPT4 is up-regulated and cell proliferation is inhibited. When the Notch signal is inhibited by the CSL (CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1)-binding-domain-negative Mastermind-like protein 1, the expression of SEPT4 is down-regulated, proliferation and colony formation of cells are promoted, but cell adhesion ability is decreased. Nevertheless, the SEPT4 expression is not affected after knock-down of CSL. Meanwhile, if SEPT4 activity is inhibited through RNA interference, the protein level and activity of NOTCH1 remains unchanged, but cell proliferation is dysregulated. This indicates that SEPT4 is a Notch target gene. This relationship between Notch signaling pathway and SEPT4 offers a potential basis for further study of developmental control and carcinogenesis. PMID:21938432

  2. Notch-regulated miR-223 targets the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway and increases cytokine production in macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ogando, Jesús; Tardáguila, Manuel; Díaz-Alderete, Andrea; Usategui, Alicia; Miranda-Ramos, Vanessa; Martínez-Herrera, Dannys Jorge; de la Fuente, Lorena; García-León, María J.; Moreno, María C.; Escudero, Sara; Cañete, Juan D.; Toribio, María L.; Cases, Ildefonso; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Pablos, José Luis; Mañes, Santos

    2016-01-01

    Evidence links aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis, although results are inconsistent. AHR agonists inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, pivotal cells in RA aetiopathogenesis, which hints at specific circuits that regulate the AHR pathway in RA macrophages. We compared microRNA (miR) expression in CD14+ cells from patients with active RA or with osteoarthritis (OA). Seven miR were downregulated and one (miR-223) upregulated in RA compared to OA cells. miR-223 upregulation correlated with reduced Notch3 and Notch effector expression in RA patients. Overexpression of the Notch-induced repressor HEY-1 and co-culture of healthy donor monocytes with Notch ligand-expressing cells showed direct Notch-mediated downregulation of miR-223. Bioinformatics predicted the AHR regulator ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator) as a miR-223 target. Pre-miR-223 overexpression silenced ARNT 3’UTR-driven reporter expression, reduced ARNT (but not AHR) protein levels and prevented AHR/ARNT-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. miR-223 counteracted AHR/ARNT-induced Notch3 upregulation in monocytes. Levels of ARNT and of CYP1B1, an AHR/ARNT signalling effector, were reduced in RA compared to OA synovial tissue, which correlated with miR-223 levels. Our results associate Notch signalling to miR-223 downregulation in RA macrophages, and identify miR-223 as a negative regulator of the AHR/ARNT pathway through ARNT targeting. PMID:26838552

  3. A large-scale in vivo RNAi screen to identify genes involved in Notch-mediated follicle cell differentiation and cell cycle switches.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongyu; Soylemez, Muhammed; Calvin, Gabriel; Bornmann, Randy; Bryant, Jamal; Hanna, Cameron; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, follicle cells sequentially undergo three distinct cell-cycle programs: the mitotic cycle, endocycle, and gene amplification. Notch signaling plays a central role in regulating follicle-cell differentiation and cell-cycle switches; its activation is essential for the mitotic cycle/endocycle (M/E) switch. Cut, a linker between Notch signaling and cell-cycle regulators, is specifically downregulated by Notch during the endocycle stage. To determine how signaling pathways coordinate during the M/E switch and to identify novel genes involved in follicle cell differentiation, we performed an in vivo RNAi screen through induced knockdown of gene expression and examination of Cut expression in follicle cells. We screened 2205 RNAi lines and found 33 genes regulating Cut expression during the M/E switch. These genes were confirmed with the staining of two other Notch signaling downstream factors, Hindsight and Broad, and validated with multiple independent RNAi lines. We applied gene ontology software to find enriched biological meaning and compared our results with other publications to find conserved genes across tissues. Specifically, we found earlier endocycle entry in anterior follicle cells than those in the posterior, identified that the insulin-PI3K pathway participates in the precise M/E switch, and suggested Nejire as a cofactor of Notch signaling during oogenesis. PMID:26205122

  4. A large-scale in vivo RNAi screen to identify genes involved in Notch-mediated follicle cell differentiation and cell cycle switches

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongyu; Soylemez, Muhammed; Calvin, Gabriel; Bornmann, Randy; Bryant, Jamal; Hanna, Cameron; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis, follicle cells sequentially undergo three distinct cell-cycle programs: the mitotic cycle, endocycle, and gene amplification. Notch signaling plays a central role in regulating follicle-cell differentiation and cell-cycle switches; its activation is essential for the mitotic cycle/endocycle (M/E) switch. Cut, a linker between Notch signaling and cell-cycle regulators, is specifically downregulated by Notch during the endocycle stage. To determine how signaling pathways coordinate during the M/E switch and to identify novel genes involved in follicle cell differentiation, we performed an in vivo RNAi screen through induced knockdown of gene expression and examination of Cut expression in follicle cells. We screened 2205 RNAi lines and found 33 genes regulating Cut expression during the M/E switch. These genes were confirmed with the staining of two other Notch signaling downstream factors, Hindsight and Broad, and validated with multiple independent RNAi lines. We applied gene ontology software to find enriched biological meaning and compared our results with other publications to find conserved genes across tissues. Specifically, we found earlier endocycle entry in anterior follicle cells than those in the posterior, identified that the insulin-PI3K pathway participates in the precise M/E switch, and suggested Nejire as a cofactor of Notch signaling during oogenesis. PMID:26205122

  5. Notch and TGFβ form a positive regulatory loop and regulate EMT in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiesi; Jain, Saket; Azad, Abul K; Xu, Xia; Yu, Hai Chuan; Xu, Zhihua; Godbout, Roseline; Fu, YangXin

    2016-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the mechanisms that regulate EMT in EOC are not fully understood. Here, we report that activation of Notch1 induces EMT in EOC cells as evidenced by downregulation of E-cadherin and cytokeratins, upregulation of Slug and Snail, as well as morphological changes. Interestingly, activation of Notch1 increases TGFβ/Smad signaling by upregulating the expression of TGFβ and TGFβ type 1 receptor. Time course experiments demonstrate that inhibition of Notch by DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) decreases TGFβ-induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads at late, but not at early, timepoints. These results suggest that Notch activation plays a role in sustaining TGFβ/Smad signaling in EOC cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch by DAPT decreases TGFβ induction of Slug and repression of E-cadherin and knockdown of Notch1 decreases TGFβ-induced repression of E-cadherin, indicating that Notch is required, at least in part, for TGFβ-induced EMT in EOC cells. On the other hand, TGFβ treatment increases the expression of Notch ligand Jagged1 and Notch target gene HES1 in EOC cells. Functionally, the combination of Notch1 activation and TGFβ treatment is more potent in promoting motility and migration of EOC cells than either stimulation alone. Taken together, our results indicate that Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop and cooperatively regulate EMT and promote EOC cell motility and migration. PMID:27075926

  6. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C.; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.

  7. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. PMID:26332195

  8. Heterogeneity of Notch signaling in astrocytes and the effects of GFAP and vimentin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lebkuechner, Isabell; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Möllerström, Elin; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos

    2015-10-01

    Astrocytes have multiple roles in the CNS including control of adult neurogenesis. We recently showed that astrocyte inhibition of neurogenesis through Notch signaling depends on the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Here, we used real-time quantitative PCR to analyze gene expression in individual mouse astrocytes in primary cultures and in GFAP(POS) or Aldh1L1(POS) astrocytes freshly isolated from uninjured, contralesional and lesioned hippocampus 4 days after entorhinal cortex lesion. To determine the Notch signaling competence of individual astrocytes, we measured the mRNA levels of Notch ligands and Notch1 receptor. We found that whereas most cultured and freshly isolated astrocytes were competent to receive Notch signals, only a minority of astrocytes were competent to send Notch signals. Injury increased the fraction of astrocyte subpopulation unable to send and receive Notch signals, thus resembling primary astrocytes in vitro. Astrocytes deficient of GFAP and vimentin showed decreased Notch signal sending competence and altered expression of Notch signaling pathway-related genes Dlk2, Notch1, and Sox2. Furthermore, we identified astrocyte subpopulations based on their mRNA and protein expression of nestin and HB-EGF. This study improves our understanding of astrocyte heterogeneity, and points to astrocyte cytoplasmic intermediate filaments as targets for neural cell replacement strategies. PMID:26118771

  9. NUMB is a break of WNT-Notch signaling cycle.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    Notch, FGF and WNT signaling pathways cross-talk during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis. Notch-ligand binding to Notch receptors leads to the cleavage of Notch receptors and the following nuclear translocation of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) to induce transcriptional activation of Notch target genes. Notch signaling inhibitors, NUMB and NUMB-like (NUMBL), are docking proteins with PTB domain. We searched for the TCF/LEF-binding site within the promoter region of NUMB and NUMBL genes. Because two TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within human NUMB promoter based on bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint), comparative integromics analyses on NUMB orthologs were further performed. Chimpanzee NUBM gene, consisting of 13 exons, was identified within NW_115880.1 genome sequence. XM_510045.1 was not the correct coding sequence for chimpanzee NUMB. Chimpanzee NUMB gene was found to encode a 651-amino-acid protein showing 99.5, 93.9 and 82.6% total-amino-acid identity with human NUMB, mouse Numb and chicken numb, respectively. Human NUMB mRNA was expressed in placenta, ES cells, neural tissues, trachea, testis, uterus, thymus, coronary artery as well as in a variety of tumors, such as cervical cancer, tong tumor, brain tumor, colorectal and breast cancer. Although distal TCF/LEF-binding site within human NUMB promoter was conserved only among primate NUMB orthologs, proximal TCF/LEF-binding site was conserved among primate and rodent NUMB orthologs. NUMB, JAG1, FGF18, FGF20 and SPRY4 are potent targets of the canonical WNT signaling pathway in progenitor cells. NUMB inhibits Notch signaling in progenitor cells to induce differentiation, while JAG1 activates Notch signaling in stem cells to maintain self-renewal potential. Because Notch signaling inhibitor NUMB was identified as the safe apparatus for the WNT - Notch signaling cycle, epigenetic silencing, deletion and loss-of-function mutation of NUMB gene could lead to carcinogenesis

  10. Association of transcription factor YY1 with the high molecular weight Notch complex suppresses the transactivation activity of Notch.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tien-Shun; Lin, Yu-Min; Hsieh, Rong-Hong; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2003-10-24

    Notch receptors are evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to human and play important roles in cell fate decisions. After ligand binding, Notch receptors are cleaved to release their intracellular domains. The intracellular domains, the activated form of Notch receptors, are then translocated into the nucleus where they interact with other transcriptional machinery to regulate the expression of cellular genes. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of Notch signaling, the cellular targets that interact with Notch1 receptor intracellular domain (N1IC) were screened. In this study, we found that endogenous transcription factor Ying Yang 1 (YY1) was associated with exogenous N1IC in human K562 erythroleukemic cells. The ankyrin (ANK) domain of N1IC and zinc finger domains of YY1 were essential for the association of N1IC and YY1 according to the pull-down assay of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Furthermore, both YY1 and N1IC were present in a large complex of the nucleus to suppress the luciferase reporter activity transactivated by Notch signaling. The transcription factor YY1 indirectly regulated the transcriptional activity of the wild-type CBF1-response elements via the direct interaction of N1IC and CBF1. We also demonstrated the association between endogenous N1IC and intrinsic YY1 in human acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Taken together, these results indicate that transcription factor YY1 may modulate Notch signaling via association with the high molecular weight Notch complex. PMID:12913000

  11. Long-range enhancer activity determines Myc sensitivity to Notch inhibitors in T cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Wang, Hongfang; Zang, Chongzhi; Arnett, Kelly L.; Bailis, Will; Ho, Yugong; Knoechel, Birgit; Lanauze, Claudia; Louis, Lumena; Forsyth, Katherine S.; Chen, Sujun; Chung, Yoonjie; Schug, Jonathan; Blobel, Gerd A.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Aster, Jon C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2014-01-01

    Notch is needed for T-cell development and is a common oncogenic driver in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The protooncogene c-Myc (Myc) is a critical target of Notch in normal and malignant pre-T cells, but how Notch regulates Myc is unknown. Here, we identify a distal enhancer located >1 Mb 3′ of human and murine Myc that binds Notch transcription complexes and physically interacts with the Myc proximal promoter. The Notch1 binding element in this region activates reporter genes in a Notch-dependent, cell-context–specific fashion that requires a conserved Notch complex binding site. Acute changes in Notch activation produce rapid changes in H3K27 acetylation across the entire enhancer (a region spanning >600 kb) that correlate with Myc expression. This broad Notch-influenced region comprises an enhancer region containing multiple domains, recognizable as discrete H3K27 acetylation peaks. Leukemia cells selected for resistance to Notch inhibitors express Myc despite epigenetic silencing of enhancer domains near the Notch transcription complex binding sites. Notch-independent expression of Myc in resistant cells is highly sensitive to inhibitors of bromodomain containing 4 (Brd4), a change in drug sensitivity that is accompanied by preferential association of the Myc promoter with more 3′ enhancer domains that are strongly dependent on Brd4 for function. These findings indicate that altered long-range enhancer activity can mediate resistance to targeted therapies and provide a mechanistic rationale for combined targeting of Notch and Brd4 in leukemia. PMID:25369933

  12. The PIAS-like Coactivator Zmiz1 Is a Direct and Selective Cofactor of Notch1 in T Cell Development and Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pinnell, Nancy; Yan, Ran; Cho, Hyo Je; Keeley, Theresa; Murai, Marcelo J; Liu, Yiran; Alarcon, Amparo Serna; Qin, Jason; Wang, Qing; Kuick, Rork; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Maillard, Ivan; Samuelson, Linda C; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Chiang, Mark Y

    2015-11-17

    Pan-NOTCH inhibitors are poorly tolerated in clinical trials because NOTCH signals are crucial for intestinal homeostasis. These inhibitors might also promote cancer because NOTCH can act as a tumor suppressor. We previously reported that the PIAS-like coactivator ZMIZ1 is frequently co-expressed with activated NOTCH1 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show that similar to Notch1, Zmiz1 was important for T cell development and controlled the expression of certain Notch target genes, such as Myc. However, unlike Notch, Zmiz1 had no major role in intestinal homeostasis or myeloid suppression. Deletion of Zmiz1 impaired the initiation and maintenance of Notch-induced T-ALL. Zmiz1 directly interacted with Notch1 via a tetratricopeptide repeat domain at a special class of Notch-regulatory sites. In contrast to the Notch cofactor Maml, which is nonselective, Zmiz1 was selective. Thus, targeting the NOTCH1-ZMIZ1 interaction might combat leukemic growth while avoiding the intolerable toxicities of NOTCH inhibitors. PMID:26522984

  13. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Activates Canonical Notch Signaling To Downregulate TLR2/4 Expression and Promote Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lina, Taslima T.; Dunphy, Paige S.; Luo, Tian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival. We found that nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) occurs in response to E. chaffeensis or recombinant TRP120, resulting in upregulation of Notch signaling pathway components and target genes notch1, adam17, hes, and hey. Significant differences in canonical Notch signaling gene expression levels (>40%) were observed during early and late stages of infection, indicating activation of the Notch pathway. We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against γ-secretase enzyme, Notch transcription factor complex, Notch1, and ADAM17, we demonstrated that Notch signaling is required for ehrlichial survival. We studied the downstream effects and found that E. chaffeensis TRP120-mediated activation of the Notch pathway causes inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways required for PU.1 and subsequent Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) expression. This investigation reveals a novel mechanism whereby E. chaffeensis exploits the Notch pathway to evade the host innate immune response for intracellular survival. PMID:27381289

  14. Numb: "Adapting" notch for endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jafar-Nejad, Hamed; Norga, Koenraad; Bellen, Hugo

    2002-08-01

    During sensory organ precursor divisions in Drosophila, the numb gene product segregates asymmetrically into one of the two daughter cells, to which it confers a specific fate by inhibiting Notch signaling. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Berdnik et al. show that Numb recruits alpha-Adaptin and that this physical interaction plays a role in downregulating Notch, presumably by stimulating endocytosis of Notch. PMID:12194846

  15. A novel non-canonical Notch signaling regulates expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in excitatory neurons.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yukari; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Saga, Yumiko; Harada, Akihiro; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Kopan, Raphael; Tomita, Taisuke

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling plays crucial roles for cellular differentiation during development through γ-secretase-dependent intramembrane proteolysis followed by transcription of target genes. Although recent studies implicate that Notch regulates synaptic plasticity or cognitive performance, the molecular mechanism how Notch works in mature neurons remains uncertain. Here we demonstrate that a novel Notch signaling is involved in expression of synaptic proteins in postmitotic neurons. Levels of several synaptic vesicle proteins including synaptophysin 1 and VGLUT1 were increased when neurons were cocultured with Notch ligands-expressing NIH3T3 cells. Neuron-specific deletion of Notch genes decreased these proteins, suggesting that Notch signaling maintains the expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in a cell-autonomous manner. Unexpectedly, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, but not γ-secretase inhibitor, abolished the elevation of synaptic vesicle proteins, suggesting that generation of Notch intracellular domain is dispensable for this function. These data uncover a ligand-dependent, but γ-secretase-independent, non-canonical Notch signaling involved in presynaptic protein expression in postmitotic neurons. PMID:27040987

  16. A novel non-canonical Notch signaling regulates expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in excitatory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yukari; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Saga, Yumiko; Harada, Akihiro; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Kopan, Raphael; Tomita, Taisuke

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling plays crucial roles for cellular differentiation during development through γ-secretase-dependent intramembrane proteolysis followed by transcription of target genes. Although recent studies implicate that Notch regulates synaptic plasticity or cognitive performance, the molecular mechanism how Notch works in mature neurons remains uncertain. Here we demonstrate that a novel Notch signaling is involved in expression of synaptic proteins in postmitotic neurons. Levels of several synaptic vesicle proteins including synaptophysin 1 and VGLUT1 were increased when neurons were cocultured with Notch ligands-expressing NIH3T3 cells. Neuron-specific deletion of Notch genes decreased these proteins, suggesting that Notch signaling maintains the expression of synaptic vesicle proteins in a cell-autonomous manner. Unexpectedly, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, but not γ-secretase inhibitor, abolished the elevation of synaptic vesicle proteins, suggesting that generation of Notch intracellular domain is dispensable for this function. These data uncover a ligand-dependent, but γ-secretase-independent, non-canonical Notch signaling involved in presynaptic protein expression in postmitotic neurons. PMID:27040987

  17. Fibulin-3 promotes glioma growth and resistance through a novel paracrine regulation of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Nandhu, Mohan S; Sim, Hosung; Agudelo-Garcia, Paula A; Saldivar, Joshua C; Dolan, Claire E; Mora, Maria E; Nuovo, Gerard J; Cole, Susan E; Viapiano, Mariano S

    2012-08-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive and chemoresistant brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis. Targeting of the soluble factors that trigger invasion and resistance, therefore, could have a significant impact against the infiltrative glioma cells that are a major source of recurrence. Fibulin-3 is a matrix protein that is absent in normal brain but upregulated in gliomas and promotes tumor invasion by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that fibulin-3 is a novel soluble activator of Notch signaling that antagonizes DLL3, an autocrine inhibitor or Notch, and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in a Notch-dependent manner. Using a strategy for inducible knockdown, we found that controlled downregulation of fibulin-3 reduced Notch signaling and led to increased apoptosis, reduced self-renewal of glioblastoma-initiating cells, and impaired growth and dispersion of intracranial tumors. In addition, fibulin-3 expression correlated with expression levels of Notch-dependent genes and was a marker of Notch activation in patient-derived glioma samples. These findings underscore a major role for the tumor extracellular matrix in regulating glioma invasion and resistance to apoptosis via activation of the key Notch pathway. More importantly, this work describes a noncanonical, soluble activator of Notch in a cancer model and shows how Notch signaling can be reduced by targeting tumor-specific accessible molecules in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22665268

  18. SoxF factors and Notch regulate nr2f2 gene expression during venous differentiation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Swift, Matthew R; Pham, Van N; Castranova, Daniel; Bell, Kameha; Poole, Richard J; Weinstein, Brant M

    2014-06-15

    Initial embryonic determination of artery or vein identity is regulated by genetic factors that work in concert to specify the endothelial cell׳s (EC) fate, giving rise to two structurally unique components of the circulatory loop. The Shh/VEGF/Notch pathway is critical for arterial specification, while the orphan receptor nr2f2 (COUP-TFII) has been implicated in venous specification. Studies in mice have shown that nr2f2 is expressed in venous but not arterial ECs, and that it preferentially induces markers of venous cell fate. We have examined the role of nr2f2 during early arterial-venous development in the zebrafish trunk. We show that expression of a subset of markers of venous endothelial identity requires nr2f2, while the expression of nr2f2 itself requires sox7 and sox18 gene function. However, while sox7 and sox18 are expressed in both the cardinal vein and the dorsal aorta during early trunk development, nr2f2 is expressed only in the cardinal vein. We show that Notch signaling activity present in the dorsal aorta suppresses expression of nr2f2, restricting nr2f2-dependent promotion of venous differentiation to the cardinal vein. PMID:24699544

  19. The Dmp1-SOST Transgene Interacts With and Downregulates the Dmp1-Cre Transgene and the Rosa(Notch) Allele.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-05-01

    Activation of Notch1 in osteocytes of Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette and the Nicd coding sequence were targeted to the reverse orientation splice acceptor (Rosa)26 locus, causes osteopetrosis associated with suppressed Sost expression and enhanced Wnt signaling. To determine whether Sost downregulation mediates the effects of Notch activation in osteocytes, Rosa(Notch) mice were crossed with transgenics expressing Cre recombinase or SOST under the control of the dentin matrix protein (Dmp)1 promoter. Dmp1-SOST transgenics displayed vertebral osteopenia and a modest femoral cancellous and cortical bone phenotype, whereas hemizygous Dmp1-Cre transgenics heterozygous for the Rosa(Notch) allele (Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch)) exhibited osteopetrosis. The phenotype of Notch activation in osteocytes was prevented in Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice hemizygous for the Dmp1-SOST transgene. The effect was associated with downregulated Notch signaling and suppressed Dmp1 and Rosa26 expression. To test whether SOST regulates Notch expression in osteocytes, cortical bone cultures from Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice or from Rosa(Notch) control littermates were exposed to recombinant human SOST. The addition of SOST had only modest effects on Notch target gene mRNA levels and suppressed Dmp1, but not Cre or Rosa26, expression. These findings suggest that prevention of the Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) skeletal phenotype by Dmp1-SOST is not secondary to SOST expression but to interactions among the Dmp1-SOST and Dmp1-Cre transgenes and the Rosa26 locus. In conclusion, the Dmp1-SOST transgene suppresses the expression of the Dmp1-Cre transgene and of Rosa26. PMID:26456319

  20. Evolution of the chordate regeneration blastema: Differential gene expression and conserved role of notch signaling during siphon regeneration in the ascidian Ciona.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mayuko; Goricki, Spela; Byerly, Mardi S; Satoh, Noriyuki; Jeffery, William R

    2015-09-15

    The regeneration of the oral siphon (OS) and other distal structures in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis occurs by epimorphosis involving the formation of a blastema of proliferating cells. Despite the longstanding use of Ciona as a model in molecular developmental biology, regeneration in this system has not been previously explored by molecular analysis. Here we have employed microarray analysis and quantitative real time RT-PCR to identify genes with differential expression profiles during OS regeneration. The majority of differentially expressed genes were downregulated during OS regeneration, suggesting roles in normal growth and homeostasis. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes was upregulated in the regenerating OS, suggesting functional roles during regeneration. Among the upregulated genes were key members of the Notch signaling pathway, including those encoding the delta and jagged ligands, two fringe modulators, and to a lesser extent the notch receptor. In situ hybridization showed a complementary pattern of delta1 and notch gene expression in the blastema of the regenerating OS. Chemical inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway reduced the levels of cell proliferation in the branchial sac, a stem cell niche that contributes progenitor cells to the regenerating OS, and in the OS regeneration blastema, where siphon muscle fibers eventually re-differentiate. Chemical inhibition also prevented the replacement of oral siphon pigment organs, sensory receptors rimming the entrance of the OS, and siphon muscle fibers, but had no effects on the formation of the wound epidermis. Since Notch signaling is involved in the maintenance of proliferative activity in both the Ciona and vertebrate regeneration blastema, the results suggest a conserved evolutionary role of this signaling pathway in chordate regeneration. The genes identified in this investigation provide the foundation for future molecular analysis of OS regeneration. PMID:26206613

  1. Downregulation of Notch Signaling Pathway in Late Preterm and Term Placentas from Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Soulitzis, Nikolaos; Sifakis, Stavros; Koutroulakis, Demetrios; Gourvas, Victor; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, affecting 3–5% of all pregnancies. The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role during placental development, activating several target genes. Defects in the Notch pathway have adverse effect on placentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of receptors NOTCH1,-2,-3,-4, ligands DLL1,-3,-4, JAG1,-2 and target genes HEY1,-2 in placental tissue samples from 20 late preterm or term pregnancies complicated by PE versus 20 normal pregnancies. mRNA levels of the studied molecules were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR), while the protein expression of the intracellular domain of NOTCH2 (NICD2) and NOTCH3 (NICD3) was measured by Western Blot (WB). qRT-PCR analysis revealed that NOTCH1, NOTCH4 and DLL1 were not expressed in the placenta. On the contrary, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, DLL3, DLL4, JAG1, JAG2, HEY1 and HEY2 mRNA levels were downregulated in PE samples vs. controls (p<0.01). WB confirmed that NICD2 (p = 0.014) and NICD3 (p<0.001) protein levels were also lower in PE specimens. Statistical analysis revealed several significant associations: of NOTCH3 mRNA expression with smoking during pregnancy (p = 0.029), of NICD3 protein levels (p = 0.028) and DLL3 mRNA levels (p = 0.041) with birth weight centile, and of HEY2 transcript levels with parity (p = 0.034) and mode of delivery (p = 0.028). Our results suggest that Notch pathway downregulation is associated with PE. Further studies are required in order to determine the role of these molecules in PE pathogenesis and to evaluate their potential use for the early detection and treatment of PE. PMID:25962154

  2. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets. PMID:26716901

  3. LKB1 and Notch Pathways Interact and Control Biliary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Poncy, Alexis; Charawi, Sara; Dahmani, Rajae; Traore, Massiré; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drouet, Valérie; Dumont, Florent; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Colnot, Sabine; Terris, Benoit; Coulouarn, Cédric; Lemaigre, Frédéric; Perret, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background LKB1 is an evolutionary conserved kinase implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including inhibition of cell proliferation, regulation of cell polarity and metabolism. When Lkb1 is inactivated in the liver, glucose homeostasis is perturbed, cellular polarity is affected and cholestasis develops. Cholestasis occurs as a result from deficient bile duct development, yet how LKB1 impacts on biliary morphogenesis is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the phenotype of mice in which deletion of the Lkb1 gene has been specifically targeted to the hepatoblasts. Our results confirmed that lack of LKB1 in the liver results in bile duct paucity leading to cholestasis. Immunostaining analysis at a prenatal stage showed that LKB1 is not required for differentiation of hepatoblasts to cholangiocyte precursors but promotes maturation of the primitive ductal structures to mature bile ducts. This phenotype is similar to that obtained upon inactivation of Notch signaling in the liver. We tested the hypothesis of a functional overlap between the LKB1 and Notch pathways by gene expression profiling of livers deficient in Lkb1 or in the Notch mediator RbpJκ and identified a mutual cross-talk between LKB1 and Notch signaling. In vitro experiments confirmed that Notch activity was deficient upon LKB1 loss. Conclusion LKB1 and Notch share a common genetic program in the liver, and regulate bile duct morphogenesis. PMID:26689699

  4. Targeted Gene Therapies: Tools, Applications, Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Olivier; Davis, Luther; Maizels, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Many devastating human diseases are caused by mutations in a single gene that prevent a somatic cell from carrying out its essential functions, or by genetic changes acquired as a result of infectious disease or in the course of cell transformation. Targeted gene therapies have emerged as potential strategies for treatment of such diseases. These therapies depend upon rare-cutting endonucleases to cleave at specific sites in or near disease genes. Targeted gene correction provides a template for homology-directed repair, enabling the cell's own repair pathways to erase the mutation and replace it with the correct sequence. Targeted gene disruption ablates the disease gene, disabling its function. Gene targeting can also promote other kinds of genome engineering, including mutation, insertion, or gene deletion. Targeted gene therapies present significant advantages compared to approaches to gene therapy that depend upon delivery of stably expressing transgenes. Recent progress has been fueled by advances in nuclease discovery and design, and by new strategies that maximize efficiency of targeting and minimize off-target damage. Future progress will build on deeper mechanistic understanding of critical factors and pathways. PMID:22530743

  5. Loss of the Notch effector RBPJ promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kulic, Iva; Robertson, Gordon; Chang, Linda; Baker, Jennifer H.E.; Lockwood, William W.; Mok, Winnie; Fuller, Megan; Fournier, Michèle; Wong, Nelson; Chou, Vennie; Robinson, Mark D.; Chun, Hye-Jung; Gilks, Blake; Kempkes, Bettina; Thomson, Thomas A.; Hirst, Martin; Minchinton, Andrew I.; Lam, Wan L.; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant Notch activity is oncogenic in several malignancies, but it is unclear how expression or function of downstream elements in the Notch pathway affects tumor growth. Transcriptional regulation by Notch is dependent on interaction with the DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, RBPJ, and consequent derepression or activation of associated gene promoters. We show here that RBPJ is frequently depleted in human tumors. Depletion of RBPJ in human cancer cell lines xenografted into immunodeficient mice resulted in activation of canonical Notch target genes, and accelerated tumor growth secondary to reduced cell death. Global analysis of activated regions of the genome, as defined by differential acetylation of histone H4 (H4ac), revealed that the cell death pathway was significantly dysregulated in RBPJ-depleted tumors. Analysis of transcription factor binding data identified several transcriptional activators that bind promoters with differential H4ac in RBPJ-depleted cells. Functional studies demonstrated that NF-κB and MYC were essential for survival of RBPJ-depleted cells. Thus, loss of RBPJ derepresses target gene promoters, allowing Notch-independent activation by alternate transcription factors that promote tumorigenesis. PMID:25512468

  6. hCLP46 regulates U937 cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wenzhan; Du, Jie; Chu, Qiaoyun; Wang, Youxin; Liu, Lixin; Song, Manshu; Wang, Wei

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 by RNAi impairs mammalian Notch signaling. {yields} hCLP46 affects neither cell surface Notch1 expression nor ligand-receptor binding. {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 inhibits U937 cell-growth by up-regulation of CDKN1B. -- Abstract: Human CAP10-like protein 46 kDa (hCLP46) is the homolog of Rumi, which is the first identified protein O-glucosyltransferase that modifies Notch receptor in Drosophila. Dysregulation of hCLP46 occurs in many hematologic diseases, but the role of hCLP46 remains unclear. Knockdown of hCLP46 by RNA interference resulted in decreased protein levels of endogenous Notch1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Notch target gene Hes-1, suggesting the impairment of the Notch signaling. However, neither cell surface Notch expression nor ligand binding activities were affected. In addition, down-regulated expression of hCLP46 inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells, which was correlated with increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) CDKN1B (p27) and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) protein. We showed that lack of hCLP46 results in impaired ligand induced Notch activation in mammalian cell, and hCLP46 regulates the proliferation of U937 cell through CDKI-RB signaling pathway, which may be important for the pathogenesis of leukemia.

  7. Problem-Solving Test: Targeted Gene Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of a specific gene is the most powerful technique to analyze the biological function of the gene. This approach has been used for a long time in viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fruit fly, but looked quite hopeless in more complex organisms. Targeted inactivation of specific genes (also known as knock-out mutation) in mice is…

  8. Notch-1 activates estrogen receptor-α-dependent transcription via IKKα in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hao, L; Rizzo, P; Osipo, C; Pannuti, A; Wyatt, D; Cheung, LW-K; Sonenshein, G; Osborne, BA; Miele, L

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 80% of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and are treated with anti-estrogens. Resistance to these agents is a major cause of mortality. We have shown that estrogen inhibits Notch, whereas anti-estrogens or estrogen withdrawal activate Notch signaling. Combined inhibition of Notch and estrogen signaling has synergistic effects in ERα-positive breast cancer models. However, the mechanisms whereby Notch-1 promotes the growth of ERα-positive breast cancer cells are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Notch-1 increases the transcription of ERα-responsive genes in the presence or absence of estrogen via a novel chromatin crosstalk mechanism. Our data support a model in which Notch-1 can activate the transcription of ERα-target genes via IKKα-dependent cooperative chromatin recruitment of Notch–CSL–MAML1 transcriptional complexes (NTC) and ERα, which promotes the recruitment of p300. CSL binding elements frequently occur in close proximity to estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) in the human and mouse genomes. Our observations suggest that a hitherto unknown Notch-1/ERα chromatin crosstalk mediates Notch signaling effects in ERα-positive breast cancer cells and contributes to regulate the transcriptional functions of ERα itself. PMID:19838210

  9. Inhibition of Notch Signaling Ameliorates Acute Kidney Failure and Downregulates Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor β in the Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jan; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Pagel, Horst; Cakiroglu, Figen; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Just, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high morbidity and frequent complications. Repeated episodes of AKI may lead to end-stage renal failure. The pathobiology of regeneration in AKI is not well understood and there is no effective clinical therapy that improves regeneration. The Notch signaling pathway plays an essential role in kidney development and has been implicated in tissue repair in the adult kidney. Here, we found that kidneys after experimental AKI in mice showed increased expression of Notch receptors, specifically Notch1-3, of the Notch ligands Jagged-1 (Jag1), Jag2 and Delta-like-4 (Dll4) and of the Notch target genes Hes1, Hey2, HeyL, Sox9 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (Pdgfrb). Treatment of ischemic mice with the x03B3;-secretase inhibitor DBZ blocked Notch signaling and specifically downregulated the expression of Notch3 and the Notch target genes Hes1, Hey2, HeyL and Pdgfrb. After DBZ treatment, the mice developed less interstitial edema and displayed altered interstitial inflammation patterns. Furthermore, serum urea and creatinine levels were significantly decreased from 6 h onwards when compared to control mice treated with DMSO only. Our data are consistent with an amelioration of the severity of kidney injury by blocking Notch activation following AKI, and suggest an involvement of Notch-regulated Pdgfrb in AKI pathogenesis. PMID:26939110

  10. CoREST acts as a positive regulator of Notch signaling in the follicle cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Domanitskaya, Elena; Schüpbach, Trudi

    2012-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in a variety of developmental events. The context-dependent activities of positive and negative modulators dramatically increase the diversity of cellular responses to Notch signaling. In a screen for mutations affecting the Drosophila melanogaster follicular epithelium, we isolated a mutation in CoREST that disrupts the Notch-dependent mitotic-to-endocycle switch of follicle cells at stage 6 of oogenesis. We show that Drosophila CoREST positively regulates Notch signaling, acting downstream of the proteolytic cleavage of Notch but upstream of Hindsight activity; the Hindsight gene is a Notch target that coordinates responses in the follicle cells. We show that CoREST genetically interacts with components of the Notch repressor complex, Hairless, C-terminal Binding Protein and Groucho. In addition, we demonstrate that levels of H3K27me3 and H4K16 acetylation are dramatically increased in CoREST mutant follicle cells. Our data indicate that CoREST acts as a positive modulator of the Notch pathway in the follicular epithelium as well as in wing tissue, and suggests a previously unidentified role for CoREST in the regulation of Notch signaling. Given its high degree of conservation among species, CoREST probably also functions as a regulator of Notch-dependent cellular events in other organisms. PMID:22331351

  11. Regulation of Notch Signaling by an Evolutionary Conserved DEAD Box RNA Helicase, Maheshvara in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, Satya; Tripathi, Bipin K; Maurya, Bhawana; Bhaskar, Pradeep K; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

    2015-11-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved process that influences cell fate determination, cell proliferation, and cell death in a context-dependent manner. Notch signaling is fine-tuned at multiple levels and misregulation of Notch has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. We have characterized maheshvara (mahe), a novel gene in Drosophila melanogaster that encodes a putative DEAD box protein that is highly conserved across taxa and belongs to the largest group of RNA helicase. A dynamic pattern of mahe expression along with the maternal accumulation of its transcripts is seen during early stages of embryogenesis. In addition, a strong expression is also seen in the developing nervous system. Ectopic expression of mahe in a wide range of tissues during development results in a variety of defects, many of which resemble a typical Notch loss-of-function phenotype. We illustrate that ectopic expression of mahe in the wing imaginal discs leads to loss of Notch targets, Cut and Wingless. Interestingly, Notch protein levels are also lowered, whereas no obvious change is seen in the levels of Notch transcripts. In addition, mahe overexpression can significantly rescue ectopic Notch-mediated proliferation of eye tissue. Further, we illustrate that mahe genetically interacts with Notch and its cytoplasmic regulator deltex in trans-heterozygous combination. Coexpression of Deltex and Mahe at the dorso-ventral boundary results in a wing-nicking phenotype and a more pronounced loss of Notch target Cut. Taken together we report identification of a novel evolutionary conserved RNA helicase mahe, which plays a vital role in regulation of Notch signaling. PMID:26400611

  12. Targeted polymeric nanoparticles for cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayoung; Wilson, David R.; Zamboni, Camila G.; Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, advances in designing polymeric nanoparticles for targeted cancer gene therapy are reviewed. Characterization and evaluation of biomaterials, targeting ligands, and transcriptional elements are each discussed. Advances in biomaterials have driven improvements to nanoparticle stability and tissue targeting, conjugation of ligands to the surface of polymeric nanoparticles enable binding to specific cancer cells, and the design of transcriptional elements has enabled selective DNA expression specific to the cancer cells. Together, these features have improved the performance of polymeric nanoparticles as targeted non-viral gene delivery vectors to treat cancer. As polymeric nanoparticles can be designed to be biodegradable, non-toxic, and to have reduced immunogenicity and tumorigenicity compared to viral platforms, they have significant potential for clinical use. Results of polymeric gene therapy in clinical trials and future directions for the engineering of nanoparticle systems for targeted cancer gene therapy are also presented. PMID:26061296

  13. The coding genome of splenic marginal zone lymphoma: activation of NOTCH2 and other pathways regulating marginal zone development

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Davide; Trifonov, Vladimir; Fangazio, Marco; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Rasi, Silvia; Spina, Valeria; Monti, Sara; Vaisitti, Tiziana; Arruga, Francesca; Famà, Rosella; Ciardullo, Carmela; Greco, Mariangela; Cresta, Stefania; Piranda, Daniela; Holmes, Antony; Fabbri, Giulia; Messina, Monica; Rinaldi, Andrea; Wang, Jiguang; Agostinelli, Claudio; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Serra, Roberto; Franceschetti, Silvia; Deambrogi, Clara; Daniele, Giulia; Gattei, Valter; Marasca, Roberto; Facchetti, Fabio; Arcaini, Luca; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Pileri, Stefano A.; Deaglio, Silvia; Foà, Robin; Pasqualucci, Laura; Rabadan, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a B cell malignancy of unknown pathogenesis, and thus an orphan of targeted therapies. By integrating whole-exome sequencing and copy-number analysis, we show that the SMZL exome carries at least 30 nonsilent gene alterations. Mutations in NOTCH2, a gene required for marginal-zone (MZ) B cell development, represent the most frequent lesion in SMZL, accounting for ∼20% of cases. All NOTCH2 mutations are predicted to cause impaired degradation of the NOTCH2 protein by eliminating the C-terminal PEST domain, which is required for proteasomal recruitment. Among indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, NOTCH2 mutations are restricted to SMZL, thus representing a potential diagnostic marker for this lymphoma type. In addition to NOTCH2, other modulators or members of the NOTCH pathway are recurrently targeted by genetic lesions in SMZL; these include NOTCH1, SPEN, and DTX1. We also noted mutations in other signaling pathways normally involved in MZ B cell development, suggesting that deregulation of MZ B cell development pathways plays a role in the pathogenesis of ∼60% SMZL. These findings have direct implications for the treatment of SMZL patients, given the availability of drugs that can target NOTCH, NF-κB, and other pathways deregulated in this disease. PMID:22891273

  14. Notch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    2004-01-01

    Notch antennas, also known as the tapered slot antenna (TSA), have been the topics of research for decades. TSA has demonstrated multi-octave bandwidth, moderate gain (7 to 10 dB), and symmetric E- and H- plane beam patterns and can be used for many different applications. This chapter summarizes the research activities on notch antennas over the past decade with emphasis on their most recent advances and applications. This chapter begins with some discussions on the designs of single TSA; then follows with detailed discussions of issues associated with TSA designs and performance characteristics. To conclude the chapter, some recent developments in TSA arrays and their applications are highlighted.

  15. Wasp, the Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Gene Homologue, Is Required for Cell Fate Decisions Mediated by Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yaacov, Sari; Le Borgne, Roland; Abramson, Irit; Schweisguth, Francois; Schejter, Eyal D.

    2001-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins, encoded by the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene family, bridge signal transduction pathways and the microfilament-based cytoskeleton. Mutations in the Drosophila homologue, Wasp (Wsp), reveal an essential requirement for this gene in implementation of cell fate decisions during adult and embryonic sensory organ development. Phenotypic analysis of Wsp mutant animals demonstrates a bias towards neuronal differentiation, at the expense of other cell types, resulting from improper execution of the program of asymmetric cell divisions which underlie sensory organ development. Generation of two similar daughter cells after division of the sensory organ precursor cell constitutes a prominent defect in the Wsp sensory organ lineage. The asymmetric segregation of key elements such as Numb is unaffected during this division, despite the misassignment of cell fates. The requirement for Wsp extends to additional cell fate decisions in lineages of the embryonic central nervous system and mesoderm. The nature of the Wsp mutant phenotypes, coupled with genetic interaction studies, identifies an essential role for Wsp in lineage decisions mediated by the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:11149916

  16. Nuclear Localization of the Autism Candidate Gene Neurobeachin and Functional Interaction with the NOTCH1 Intracellular Domain Indicate a Role in Regulating Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tuand, Krizia; Stijnen, Pieter; Volders, Karolien; Declercq, Jeroen; Nuytens, Kim; Meulemans, Sandra; Creemers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurobeachin (NBEA) is an autism spectrum disorders (ASD) candidate gene. NBEA deficiency affects regulated secretion, receptor trafficking, synaptic architecture and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation. NBEA is a large multidomain scaffolding protein. From N- to C-terminus, NBEA has a concanavalin A-like lectin domain flanked by armadillo repeats (ACA), an A-kinase anchoring protein domain that can bind to PKA, a domain of unknown function (DUF1088) and a BEACH domain, preceded by a pleckstrin homology-like domain and followed by WD40 repeats (PBW). Although most of these domains mediate protein-protein interactions, no interaction screen has yet been performed. Methods Yeast two-hybrid screens with the ACA and PBW domain modules of NBEA gave a list of interaction partners, which were analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment. Neuro-2a cells were used for confocal microscopy and nuclear extraction analysis. NOTCH-mediated transcription was studied with luciferase reporter assays and qRT-PCR, combined with NBEA knockdown or overexpression. Results Both domain modules showed a GO enrichment for the nucleus. PBW almost exclusively interacted with transcription regulators, while ACA interacted with a number of PKA substrates. NBEA was partially localized in the nucleus of Neuro-2a cells, albeit much less than in the cytoplasm. A nuclear localization signal was found in the DUF1088 domain, which was shown to contribute to the nuclear localization of an EGFP-DPBW fusion protein. Yeast two-hybrid identified the Notch1 intracellular domain as a physical interactor of the PBW domain and a role for NBEA as a negative regulator in Notch-mediated transcription was demonstrated. Conclusion Defining novel interaction partners of conserved NBEA domain modules identified a role for NBEA as transcriptional regulator in the nucleus. The physical interaction of NBEA with NOTCH1 is most relevant for ASD pathogenesis because NOTCH signaling is essential for

  17. Seed Targeted Gene Confinement Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic improvement of plants using biotechnology is now centrally important to agriculture, food security, and the biofuels industry. It is also important to the continued health of the environment as the need for food (on existing arable land) and renewable energy becomes critical. New genes c...

  18. Haploinsufficiency of the NOTCH1 Receptor as a Cause of Adams-Oliver Syndrome with Variable Cardiac Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Laura; Sukalo, Maja; Karountzos, Anastasios S.V.; Taylor, Edward J.; Collinson, Claire S.; Ruddy, Deborah; Snape, Katie M.; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Joss, Shelagh; Brancati, Francesco; Digilio, M. Cristina; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M.; Salviati, Leonardo; Coerdt, Wiltrud; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Wuyts, Wim; Zenker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a rare disorder characterized by congenital limb defects and scalp cutis aplasia. In a proportion of cases, notable cardiac involvement is also apparent. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of AOS, for the majority of affected subjects the underlying molecular defect remains unresolved. This study aimed to identify novel genetic determinants of AOS. Methods and Results Whole-exome sequencing was performed for 12 probands, each with a clinical diagnosis of AOS. Analyses led to the identification of novel heterozygous truncating NOTCH1 mutations (c.1649dupA and c.6049_6050delTC) in two kindreds in which AOS was segregating as an autosomal dominant trait. Screening a cohort of 52 unrelated AOS subjects, we detected 8 additional unique NOTCH1 mutations, including three de novo amino-acid substitutions, all within the ligand-binding domain. Congenital heart anomalies were noted in 47% (8/17) of NOTCH1-positive probands and affected family members. In leucocyte-derived RNA from subjects harboring NOTCH1 extracellular domain mutations, we observed significant reduction of NOTCH1 expression, suggesting instability and degradation of mutant mRNA transcripts by the cellular machinery. Transient transfection of mutagenized NOTCH1 missense constructs also revealed significant reduction in gene expression. Mutant NOTCH1 expression was associated with down-regulation of the Notch target genes HEY1 and HES1, indicating that NOTCH1-related AOS arises through dysregulation of the Notch signaling pathway. Conclusions These findings highlight a key role for NOTCH1 across a range of developmental anomalies that include cardiac defects, and implicate NOTCH1 haploinsufficiency as a likely molecular mechanism for this group of disorders. PMID:25963545

  19. Blocking Notch in endothelial cells prevents arteriovenous fistula failure despite CKD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Liang, Anlin; Luo, Jinlong; Liang, Ming; Han, Guofeng; Mitch, William E; Cheng, Jizhong

    2014-04-01

    Neointima formation causes the failure of 60% of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) within 2 years. Neointima-forming mechanisms are controversial but possibly linked to excess proinflammatory responses and dysregulated Notch signaling. To identify how AVFs fail, we anastomosed the carotid artery to the internal jugular vein in normal and uremic mice and compared these findings with those in failed AVFs from patients with ESRD. Endothelial cells (ECs) of AVFs in uremic mice or patients expressed mesenchymal markers (FSP-1 and/or α-SMA) and exhibited increased expression and nuclear localization of Notch intracellular domain compared with ECs of AVFs in pair-fed control mice. Furthermore, expression of VE-Cadherin decreased, whereas expression of Notch1 and -4, Notch ligands, the downstream transcription factor of Notch, RBP-Jκ, and Notch target genes increased in ECs of AVFs in uremic mice. In cultured ECs, ectopic expression of Notch ligand or treatment with TGF-β1 triggered the expression of mesenchymal markers and induced endothelial cell barrier dysfunction, both of which were blocked by Notch inhibition or RBP-Jκ knockout. Furthermore, Notch-induced defects in barrier function, invasion of inflammatory cells, and neointima formation were suppressed in mice with heterozygous knockdown of endothelial-specific RBP-Jκ. These results suggest that increased TGF-β1, a complication of uremia, activates Notch in endothelial cells of AVFs, leading to accelerated neointima formation and AVF failure. Suppression of Notch activation could be a strategy for improving AFV function in uremia. PMID:24480830

  20. Gene Targeting in Mice: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Bouabe, Hicham; Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ability to introduce DNA sequences (e.g. genes) of interest into the germline genome has rendered the mouse a powerful and indispensable experimental model in fundamental and medical research. The DNA sequences can be integrated into the genome randomly or into a specific locus by homologous recombination, in order to: (i) delete or insert mutations into genes of interest to determine their function, (ii) introduce human genes into the genome of mice to generate animal models enabling study of human-specific genes and diseases, e.g. mice susceptible to infections by human-specific pathogens of interest, (iii) introduce individual genes or genomes of pathogens (such as viruses) in order to examine the contributions of such genes to the pathogenesis of the parent pathogens, (iv) and last but not least introduce reporter genes that allow monitoring in vivo or ex vivo the expression of genes of interest. Furthermore, the use of recombination systems, such as Cre/loxP or FRT/FLP, enables conditional induction or suppression of gene expression of interest in a restricted period of mouse’s lifetime, in a particular cell type, or in a specific tissue. In this review, we will give an updated summary of the gene targeting technology and discuss some important considerations in the design of gene-targeted mice. PMID:23996268

  1. Vascular niche factor PEDF modulates Notch-dependent stemness in the adult subependymal zone.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Agulló, Celia; Morante-Redolat, José Manuel; Delgado, Ana C; Fariñas, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    We sought to address the fundamental question of how stem cell microenvironments can regulate self-renewal. We found that Notch was active in astroglia-like neural stem cells (NSCs), but not in transit-amplifying progenitors of the murine subependymal zone, and that the level of Notch transcriptional activity correlated with self-renewal and multipotency. Moreover, dividing NSCs appeared to balance renewal with commitment via controlled segregation of Notch activity, leading to biased expression of known (Hes1) and previously unknown (Egfr) Notch target genes in daughter cells. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) enhanced Notch-dependent transcription in cells with low Notch signaling, thereby subverting the output of an asymmetrical division to the production of two highly self-renewing cells. Mechanistically, PEDF induced a non-canonical activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, leading to the dismissal of the transcriptional co-repressor N-CoR from specific Notch-responsive promoters. Our data provide a basis for stemness regulation in vascular niches and indicate that Notch and PEDF cooperate to regulate self-renewal. PMID:19898467

  2. Hair cell stereociliary bundle regeneration by espin gene transduction after aminoglycoside damage and hair cell induction by Notch inhibition.

    PubMed

    Taura, A; Taura, K; Koyama, Y; Yamamoto, N; Nakagawa, T; Ito, J; Ryan, A F

    2016-05-01

    Once inner ear hair cells (HCs) are damaged by drugs, noise or aging, their apical structures including the stereociliary arrays are frequently the first cellular feature to be lost. Although this can be followed by progressive loss of HC somata, a significant number of HC bodies often remain even after stereociliary loss. However, in the absence of stereocilia they are nonfunctional. HCs can sometimes be regenerated by Atoh1 transduction or Notch inhibition, but they also may lack stereociliary bundles. It is therefore important to develop methods for the regeneration of stereocilia, in order to achieve HC functional recovery. Espin is an actin-bundling protein known to participate in sterociliary elongation during development. We evaluated stereociliary array regeneration in damaged vestibular sensory epithelia in tissue culture, using viral vector transduction of two espin isoforms. Utricular HCs were damaged with aminoglycosides. The utricles were then treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor, followed by espin or control transduction and histochemistry. Although γ-secretase inhibition increased the number of HCs, few had stereociliary arrays. In contrast, 46 h after espin1 transduction, a significant increase in hair-bundle-like structures was observed. These were confirmed to be immature stereociliary arrays by scanning electron microscopy. Increased uptake of FM1-43 uptake provided evidence of stereociliary function. Espin4 transduction had no effect. The results demonstrate that espin1 gene therapy can restore stereocilia on damaged or regenerated HCs. PMID:26886463

  3. Gene Therapy and Targeted Toxins for Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Maria G.; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt; King, Gwendalyn D.; Curtin, James F.; Yagiz, Kader; Mineharu, Yohei; Assi, Hikmat; Wibowo, Mia; Muhammad, AKM Ghulam; Foulad, David; Puntel, Mariana; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2011-01-01

    The most common primary brain tumor in adults is glioblastoma. These tumors are highly invasive and aggressive with a mean survival time of nine to twelve months from diagnosis to death. Current treatment modalities are unable to significantly prolong survival in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. As such, glioma is an attractive target for developing novel therapeutic approaches utilizing gene therapy. This review will examine the available preclinical models for glioma including xenographs, syngeneic and genetic models. Several promising therapeutic targets are currently being pursued in pre-clinical investigations. These targets will be reviewed by mechanism of action, i.e., conditional cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses, tumor suppressors/oncogenes, and immune stimulatory approaches. Preclinical gene therapy paradigms aim to determine which strategies will provide rapid tumor regression and long-term protection from recurrence. While a wide range of potential targets are being investigated preclinically, only the most efficacious are further transitioned into clinical trial paradigms. Clinical trials reported to date are summarized including results from conditionally cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses and oncogene targeting approaches. Clinical trial results have not been as robust as preclinical models predicted; this could be due to the limitations of the GBM models employed. Once this is addressed, and we develop effective gene therapies in models that better replicate the clinical scenario, gene therapy will provide a powerful approach to treat and manage brain tumors. PMID:21453286

  4. Gene Therapy and Targeted Toxins for Glioma

    PubMed Central

    King, Gwendalyn D.; Curtin, James F.; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2006-01-01

    The most common primary brain tumor in adults is glioblastoma. These tumors are highly invasive and aggressive with a mean survival time of nine to twelve months from diagnosis to death. Current treatment modalities are unable to significantly prolong survival in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. As such, glioma is an attractive target for developing novel therapeutic approaches utilizing gene therapy. This review will examine the available preclinical models for glioma including xenographs, syngeneic and genetic models. Several promising therapeutic targets are currently being pursued in pre-clinical investigations. These targets will be reviewed by mechanism of action, i.e., conditional cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses, tumor suppressors/oncogenes, and immune stimulatory approaches. Preclinical gene therapy paradigms aim to determine which strategies will provide rapid tumor regression and long-term protection from recurrence. While a wide range of potential targets are being investigated preclinically, only the most efficacious are further transitioned into clinical trial paradigms. Clinical trials reported to date are summarized including results from conditionally cytotoxic, targeted toxins, oncolytic viruses and oncogene targeting approaches. Clinical trial results have not been as robust as preclinical models predicted, this could be due to the limitations of the GBM models employed. Once this is addressed, and we develop effective gene therapies in models that better replicate the clinical scenario, gene therapy will provide a powerful approach to treat and manage brain tumors. PMID:16457645

  5. A microRNA miR-34a Regulated Bimodal Switch targets Notch in Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Pengcheng; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Chen, Joyce Huan; Wang, Lihua; Walters, Jewell; Shin, Yong Jun; Goerger, Julian P.; Sun, Jian; Witherspoon, Mavee; Rakhilin, Nikolai; Li, Jiahe; Yang, Herman; Milsom, Jeff; Lee, Sang; Zipfel, Warren; Jin, Moonsoo M.; Gümüşcedil, Zeynep H.; Lipkin, Steven M.; Shen, Xiling

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY microRNAs regulate developmental cell fate decisions, tissue homeostasis and oncogenesis in distinct ways relative to proteins. Here, we show that the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-34a is a cell fate determinant in early stage dividing colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs). In pair-cell assays, miR34a distributes at high levels in differentiating progeny, while low levels of miR34a demarcate self renewing CCSCs. Moreover, miR34a loss of function and gain of function alters the balance between self-renewal and differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, miR34a sequesters Notch1 mRNA to generate a sharp threshold response where a bimodal Notch signal specifies the choice between self-renewal versus differentiation. In contrast, the canonical cell fate determinant Numb regulates Notch levels in a continuously graded manner. Taken together, our findings highlight a unique microRNA regulated mechanism that converts noisy input into a toggle switch for robust cell fate decisions in CCSCs. PMID:23642368

  6. EWS-FLI1 Suppresses NOTCH-Activated p53 in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Jozef; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M.; Kauer, Max; Schaefer, Karl-Ludwig; Poremba, Christopher; Jug, Gunhild; Schwentner, Raphaela; Smrzka, Oskar; Muehlbacher, Karin; Aryee, Dave N.T.; Kovar, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    Although p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer, half of human tumors retain wild-type p53, whereby it is unknown whether normal p53 function is compromised by other cancer-associated alterations. One example is Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFT), where 90% express wild-type p53. ESFT are characterized by EWS-FLI1 oncogene fusions. Studying 6 ESFT cell lines, silencing of EWS-FLI1 in a wild-type p53 context resulted in increased p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 levels, causing cell cycle arrest. Using a candidate gene approach, HEY1 was linked to p53 induction. HEY1 was rarely expressed in 59 primary tumors, but consistently induced upon EWS-FLI1 knockdown in ESFT cell lines. The NOTCH signaling pathway targets HEY1, and we show NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 to be expressed in ESFT primary tumors and cell lines. Upon EWS-FLI1 silencing, NOTCH3 processing accompanied by nuclear translocation of the activated intracellular domain was observed in all but one p53-mutant cell line. In cell lines with the highest HEY1 induction, NOTCH3 activation was the consequence of JAG1 transcriptional induction. JAG1 modulation by specific siRNA, NOTCH-processing inhibition by either GSI or ectopic NUMB1, and siRNA-mediated HEY1 knockdown all inhibited p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 induction. Conversely, forced expression of JAG1, activated NOTCH3, or HEY1 induced p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1. These results indicate that suppression of EWS-FLI1 reactivates NOTCH signaling in ESFT cells, resulting in p53-dependent cell cycle arrest. Our data link EWS-FLI1 to the NOTCH and p53 pathways and provide a plausible basis both for NOTCH tumor suppressor effects and oncogenesis of cancers that retain wild-type p53. PMID:18757425

  7. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analyses Reveal Heterogeneous Responsiveness of Fetal Innate Lymphoid Progenitors to Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Chea, Sylvestre; Schmutz, Sandrine; Berthault, Claire; Perchet, Thibaut; Petit, Maxime; Burlen-Defranoux, Odile; Goldrath, Ananda W; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Cumano, Ana; Golub, Rachel

    2016-02-16

    T and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) share some aspects of their developmental programs. However, although Notch signaling is strictly required for T cell development, it is dispensable for fetal ILC development. Constitutive activation of Notch signaling, at the common lymphoid progenitor stage, drives T cell development and abrogates ILC development by preventing Id2 expression. By combining single-cell transcriptomics and clonal culture strategies, we characterize two heterogeneous α4β7-expressing lymphoid progenitor compartments. αLP1 (Flt3(+)) still retains T cell potential and comprises the global ILC progenitor, while αLP2 (Flt3(-)) consists of ILC precursors that are primed toward the different ILC lineages. Only a subset of αLP2 precursors is sensitive to Notch signaling required for their proliferation. Our study identifies, in a refined manner, the diversity of transitional stages of ILC development, their transcriptional signatures, and their differential dependence on Notch signaling. PMID:26832410

  8. Ultrasound-Targeted Retroviral Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Sarah L.; Rahim, Ahad A.; Bush, Nigel L.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Porter, Colin D.

    2007-05-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of focused ultrasound to target retroviral gene delivery. Key to our experiments was the use of non-infectious virus particles lacking the envelope protein required for receptor-mediated entry. The novelty of our approach is that spatial control at a distance is exerted upon viral delivery by subsequent exposure to ultrasound, leading to stable gene delivery. The technology is ideally suited to controlling gene delivery in vivo following systemic vector administration. Our data provide a solution to the critical issue of obtaining tissue specificity with retroviral vectors and impart stability of expression to ultrasound-mediated gene delivery.

  9. Alterations in cellular metabolome after pharmacological inhibition of Notch in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Ulf D; Cheng, Menglin; Koch, Katharina; Marchionni, Luigi; Fan, Xing; Raabe, Eric H; Maciaczyk, Jarek; Glunde, Kristine; Eberhart, Charles G

    2016-03-01

    Notch signaling can promote tumorigenesis in the nervous system and plays important roles in stem-like cancer cells. However, little is known about how Notch inhibition might alter tumor metabolism, particularly in lesions arising in the brain. The gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 was used to treat glioblastoma neurospheres, and they were subdivided into sensitive and insensitive groups in terms of canonical Notch target response. Global metabolomes were then examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and changes in intracellular concentration of various metabolites identified which correlate with Notch inhibition. Reductions in glutamate were verified by oxidation-based colorimetric assays. Interestingly, the alkylating chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, the mTOR-inhibitor MLN0128, and the WNT inhibitor LGK974 did not reduce glutamate levels, suggesting that changes to this metabolite might reflect specific downstream effects of Notch blockade in gliomas rather than general sequelae of tumor growth inhibition. Global and targeted expression analyses revealed that multiple genes important in glutamate homeostasis, including glutaminase, are dysregulated after Notch inhibition. Treatment with an allosteric inhibitor of glutaminase, compound 968, could slow glioblastoma growth, and Notch inhibition may act at least in part by regulating glutaminase and glutamate. PMID:26422827

  10. Requirement of HDAC6 for activation of Notch1 by TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Deskin, Brian; Lasky, Joseph; Zhuang, Yan; Shan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1 is enriched in the tumor microenvironment and acts as a key inducer of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. The NOTCH signaling pathway is conserved across species and is an essential pathway for development, cell differentiation, and cancer biology. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is a common feature of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is correlated with poor prognosis. Crosstalk exists between the NOTCH and TGF-β signaling pathways in EMT. Herein we report that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) modulates TGF-β1-mediated activation of the Notch pathway. HDAC6, a primarily cytoplasmic deacetylase, mediates TGF-β1-induced EMT in human lung cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC6 with a small molecule inhibitor, namely tubacin or with siRNA attenuated TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 signaling. We show that TGFβ-1-induced EMT is accompanied by rapid HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Consistently, inhibition of HSP90 with its small molecule inhibitor 17AAG attenuated expression of TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 target genes, HEY-1 and HES-1. These findings reveal a novel function of HDAC6 in EMT via mediating the TGF-β-Notch signaling cascade, and support HDAC6 as a key regulator of TGFβ-induced EMT in NSCLC. This work suggests that HDAC6 may be an attractive therapeutic target against tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:27499032

  11. Alterations in cellular metabolome after pharmacological inhibition of Notch in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kahlert, Ulf D.; Cheng, Menglin; Koch, Katharina; Marchionni, Luigi; Fan, Xing; Raabe, Eric H.; Maciaczyk, Jarek; Glunde, Kristine; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling can promote tumorigenesis in the nervous system and plays important roles in stem-like cancer cells. However, little is known about how Notch inhibition might alter tumor metabolism, particularly in lesions arising in the brain. The gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 was used to treat glioblastoma neurospheres, and they were subdivided into sensitive and insensitive groups in terms of canonical Notch target response. Global metabolomes were then examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and changes in intracellular concentration of various metabolites identified which correlate with Notch inhibition. Reductions in glutamate were verified by oxidation-based colorimetric assays. Interestingly, the alkylating chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, the mTOR-inhibitor MLN0128, and the WNT inhibitor LGK974 did not reduce glutamate levels, suggesting that changes to this metabolite might reflect specific downstream effects of Notch blockade in gliomas rather than general sequelae of tumor growth inhibition. Global and targeted expression analyses revealed that multiple genes important in glutamate homeostasis, including glutaminase, are dysregulated after Notch inhibition. Treatment with an allosteric inhibitor of glutaminase, compound 968, could slow glioblastoma growth, and Notch inhibition may act at least in part by regulating glutaminase and glutamate. PMID:26422827

  12. Requirement of HDAC6 for activation of Notch1 by TGF-β1

    PubMed Central

    Deskin, Brian; Lasky, Joseph; Zhuang, Yan; Shan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1 is enriched in the tumor microenvironment and acts as a key inducer of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. The NOTCH signaling pathway is conserved across species and is an essential pathway for development, cell differentiation, and cancer biology. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is a common feature of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is correlated with poor prognosis. Crosstalk exists between the NOTCH and TGF-β signaling pathways in EMT. Herein we report that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) modulates TGF-β1-mediated activation of the Notch pathway. HDAC6, a primarily cytoplasmic deacetylase, mediates TGF-β1-induced EMT in human lung cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC6 with a small molecule inhibitor, namely tubacin or with siRNA attenuated TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 signaling. We show that TGFβ-1-induced EMT is accompanied by rapid HDAC6-dependent deacetylation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Consistently, inhibition of HSP90 with its small molecule inhibitor 17AAG attenuated expression of TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 target genes, HEY-1 and HES-1. These findings reveal a novel function of HDAC6 in EMT via mediating the TGF-β-Notch signaling cascade, and support HDAC6 as a key regulator of TGFβ-induced EMT in NSCLC. This work suggests that HDAC6 may be an attractive therapeutic target against tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:27499032

  13. Progress in gene targeting and gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, M.M.; Erven, A.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we localized disease genes involved in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited retinal degeneration, close to the rhodopsin and peripherin genes on 3q and 6p. Subsequently, we and others identified mutations in these genes in RP patients. Currently animal models for human retinopathies are being generated using gene targeting by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Genomic clones for retinal genes including rhodopsin and peripherin have been obtained from a phage library carrying mouse DNA isogenic with the ES cell line (CC1.2). The peripherin clone has been sequenced to establish the genomic structure of the mouse gene. Targeting vectors for rhodopsin and peripherin including a neomycin cassette for positive selection and thymidine kinase genes enabling selection against random intergrants are under construction. Progress in vector construction will be presented. Simultaneously we are developing systems for delivery of gene therapies to retinal tissues utilizing replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5). Efficacy of infection subsequent to various methods of intraocular injection and with varying viral titers is being assayed using an adenovirus construct containing a CMV promoter LacZ fusion as reporter and the range of tissues infected and the level of duration of LacZ expression monitored. Viral constructs with the LacZ reporter gene under the control of retinal specific promoters such as rhodopsin and IRBP cloned into pXCJL.1 are under construction. An update on developments in photoreceptor cell-directed expression of virally delivered genes will be presented.

  14. Improved Gene Targeting through Cell Cycle Synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Brevnova, Elena; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Shaw, A. Joe

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting is a challenge in organisms where non-homologous end-joining is the predominant form of recombination. We show that cell division cycle synchronization can be applied to significantly increase the rate of homologous recombination during transformation. Using hydroxyurea-mediated cell cycle arrest, we obtained improved gene targeting rates in Yarrowia lipolytica, Arxula adeninivorans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis and Pichia pastoris demonstrating the broad applicability of the method. Hydroxyurea treatment enriches for S-phase cells that are active in homologous recombination and enables previously unattainable genomic modifications. PMID:26192309

  15. Gene targeting in primary human trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Sadovsky, Yoel; Jansson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Studies in primary human trophoblasts provide critical insights into placental function in normal and complicated pregnancies. Mechanistic studies in these cells require experimental tools to modulate gene expression. Lipid-based methods to transfect primary trophoblasts are fairly simple to use and allow for the efficient delivery of nucleic acids, but potential toxic effects limit these methods. Viral vectors are versatile transfection tools of native trophoblastic or foreign cDNAs, providing high transfection efficiency, low toxicity and stable DNA integration into the trophoblast genome. RNA interference (RNAi), using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA, constitutes a powerful approach to silence trophoblast genes. However, off-target effects, such as regulation of unintended complementary transcripts, inflammatory responses and saturation of the endogenous RNAi machinery, are significant concerns. Strategies to minimize off-target effects include using multiple individual siRNAs, elimination of pro-inflammatory sequences in the siRNA construct and chemical modification of a nucleotide in the guide strand or of the ribose moiety. Tools for efficient gene targeting in primary human trophoblasts are currently available, albeit not yet extensively validated. These methods are critical for exploring the function of human trophoblast genes and may provide a foundation for the future application of gene therapy that targets placental trophoblasts. PMID:22831880

  16. Targeted gene repair – in the arena

    PubMed Central

    Kmiec, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    The development of targeted gene repair is under way and, despite some setbacks, shows promise as an alternative form of gene therapy. This approach uses synthetic DNA molecules to activate and direct the cell’s inherent DNA repair systems to correct inborn errors. The progress of this technique and its therapeutic potential are discussed in relation to the treatment of genetic diseases. PMID:12952907

  17. Targeting Herpetic Keratitis by Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawy, Hossein Mostafa; Gailledrat, Marine; Desseaux, Carole; Ponzin, Diego; Ferrari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Ocular gene therapy is rapidly becoming a reality. By November 2012, approximately 28 clinical trials were approved to assess novel gene therapy agents. Viral infections such as herpetic keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can cause serious complications that may lead to blindness. Recurrence of the disease is likely and cornea transplantation, therefore, might not be the ideal therapeutic solution. This paper will focus on the current situation of ocular gene therapy research against herpetic keratitis, including the use of viral and nonviral vectors, routes of delivery of therapeutic genes, new techniques, and key research strategies. Whereas the correction of inherited diseases was the initial goal of the field of gene therapy, here we discuss transgene expression, gene replacement, silencing, or clipping. Gene therapy of herpetic keratitis previously reported in the literature is screened emphasizing candidate gene therapy targets. Commonly adopted strategies are discussed to assess the relative advantages of the protective therapy using antiviral drugs and the common gene therapy against long-term HSV-1 ocular infections signs, inflammation and neovascularization. Successful gene therapy can provide innovative physiological and pharmaceutical solutions against herpetic keratitis. PMID:23326647

  18. BEND6 is a nuclear antagonist of Notch signaling during self-renewal of neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Andreu-Agullo, Celia; Insolera, Ryan; Wong, Li Chin; Shi, Song-Hai; Lai, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the Notch pathway revolves around a CSL-class transcription factor, which recruits distinct complexes that activate or repress target gene expression. The co-activator complex is deeply conserved and includes the cleaved Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Mastermind. By contrast, numerous CSL co-repressor proteins have been identified, and these are mostly different between invertebrate and vertebrate systems. In this study, we demonstrate that mammalian BEND6 is a neural BEN-solo factor that shares many functional attributes with Drosophila Insensitive, a co-repressor for the Drosophila CSL factor. BEND6 binds the mammalian CSL protein CBF1 and antagonizes Notch-dependent target activation. In addition, its association with Notch- and CBF1-regulated enhancers is promoted by CBF1 and antagonized by activated Notch. In utero electroporation experiments showed that ectopic BEND6 inhibited Notch-mediated self-renewal of neocortical neural stem cells and promoted neurogenesis. Conversely, knockdown of BEND6 increased NSC self-renewal in wild-type neocortex, and exhibited genetic interactions with gain and loss of Notch pathway activity. We recapitulated all of these findings in cultured neurospheres, in which overexpression and depletion of BEND6 caused reciprocal effects on neural stem cell renewal and neurogenesis. These data reveal a novel mammalian CSL co-repressor in the nervous system, and show that the Notch-inhibitory activity of certain BEN-solo proteins is conserved between flies and mammals. PMID:23571214

  19. Synergy between suppressor of Hairless and Notch in regulation of Enhancer of split m gamma and m delta expression.

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, D S; Slee, R; Skoufos, E; Bangalore, L; Bray, S; Delidakis, C

    1997-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate cell fate decisions in a variety of organisms from worms to humans. Although several components of the pathway have been characterized, the actual mechanism and molecular results of signaling remain elusive. We have examined the role of the Notch signaling pathway in the transcriptional regulation of two Drosophila Enhancer of split [E(spl)] genes, whose gene products have been shown to be downstream players in the pathway. Using a reporter assay system in Drosophila tissue culture cells, we have observed a significant induction of E(spl) m gamma and m delta expression after cotransfection with activated Notch. Characterization of the 5' regulatory regions of these two genes led to the identification of a number of target sites for the Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] protein, a transcription factor activated by Notch signaling. We show that Notch-inducible expression of E(spl) m gamma and m delta both in cultured cells and in vivo is dependent on functional Su(H). Although overexpression of Su(H) augments the level of induction of the reporter genes by activated Notch, Su(H) alone is insufficient to produce high levels of transcriptional activation. Despite the synergy observed between activated Notch and Su(H), the former affects neither the nuclear localization nor the DNA binding activity of the latter. PMID:9271437

  20. Notch3 and Hey-1 as Prognostic Biomarkers in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Christopher D.; Bastianpillai, Christopher; Neal, Christopher P.; Masood, Muhammad M.; Jones, Donald J. L.; Teichert, Friederike; Singh, Rajinder; Karpova, Elena; Berry, David P.; Manson, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve a better outcome for pancreatic cancer patients, reliable biomarkers are required which allow for improved diagnosis. These may emanate from a more detailed molecular understanding of the aggressive nature of this disease. Having previously reported that Notch3 activation appeared to be associated with more aggressive disease, we have now examined components of this pathway (Notch1, Notch3, Notch4, HES-1, HEY-1) in more detail in resectable (n = 42) and non-resectable (n = 50) tumours compared to uninvolved pancreas. All three Notch family members were significantly elevated in tumour tissue, compared to uninvolved pancreas, with expression maintained within matched lymph node metastases. Furthermore, significantly higher nuclear expression of Notch1, -3 and -4, HES-1, and HEY-1 (all p≤0.001) was noted in locally advanced and metastatic tumours compared to resectable cancers. In survival analyses, nuclear Notch3 and HEY-1 expression were significantly associated with reduced overall and disease-free survival following tumour resection with curative intent, with nuclear HEY-1 maintaining independent prognostic significance for both outcomes on multivariate analysis. These data further support a central role for Notch signalling in pancreatic cancer and suggest that nuclear expression of Notch3 and its target gene, HEY-1, merit validation in biomarker panels for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment efficacy. A peptide fragment of Notch3 was detected in plasma from patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer, but due to wide inter-individual variation, mean levels were not significantly different compared to age-matched controls. PMID:23226563

  1. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Takam Kamga, Paul; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Nwabo Kamdje, Armel Hervé; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-04-19

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB.These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  2. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Paul Takam; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB. These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  3. Hepatic Notch1 deletion predisposes to diabetes and steatosis via glucose-6-phosphatase and perilipin-5 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Bernsmeier, Christine; Dill, Michael T; Provenzano, Angela; Makowska, Zuzanna; Krol, Ilona; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Semela, David; Tornillo, Luigi; Marra, Fabio; Heim, Markus H; Duong, François H T

    2016-09-01

    Notch signaling pathways have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. However, the role of hepatic Notch signaling in glucose and lipid metabolism remains unclear and needs further investigation as it might be a candidate therapeutic target in metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We used hepatocyte-specific Notch1 knockout (KO) mice and liver biopsies from NASH and NAFLD patients to analyze the role of Notch1 in glucose and lipid metabolism. Hepatocyte-specific Notch1 KO mice were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) or a regular diet (RD). We assessed the metabolic phenotype, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and liver histology. Hepatic mRNA expression was profiled by Affymetrix Mouse Gene arrays and validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR). Akt phosphorylation was visualized by immunoblotting. Gene expression was analyzed in liver biopsies from NASH, NAFLD, and control patients by qPCR. We found that Notch1 KO mice had elevated fasting glucose. Gene expression analysis showed an upregulation of glucose-6-phosphatase, involved in the final step of gluconeogenesis and glucose release from glycogenolysis, and perilipin-5, a regulator of hepatic lipid accumulation. When fed with an HFD KO mice developed overt diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Akt was highly phosphorylated in KO animals and the Foxo1 target gene expression was altered. Accordingly, a reduction in Notch1 and increase in glucose-6-phosphatase and perilipin-5 expression was observed in liver biopsies from NAFLD/NASH compared with controls. Notch1 is a regulator of hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis. Hepatic impairment of Notch1 expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of human NAFLD/NASH. PMID:27428080

  4. Genetic variants of the NOTCH3 gene in the elderly and magnetic resonance imaging correlates of age-related cerebral small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeginigg, Marion; Wiltgen, Marco; Freudenberger, Paul; Petrovic, Katja; Cavalieri, Margherita; Gider, Pierre; Enzinger, Christian; Fornage, Myriam; Debette, Stephanie; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Launer, Lenore J.; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease-related brain lesions such as white matter lesions and lacunes are common findings of magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly. These lesions are thought to be major contributors to disability in old age, and risk factors that include age and hypertension have been established. The radiological, histopathologic and clinical phenotypes of age-related cerebral small vessel disease remarkably resemble autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, which is caused by mutations in NOTCH3. We hypothesized that genetic variations in NOTCH3 also play a role in age-related cerebral small vessel disease. We directly sequenced all 33 exons, the promoter and 3′-untranslated region of NOTCH3 in 195 participants with either coalescent white matter lesions or lacunes and compared the results to 82 randomly selected participants with no focal changes on magnetic resonance images in the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. We detected nine common and 33 rare single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 20 were novel. All common single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the entire cohort (n = 888), and four of them, rs1043994, rs10404382, rs10423702 and rs1043997, were associated significantly with both the presence and progression of white matter lesions. The association was confined to hypertensives, a result which we replicated in the Cohorts for Heart and Ageing Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium on an independent sample of 4773 stroke-free hypertensive elderly individuals of European descent (P = 0.04). The 33 rare single nucleotide polymorphisms were scattered over the NOTCH3 gene with three being located in the promoter region, 24 in exons (18 non-synonymous), three in introns and three in the 3′-untranslated region. None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms affected a cysteine residue. Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant, PolyPhen2 analyses and protein structure simulation consistently

  5. Therapeutic NOTCH3 cysteine correction in CADASIL using exon skipping: in vitro proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Julie W; Dauwerse, Hans G; Peters, Dorien J M; Goldfarb, Andrew; Venselaar, Hanka; Haffner, Christof; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M; Lesnik Oberstein, Saskia A J

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, or CADASIL, is a hereditary cerebral small vessel disease caused by characteristic cysteine altering missense mutations in theNOTCH3gene.NOTCH3mutations in CADASIL result in an uneven number of cysteine residues in one of the 34 epidermal growth factor like-repeat (EGFr) domains of the NOTCH3 protein. The consequence of an unpaired cysteine residue in an EGFr domain is an increased multimerization tendency of mutant NOTCH3, leading to toxic accumulation of the protein in the (cerebro)vasculature, and ultimately reduced cerebral blood flow, recurrent stroke and vascular dementia. There is no therapy to delay or alleviate symptoms in CADASIL. We hypothesized that exclusion of the mutant EGFr domain from NOTCH3 would abolish the detrimental effect of the unpaired cysteine and thus prevent toxic NOTCH3 accumulation and the negative cascade of events leading to CADASIL. To accomplish this NOTCH3 cysteine correction by EGFr domain exclusion, we used pre-mRNA antisense-mediated skipping of specificNOTCH3exons. Selection of these exons was achieved usingin silicostudies and based on the criterion that skipping of a particular exon or exon pair would modulate the protein in such a way that the mutant EGFr domain is eliminated, without otherwise corrupting NOTCH3 structure and function. Remarkably, we found that this strategy closely mimics evolutionary events, where the elimination and fusion of NOTCH EGFr domains led to the generation of four functional NOTCH homologues. We modelled a selection of exon skip strategies using cDNA constructs and show that the skip proteins retain normal protein processing, can bind ligand and be activated by ligand. We then determined the technical feasibility of targetedNOTCH3exon skipping, by designing antisense oligonucleotides targeting exons 2-3, 4-5 and 6, which together harbour the majority of distinct CADASIL-causing mutations. Transfection of

  6. Sox9 mediates Notch1-induced mesenchymal features in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Capaccione, Kathleen M.; Hong, Xuehui; Morgan, Katherine M.; Liu, Wenyu; Bishop, Michael J.; Liu, LianXin; Markert, Elke; Deen, Malik; Minerowicz, Christine; Bertino, Joseph R.; Allen, Thaddeus; Pine, Sharon R.

    2014-01-01

    Sox9 has gained increasing importance both functionally and as a prognostic factor in cancer. We demonstrate a functional role for Sox9 in inducing a mesenchymal phenotype in lung ADC. We show that Sox9 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in lung ADC, particularly those with KRAS mutations. Sox9 expression correlated with the Notch target gene Hes1, and numerous other Notch pathway components. We observed that Sox9 is a potent inducer of lung cancer cell motility and invasion, and a negative regulator of E-cadherin, a key protein that is lost during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we show that Notch1 signaling directly regulates Sox9 expression through a SOX9 promoter binding site, independently of the TGF-β pathway, and that Sox9 participates in Notch-1 induced cell motility, cell invasion, and loss of E-cadherin expression. Together, the results identify a new functional role for a Notch1-Sox9 signaling axis in lung ADC that may explain the correlation of Sox9 with tumor progression, higher tumor grade, and poor lung cancer survival. In addition to Notch and TGF-β, Sox9 also acts downstream of NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, Sox9 could potentially act as a hub to mediate cross-talk among key oncogenic pathways in lung ADC. Targeting Sox9 expression or transcriptional activity could potentially reduce resistance to targeted therapy for lung ADC caused by pathway redundancy. PMID:25004243

  7. The Notch Intracellular Domain Has an RBPj-Independent Role during Mouse Hair Follicular Development.

    PubMed

    Turkoz, Mustafa; Townsend, R Reid; Kopan, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Ligand-dependent activation, γ-secretase-processed cleavage, and recombining binding protein Jk (RBPj)-mediated downstream transcriptional activities of Notch receptors constitute the "canonical" Notch signaling pathway, which is essential for skin organogenesis. However, in Msx2-Cre mice, keratinocyte-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene in utero produced a significantly milder phenotype than either global Notch or γ-secretase loss. Herein, we investigated the underlying mechanisms for this apparent noncanonical signal using mouse genetics. We found no evidence that ligand back-signaling contributed to skin organogenesis. The perdurance of RBPj protein did not establish an epigenetic memory of a canonical signal in the youngest epidermal stem cells, and Notch targets were not derepressed. We provide evidence that γ-secretase-dependent but RBPj-independent Notch intracellular domain activity operating in the first hair follicles is responsible for a delay in follicular destruction, which results in lower serum thymic stromal lymphopoietin levels, milder B-cell lymphoproliferative disease, and improved survival in Msx2-Cre(+/tg);Rbpj(f/f) mice. Minimal amounts of the Notch intracellular domain were sufficient for rescue, which was not mediated by transcription, suggesting that the Notch intracellular domain is acting through a novel mechanism. PMID:26940862

  8. Aberrant Notch signaling in glioblastoma stem cells contributes to tumor recurrence and invasion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Hao; Zhan, Ren-Ya

    2016-08-01

    Upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway in cancer stem cells and side population (SP) cells has a major role in maintenance, self-renewal and chemoresistance. The present study isolated a cancer stem cell-like SP accounting for 4.1% of a glioblastoma cell population using a Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion assay. In this glioblastoma SP, the expression of of Notch1 signaling proteins Notch1 intracellular domain and Hes‑1 was markedly upregulated. Furthermore, knockdown of Notch1 by RNA interference significantly diminished the neurosphere formation ability, self‑renewal and chemoresistance of the SP cells. In addition, the expression of the stem‑cell surface genes Oct‑4, Sox2 and Nanog in SP cells was significantly reduced and the sensitivity to the SP cells to chemotherapeutics was enhanced following Notch1 knockdown. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that upregulation of Notch1 is involved in the chemotherapy resistance and tumor recurrence of glioblastoma. Hence, the development of novel anti‑cancer drugs targeting the Notch1 signaling pathway may be a promising strategy for curing glioblastoma. PMID:27315154

  9. Transient inactivation of Notch signaling synchronizes differentiation of neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Branden R.; Hartman, Byron H.; Georgi, Sean A.; Lan, Michael S.; Reh, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary In the developing nervous system, the balance between proliferation and differentiation is critical to generate the appropriate numbers and types of neurons and glia. Notch signaling maintains the progenitor pool throughout this process. While many components of the Notch pathway have been identified, the downstream molecular events leading to neural differentiation are not well understood. We have taken advantage of a small molecule inhibitor, DAPT, to block Notch activity in retinal progenitor cells, and analyzed the resulting molecular and cellular changes over time. DAPT treatment causes a massive, coordinated differentiation of progenitors that produces cell types appropriate for their developmental stage. Transient exposure of retina to DAPT for specific time periods allowed us to define the period of Notch inactivation that is required for a permanent commitment to differentiate. Inactivation of Notch signaling revealed a cascade of proneural bHLH transcription factor gene expression that correlates with stages in progenitor cell differentiation. Microarray/QPCR analysis confirms the changes in Notch signaling components, and reveals new molecular targets for investigating neuronal differentiation. Thus, transient inactivation of Notch signaling synchronizes progenitor cell differentiation, and allows for a systematic analysis of key steps in this process. PMID:17280659

  10. Efficient ectopic gene expression targeting chick mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kerby C; Pira, Charmaine U; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Ratz, Beate; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Eichele, Gregor

    2002-07-01

    The chick model has been instrumental in illuminating genes that regulate early vertebrate development and pattern formation. Targeted ectopic gene expression is critical to dissect further the complicated gene interactions that are involved. In an effort to develop a consistent method to ectopically introduce and focally express genes in chick mesoderm, we evaluated and optimized several gene delivery methods, including implantation of 293 cells laden with viral vectors, direct adenoviral injection, and electroporation (EP). We targeted the mesoderm of chick wing buds between stages 19 and 21 (Hamburger and Hamilton stages) and used beta-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) to document gene transfer. Expression constructs using the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, the beta-actin promoter, and vectors with an internal ribosomal entry sequence linked to GFP (IRES-GFP) were also compared. After gene transfer, we monitored expression for up to 3 days. The functionality of ectopic expression was demonstrated with constructs containing the coding sequences for Shh, a secreted signaling protein, or Hoxb-8, a transcription factor, both of which can induce digit duplication when ectopically expressed in anterior limb mesoderm. We identified several factors that enhance mesodermal gene transfer. First, the use of a vector with the beta-actin promoter coupled to the 69% fragment of the bovine papilloma virus yielded superior mesodermal expression both by markers and functional results when compared with several CMV-driven vectors. Second, we found the use of mineral oil to be an important adjuvant for EP and direct viral injection to localize and contain vector within the mesoderm at the injection site. Lastly, although ectopic expression could be achieved with all three methods, we favored EP confined to the mesoderm with insulated microelectrodes (confined microelectroporation- CMEP), because vector construction is rapid, the method is efficient, and results

  11. Targeted gene silencing to induce permanent sterility.

    PubMed

    Dissen, G A; Lomniczi, A; Boudreau, R L; Chen, Y H; Davidson, B L; Ojeda, S R

    2012-08-01

    A non-surgical method to induce sterility would be a useful tool to control feral populations of animals. Our laboratories have experience with approaches aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A combination/modification of these methods may provide a useful framework for the design of approaches that can be used to sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed, it has to meet several conditions: it needs to target a gene essential for fertility. It must involve a method that can selectively silence the gene of interest. It also needs to deliver the silencing agent via a minimally invasive method. Finally, the silencing effect needs to be sustained for many years, so that expansion of the targeted population can be effectively prevented. In this article, we discuss this subject and provide a succinct account of our previous experience with: (i) molecular reagents able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction and (ii) molecular reagents able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:22827375

  12. 14q deletions are associated with trisomy 12, NOTCH1 mutations and unmutated IGHV genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Adrien; Chapiro, Elise; Belhouachi, Nabila; Cung, Hong-Anh; Keren, Boris; Damm, Frederik; Algrin, Caroline; Lefebvre, Christine; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Luquet, Isabelle; Gachard, Nathalie; Mugneret, Francine; Terre, Christine; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnes; Michaux, Lucienne; Rafdord-Weiss, Isabelle; Talmant, Pascaline; Veronese, Lauren; Nadal, Nathalie; Struski, Stephanie; Barin, Carole; Helias, Catherine; Lafage, Marina; Lippert, Eric; Auger, Nathalie; Eclache, Virginie; Roos-Weil, Damien; Leblond, Veronique; Settegrana, Catherine; Maloum, Karim; Davi, Frederic; Merle-Beral, Helene; Lesty, Claude; Nguyen-Khac, Florence

    2014-08-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14 [del(14q)] are rare but recurrently observed in mature B-cell neoplasms, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To further characterize this aberration, we studied 81 cases with del(14q): 54 of CLL and 27 of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), the largest reported series to date. Using karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most frequent additional abnormality was trisomy 12 (tri12), observed in 28/79 (35%) cases, followed by del13q14 (12/79, 15%), delTP53 (11/80, 14%) delATM (5/79, 6%), and del6q21 (3/76, 4%). IGHV genes were unmutated in 41/53 (77%) patients, with a high frequency of IGHV1-69 (21/52, 40%). NOTCH1 gene was mutated in 14/45 (31%) patients. There was no significant difference in cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities between CLL and SLL. Investigations using FISH and SNP-array demonstrated the heterogeneous size of the 14q deletions. However, a group with the same del(14)(q24.1q32.33) was identified in 48% of cases. In this group, tri12 (P = 0.004) and NOTCH1 mutations (P = 0.02) were significantly more frequent than in the other patients. In CLL patients with del(14q), median treatment-free survival (TFS) was 27 months. In conclusion, del(14q) is associated with tri12 and with pejorative prognostic factors: unmutated IGHV genes (with over-representation of the IGHV1-69 repertoire), NOTCH1 mutations, and a short TFS. PMID:24729385

  13. The Canonical Notch Signaling Pathway: Unfolding the Activation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kopan, Raphael; Ilagan, Ma. Xenia G.

    2009-01-01

    Notch signaling regulates many aspects of metazoan development and tissue renewal. Accordingly, misregulation or loss of Notch signaling underlies multiple human disorders, from developmental syndromes to adult onset diseases and cancer. Notch receptor activation is irreversible as it involves proteolysis-mediated release of the Notch intracellular domain, translocation to the nucleus, and association with a DNA-bound protein. Even though each Notch molecule signals only once without amplification by secondary messenger cascades, Notch signaling is remarkably robust in most tissues. In this review, we highlight the recent studies that reveal new molecular details involved in regulating ligand-mediated activation, receptor proteolysis and target selection. PMID:19379690

  14. The Different Role of Notch1 and Notch2 in Astrocytic Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rongcai; Qiu, Mingzhe; Kang, Chunsheng; Jia, Zhifan; Wang, Guangxiu; Han, Lei; Fan, Xing; Pu, Peiyu

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that Notch signaling plays either oncogenic or tumor suppressive role in a variety of tumors, depending on the cellular context. However, in our previous study, we found that Notch1 was overexpressed while Notch2 downregulated in the majority of astrocytic gliomas with different grades as well as in glioblastoma cell lines U251 and A172. We had knocked down Notch1 by siRNA in glioblastoma cells, and identified that the cell growth and invasion were inhibited, whereas cell apoptosis was induced either in vitro or in vivo. For further clarification of the role of Notch2 in pathogenesis of gliomas, enforced overexpression of Notch2 was carried out with transfection of Notch2 expression plasmid in glioma cells and the cell growth, invasion and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo in the present study, and siRNA targeting Notch1 was used as a positive control in vivo. The results showed that upregulating Notch2 had the effect of suppressing cell growth and invasion as well as inducing apoptosis, just the same as the results of knocking down Notch1. Meanwhile, the activity of core signaling pathway–EGFR/PI3K/AKT in astrocytic glioma cells was repressed. Thus, the present study reveals, for the first time, that Notch1 and Notch2 play different roles in the biological processes of astrocytic gliomas. Knocking down the Notch1 or enforced overexpression of Notch2 both modulate the astrocytic glioma phenotype, and the mechanism by which Notch1 and 2 play different roles in the glioma growth should be further investigated. PMID:23349727

  15. Gene Therapy Targeting Glaucoma: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuyang; Rasmussen, Carol A.; Gabelt, B’Ann T.; Brandt, Curtis R.; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    In a chronic disease such as glaucoma, a therapy that provides a long lasting local effect, with minimal systemic side effects, while circumventing the issue of patient compliance, is very attractive. The field of gene therapy is growing rapidly and ocular applications are expanding. Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glaucoma is leading to greater specificity in ocular tissue targeting. Improvements in gene delivery techniques, refinement of vector construction methods, and development of better animal models combine to bring this potential therapy closer to reality. PMID:19539835

  16. Inhibition of Notch signaling alters the phenotype of orthotopic tumors formed from glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cells but does not hamper intracranial tumor growth regardless of endogene Notch pathway signature

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Karina; Nedergaard, Mette Kjølhede; Villingshøj, Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Broholm, Helle; Kjær, Andreas; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) are cancer cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties found in the devastating brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). bCSC are proposed a central role in tumor initiation, progression, treatment resistance and relapse and as such present a promising target in GBM research. The Notch signaling pathway is often deregulated in GBM and we have previously characterized GBM-derived bCSC cultures based on their expression of the Notch-1 receptor and found that it could be used as predictive marker for the effect of Notch inhibition. The aim of the present project was therefore to further elucidate the significance of Notch pathway activity for the tumorigenic properties of GBM-derived bCSC. Methods Human-derived GBM xenograft cells previously established as NSC-like neurosphere cultures were used. Notch inhibition was accomplished by exposing the cells to the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT prior to gene expression analysis and intracranial injection into immunocompromised mice. Results By analyzing the expression of several Notch pathway components, we found that the cultures indeed displayed different Notch pathway signatures. However, when DAPT-treated neurosphere cells were injected into the brain of immunocompromised mice, no increase in survival was obtained regardless of Notch pathway signature and Notch inhibition. We did however observe a decrease in the expression of the stem cell marker Nestin, an increase in the proliferative marker Ki-67 and an increased number of abnormal vessels in tumors formed from DAPT-treated, high Notch-1 expressing cultures, when compared with the control. Conclusion Based on the presented results we propose that Notch inhibition partly induces differentiation of bCSC, and selects for a cell type that more strongly induces angiogenesis if the treatment is not sustained. However, this more differentiated cell type might prove to be more sensitive to conventional therapies. PMID

  17. Ionizing Radiation Shifts the PAI-1/ID-1 Balance and Activates Notch Signaling in Endothelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Kruse, Jacqueline; Sprong, Debbie; Russell, Nicola S.; Dijke, Peter ten; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) and Notch signaling pathways are important regulators of vascular homeostasis and vessel remodeling; mutations in these pathways can lead to vascular disorders. Similar vascular phenotypes develop in the normal tissues of cancer patients as a long-term effect of radiotherapy. Irradiation most severely affects the capillaries, which become leaky and dilated and might eventually rupture. To investigate the mechanism of such capillary damage, we studied the effect of TGF-{beta} and Notch signaling in microvascular endothelial cells. Methods and Materials: Human microvascular endothelial cells were irradiated with 5 or 10 Gy and activation of TGF-{beta} and Notch signaling pathways was assessed by biochemical methods and a cell migration assay. Results: Ionizing radiation induced Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation and increased mRNA and protein expression of the activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) target gene plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). At the same time, we observed diminished Smad1/5/8 activation and downregulation of the ALK1 downstream target, inhibitor of DNA binding-1 (ID-1). We also measured an upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 and the target gene Hey1. Decreased inhibitor of DNA binding-1 levels coincided with a reduced ability of the cells to migrate. Conclusion: Ionizing radiation shifts the balance from ALK1 to ALK5 signaling and activates the Notch pathway in endothelial cells. This combination of anti-angiogenic signals contributes to reduced cell migration after irradiation.

  18. Cigarette smoke induces the expression of Notch3, not Notch1, protein in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, ZHENSHUN; TAN, QIUYUE; TAN, WEIJUN; ZHANG, LI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of cigarette smoke on the expression of Notch proteins in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). Protein expression levels of Notch1 and Notch3 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 102 human LAC specimens. Of these, 52 were obtained from smokers and 50 from non-smokers. In addition, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at varying concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5%) was administered to A549 cells. The expression of Notch1 and Notch3 protein was then detected by western blot analysis at different time points (0, 8, 24 and 48 h). Of the 102 LAC specimens, 42 (41.2%) were positive for Notch1 and 63 (61.8%) were positive for Notch3. There was no significant difference in the level of Notch1 expression between smokers and non-smokers with LAC (P>0.05). The positive rate and staining intensity of Notch3 expression were increased in the smokers compared with the non-smokers (P<0.05). The expression of Notch3 protein in A549 cells increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner following treatment with CSE, whilst the expression of Notch1 protein appeared stable. The results suggested that cigarette smoke was able to induce the expression of Notch3, not Notch1, protein in LAC. The data revealed an upregulation of Notch3 in LAC following cigarette smoke exposure. Such findings may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of LAC. PMID:26622547

  19. Distinct prognostic values of four-Notch-receptor mRNA expression in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinling; Teng, Lingling; Wang, Min

    2016-05-01

    Notch signaling pathway includes ligands and Notch receptors, which are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies including ovarian cancer. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling has been linked to ovarian carcinogenesis and progression. In the current study, we used the "Kaplan-Meier plotter" (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information from a total of 1306 ovarian cancer patients were used to access the prognostic value of four Notch receptors in ovarian cancer patients. Hazard ratio (HR), 95 % confidence intervals, and log-rank P were calculated. Notch1 messenger RNA (mRNA) high expression was not found to be correlated to overall survival (OS) for all ovarian cancer, as well as in serous and endometrioid cancer patients followed for 20 years. However, Notch1 mRNA high expression is significantly associated with worsen OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, while it is significantly associated with better OS in TP53 mutation-type ovarian cancer patients. Notch2 mRNA high expression was found to be significantly correlated to worsen OS for all ovarian cancer patients, as well as in grade II ovarian cancer patients. Notch3 mRNA high expression was found to be significantly correlated to better OS for all ovarian cancer patients, but not in serous cancer patients and endometrioid cancer patients. Notch4 mRNA high expression was not found to be significantly correlated to OS for all ovarian cancer patients, serous cancer patients, and endometrioid cancer patients. These results indicate that there are distinct prognostic values of four Notch receptors in ovarian cancer. This information will be useful for better understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity in the molecular biology of ovarian cancer and for developing tools to more accurately predict their prognosis. Based on our results, Notch1 could be a potential drug target of TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer and Notch2 could be a potential drug

  20. The Wnt and Delta-Notch signalling pathways interact to direct pair-rule gene expression via caudal during segment addition in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    PubMed

    Schönauer, Anna; Paese, Christian L B; Hilbrant, Maarten; Leite, Daniel J; Schwager, Evelyn E; Feitosa, Natália Martins; Eibner, Cornelius; Damen, Wim G M; McGregor, Alistair P

    2016-07-01

    In short-germ arthropods, posterior segments are added sequentially from a segment addition zone (SAZ) during embryogenesis. Studies in spiders such as Parasteatoda tepidariorum have provided insights into the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying segment addition, and revealed that Wnt8 is required for dynamic Delta (Dl) expression associated with the formation of new segments. However, it remains unclear how these pathways interact during SAZ formation and segment addition. Here, we show that Delta-Notch signalling is required for Wnt8 expression in posterior SAZ cells, but represses the expression of this Wnt gene in anterior SAZ cells. We also found that these two signalling pathways are required for the expression of the spider orthologues of even-skipped (eve) and runt-1 (run-1), at least in part via caudal (cad). Moreover, it appears that dynamic expression of eve in this spider does not require a feedback loop with run-1, as is found in the pair-rule circuit of the beetle Tribolium Taken together, our results suggest that the development of posterior segments in Parasteatoda is directed by dynamic interactions between Wnt8 and Delta-Notch signalling that are read out by cad, which is necessary but probably not sufficient to regulate the expression of eve and run-1 Our study therefore provides new insights towards better understanding the evolution and developmental regulation of segmentation in other arthropods, including insects. PMID:27287802

  1. Anti-estrogen Resistance in Human Breast Tumors Is Driven by JAG1-NOTCH4-Dependent Cancer Stem Cell Activity.

    PubMed

    Simões, Bruno M; O'Brien, Ciara S; Eyre, Rachel; Silva, Andreia; Yu, Ling; Sarmiento-Castro, Aida; Alférez, Denis G; Spence, Kath; Santiago-Gómez, Angélica; Chemi, Francesca; Acar, Ahmet; Gandhi, Ashu; Howell, Anthony; Brennan, Keith; Rydén, Lisa; Catalano, Stefania; Andó, Sebastiano; Gee, Julia; Ucar, Ahmet; Sims, Andrew H; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Farnie, Gillian; Landberg, Göran; Howell, Sacha J; Clarke, Robert B

    2015-09-29

    Breast cancers (BCs) typically express estrogen receptors (ERs) but frequently exhibit de novo or acquired resistance to hormonal therapies. Here, we show that short-term treatment with the anti-estrogens tamoxifen or fulvestrant decrease cell proliferation but increase BC stem cell (BCSC) activity through JAG1-NOTCH4 receptor activation both in patient-derived samples and xenograft (PDX) tumors. In support of this mechanism, we demonstrate that high ALDH1 predicts resistance in women treated with tamoxifen and that a NOTCH4/HES/HEY gene signature predicts for a poor response/prognosis in 2 ER+ patient cohorts. Targeting of NOTCH4 reverses the increase in Notch and BCSC activity induced by anti-estrogens. Importantly, in PDX tumors with acquired tamoxifen resistance, NOTCH4 inhibition reduced BCSC activity. Thus, we establish that BCSC and NOTCH4 activities predict both de novo and acquired tamoxifen resistance and that combining endocrine therapy with targeting JAG1-NOTCH4 overcomes resistance in human breast cancers. PMID:26387946

  2. A novel reporter of notch signalling indicates regulated and random notch activation during vertebrate neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Building the complex vertebrate nervous system involves the regulated production of neurons and glia while maintaining a progenitor cell population. Neurogenesis starts asynchronously in different regions of the embryo and occurs over a long period of time, allowing progenitor cells to be exposed to multiple extrinsic signals that regulate the production of different cell types. Notch-mediated cell-cell signalling is one of the mechanisms that maintain the progenitor pool, however, little is known about how the timing of Notch activation is related to the cell cycle and the distinct modes of cell division that generate neurons. An essential tool with which to investigate the role of Notch signalling on cell by cell basis is the development a faithful reporter of Notch activity. Results Here we present a novel reporter for Notch activity based on the promoter of the well characterised Notch target chick Hes5-1, coupled with multiple elements that confer instability, including a destabilized nuclear Venus fluorescent protein and the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Hes5-1. We demonstrate that this reporter faithfully recapitulates the endogenous expression of Hes5-1 and that it robustly responds to Notch activation in the chick neural tube. Analysis of the patterns of Notch activity revealed by this reporter indicates that although Notch is most frequently activated prior to mitosis it can be activated at any time within the cell cycle. Notch active progenitors undergoing mitosis generate two daughters that both continue to experience Notch signalling. However, cells lacking Notch activity before and during mitosis generate daughters with dissimilar Notch activity profiles. Conclusions A novel Notch reporter with multiple destabilisation elements provides a faithful read-out of endogenous Notch activity on a cell-by-cell basis, as neural progenitors progress through the cell cycle in the chick neural tube. Notch activity patterns in this cell population

  3. Notch signaling represses hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts under cobalt-mimicked hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    LI, CHEN-TIAN; LIU, JIAN-XIU; YU, BO; LIU, RUI; DONG, CHAO; LI, SONG-JIAN

    2016-01-01

    The modification of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways by hypoxia, and its association with osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis remain to be fully elucidated. To investigate Wnt-Notch crosstalk, and its role in hypoxia-induced osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis regulation, the present study investigated the effects of cobalt-mimicked hypoxia on the mouse pre-osteoblast-like cell line, MC3T3-E1, when the Notch signals were repressed using a γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. The data showed that the cobalt-mimicked hypoxia suppressed cell proliferation under normal conditions, but increased cell proliferation under conditions of Notch repression, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the cobalt treatment increased the levels of activated β-catenin protein and the expression levels of the target genes, axis inhibition protein 2 and myelocytomatosis oncogene, under DAPT-induced Notch repression. However, no significant changes were found in the expression levels of the Notch intracellular domain protein or the Notch target gene, hes1. In a β-catenin gene-knockdown experiment, the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 cells under hypoxia were decreased by DAPT treatment, and knockdown of the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) suppressed the cobalt-induced increase in Wnt target gene levels. No significant difference in cell proliferation rate was found following DAPT treatment when the expression of HIF-1α was knocked down. The results of the present study showed the opposing effects of Wnt and Notch signaling under cobalt-mimicked hypoxia, which were partially regulated by HIF-1α, The results also showed that osteoblast proliferation was dependent on Wnt-Notch signal crosstalk. PMID:27220406

  4. Kinase active Misshapen regulates Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinava K; Sachan, Nalani; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim

    2015-11-15

    Notch signaling pathway represents a principal cellular communication system that plays a pivotal role during development of metazoans. Drosophila misshapen (msn) encodes a protein kinase, which is related to the budding yeast Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) kinase. In a genetic screen, using candidate gene approach to identify novel kinases involved in Notch signaling, we identified msn as a novel regulator of Notch signaling. Data presented here suggest that overexpression of kinase active form of Msn exhibits phenotypes similar to Notch loss-of-function condition and msn genetically interacts with components of Notch signaling pathway. Kinase active form of Msn associates with Notch receptor and regulate its signaling activity. We further show that kinase active Misshapen leads to accumulation of membrane-tethered form of Notch. Moreover, activated Msn also depletes Armadillo and DE-Cadherin from adherens junctions. Thus, this study provides a yet unknown mode of regulation of Notch signaling by Misshapen. PMID:26431585

  5. A Highly Efficient Gene-Targeting System for Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene targeting via homologous recombination is often used to elucidate gene function. For filamentous fungi, the majority of transforming DNA integrates ectopically. Deletion of Aspergillus parasiticus ku70, a gene of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, drastically increased the gene targeting...

  6. Short DNA sequences inserted for gene targeting can accidentally interfere with off-target gene expression.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ingo D; Bernreuther, Christian; Tilling, Thomas; Neidhardt, John; Wong, Yong Wee; Schulze, Christian; Streichert, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

    2010-06-01

    Targeting of genes in mice, a key approach to study development and disease, often leaves a neo cassette, loxP, or FRT sites inserted in the mouse genome. Insertion of neo can influence the expression of neighboring genes, but similar effects have not been reported for loxP sites. We therefore performed microarray analyses of mice in which the Ncam or the Tnr gene were targeted either by insertion of neo or loxP/FRT sites. In the case of Ncam, neo, but not loxP/FRT insertion, led to a 2-fold reduction in mRNA levels of 3 genes located at distances between 0.2 and 3.1 Mb from the target. In contrast, after introduction of loxP/FRT sites into introns of Tnr, we observed a 2.5- to 4-fold reduction in the transcript level of the Gas5 gene, 1.1 Mb away from Tnr, most probably due to disruption of a conserved regulatory element in Tnr. Insertion of short DNA sequences such as loxP/FRT can thus influence off-target mRNA levels if these sites are accidentally placed into regulatory elements. Our results imply that conditional knockout mice should be analyzed for genomic positional side effects that may influence the animals' phenotypes. PMID:20110269

  7. A conserved role for Notch signaling in priming the cellular response to Shh through ciliary localisation of the key Shh transducer Smo

    PubMed Central

    Stasiulewicz, Magdalena; Gray, Shona D.; Mastromina, Ioanna; Silva, Joana C.; Björklund, Mia; Seymour, Philip A.; Booth, David; Thompson, Calum; Green, Richard J.; Hall, Emma A.; Serup, Palle; Dale, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Notochord-derived Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is essential for dorsoventral patterning of the overlying neural tube. Increasing concentration and duration of Shh signal induces progenitors to acquire progressively more ventral fates. We show that Notch signalling augments the response of neuroepithelial cells to Shh, leading to the induction of higher expression levels of the Shh target gene Ptch1 and subsequently induction of more ventral cell fates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated Notch1 leads to pronounced accumulation of Smoothened (Smo) within primary cilia and elevated levels of full-length Gli3. Finally, we show that Notch activity promotes longer primary cilia both in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, these Notch-regulated effects are Shh independent. These data identify Notch signalling as a novel modulator of Shh signalling that acts mechanistically via regulation of ciliary localisation of key components of its transduction machinery. PMID:25995356

  8. A facile one-step strategy for the generation of conditional knockout mice to explore the role of Notch1 in oroesophageal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Mandasari, Masita; Sawangarun, Wanlada; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Kayamori, Kou; Yamaguchi, Akira; Sakamoto, Kei

    2016-01-15

    NOTCH1 plays an important role in epithelial differentiation and carcinogenesis. To investigate the impact of Notch1 inactivation in oroesophageal epithelium, we generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice, using a combined construct which induces the expression of single guide RNA targeting Notch1 and Cas9 by the KRT14 promoter. The cKO mice exhibited patchy hair loss and multiple NOTCH1-negative areas in the tongue epithelium, indicative of heterogeneous knockout. The cKO mice showed susceptibility to esophageal tumorigenesis, underscoring Notch1 as a tumor suppressor. Our one-step strategy for generation of cKO mice provides a versatile method to examine a gene function in vivo. PMID:26682927

  9. Integrative genetic, epigenetic and pathological analysis of paraganglioma reveals complex dysregulation of NOTCH signaling.

    PubMed

    Cama, Alessandro; Verginelli, Fabio; Lotti, Lavinia Vittoria; Napolitano, Francesco; Morgano, Annalisa; D'Orazio, Andria; Vacca, Michele; Perconti, Silvia; Pepe, Felice; Romani, Federico; Vitullo, Francesca; di Lella, Filippo; Visone, Rosa; Mannelli, Massimo; Neumann, Hartmut P H; Raiconi, Giancarlo; Paties, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Veronese, Angelo; Sanna, Mario; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2013-10-01

    Head and neck paragangliomas, rare neoplasms of the paraganglia composed of nests of neurosecretory and glial cells embedded in vascular stroma, provide a remarkable example of organoid tumor architecture. To identify genes and pathways commonly deregulated in head and neck paraganglioma, we integrated high-density genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) analysis with microRNA and immunomorphological studies. Gene-centric CNV analysis of 24 cases identified a list of 104 genes most significantly targeted by tumor-associated alterations. The "NOTCH signaling pathway" was the most significantly enriched term in the list (P = 0.002 after Bonferroni or Benjamini correction). Expression of the relevant NOTCH pathway proteins in sustentacular (glial), chief (neuroendocrine) and endothelial cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in 47 head and neck paraganglioma cases. There were no relationships between level and pattern of NOTCH1/JAG2 protein expression and germline mutation status in the SDH genes, implicated in paraganglioma predisposition, or the presence/absence of immunostaining for SDHB, a surrogate marker of SDH mutations. Interestingly, NOTCH upregulation was observed also in cases with no evidence of CNVs at NOTCH signaling genes, suggesting altered epigenetic modulation of this pathway. To address this issue we performed microarray-based microRNA expression analyses. Notably 5 microRNAs (miR-200a,b,c and miR-34b,c), including those most downregulated in the tumors, correlated to NOTCH signaling and directly targeted NOTCH1 in in vitro experiments using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, lentiviral transduction of miR-200s and miR-34s in patient-derived primary tympano-jugular paraganglioma cell cultures was associated with NOTCH1 downregulation and increased levels of markers of cell toxicity and cell death. Taken together, our results provide an integrated view of common molecular alterations associated with head and neck paraganglioma and

  10. Rapid targeted gene disruption in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthrax is a zoonotic disease recognized to affect herbivores since Biblical times and has the widest range of susceptible host species of any known pathogen. The ease with which the bacterium can be weaponized and its recent deliberate use as an agent of terror, have highlighted the importance of gaining a deeper understanding and effective countermeasures for this important pathogen. High quality sequence data has opened the possibility of systematic dissection of how genes distributed on both the bacterial chromosome and associated plasmids have made it such a successful pathogen. However, low transformation efficiency and relatively few genetic tools for chromosomal manipulation have hampered full interrogation of its genome. Results Group II introns have been developed into an efficient tool for site-specific gene inactivation in several organisms. We have adapted group II intron targeting technology for application in Bacillus anthracis and generated vectors that permit gene inactivation through group II intron insertion. The vectors developed permit screening for the desired insertion through PCR or direct selection of intron insertions using a selection scheme that activates a kanamycin resistance marker upon successful intron insertion. Conclusions The design and vector construction described here provides a useful tool for high throughput experimental interrogation of the Bacillus anthracis genome and will benefit efforts to develop improved vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:24047152

  11. A conserved tetraspanin subfamily promotes Notch signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans and in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Cory D.; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Ferrando, Adolfo A.; Greenwald, Iva

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic domain of Notch is a membrane-tethered transcription factor. Ligand binding ultimately leads to γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain, allowing the intracellular domain to translocate to the nucleus and activate target gene transcription. Constitutive Notch signaling has been associated with human cancers such as T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). As tetraspanins have been implicated in many different signaling processes, we assessed their potential contribution to Notch signaling. We used a genetic assay in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify TSP-12 as a positive factor for Notch activity in several cellular contexts. Then, using a cell culture system, we showed that two human TSP-12 orthologs, TSPAN33 and TSPAN5, promote Notch activity and are likely to act at the γ-secretase cleavage step. We also acquired evidence for functional redundancy among tetraspanins in both C. elegans and human cells. Selective inhibition of tetraspanins may constitute an anti-NOTCH therapeutic approach to reduce γ-secretase activity. PMID:20220101

  12. Xotch, the Xenopus homolog of Drosophila notch.

    PubMed

    Coffman, C; Harris, W; Kintner, C

    1990-09-21

    During the development of a vertebrate embryo, cell fate is determined by inductive signals passing between neighboring tissues. Such determinative interactions have been difficult to characterize fully without knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved. Mutations of Drosophila and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been isolated that define a family of related gene products involved in similar types of cellular inductions. One of these genes, the Notch gene from Drosophila, is involved with cell fate choices in the neurogenic region of the blastoderm, in the developing nervous system, and in the eye-antennal imaginal disc. Complementary DNA clones were isolated from Xenopus embryos with Notch DNA in order to investigate whether cell-cell interactions in vertebrate embryos also depend on Notch-like molecules. This approach identified a Xenopus molecule, Xotch, which is remarkably similar to Drosophila Notch in both structure and developmental expression. PMID:2402639

  13. ChIP-BIT: Bayesian inference of target genes using a novel joint probabilistic model of ChIP-seq profiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Jung, Jin-Gyoung; Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N; Clarke, Robert; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Yue; Magnani, Luca; Wang, Tian-Li; Xuan, Jianhua

    2016-04-20

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has greatly improved the reliability with which transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can be identified from genome-wide profiling studies. Many computational tools are developed to detect binding events or peaks, however the robust detection of weak binding events remains a challenge for current peak calling tools. We have developed a novel Bayesian approach (ChIP-BIT) to reliably detect TFBSs and their target genes by jointly modeling binding signal intensities and binding locations of TFBSs. Specifically, a Gaussian mixture model is used to capture both binding and background signals in sample data. As a unique feature of ChIP-BIT, background signals are modeled by a local Gaussian distribution that is accurately estimated from the input data. Extensive simulation studies showed a significantly improved performance of ChIP-BIT in target gene prediction, particularly for detecting weak binding signals at gene promoter regions. We applied ChIP-BIT to find target genes from NOTCH3 and PBX1 ChIP-seq data acquired from MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TF knockdown experiments have initially validated about 30% of co-regulated target genes identified by ChIP-BIT as being differentially expressed in MCF-7 cells. Functional analysis on these genes further revealed the existence of crosstalk between Notch and Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:26704972

  14. ChIP-BIT: Bayesian inference of target genes using a novel joint probabilistic model of ChIP-seq profiles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Jung, Jin-Gyoung; Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N.; Clarke, Robert; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Yue; Magnani, Luca; Wang, Tian-Li; Xuan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has greatly improved the reliability with which transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can be identified from genome-wide profiling studies. Many computational tools are developed to detect binding events or peaks, however the robust detection of weak binding events remains a challenge for current peak calling tools. We have developed a novel Bayesian approach (ChIP-BIT) to reliably detect TFBSs and their target genes by jointly modeling binding signal intensities and binding locations of TFBSs. Specifically, a Gaussian mixture model is used to capture both binding and background signals in sample data. As a unique feature of ChIP-BIT, background signals are modeled by a local Gaussian distribution that is accurately estimated from the input data. Extensive simulation studies showed a significantly improved performance of ChIP-BIT in target gene prediction, particularly for detecting weak binding signals at gene promoter regions. We applied ChIP-BIT to find target genes from NOTCH3 and PBX1 ChIP-seq data acquired from MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TF knockdown experiments have initially validated about 30% of co-regulated target genes identified by ChIP-BIT as being differentially expressed in MCF-7 cells. Functional analysis on these genes further revealed the existence of crosstalk between Notch and Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:26704972

  15. Protein O-Fucosyltransferase 1 Expression Impacts Myogenic C2C12 Cell Commitment via the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Der Vartanian, Audrey; Audfray, Aymeric; Al Jaam, Bilal; Janot, Mathilde; Legardinier, Sébastien; Maftah, Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle regeneration in mammals by controlling the transition of satellite cells from quiescence to an activated state, their proliferation, and their commitment toward myotubes or self-renewal. O-fucosylation on Notch receptor epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats is catalyzed by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) and primarily controls Notch interaction with its ligands. To approach the role of O-fucosylation in myogenesis, we analyzed a murine myoblastic C2C12 cell line downregulated for Pofut1 expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition during the time course of differentiation. Knockdown of Pofut1 affected the signaling pathway activation by a reduction of the amount of cleaved Notch intracellular domain and a decrease in downstream Notch target gene expression. Depletion in Pax7+/MyoD− cells and earlier myogenic program entrance were observed, leading to an increase in myotube quantity with a small number of nuclei, reflecting fusion defects. The rescue of Pofut1 expression in knockdown cells restored Notch signaling activation and a normal course in C2C12 differentiation. Our results establish the critical role of Pofut1 on Notch pathway activation during myogenic differentiation. PMID:25384974

  16. The canonical Notch pathway effector RBP-J regulates neuronal plasticity and expression of GABA transporters in hippocampal networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuxi; Wang, Yue; Worley, Paul F; Mattson, Mark P; Gaiano, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Activation of the Notch pathway in neurons is essential for learning and memory in various species from invertebrates to mammals. However, it remains unclear how Notch signaling regulates neuronal plasticity, and whether the transcriptional regulator and canonical pathway effector RBP-J plays a role. Here, we report that conditional disruption of RBP-J in the postnatal hippocampus leads to defects in long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and in learning and memory. Using gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified two GABA transporters, GAT2 and BGT1, as putative Notch/RBP-J pathway targets, which may function downstream of RBP-J to limit the accumulation of GABA in the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results reveal an essential role for canonical Notch/RBP-J signaling in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and suggest that role, at least in part, is mediated by the regulation of GABAergic signaling. PMID:25515406

  17. The canonical Notch pathway effector RBP-J regulates neuronal plasticity and expression of GABA transporters in hippocampal networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuxi; Wang, Yue; Worley, Paul F.; Mattson, Mark P.; Gaiano, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the Notch pathway in neurons is essential for learning and memory in various species from invertebrates to mammals. However, it remains unclear how Notch signaling regulates neuronal plasticity, and whether the transcriptional regulator and canonical pathway effector RBP-J plays a role. Here we report that conditional disruption of RBP-J in the postnatal hippocampus leads to defects in long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), and in learning and memory. Using gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified two GABA transporters, GAT2 and BGT1, as putative Notch/RBP-J pathway targets, which may function downstream of RBP-J to limit the accumulation of GABA in the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results reveal an essential role for canonical Notch/RBP-J signaling in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and suggest that role, at least in part, is mediated by the regulation of GABAergic signaling. PMID:25515406

  18. Notch signaling regulates expression of Mcl-1 and apoptosis in PPD-treated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Palaga, Tanapat; Ratanabunyong, Siriluk; Pattarakankul, Thitiporn; Sangphech, Naunpun; Wongchana, Wipawee; Hadae, Yukihiro; Kueanjinda, Patipark

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are cellular targets for infection by bacteria and viruses. The fate of infected macrophages plays a key role in determining the outcome of the host immune response. Apoptotic cell death of macrophages is considered to be a protective host defense that eliminates pathogens and infected cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of Notch signaling in regulating apoptosis in macrophages treated with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with PPD or infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induced upregulation of Notch1. This upregulation correlated well with the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene mcl-1 both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Decreased levels of Notch1 and Mcl-1 were observed in BMM treated with PPD when a gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI), which inhibits the processing of Notch receptors, was used. Moreover, silencing Notch1 in the macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 decreased Mcl-1 protein expression, suggesting that Notch1 is critical for Mcl-1 expression in macrophages. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed upon treatment of BMM with PPD in the presence of GSI compared to the vehicle-control treated cells. Finally, analysis of the mcl-1 promoter in humans and mice revealed a conserved potential CSL/RBP-Jκ binding site. The association of Notch1 with the mcl-1 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these results indicate that Notch1 inhibits apoptosis of macrophages stimulated with PPD by directly controlling the mcl-1 promoter. PMID:23872918

  19. Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

    2011-01-01

    Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is

  20. Endosomal sorting of Notch receptors through COMMD9-dependent pathways modulates Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiying; Koo, Yeon; Mao, Xicheng; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis; Morris, Lindsey L.; Jia, Da; Miyata, Naoteru; Faulkner, Rebecca A.; van Deursen, Jan M.; Vooijs, Marc; Billadeau, Daniel D.; van de Sluis, Bart; Cleaver, Ondine

    2015-01-01

    Notch family members are transmembrane receptors that mediate essential developmental programs. Upon ligand binding, a proteolytic event releases the intracellular domain of Notch, which translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription. In addition, Notch trafficking across the endolysosomal system is critical in its regulation. In this study we report that Notch recycling to the cell surface is dependent on the COMMD–CCDC22–CCDC93 (CCC) complex, a recently identified regulator of endosomal trafficking. Disruption in this system leads to intracellular accumulation of Notch2 and concomitant reduction in Notch signaling. Interestingly, among the 10 copper metabolism MURR1 domain containing (COMMD) family members that can associate with the CCC complex, only COMMD9 and its binding partner, COMMD5, have substantial effects on Notch. Furthermore, Commd9 deletion in mice leads to embryonic lethality and complex cardiovascular alterations that bear hallmarks of Notch deficiency. Altogether, these studies highlight that the CCC complex controls Notch activation by modulating its intracellular trafficking and demonstrate cargo-specific effects for members of the COMMD protein family. PMID:26553930

  1. Spatiotemporal gene expression targeting with the TARGET and gene-switch systems in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Sean E; Mao, Zhengmei; Davis, Ronald L

    2004-02-17

    Targeted gene expression has become a standard technique for the study of biological questions in Drosophila. Until recently, transgene expression could be targeted in the dimension of either time or space, but not both. Several new systems have recently been developed to direct transgene expression simultaneously in both time and space. We describe here two such systems that we developed in our laboratory. The first system provides a general method for temporal and regional gene expression targeting (TARGET) with the conventional GAL4-upstream activator sequence (UAS) system and a temperature-sensitive GAL80 molecule, which represses GAL4 transcriptional activity at permissive temperatures. The second system, termed Gene-Switch, is based on a GAL4-progesterone receptor chimera that is hormone-inducible. We have used both systems for simultaneous spatial and temporal rescue of memory dysfunction in the rutabaga (rut) memory mutant of Drosophila. In this protocol, we provide guidelines for the use of these two novel systems, which should have general utility in studying Drosophila biology and in using the fly as a model for human disease. PMID:14970377

  2. Notch Signaling Components: Diverging Prognostic Indicators in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Yan; Wu, Tao; Li, Qing; Wang, Min-Cong; Jing, Li; Ruan, Zhi-Ping; Yao, Yu; Nan, Ke-Jun; Guo, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies. PMID:27196489

  3. Regulation of dendritic-cell differentiation by bone marrow stroma via different Notch ligands

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pingyan; Nefedova, Yulia; Corzo, Cesar A.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2007-01-01

    Notch is a major factor mediating interaction between hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and bone marrow stroma (BMS). However its contribution to dendritic cell (DC) differentiation is controversial. We found that main Notch ligands Delta-1 and Jagged-1 had the opposite effect on DC differentiation. Delta-1 promoted generation of fully differentiated DCs, whereas Jagged-1 stimulated accumulation of DC precursors but prevented their transition to terminally differentiated DCs. BMS expressed a substantially higher level of Jagged-1 than Delta-1. Just the opposite expression pattern was observed in spleen stroma (SS). The BMS effect on DC differentiation was similar to that of Jagged-1, whereas the effect of SS was similar to the effect of Delta-1. Down-regulation of Jagged-1 in BMS substantially increased DC differentiation. Experiments in vivo with adoptive transfer of DC precursors further supported the different roles of BMS and SS in DC development. Jagged-1 and Delta-1 equally activated CBF-1/RBPJκ transcription factor, which is a major Notch target. However, they produced a different pattern of activation of Notch target gene Hes1. Overexpression of Hes1 resulted in increased DC differentiation from HPCs. Thus, this study not only revealed the different role of Notch ligands in DC differentiation but also may provide a new insight into regulation of DC differentiation by BMS. PMID:16973960

  4. The Role of Notch in the Cardiovascular System: Potential Adverse Effects of Investigational Notch Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Paola; Mele, Donato; Caliceti, Cristiana; Pannella, Micaela; Fortini, Cinzia; Clementz, Anthony George; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Aquila, Giorgio; Ameri, Pietro; Ferrari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the Notch pathway is a new promising therapeutic approach for cancer patients. Inhibition of Notch is effective in the oncology setting because it causes a reduction of highly proliferative tumor cells and it inhibits survival of cancer stem cells, which are considered responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Additionally, since Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)-activated Notch signaling is a major modulator of angiogenesis, anti-Dll4 agents are being investigated to reduce vascularization of the tumor. Notch plays a major role in the heart during the development and, after birth, in response to cardiac damage. Therefore, agents used to inhibit Notch in the tumors (gamma secretase inhibitors and anti-Dll4 agents) could potentially affect myocardial repair. The past experience with trastuzumab and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for cancer therapy demonstrates that the possible cardiotoxicity of agents targeting shared pathways between cancer and heart and the vasculature should be considered. To date, Notch inhibition in cancer patients has resulted only in mild gastrointestinal toxicity. Little is known about the potential long-term cardiotoxicity associated to Notch inhibition in cancer patients. In this review, we will focus on mechanisms through which inhibition of Notch signaling could lead to cardiomyocytes and endothelial dysfunctions. These adverse effects could contrast with the benefits of therapeutic responses in cancer cells during times of increased cardiac stress and/or in the presence of cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:25629006

  5. Targeted gene knockout in chickens mediated by TALENs.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Hong Jo; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2014-09-01

    Genetically modified animals are used for industrial applications as well as scientific research, and studies on these animals contribute to a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Gene targeting techniques have been developed to edit specific gene loci in the genome, but the conventional strategy of homologous recombination with a gene-targeted vector has low efficiency and many technical complications. Here, we generated specific gene knockout chickens through the use of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene targeting. In this study, we accomplished targeted knockout of the ovalbumin (OV) gene in the chicken primordial germ cells, and OV gene mutant offspring were generated through test-cross analysis. TALENs successfully induced nucleotide deletion mutations of ORF shifts, resulting in loss of chicken OV gene function. Our results demonstrate that the TALEN technique used in the chicken primordial germ cell line is a powerful strategy to create specific genome-edited chickens safely for practical applications. PMID:25139993

  6. Targeted gene knockout in chickens mediated by TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Hong Jo; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified animals are used for industrial applications as well as scientific research, and studies on these animals contribute to a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Gene targeting techniques have been developed to edit specific gene loci in the genome, but the conventional strategy of homologous recombination with a gene-targeted vector has low efficiency and many technical complications. Here, we generated specific gene knockout chickens through the use of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated gene targeting. In this study, we accomplished targeted knockout of the ovalbumin (OV) gene in the chicken primordial germ cells, and OV gene mutant offspring were generated through test-cross analysis. TALENs successfully induced nucleotide deletion mutations of ORF shifts, resulting in loss of chicken OV gene function. Our results demonstrate that the TALEN technique used in the chicken primordial germ cell line is a powerful strategy to create specific genome-edited chickens safely for practical applications. PMID:25139993

  7. Active Notch1 Confers a Transformed Phenotype to Primary Human Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Lee, John T.; Liu, Zhao-Jun; McDaid, Ronan; Balint, Klara; Beverly, Levi J.; Brafford, Patricia A.; Xiao, Min; Himes, Benjamin; Zabierowski, Susan E.; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Bengston, Ana; Pollock, Pamela M.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Nickoloff, Brian J.; Pear, Warren S.; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2009-01-01

    The importance of MAPK signaling in melanoma is underscored by the prevalence of activating mutations in N-Ras and B-Raf; yet, clinical development of inhibitors of this pathway has been largely ineffective, suggesting that alternative oncogenes may also promote melanoma. Notch is an interesting candidate that has only been correlated with melanoma development and progression; a thorough assessment of tumor-initiating effects of activated Notch on human melanocytes would clarify the mounting correlative evidence and perhaps identify a novel target for an otherwise untreatable disease. Analysis of a substantial panel of cell lines and patient lesions demonstrated that Notch activity is significantly higher in melanomas than their non-transformed counterparts. The use of a constitutively-active, truncated Notch transgene construct (NIC) was exploited to determine if Notch activation is a ‘driving’ event in melanocytic transformation or instead a ‘passenger’ event associated with melanoma progression. NIC-infected melanocytes displayed increased proliferative capacity and biological features more reminiscent of melanoma such as dysregulated cell adhesion and migration. Gene expression analyses supported these observations and aided in the identification of MCAM, an adhesion molecule associated with acquisition of the malignant phenotype, as a direct target of Notch transactivation. NIC-positive melanocytes grew at clonal density, proliferated in limiting media conditions, and also exhibited anchorage-independent growth suggesting that Notch, alone, is a transforming oncogene in human melanocytes, a phenomenon not previously described for any melanoma oncogene; this new information yields valuable insight into the basic epidemiology of melanoma and launches a realm of possibilities for drug intervention in this deadly disease. PMID:19549918

  8. NOTCHing the bone: Insights into multi-functionality

    PubMed Central

    Engin, Feyza; Lee, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved Notch signaling plays a critical role during embryonic and postnatal life. The importance of Notch signaling in the determination of cell fate, and the spatio-temporal regulation of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis has been demonstrated in various different organ systems. However, how Notch signaling affects the bone development was unknown until now. The in vivo effects of Notch signaling in lineage commitment, bone formation and bone resorption were demonstrated in recent studies. In addition to regulation of osteoblastogenesis, osteoblast directed osteoclastogenesis by Notch signaling revealed a dimorphic effect for this signaling pathway providing another example of such in bone development. Moreover, identification of the cross-talk between the hematopoietic stem cell niche and osteoblasts through Notch signaling also suggested another important role for Notch signaling, i.e., the coupling of cellular components of the bone microenvironment. The association between the gain and loss of function of Notch activity in bone pathology highlights Notch as a potentially novel therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic bone disease and bone cancer. In this review, we will focus primarily on the regulation of bone cells, i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts by Notch signaling. We will also review the importance of Notch in specifying bone-hematopoietic stem cell niche interactions within the bone microenvironment. Finally, we will discuss potential clinical implications and future directions for this field. PMID:19520195

  9. A Dual Role for NOTCH Signaling in Joint Cartilage Maintenance and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Chen, Jianquan; Mirando, Anthony; Wang, Cuicui; Zuscik, Michael J.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of NOTCH signaling in postnatal murine joints results in osteoarthritis (OA), indicating a requirement for NOTCH during joint cartilage maintenance. Unexpectedly, NOTCH components are significantly up-regulated in human and murine post-traumatic OA, suggesting either a reparative or pathological role for NOTCH activation in OA. Here we investigated the potential dual role for NOTCH in joint maintenance and OA by generating two mouse models overexpressing the NOTCH1 intracellular domain within postnatal joint cartilage; one with sustained NOTCH activation that likely resembles pathological NOTCH signaling and one with transient NOTCH activation that more closely reflects physiological NOTCH signaling. Sustained NOTCH signaling in joint cartilage leads to an early and progressive OA pathology, while on the contrary, transient NOTCH activation enhances cartilage matrix synthesis and promotes joint maintenance under normal physiological conditions. Using RNA-seq, immunohistochemical, and biochemical approaches we identified several novel targets potentially responsible for NOTCH-mediated cartilage degradation, fibrosis, and OA progression, including components of the IL6/STAT3 and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways; factors that may also contribute to post-traumatic OA development. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dual role for the NOTCH pathway in joint cartilage and identify important downstream NOTCH effectors as potential targets for disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:26198357

  10. Competition between Jagged-Notch and Endothelin1 Signaling Selectively Restricts Cartilage Formation in the Zebrafish Upper Face

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Lindsey; Askary, Amjad; Zuniga, Elizabeth; Balczerski, Bartosz; Bump, Paul; Nichols, James T.; Crump, J. Gage

    2016-01-01

    The intricate shaping of the facial skeleton is essential for function of the vertebrate jaw and middle ear. While much has been learned about the signaling pathways and transcription factors that control facial patterning, the downstream cellular mechanisms dictating skeletal shapes have remained unclear. Here we present genetic evidence in zebrafish that three major signaling pathways − Jagged-Notch, Endothelin1 (Edn1), and Bmp − regulate the pattern of facial cartilage and bone formation by controlling the timing of cartilage differentiation along the dorsoventral axis of the pharyngeal arches. A genomic analysis of purified facial skeletal precursors in mutant and overexpression embryos revealed a core set of differentiation genes that were commonly repressed by Jagged-Notch and induced by Edn1. Further analysis of the pre-cartilage condensation gene barx1, as well as in vivo imaging of cartilage differentiation, revealed that cartilage forms first in regions of high Edn1 and low Jagged-Notch activity. Consistent with a role of Jagged-Notch signaling in restricting cartilage differentiation, loss of Notch pathway components resulted in expanded barx1 expression in the dorsal arches, with mutation of barx1 rescuing some aspects of dorsal skeletal patterning in jag1b mutants. We also identified prrx1a and prrx1b as negative Edn1 and positive Bmp targets that function in parallel to Jagged-Notch signaling to restrict the formation of dorsal barx1+ pre-cartilage condensations. Simultaneous loss of jag1b and prrx1a/b better rescued lower facial defects of edn1 mutants than loss of either pathway alone, showing that combined overactivation of Jagged-Notch and Bmp/Prrx1 pathways contribute to the absence of cartilage differentiation in the edn1 mutant lower face. These findings support a model in which Notch-mediated restriction of cartilage differentiation, particularly in the second pharyngeal arch, helps to establish a distinct skeletal pattern in the upper

  11. Enriching CRISPR-Cas9 targeted cells by co-targeting the HPRT gene.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shuren; Tammaro, Margaret; Yan, Hong

    2015-11-16

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system uses guide RNAs to direct the Cas9 endonuclease to cleave target sequences. It can, in theory, target essentially any sequence in a genome, but the efficiency of the predicted guide RNAs varies dramatically. If no targeted cells are obtained, it is also difficult to know why the experiment fails. We have developed a transient transfection based method to enrich successfully targeted cells by co-targeting the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene. Cells are transfected with two guide RNAs that target respectively HPRT and the gene of interest. HPRT targeted cells are selected by resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and then examined for potential alterations to the gene targeted by the co-transfected guide RNA. Alterations of many genes, such as AAVS1, Exo1 and Trex1, are highly enriched in the 6-TG resistant cells. This method works in both HCT116 cells and U2OS cells and can easily be scaled up to process multiple guide RNAs. When co-targeting fails, it is straightforward to determine whether the target gene is essential or the guide RNA is ineffective. HPRT co-targeting thus provides a simple, efficient and scalable way to enrich gene targeting events and to identify the cause of failure. PMID:26130722

  12. Notch -- a goldilocks signaling pathway in disease and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Braune, Eike-Benjamin; Lendahl, Urban

    2016-03-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a fundamental signaling mechanism operating in most, if not all, multicellular organisms and in most cell types in the body. Like other "ivy league" pathways such as Wnt, PI3K, Sonic Hedgehog, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs), and JAK/STAT signaling, the Notch pathway is a linear signaling mechanism, i.e., an extracellular ligand activates a receptor, which ultimately leads to transcriptional alterations in the cell nucleus, but Notch signaling is a strict cell-cell communication mechanism and lacks built-in amplification steps in the signaling pathway. Dysregulated Notch signaling, either by direct mutations in the pathway or by altered signaling output, is increasingly linked to disease, and Notch can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on the cellular context. This underscores that appropriate level of Notch signaling is important for differentiation and tissue homeostasis, a notion supported also by genetic data indicating that Notch signaling is very gene dosage-sensitive. Thus, too much or too little signaling can lead to disease and Notch can therefore be considered a Goldilocks signaling pathway. Given the emerging role of dysregulated Notch signaling in disease, there is increasing interest in developing therapeutic approaches to modulate Notch signaling. In this review we discuss recent findings on how signal transduction is tuned in the Notch pathway and how Notch signaling is dysregulated in disease. We also discuss different strategies to modulate Notch signaling for clinical use, for example by novel antibody-based tools and by taking advantage of the cross-talk between Notch and other signaling mechanisms. PMID:27115169

  13. Sox9 mediates Notch1-induced mesenchymal features in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Capaccione, Kathleen M; Hong, Xuehui; Morgan, Katherine M; Liu, Wenyu; Bishop, J Michael; Liu, LianXin; Markert, Elke; Deen, Malik; Minerowicz, Christine; Bertino, Joseph R; Allen, Thaddeus; Pine, Sharon R

    2014-06-15

    Sox9 has gained increasing importance both functionally and as a prognostic factor in cancer. We demonstrate a functional role for Sox9 in inducing a mesenchymal phenotype in lung ADC. We show that Sox9 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in lung ADC, particularly those with KRAS mutations. Sox9 expression correlated with the Notch target gene Hes1, and numerous other Notch pathway components. We observed that Sox9 is a potent inducer of lung cancer cell motility and invasion, and a negative regulator of E-cadherin, a key protein that is lost during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we show that Notch1 signaling directly regulates Sox9 expression through a SOX9 promoter binding site, independently of the TGF-β pathway, and that Sox9 participates in Notch-1 induced cell motility, cell invasion, and loss of E-cadherin expression. Together, the results identify a new functional role for a Notch1-Sox9 signaling axis in lung ADC that may explain the correlation of Sox9 with tumor progression, higher tumor grade, and poor lung cancer survival. In addition to Notch and TGF-β, Sox9 also acts downstream of NF-κB, BMP, EGFR, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, Sox9 could potentially act as a hub to mediate cross-talk among key oncogenic pathways in lung ADC. Targeting Sox9 expression or transcriptional activity could potentially reduce resistance to targeted therapy for lung ADC caused by pathway redundancy. PMID:25004243

  14. Structural and mechanistic insights into cooperative assembly of dimeric Notch transcription complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, Kelly L.; Hass, Matthew; McArthur, Debbie G.; Ilagan, Ma Xenia G.; Aster, Jon C.; Kopan, Raphael; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2010-11-12

    Ligand-induced proteolysis of Notch produces an intracellular effector domain that transduces essential signals by regulating the transcription of target genes. This function relies on the formation of transcriptional activation complexes that include intracellular Notch, a Mastermind co-activator and the transcription factor CSL bound to cognate DNA. These complexes form higher-order assemblies on paired, head-to-head CSL recognition sites. Here we report the X-ray structure of a dimeric human Notch1 transcription complex loaded on the paired site from the human HES1 promoter. The small interface between the Notch ankyrin domains could accommodate DNA bending and untwisting to allow a range of spacer lengths between the two sites. Cooperative dimerization occurred on the human and mouse Hes5 promoters at a sequence that diverged from the CSL-binding consensus at one of the sites. These studies reveal how promoter organizational features control cooperativity and, thus, the responsiveness of different promoters to Notch signaling.

  15. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Hua; Qi, Shao-Hai; Shu, Bin; Ruan, Shu-Bin; Lin, Ze-Peng; Lin, Yan; Shen, Rui; Zhang, Feng-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Ju-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic, non-healing wounds are a major complication of diabetes. Recently, various cell therapies have been reported for promotion of diabetic wound healing. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are considered a powerful tool for tissue therapy. However, the effect and the mechanism of the therapeutic properties of ESCs in the diabetic wound healing are unclear. Herein, to determine the ability of ESCs to diabetic wound healing, a dorsal skin defect in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) mouse model was used. ESCs were isolated from mouse skin. We found that both the mRNA and protein levels of a Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1), Notch1 and Notch target gene Hairy Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) were significantly increased at the wound margins. In addition, we observed that Jag1 was high expressed in ESCs. Overexpression of Jag1 promotes ESCs migration, whereas knockdown Jag1 resulted in a significant reduction in ESCs migration in vitro. Importantly, Jag1 overexpression improves diabetic wound healing in vivo. These results provide evidence that ESCs accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway, and provide a promising potential for activation of the Notch pathway for the treatment of diabetic wound. PMID:27129289

  16. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong-Hua; Qi, Shao-Hai; Shu, Bin; Ruan, Shu-Bin; Lin, Ze-Peng; Lin, Yan; Shen, Rui; Zhang, Feng-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Ju-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic, non-healing wounds are a major complication of diabetes. Recently, various cell therapies have been reported for promotion of diabetic wound healing. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are considered a powerful tool for tissue therapy. However, the effect and the mechanism of the therapeutic properties of ESCs in the diabetic wound healing are unclear. Herein, to determine the ability of ESCs to diabetic wound healing, a dorsal skin defect in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) mouse model was used. ESCs were isolated from mouse skin. We found that both the mRNA and protein levels of a Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1), Notch1 and Notch target gene Hairy Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) were significantly increased at the wound margins. In addition, we observed that Jag1 was high expressed in ESCs. Overexpression of Jag1 promotes ESCs migration, whereas knockdown Jag1 resulted in a significant reduction in ESCs migration in vitro Importantly, Jag1 overexpression improves diabetic wound healing in vivo These results provide evidence that ESCs accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway, and provide a promising potential for activation of the Notch pathway for the treatment of diabetic wound. PMID:27129289

  17. NOTCH4 signaling controls EFNB2-induced endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Luo, Qingqing; Zheng, Yanfang; Liu, Xiaoping; Hu, Ying; Liu, Weifang; Luo, Minglian; Zhao, Yin; Zou, Li

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy and is closely related to endothelial dysfunction, which can be repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 (ephrinB2) cascade may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia by inhibiting the biological activity of EPCs. In addition, both NOTCH1 and NOTCH4, which are specific receptors for DLL4/NOTCH, play critical roles in the various steps of angiogenesis. However, it has not been determined which receptor (NOTCH1, NOTCH4, or both) is specific for the DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 cascade. Accordingly, we performed a series of investigations to evaluate it. EFNB2 expression was examined when NOTCH4 or NOTCH1 was downregulated, with or without DLL4 treatment. Then, the effects of NOTCH4 on EPC function were detected. Additionally, we analyzed NOTCH4 and EFNB2 expression in the EPCs from preeclampsia and normal pregnancies. Results showed that NOTCH4 downregulation led to decreased expression of EFNB2, which maintained the same level in the presence of DLL4/NOTCH activation. By contrast, NOTCH1 silencing resulted in a moderate increase in EFNB2 expression, which further increased in the presence of DLL4/NOTCH activation. The downregulation of NOTCH4 resulted in an increase of EPC biological activity, which was similar to EFNB2 silencing. NOTCH4 expression, consistent with the EFNB2 level, increased notably in preeclampsia EPCs compared with the controls. These findings suggest that NOTCH4, not NOTCH1, is the specific receptor for the DLL4/NOTCH-EFNB2 cascade. Blockade of this cascade may enhance the angiogenic property of EPCs, and act as a potential target to promote angiogenesis in patients with preeclampsia. PMID:27069008

  18. Tissue-specific targeting of cell fate regulatory genes by E2f factors.

    PubMed

    Julian, L M; Liu, Y; Pakenham, C A; Dugal-Tessier, D; Ruzhynsky, V; Bae, S; Tsai, S-Y; Leone, G; Slack, R S; Blais, A

    2016-04-01

    Cell cycle proteins are important regulators of diverse cell fate decisions, and in this capacity have pivotal roles in neurogenesis and brain development. The mechanisms by which cell cycle regulation is integrated with cell fate control in the brain and other tissues are poorly understood, and an outstanding question is whether the cell cycle machinery regulates fate decisions directly or instead as a secondary consequence of proliferative control. Identification of the genes targeted by E2 promoter binding factor (E2f) transcription factors, effectors of the pRb/E2f cell cycle pathway, will provide essential insights into these mechanisms. We identified the promoter regions bound by three neurogenic E2f factors in neural precursor cells in a genome-wide manner. Through bioinformatic analyses and integration of published genomic data sets we uncovered hundreds of transcriptionally active E2f-bound promoters corresponding to genes that control cell fate processes, including key transcriptional regulators and members of the Notch, fibroblast growth factor, Wnt and Tgf-β signaling pathways. We also demonstrate a striking enrichment of the CCCTC binding factor transcription factor (Ctcf) at E2f3-bound nervous system-related genes, suggesting a potential regulatory co-factor for E2f3 in controlling differentiation. Finally, we provide the first demonstration of extensive tissue specificity among E2f target genes in mammalian cells, whereby E2f3 promoter binding is well conserved between neural and muscle precursors at genes associated with cell cycle processes, but is tissue-specific at differentiation-associated genes. Our findings implicate the cell cycle pathway as a widespread regulator of cell fate genes, and suggest that E2f3 proteins control cell type-specific differentiation programs by regulating unique sets of target genes. This work significantly enhances our understanding of how the cell cycle machinery impacts cell fate and differentiation, and will

  19. Transcriptional targeting of tumor endothelial cells for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhihong; Nör, Jacques E.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathobiology of tumors. Recent clinical trials have shown that inhibition of angiogenesis can be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with cancer. However, one of the outstanding issues in anti-angiogenic treatment for cancer is the development of toxicities related to off-target effects of drugs. Transcriptional targeting of tumor endothelial cells involves the use of specific promoters for selective expression of therapeutic genes in the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels of tumors. Recently, several genes that are expressed specifically in tumor-associated endothelial cells have been identified and characterized. These discoveries have enhanced the prospectus of transcriptionaly targeting tumor endothelial cells for cancer gene therapy. In this manuscript, we review the promoters, vectors, and therapeutic genes that have been used for transcriptional targeting of tumor endothelial cells, and discuss the prospects of such approaches for cancer gene therapy. PMID:19393703

  20. Homologous gene targeting in Caenorhabditis elegans by biolistic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Berezikov, Eugene; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Plasterk, Ronald H. A.

    2004-01-01

    Targeted homologous recombination is a powerful approach for genome manipulation that is widely used for gene alteration and knockouts in mouse and yeast. In Caenorhabditis elegans, several methods of target-selected mutagenesis have been implemented but none of them provides the opportunity of introducing exact predefined changes into the genome. Although anecdotal cases of homologous gene targeting in C.elegans have been reported, no practical technique of gene targeting has been developed so far. In this work we demonstrate that transformation of C.elegans by microparticle bombardment (biolistic transformation) can result in homologous recombination between introduced DNA and the chromosomal locus. We describe a scaled up version of biolistic transformation that can be used as a method for homologous gene targeting in the worm. PMID:14982959

  1. Gene-targeting pharmaceuticals for single-gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Arthur L; Meng, Linyan

    2016-04-15

    The concept of orphan drugs for treatment of orphan genetic diseases is perceived enthusiastically at present, and this is leading to research investment on the part of governments, disease-specific foundations and industry. This review attempts to survey the potential to use traditional pharmaceuticals as opposed to biopharmaceuticals to treat single-gene disorders. The available strategies include the use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to alter splicing or knock-down expression of a transcript, siRNAs to knock-down gene expression and drugs for nonsense mutation read-through. There is an approved drug for biallelic knock-down of the APOB gene as treatment for familial hypercholesterolemia. Both ASOs and siRNAs are being explored to knock-down the transthyretin gene to prevent the related form of amyloidosis. The use of ASOs to alter gene-splicing to treat spinal muscular atrophy is in phase 3 clinical trials. Work is progressing on the use of ASOs to activate the normally silent paternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene in neurons as a treatment for Angelman syndrome. A gene-activation or gene-specific ramp-up strategy would be generally helpful if such could be developed. There is exciting theoretical potential for converting biopharmaceutical strategies such gene correction and CRISPR-Cas9 editing to a synthetic pharmaceutical approach. PMID:26628634

  2. Involvement of the Notch pathway in terminal astrocytic differentiation: role of PKA

    PubMed Central

    Angulo-Rojo, Carla; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Aguirre, Adán; Ortega, Arturo; López-Bayghen, Esther

    2013-01-01

    The Notch pathway is a highly conserved signaling system essential for modulating neurogenesis and promoting astrogenesis. Similarly, the cAMP signaling cascade can promote astrocytic commitment in several cell culture models, such as the C6 glioma cell line. These cells have the capacity to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, characteristics that allow their use as a glial progenitor model. In this context, we explore here the plausible involvement of cAMP in Notch-dependent signal transactions. The exposure of C6 cells to a non-hydrolysable cAMP analogue resulted in a sustained augmentation of Notch activity, as detected by nuclear translocation of its intracellular domain portion (NICD) and transcriptional activity. The cAMP effect is mediated through the activation of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for Notch cleavage and is sensitive to inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. As expected, Notch cleavage and nuclear translocation resulted in the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of one of its target genes, the transcription factor Hair and enhancer of split 5. Moreover, the glutamate uptake activity, as well as the expression of astrocytic markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100β protein and GLAST was also enhanced in cAMP-exposed cells. Our results clearly suggest that during the process of C6 astrocytic differentiation, cAMP activates the PKA/γ-secretase/NICD/RBPJκ pathway and Notch1 expression, leading to transcriptional activation of the genes responsible for glial progenitor cell fate decision. PMID:24286475

  3. The NOTCH signaling pathway: role in the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and implication for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tosello, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) is characterized by aberrant activation of NOTCH1 in over 60% of T-ALL cases. The high prevalence of activating NOTCH1 mutations highlights the critical role of NOTCH signaling in the pathogenesis of this disease and has prompted the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the NOTCH signaling pathway. Small molecule gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) can effectively inhibit oncogenic NOTCH1 and are in clinical testing for the treatment of T-ALL. Treatment with GSIs and glucocorticoids are strongly synergistic and may overcome the gastrointestinal toxicity associated with systemic inhibition of the NOTCH pathway. In addition, emerging new anti-NOTCH1 therapies include selective inhibition of NOTCH1 with anti-NOTCH1 antibodies and stapled peptides targeting the NOTCH transcriptional complex in the nucleus. PMID:23730497

  4. Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy to detect and treat cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lily; Johnson, Mai; Sato, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The greatest challenge in cancer treatment is to achieve the highest levels of specificity and efficacy. Cancer gene therapy could be designed specifically to express therapeutic genes to induce cancer cell destruction. Cancer-specific promoters are useful tools to accomplish targeted expression; however, high levels of gene expression are needed to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Incorporating an imaging reporter gene in tandem with the therapeutic gene will allow tangible proof of principle that gene expression occurs at the correct location and at a sufficient level. Gene-based imaging can advance cancer detection and diagnosis. By combining the cancer-targeted imaging and therapeutic strategies, the exciting prospect of a ‘one-two punch’ to find hidden, disseminated cancer cells and destroy them simultaneously can potentially be realized. PMID:14557054

  5. Promoterless gene targeting without nucleases ameliorates haemophilia B in mice.

    PubMed

    Barzel, A; Paulk, N K; Shi, Y; Huang, Y; Chu, K; Zhang, F; Valdmanis, P N; Spector, L P; Porteus, M H; Gaensler, K M; Kay, M A

    2015-01-15

    Site-specific gene addition can allow stable transgene expression for gene therapy. When possible, this is preferred over the use of promiscuously integrating vectors, which are sometimes associated with clonal expansion and oncogenesis. Site-specific endonucleases that can induce high rates of targeted genome editing are finding increasing applications in biological discovery and gene therapy. However, two safety concerns persist: endonuclease-associated adverse effects, both on-target and off-target; and oncogene activation caused by promoter integration, even without nucleases. Here we perform recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated promoterless gene targeting without nucleases and demonstrate amelioration of the bleeding diathesis in haemophilia B mice. In particular, we target a promoterless human coagulation factor IX (F9) gene to the liver-expressed mouse albumin (Alb) locus. F9 is targeted, along with a preceding 2A-peptide coding sequence, to be integrated just upstream to the Alb stop codon. While F9 is fused to Alb at the DNA and RNA levels, two separate proteins are synthesized by way of ribosomal skipping. Thus, F9 expression is linked to robust hepatic albumin expression without disrupting it. We injected an AAV8-F9 vector into neonatal and adult mice and achieved on-target integration into ∼0.5% of the albumin alleles in hepatocytes. We established that F9 was produced only from on-target integration, and ribosomal skipping was highly efficient. Stable F9 plasma levels at 7-20% of normal were obtained, and treated F9-deficient mice had normal coagulation times. In conclusion, transgene integration as a 2A-fusion to a highly expressed endogenous gene may obviate the requirement for nucleases and/or vector-borne promoters. This method may allow for safe and efficacious gene targeting in both infants and adults by greatly diminishing off-target effects while still providing therapeutic levels of expression from integration. PMID:25363772

  6. AAV-mediated gene targeting methods for human cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Iram F; Hirata, Roli K; Russell, David W

    2013-01-01

    Gene targeting with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has been demonstrated in multiple human cell types, with targeting frequencies ranging from 10−5 to 10−2 per infected cell. these targeting frequencies are 1–4 logs higher than those obtained by conventional transfection or electroporation approaches. a wide variety of different types of mutations can be introduced into chromosomal loci with high fidelity and without genotoxicity. Here we provide a detailed protocol for gene targeting in human cells with AAV vectors. We describe methods for vector design, stock preparation and titration. optimized transduction protocols are provided for human pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts and transformed cell lines, as well as a method for identifying targeted clones by southern blots. this protocol (from vector design through a single round of targeting and screening) can be completed in ~10 weeks; each subsequent round of targeting and screening should take an additional 7 weeks. PMID:21455185

  7. Self-targeting by CRISPR: gene regulation or autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Adi; Keren, Leeat; Wurtzel, Omri; Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2010-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas is a recently discovered prokaryotic immune system, which is based on small RNAs (“spacers”) that restrict phage and plasmid infection. It has been hypothesized that CRISPRs can also regulate self gene expression by utilizing spacers that target self genes. By analyzing CRISPRs from 330 organisms we found that one in every 250 spacers is self targeting, and that such self-targeting occurs in 18% of all CRISPR-bearing organisms. However, complete lack of conservation across species, combined with abundance of degraded repeats near self-targeting spacers, suggests that self-targeting is a consequence of autoimmunity rather than gene regulation. We propose that accidental incorporation of self nucleic-acids by CRISPR can incur an autoimmune fitness cost, which may explain the abundance of degraded CRISPR systems across prokaryotes. PMID:20598393

  8. Homozygous NOTCH3 null mutation and impaired NOTCH3 signaling in recessive early-onset arteriopathy and cavitating leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pippucci, Tommaso; Maresca, Alessandra; Magini, Pamela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Donadio, Vincenzo; Palombo, Flavia; Papa, Valentina; Incensi, Alex; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Preziuso, Carmela; Pisano, Annalinda; Ragno, Michele; Liguori, Rocco; Giordano, Carla; Tonon, Caterina; Lodi, Raffaele; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Carelli, Valerio; Seri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is essential for vascular physiology. Neomorphic heterozygous mutations in NOTCH3, one of the four human NOTCH receptors, cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Hypomorphic heterozygous alleles have been occasionally described in association with a spectrum of cerebrovascular phenotypes overlapping CADASIL, but their pathogenic potential is unclear. We describe a patient with childhood-onset arteriopathy, cavitating leukoencephalopathy with cerebral white matter abnormalities presented as diffuse cavitations, multiple lacunar infarctions and disseminated microbleeds. We identified a novel homozygous c.C2898A (p.C966*) null mutation in NOTCH3 abolishing NOTCH3 expression and causing NOTCH3 signaling impairment. NOTCH3 targets acting in the regulation of arterial tone (KCNA5) or expressed in the vasculature (CDH6) were downregulated. Patient's vessels were characterized by smooth muscle degeneration as in CADASIL, but without deposition of granular osmiophilic material (GOM), the CADASIL hallmark. The heterozygous parents displayed similar but less dramatic trends in decrease in the expression of NOTCH3 and its targets, as well as in vessel degeneration. This study suggests a functional link between NOTCH3 deficiency and pathogenesis of vascular leukoencephalopathies. PMID:25870235

  9. Cell Targeting in Anti-Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd; Siew, John Shia Kwong; Zakaria, Hayati; Saad, Suria Mohd; Ni, Lim Shen; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2004-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach towards cancer treatment. The main aim of the therapy is to destroy cancer cells, usually by apoptotic mechanisms, and preserving others. However, its application has been hindered by many factors including poor cellular uptake, non-specific cell targeting and undesirable interferences with other genes or gene products. A variety of strategies exist to improve cellular uptake efficiency of gene-based therapies. This paper highlights advancements in gene therapy research and its application in relation to anti-cancer treatment. PMID:22977356

  10. Chromatin looping as a target for altering erythroid gene expression.

    PubMed

    Krivega, Ivan; Dean, Ann

    2016-03-01

    The β-hemoglobinopathies are the most common monogenic disorders in humans, with symptoms arising after birth when the fetal γ-globin genes are silenced and the adult β-globin gene is activated. There is a growing appreciation that genome organization and the folding of chromosomes are key determinants of gene transcription. Underlying this function is the activity of transcriptional enhancers that increase the transcription of target genes over long linear distances. To accomplish this, enhancers engage in close physical contact with target promoters through chromosome folding or looping that is orchestrated by protein complexes that bind to both sites and stabilize their interaction. We find that enhancer activity can be redirected with concomitant changes in gene transcription. Both targeting the β-globin locus control region (LCR) to the γ-globin gene in adult erythroid cells by tethering and epigenetic unmasking of a silenced γ-globin gene lead to increased frequency of LCR/γ-globin contacts and reduced LCR/β-globin contacts. The outcome of these manipulations is robust, pancellular γ-globin transcription activation with a concomitant reduction in β-globin transcription. These examples show that chromosome looping may be considered a therapeutic target for gene activation in β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. PMID:26918894

  11. A Flexible Approach for Highly Multiplexed Candidate Gene Targeted Resequencing

    PubMed Central

    Natsoulis, Georges; Bell, John M.; Xu, Hua; Buenrostro, Jason D.; Ordonez, Heather; Grimes, Susan; Newburger, Daniel; Jensen, Michael; Zahn, Jacob M.; Zhang, Nancy; Ji, Hanlee P.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated strategy for targeted resequencing and analysis of gene subsets from the human exome for variants. Our capture technology is geared towards resequencing gene subsets substantially larger than can be done efficiently with simplex or multiplex PCR but smaller in scale than exome sequencing. We describe all the steps from the initial capture assay to single nucleotide variant (SNV) discovery. The capture methodology uses in-solution 80-mer oligonucleotides. To provide optimal flexibility in choosing human gene targets, we designed an in silico set of oligonucleotides, the Human OligoExome, that covers the gene exons annotated by the Consensus Coding Sequencing Project (CCDS). This resource is openly available as an Internet accessible database where one can download capture oligonucleotides sequences for any CCDS gene and design custom capture assays. Using this resource, we demonstrated the flexibility of this assay by custom designing capture assays ranging from 10 to over 100 gene targets with total capture sizes from over 100 Kilobases to nearly one Megabase. We established a method to reduce capture variability and incorporated indexing schemes to increase sample throughput. Our approach has multiple applications that include but are not limited to population targeted resequencing studies of specific gene subsets, validation of variants discovered in whole genome sequencing surveys and possible diagnostic analysis of disease gene subsets. We also present a cost analysis demonstrating its cost-effectiveness for large population studies. PMID:21738606

  12. Characterization and developmental expression of the amphioxus homolog of Notch (AmphiNotch): evolutionary conservation of multiple expression domains in amphioxus and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Holland, L Z; Rached, L A; Tamme, R; Holland, N D; Kortschak, D; Inoko, H; Shiina, T; Burgtorf, C; Lardelli, M

    2001-04-15

    Notch encodes a transmembrane protein that functions in intercellular signaling. Although there is one Notch gene in Drosophila, vertebrates have three or more with overlapping patterns of embryonic expression. We cloned the entire 7575-bp coding region of an amphioxus Notch gene (AmphiNotch), encoding 2524 amino acids, and obtained the exon/intron organization from a genomic cosmid clone. Southern blot and PCR data indicate that AmphiNotch is the only Notch gene in amphioxus. AmphiNotch, like Drosophila Notch and vertebrate Notch1 and Notch2, has 36 EGF repeats, 3 Notch/lin-12 repeats, a transmembrane region, and 6 ankyrin repeats. Phylogenetic analysis places it at the base of all the vertebrate genes, suggesting it is similar to the ancestral gene from which the vertebrate Notch family genes evolved. AmphiNotch is expressed in all three embryonic germ layers in spatiotemporal patterns strikingly similar to those of all the vertebrate homologs combined. In the developing nerve cord, AmphiNotch is first expressed in the posteriormost part of the neural plate, then it becomes more broadly expressed and later is localized dorsally in the anteriormost part of the nerve cord corresponding to the diencephalon. In late embryos and larvae, AmphiNotch is also expressed in parts of the pharyngeal endoderm, in the anterior gut diverticulum, and, like AmphiPax2/5/8, in the rudiment of Hatschek's kidney. A comparison with Notch1 and Pax5 and Pax8 expression in the embryonic mouse kidney helps support homology of the amphioxus and vertebrate kidneys. AmphiNotch is also an early marker for presumptive mesoderm, transcripts first being detectable at the gastrula stage in a ring of mesendoderm just inside the blastopore and subsequently in the posterior mesoderm, notochord, and somites. As in sea urchins and vertebrates, these domains of AmphiNotch expression overlap with those of several Wnt genes and brachyury. These relationships suggest that amphioxus shares with other

  13. Notch-independent RBPJ controls angiogenesis in the adult heart

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Trelles, Ramón; Scimia, Maria Cecilia; Bushway, Paul; Tran, Danh; Monosov, Anna; Monosov, Edward; Peterson, Kirk; Rentschler, Stacey; Cabrales, Pedro; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Mercola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Increasing angiogenesis has long been considered a therapeutic target for improving heart function after injury such as acute myocardial infarction. However, gene, protein and cell therapies to increase microvascularization have not been successful, most likely because the studies failed to achieve regulated and concerted expression of pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors needed to produce functional microvasculature. Here, we report that the transcription factor RBPJ is a homoeostatic repressor of multiple pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factor genes in cardiomyocytes. RBPJ controls angiogenic factor gene expression independently of Notch by antagonizing the activity of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In contrast to previous strategies, the cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Rbpj increased microvascularization of the heart without adversely affecting cardiac structure or function even into old age. Furthermore, the loss of RBPJ in cardiomyocytes increased hypoxia tolerance, improved heart function and decreased pathological remodelling after myocardial infarction, suggesting that inhibiting RBPJ might be therapeutic for ischaemic injury. PMID:27357444

  14. Chimeric DNA methyltransferases target DNA methylation to specific DNA sequences and repress expression of target genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuyang; Papworth, Monika; Minczuk, Michal; Rohde, Christian; Zhang, Yingying; Ragozin, Sergei; Jeltsch, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Gene silencing by targeted DNA methylation has potential applications in basic research and therapy. To establish targeted methylation in human cell lines, the catalytic domains (CDs) of mouse Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b DNA methyltransferases (MTases) were fused to different DNA binding domains (DBD) of GAL4 and an engineered Cys2His2 zinc finger domain. We demonstrated that (i) Dense DNA methylation can be targeted to specific regions in gene promoters using chimeric DNA MTases. (ii) Site-specific methylation leads to repression of genes controlled by various cellular or viral promoters. (iii) Mutations affecting any of the DBD, MTase or target DNA sequences reduce targeted methylation and gene silencing. (iv) Targeted DNA methylation is effective in repressing Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in cell culture with the viral titer reduced by at least 18-fold in the presence of an MTase fused to an engineered zinc finger DBD, which binds a single site in the promoter of HSV-1 gene IE175k. In short, we show here that it is possible to direct DNA MTase activity to predetermined sites in DNA, achieve targeted gene silencing in mammalian cell lines and interfere with HSV-1 propagation. PMID:17151075

  15. Drug target prioritization by perturbed gene expression and network information

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Zerrin; Baldow, Christoph; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drugs bind to their target proteins, which interact with downstream effectors and ultimately perturb the transcriptome of a cancer cell. These perturbations reveal information about their source, i.e., drugs’ targets. Here, we investigate whether these perturbations and protein interaction networks can uncover drug targets and key pathways. We performed the first systematic analysis of over 500 drugs from the Connectivity Map. First, we show that the gene expression of drug targets is usually not significantly affected by the drug perturbation. Hence, expression changes after drug treatment on their own are not sufficient to identify drug targets. However, ranking of candidate drug targets by network topological measures prioritizes the targets. We introduce a novel measure, local radiality, which combines perturbed genes and functional interaction network information. The new measure outperforms other methods in target prioritization and proposes cancer-specific pathways from drugs to affected genes for the first time. Local radiality identifies more diverse targets with fewer neighbors and possibly less side effects. PMID:26615774

  16. Small molecule activation of NOTCH signaling inhibits acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Jiang, Jue; Zhan, Guanqun; Yan, Wanyao; Huang, Liang; Hu, Yufeng; Su, Hexiu; Tong, Qingyi; Yue, Ming; Li, Hua; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway is crucial for the onset and progression of T cell leukemia. Yet recent studies also suggest a tumor suppressive role of NOTCH signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reactivation of this pathway offers an attractive opportunity for anti-AML therapies. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that we previously isolated from Zephyranthes candida, exhibiting inhibitory activities in a variety of cancer cells, particularly those from AML. Here, we report NMHC not only selectively inhibits AML cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that NMHC activates the NOTCH signaling. Combination of NMHC and recombinant human NOTCH ligand DLL4 achieves a remarkable synergistic effect on NOTCH activation. Moreover, pre-inhibition of NOTCH by overexpression of dominant negative MAML alleviates NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity in AML. Further mechanistic analysis using structure-based molecular modeling as well as biochemical assays demonstrates that NMHC docks in the hydrophobic cavity within the NOTCH1 negative regulatory region (NRR), thus promoting NOTCH1 proteolytic cleavage. Our findings thus establish NMHC as a potential NOTCH agonist that holds great promises for future development as a novel agent beneficial to patients with AML. PMID:27211848

  17. Small molecule activation of NOTCH signaling inhibits acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qi; Jiang, Jue; Zhan, Guanqun; Yan, Wanyao; Huang, Liang; Hu, Yufeng; Su, Hexiu; Tong, Qingyi; Yue, Ming; Li, Hua; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway is crucial for the onset and progression of T cell leukemia. Yet recent studies also suggest a tumor suppressive role of NOTCH signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reactivation of this pathway offers an attractive opportunity for anti-AML therapies. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that we previously isolated from Zephyranthes candida, exhibiting inhibitory activities in a variety of cancer cells, particularly those from AML. Here, we report NMHC not only selectively inhibits AML cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that NMHC activates the NOTCH signaling. Combination of NMHC and recombinant human NOTCH ligand DLL4 achieves a remarkable synergistic effect on NOTCH activation. Moreover, pre-inhibition of NOTCH by overexpression of dominant negative MAML alleviates NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity in AML. Further mechanistic analysis using structure-based molecular modeling as well as biochemical assays demonstrates that NMHC docks in the hydrophobic cavity within the NOTCH1 negative regulatory region (NRR), thus promoting NOTCH1 proteolytic cleavage. Our findings thus establish NMHC as a potential NOTCH agonist that holds great promises for future development as a novel agent beneficial to patients with AML. PMID:27211848

  18. Identification of p53-target genes in Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Mandriani, Barbara; Castellana, Stefano; Rinaldi, Carmela; Manzoni, Marta; Venuto, Santina; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Galceran, Juan; Nieto, M. Angela; Borsani, Giuseppe; Monti, Eugenio; Mazza, Tommaso; Merla, Giuseppe; Micale, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    To orchestrate the genomic response to cellular stress signals, p53 recognizes and binds to DNA containing specific and well-characterized p53-responsive elements (REs). Differences in RE sequences can strongly affect the p53 transactivation capacity and occur even between closely related species. Therefore, the identification and characterization of a species-specific p53 Binding sistes (BS) consensus sequence and of the associated target genes may help to provide new insights into the evolution of the p53 regulatory networks across different species. Although p53 functions were studied in a wide range of species, little is known about the p53-mediated transcriptional signature in Danio rerio. Here, we designed and biochemically validated a computational approach to identify novel p53 target genes in Danio rerio genome. Screening all the Danio rerio genome by pattern-matching-based analysis, we found p53 RE-like patterns proximal to 979 annotated Danio rerio genes. Prioritization analysis identified a subset of 134 candidate pattern-related genes, 31 of which have been investigated in further biochemical assays. Our study identified runx1, axin1, traf4a, hspa8, col4a5, necab2, and dnajc9 genes as novel direct p53 targets and 12 additional p53-controlled genes in Danio rerio genome. The proposed combinatorial approach resulted to be highly sensitive and robust for identifying new p53 target genes also in additional animal species. PMID:27581768

  19. Identification of p53-target genes in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Mandriani, Barbara; Castellana, Stefano; Rinaldi, Carmela; Manzoni, Marta; Venuto, Santina; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Galceran, Juan; Nieto, M Angela; Borsani, Giuseppe; Monti, Eugenio; Mazza, Tommaso; Merla, Giuseppe; Micale, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    To orchestrate the genomic response to cellular stress signals, p53 recognizes and binds to DNA containing specific and well-characterized p53-responsive elements (REs). Differences in RE sequences can strongly affect the p53 transactivation capacity and occur even between closely related species. Therefore, the identification and characterization of a species-specific p53 Binding sistes (BS) consensus sequence and of the associated target genes may help to provide new insights into the evolution of the p53 regulatory networks across different species. Although p53 functions were studied in a wide range of species, little is known about the p53-mediated transcriptional signature in Danio rerio. Here, we designed and biochemically validated a computational approach to identify novel p53 target genes in Danio rerio genome. Screening all the Danio rerio genome by pattern-matching-based analysis, we found p53 RE-like patterns proximal to 979 annotated Danio rerio genes. Prioritization analysis identified a subset of 134 candidate pattern-related genes, 31 of which have been investigated in further biochemical assays. Our study identified runx1, axin1, traf4a, hspa8, col4a5, necab2, and dnajc9 genes as novel direct p53 targets and 12 additional p53-controlled genes in Danio rerio genome. The proposed combinatorial approach resulted to be highly sensitive and robust for identifying new p53 target genes also in additional animal species. PMID:27581768

  20. Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and a Novel Curcumin Derivative on Notch1 Signaling in Hepatoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Talaat; Khaled, Hussien Mostafa; El Hindawi, Ali; Roshdy, Nagwa Kamal; Rashed, Laila A.; Hassouna, Amira A.; Taha, Fatma; Ali, Walaa Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and a novel curcumin derivative (NCD) on HepG2 cells (hepatoma cell line) and to investigate their effect on Notch1 signaling pathway target genes. HepG2 cells were divided into HepG2 control group, HepG2 cells treated with MSC conditioned medium (MSCs CM), HepG2 cells treated with a NCD, HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM and NCD, and HepG2 cells treated with MSCs CM (CM of MSCs pretreated with a NCD). Expression of Notch1, Hes1, VEGF, and cyclin D1 was assessed by real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in HepG2 cells. In addition, HepG2 proliferation assay was performed in all groups. Notch1 and its target genes (Hes1 and cyclin D1) were downregulated in all treated groups with more suppressive effect in the groups treated with both MSCs and NCD. Also, treated HepG2 cells showed significant decrease in cell proliferation rate. These data suggest that modulation of Notch1 signaling pathway by MSCs and/or NCD can be considered as a therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:24024180

  1. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeutic efficacy of gene delivery, various carriers have been engineered and developed to provide protection to the genetic materials and efficient delivery to targeted cancer cells. Nanoparticles play an important role in the area of drug delivery and have been widely applied in cancer treatments for the purposes of controlled release and cancer cell targeting. Nanoparticles composed of artificial polymers, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids have been developed for the delivery of therapeutic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences to target cancer. In addition, the effectiveness of cancer targeting has been enhanced by surface modification or conjugation with biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. In this review article we provide an overview on the latest developments in nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancers. Firstly, we outline the conventional therapies and discuss strategies for targeted gene therapy using nanoparticles. Secondly, we provide the most representative and recent researches in lung cancers including malignant pleural mesothelioma, mainly focusing on the application of Polymeric, Lipid-based, and Metal-based nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss current achievements and future challenges. PMID:27294004

  2. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeutic efficacy of gene delivery, various carriers have been engineered and developed to provide protection to the genetic materials and efficient delivery to targeted cancer cells. Nanoparticles play an important role in the area of drug delivery and have been widely applied in cancer treatments for the purposes of controlled release and cancer cell targeting. Nanoparticles composed of artificial polymers, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids have been developed for the delivery of therapeutic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences to target cancer. In addition, the effectiveness of cancer targeting has been enhanced by surface modification or conjugation with biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. In this review article we provide an overview on the latest developments in nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancers. Firstly, we outline the conventional therapies and discuss strategies for targeted gene therapy using nanoparticles. Secondly, we provide the most representative and recent researches in lung cancers including malignant pleural mesothelioma, mainly focusing on the application of Polymeric, Lipid-based, and Metal-based nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss current achievements and future challenges. PMID:27294004

  3. Single molecule targeted sequencing for cancer gene mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Deng, Liwei; Yan, Qin; Gao, Yongqian; Wu, Zengding; Cai, Jinsen; Ji, Daorui; Li, Gailing; Wu, Ping; Jin, Huan; Zhao, Luyang; Liu, Song; Ge, Liangjin; Deem, Michael W; He, Jiankui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid decline in cost of sequencing, it is now affordable to examine multiple genes in a single disease-targeted clinical test using next generation sequencing. Current targeted sequencing methods require a separate step of targeted capture enrichment during sample preparation before sequencing. Although there are fast sample preparation methods available in market, the library preparation process is still relatively complicated for physicians to use routinely. Here, we introduced an amplification-free Single Molecule Targeted Sequencing (SMTS) technology, which combined targeted capture and sequencing in one step. We demonstrated that this technology can detect low-frequency mutations using artificially synthesized DNA sample. SMTS has several potential advantages, including simple sample preparation thus no biases and errors are introduced by PCR reaction. SMTS has the potential to be an easy and quick sequencing technology for clinical diagnosis such as cancer gene mutation detection, infectious disease detection, inherited condition screening and noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27193446

  4. Single molecule targeted sequencing for cancer gene mutation detection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Deng, Liwei; Yan, Qin; Gao, Yongqian; Wu, Zengding; Cai, Jinsen; Ji, Daorui; Li, Gailing; Wu, Ping; Jin, Huan; Zhao, Luyang; Liu, Song; Ge, Liangjin; Deem, Michael W.; He, Jiankui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid decline in cost of sequencing, it is now affordable to examine multiple genes in a single disease-targeted clinical test using next generation sequencing. Current targeted sequencing methods require a separate step of targeted capture enrichment during sample preparation before sequencing. Although there are fast sample preparation methods available in market, the library preparation process is still relatively complicated for physicians to use routinely. Here, we introduced an amplification-free Single Molecule Targeted Sequencing (SMTS) technology, which combined targeted capture and sequencing in one step. We demonstrated that this technology can detect low-frequency mutations using artificially synthesized DNA sample. SMTS has several potential advantages, including simple sample preparation thus no biases and errors are introduced by PCR reaction. SMTS has the potential to be an easy and quick sequencing technology for clinical diagnosis such as cancer gene mutation detection, infectious disease detection, inherited condition screening and noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27193446

  5. The impact of NOTCH1, FBW7 and PTEN mutations on prognosis and downstream signaling in pediatric T- cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Gedman, Amanda Larson; Chen, Qing; Desmoulin, Sita Kugel; Ge, Yubin; LaFiura, Katherine; Haska, Christina L.; Cherian, Christina; Devidas, Meenakshi; Linda, Stephen B.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Matherly, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the impact of mutations in the NOTCH1, FBW7 and PTEN genes on prognosis and downstream signaling in a well-defined cohort of 47 pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. In T-ALL lymphoblasts, we identified high frequency mutations in NOTCH1 (n=16), FBW7 (n=5) and PTEN (n=26). NOTCH1 mutations resulted in 1.3-3.3-fold increased transactivation of a HES1 reporter construct over wild-type NOTCH1; mutant FBW7 resulted in further augmentation of reporter gene activity. NOTCH1 and FBW7 mutations were accompanied by increased median transcripts for NOTCH1 target genes (HES1, DELTEX1, cMYC). However, none of these mutations were associated with treatment outcome. Elevated HES1, DELTEX1 and cMYC transcripts were associated with significant increases in transcript levels of several chemotherapy relevant genes, including MDR1, ABCC5, reduced folate carrier, asparagine synthetase, thiopurine methyltranserase, Bcl-2 and dihydrofolate reductase. PTEN transcripts positively correlated with HES1 and cMYC transcript levels. Our results suggest that (1) multiple factors should be considered with attempting to identify molecular-based prognostic factors for pediatric T-ALL, and (2) depending on the NOTCH1 signaling status, modifications in the types or dosing of standard chemotherapy drugs for T-ALL, or combinations of agents capable of targeting NOTCH1, AKT and/or mTOR with standard chemotherapy agents may be warranted. PMID:19340001

  6. Computational discovery of Epstein-Barr virus targeted human genes and signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Suyu; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays important roles in the origin and the progression of human carcinomas, e.g. diffuse large B cell tumors, T cell lymphomas, etc. Discovering EBV targeted human genes and signaling pathways is vital to understand EBV tumorigenesis. In this study we propose a noise-tolerant homolog knowledge transfer method to reconstruct functional protein-protein interactions (PPI) networks between Epstein-Barr virus and Homo sapiens. The training set is augmented via homolog instances and the homolog noise is counteracted by support vector machine (SVM). Additionally we propose two methods to define subcellular co-localization (i.e. stringent and relaxed), based on which to further derive physical PPI networks. Computational results show that the proposed method achieves sound performance of cross validation and independent test. In the space of 648,672 EBV-human protein pairs, we obtain 51,485 functional interactions (7.94%), 869 stringent physical PPIs and 46,050 relaxed physical PPIs. Fifty-eight evidences are found from the latest database and recent literature to validate the model. This study reveals that Epstein-Barr virus interferes with normal human cell life, such as cholesterol homeostasis, blood coagulation, EGFR binding, p53 binding, Notch signaling, Hedgehog signaling, etc. The proteome-wide predictions are provided in the supplementary file for further biomedical research. PMID:27470517

  7. Computational discovery of Epstein-Barr virus targeted human genes and signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Mei, Suyu; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays important roles in the origin and the progression of human carcinomas, e.g. diffuse large B cell tumors, T cell lymphomas, etc. Discovering EBV targeted human genes and signaling pathways is vital to understand EBV tumorigenesis. In this study we propose a noise-tolerant homolog knowledge transfer method to reconstruct functional protein-protein interactions (PPI) networks between Epstein-Barr virus and Homo sapiens. The training set is augmented via homolog instances and the homolog noise is counteracted by support vector machine (SVM). Additionally we propose two methods to define subcellular co-localization (i.e. stringent and relaxed), based on which to further derive physical PPI networks. Computational results show that the proposed method achieves sound performance of cross validation and independent test. In the space of 648,672 EBV-human protein pairs, we obtain 51,485 functional interactions (7.94%), 869 stringent physical PPIs and 46,050 relaxed physical PPIs. Fifty-eight evidences are found from the latest database and recent literature to validate the model. This study reveals that Epstein-Barr virus interferes with normal human cell life, such as cholesterol homeostasis, blood coagulation, EGFR binding, p53 binding, Notch signaling, Hedgehog signaling, etc. The proteome-wide predictions are provided in the supplementary file for further biomedical research. PMID:27470517

  8. Targeted gene therapy and cell reprogramming in Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Paula; Baños, Rocio; Lombardo, Angelo; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Alvarez, Lara; Garate, Zita; Genovese, Pietro; Almarza, Elena; Valeri, Antonio; Díez, Begoña; Navarro, Susana; Torres, Yaima; Trujillo, Juan P; Murillas, Rodolfo; Segovia, Jose C; Samper, Enrique; Surralles, Jordi; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Naldini, Luigi; Bueren, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Gene targeting is progressively becoming a realistic therapeutic alternative in clinics. It is unknown, however, whether this technology will be suitable for the treatment of DNA repair deficiency syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA), with defects in homology-directed DNA repair. In this study, we used zinc finger nucleases and integrase-defective lentiviral vectors to demonstrate for the first time that FANCA can be efficiently and specifically targeted into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in fibroblasts from FA-A patients. Strikingly, up to 40% of FA fibroblasts showed gene targeting 42 days after gene editing. Given the low number of hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow of FA patients, gene-edited FA fibroblasts were then reprogrammed and re-differentiated toward the hematopoietic lineage. Analyses of gene-edited FA-iPSCs confirmed the specific integration of FANCA in the AAVS1 locus in all tested clones. Moreover, the hematopoietic differentiation of these iPSCs efficiently generated disease-free hematopoietic progenitors. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of correcting the phenotype of a DNA repair deficiency syndrome using gene-targeting and cell reprogramming strategies. PMID:24859981

  9. Differential sensitivities of transcription factor target genes underlie cell type-specific gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Kim, Shin-Il; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in transcription factor levels and activities dictate developmental fate. Such a change might affect the full ensemble of target genes for a factor or only uniquely sensitive targets. We investigated the relationship among activity of the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1, chromatin occupancy, and target gene sensitivity. Graded activation of GATA-1 in GATA-1-null cells revealed high-, intermediate-, and low-sensitivity targets. GATA-1 activity requirements for occupancy and transcription often correlated. A GATA-1 amino-terminal deletion mutant severely deregulated the low-sensitivity gene Tac-2. Thus, cells expressing different levels of a cell type-specific activator can have qualitatively distinct target gene expression patterns, and factor mutations preferentially deregulate low-sensitivity genes. Unlike other target genes, GATA-1-mediated Tac-2 regulation was bimodal, with activation followed by repression, and the coregulator Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) selectively mediated repression. A GATA-1 mutant defective in FOG-1 binding occupied a Tac-2 regulatory region at levels higher than wild-type GATA-1, whereas FOG-1 facilitated chromatin occupancy at a distinct target site. These results indicate that FOG-1 is a determinant of GATA factor target gene sensitivity by either facilitating or opposing chromatin occupancy. PMID:17043224

  10. Notch Signaling Activation in Pediatric Low-Grade Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Schreck, Karisa C.; Bar, Eli E.; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2014-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in development, stem cell biology, and the pathogenesis of several cancers but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomical sites compared to non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res 186 and Res 259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable but significant reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  11. Notch signaling activation in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Brandt, William D; Schreck, Karisa C; Bar, Eli E; Taylor, Isabella; Marchionni, Luigi; Raabe, Eric; Eberhart, Charles G; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2015-02-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain tumor in children; various signaling pathways have been implicated in its biology. The Notch signaling pathway has been found to play a role in the development, stem cell biology, and pathogenesis of several cancers, but its role in PA has not been investigated. We studied alterations in Notch signaling components in tumor tissue from 18 patients with PA and 4 with other low-grade astrocytomas to identify much needed therapeutic targets. We found that Notch pathway members were overexpressed at the mRNA (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, HEY1, HEY2) and protein (HES1) levels in PAs at various anatomic sites compared with non-neoplastic brain samples. These changes were not associated with specific BRAF alterations. Inhibiting the Notch pathway in the pediatric low-grade astrocytoma cell lines Res186 and Res259 using either RNA interference or a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in variable, but significant, reduction in cell growth and migration. This study suggests a potential role for Notch signaling in pediatric low-grade astrocytoma tumorigenesis and that Notch signaling may be a viable pathway therapeutic target. PMID:25575134

  12. In Vivo Notch Signaling Blockade Induces Abnormal Spermatogenesis in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Murta, Daniel; Batista, Marta; Trindade, Alexandre; Silva, Elisabete; Henrique, Domingos; Duarte, António; Lopes-da-Costa, Luís

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we identified active Notch signaling in key cellular events occurring at adult spermatogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the function of Notch signaling in spermatogenesis through the effects of in vivo Notch blockade. Adult CD1 male mice were either submitted to a long term DAPT (?-secretase inhibitor) or vehicle treatment. Treatment duration was designed to attain one half the time (25 days) or the time (43 days) required to accomplish a complete cycle of spermatogenesis. Blockade of Notch signaling was depicted from decreased transcription of Notch effector genes. Notch signaling blockade disrupted the expression patterns of Notch components in the testis, induced male germ cell fate aberrations, and significantly increased germ cell apoptosis, mainly in the last stages of the spermatogenic cycle, and epididymis spermatozoa morphological defects. These effects were more pronounced following the 43 day than the 25 day DAPT treatment schedule. These results indicate a relevant regulatory role of Notch signaling in mammalian spermatogenesis. PMID:25412258

  13. Transcriptional targets of the schizophrenia risk gene MIR137

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A L; Kim, Y; Bloom, R J; Kelada, S N; Sethupathy, P; Sullivan, P F

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have strongly implicated MIR137 (the gene encoding the microRNA miR-137) in schizophrenia. A parsimonious hypothesis is that a pathway regulated by miR-137 is important in the etiology of schizophrenia. Full evaluation of this hypothesis requires more definitive knowledge about biological targets of miR-137, which is currently lacking. Our goals were to expand knowledge of the biology of miR-137 by identifying its empirical targets, and to test whether the resulting lists of direct and indirect targets were enriched for genes and pathways involved in risk for schizophrenia. We overexpressed miR-137 in a human neural stem cell line and analyzed gene expression changes at 24 and 48 h using RNA sequencing. Following miR-137 overexpression, 202 and 428 genes were differentially expressed after 24 and 48 h. Genes differentially expressed at 24 h were enriched for transcription factors and cell cycle genes, and differential expression at 48 h affected a wider variety of pathways. Pathways implicated in schizophrenia were upregulated in the 48 h findings (major histocompatibility complex, synapses, FMRP interacting RNAs and calcium channels). Critically, differentially expressed genes at 48 h were enriched for smaller association P-values in the largest published schizophrenia GWAS. This work provides empirical support for a role of miR-137 in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:24984191

  14. Molecular Characterization of Notch1 Positive Progenitor Cells in the Developing Retina

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Pappas, Steve; Barry, Ariel Faye; Danek, Dagmara; Dvoriantchikova, Xenia; Pelaez, Daniel; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The oscillatory expression of Notch signaling in neural progenitors suggests that both repressors and activators of neural fate specification are expressed in the same progenitors. Since Notch1 regulates photoreceptor differentiation and contributes (together with Notch3) to ganglion cell fate specification, we hypothesized that genes encoding photoreceptor and ganglion cell fate activators would be highly expressed in Notch1 receptor-bearing (Notch1+) progenitors, directing these cells to differentiate into photoreceptors or into ganglion cells when Notch1 activity is diminished. To identify these genes, we used microarray analysis to study expression profiles of whole retinas and isolated from them Notch1+ cells at embryonic day 14 (E14) and postnatal day 0 (P0). To isolate Notch1+ cells, we utilized immunomagnetic cell separation. We also used Notch3 knockout (Notch3KO) animals to evaluate the contribution of Notch3 signaling in ganglion cell differentiation. Hierarchical clustering of 6,301 differentially expressed genes showed that Notch1+ cells grouped near the same developmental stage retina cluster. At E14, we found higher expression of repressors (Notch1, Hes5) and activators (Dll3, Atoh7, Otx2) of neuronal differentiation in Notch1+ cells compared to whole retinal cell populations. At P0, Notch1, Hes5, and Dll1 expression was significantly higher in Notch1+ cells than in whole retinas. Otx2 expression was more than thirty times higher than Atoh7 expression in Notch1+ cells at P0. We also observed that retinas of wild type animals had only 14% (P < 0.05) more ganglion cells compared to Notch3KO mice. Since this number is relatively small and Notch1 has been shown to contribute to ganglion cell fate specification, we suggested that Notch1 signaling may play a more significant role in RGC development than the Notch3 signaling cascade. Finally, our findings suggest that Notch1+ progenitors—since they heavily express both pro-ganglion cell (Atoh7) and pro

  15. Gene Body Methylation can alter Gene Expression and is a Therapeutic Target in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojing; Han, Han; De Carvalho, Daniel D.; Lay, Fides D.; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methylation in promoters is well known to silence genes and is the presumed therapeutic target of methylation inhibitors. Gene body methylation is positively correlated with expression yet its function is unknown. We show that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment not only reactivates genes but decreases the over-expression of genes, many of which are involved in metabolic processes regulated by c-MYC. Down-regulation is caused by DNA demethylation of the gene bodies and restoration of high levels of expression requires remethylation by DNMT3B. Gene body methylation may therefore be an unexpected therapeutic target for DNA methylation inhibitors, resulting in the normalization of gene over-expression induced during carcinogenesis. Our results provide direct evidence for a causal relationship between gene body methylation and transcription. PMID:25263941

  16. Targeting of AID-mediated sequence diversification to immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2011-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a key enzyme for antibody-mediated immune responses. Antibodies are encoded by the immunoglobulin genes and AID acts as a transcription-dependent DNA mutator on these genes to improve antibody affinity and effector functions. An emerging theme in field is that many transcribed genes are potential targets of AID, presenting an obvious danger to genomic integrity. Thus there are mechanisms in place to ensure that mutagenic outcomes of AID activity are specifically restricted to the immunoglobulin loci. Cis-regulatory targeting elements mediate this effect and their mode of action is probably a combination of immunoglobulin gene specific activation of AID and a perversion of faithful DNA repair towards error-prone outcomes. PMID:21295456

  17. Targeting of AID-mediated sequence diversification to immunoglobulin genes

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Fugmann, Sebastian D.

    2011-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a key enzyme for antibody-mediated immune responses. Antibodies are encoded by the immunoglobulin genes and AID acts as a transcription-dependent DNA mutator on these genes to improve antibody affinity and effector functions. An emerging theme in field is that many transcribed genes are potential targets of AID, presenting an obvious danger to genomic integrity. Thus there are mechanisms in place to ensure that mutagenic outcomes of AID activity are specifically restricted to the immunoglobulin loci. Cis-regulatory targeting elements mediate this effect and their mode of action is likely a combination of immunoglobulin gene specific activation of AID and a perversion of faithful DNA repair towards error-prone outcomes. PMID:21295456

  18. Core Promoter Functions in the Regulation of Gene Expression of Drosophila Dorsal Target Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Zehavi, Yonathan; Kuznetsov, Olga; Ovadia-Shochat, Avital; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Developmental processes are highly dependent on transcriptional regulation by RNA polymerase II. The RNA polymerase II core promoter is the ultimate target of a multitude of transcription factors that control transcription initiation. Core promoters consist of core promoter motifs, e.g. the initiator, TATA box, and the downstream core promoter element (DPE), which confer specific properties to the core promoter. Here, we explored the importance of core promoter functions in the dorsal-ventral developmental gene regulatory network. This network includes multiple genes that are activated by different nuclear concentrations of Dorsal, an NFκB homolog transcription factor, along the dorsal-ventral axis. We show that over two-thirds of Dorsal target genes contain DPE sequence motifs, which is significantly higher than the proportion of DPE-containing promoters in Drosophila genes. We demonstrate that multiple Dorsal target genes are evolutionarily conserved and functionally dependent on the DPE. Furthermore, we have analyzed the activation of key Dorsal target genes by Dorsal, as well as by another Rel family transcription factor, Relish, and the dependence of their activation on the DPE motif. Using hybrid enhancer-promoter constructs in Drosophila cells and embryo extracts, we have demonstrated that the core promoter composition is an important determinant of transcriptional activity of Dorsal target genes. Taken together, our results provide evidence for the importance of core promoter composition in the regulation of Dorsal target genes. PMID:24634215

  19. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  20. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  1. Notch signaling promotes airway mucous metaplasia and inhibits alveolar development.

    PubMed

    Guseh, J Sawalla; Bores, Sam A; Stanger, Ben Z; Zhou, Qiao; Anderson, William J; Melton, Douglas A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2009-05-01

    The airways are conduits that transport atmospheric oxygen to the distal alveolus. Normally, airway mucous cells are rare. However, diseases of the airway are often characterized by mucous metaplasia, in which there are dramatic increases in mucous cell numbers. As the Notch pathway is known to regulate cell fate in many contexts, we misexpressed the active intracellular domain of the mouse Notch1 receptor in lung epithelium. Notch misexpression resulted in an increase in mucous cells and a decrease in ciliated cells in the airway. Similarly, mouse embryonic tracheal explants and adult human airway epithelium treated with Notch agonists displayed increased mucous cell numbers and decreased ciliated cell numbers. Notch antagonists had the opposite effect. Notably, Notch antagonists blocked IL13-induced mucous metaplasia. IL13 has a well-established role as an inflammatory mediator of mucous metaplasia and functions through Stat6-mediated gene transcription. We found that Notch ligands, however, are able to cause mucous metaplasia in Stat6-null cultured trachea, thus identifying a novel pathway that stimulates mucous metaplasia. Notch signaling may therefore play an important role in airway disease and, by extension, Notch antagonists may have therapeutic value. Conversely, in the distal lung, Notch misexpression prevented the differentiation of alveolar cell types. Instead, the distal lung formed cysts composed of cells that were devoid of alveolar markers but that expressed some, but not all, markers of proximal airway epithelium. Occasional distal cystic cells appeared to differentiate into normal proximal airway cells, suggesting that ectopic Notch signaling arrests the normal differentiation of distal lung progenitors before they initiate an alveolar program. PMID:19369400

  2. Expression of Phosphocitrate-Targeted Genes in Osteoarthritis Menisci

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubo; Mauerhan, David R.; Steuerwald, Nury M.; Ingram, Jane; Kneisl, Jeffrey S.; Hanley, Edward N.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphocitrate (PC) inhibited calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to determine PC targeted genes and the expression of select PC targeted genes in OA menisci to test hypothesis that PC exerts its disease modifying activity in part by reversing abnormal expressions of genes involved in OA. We found that PC downregulated the expression of numerous genes classified in immune response, inflammatory response, and angiogenesis, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIb receptor (FCGR3B), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily B member 3 (LILRB3). In contrast, PC upregulated the expression of many genes classified in skeletal development, including collagen type II alpha1, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), and SRY- (sex determining region Y-) box 9 (SOX-9). Immunohistochemical examinations revealed higher levels of FCGR3B and LILRB3 and lower level of SOX-9 in OA menisci. These findings indicate that OA is a disease associated with immune system activation and decreased expression of SOX-9 gene in OA menisci. PC exerts its disease modifying activity on OA, at least in part, by targeting immune system activation and the production of extracellular matrix and selecting chondroprotective proteins. PMID:25525593

  3. The vascular delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4)-Notch4 signaling correlates with angiogenesis in primary glioblastoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Chen, Yao; Qiu, Xian-Xin; Tang, Wen-Long; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jian-Huang; Lin, Guo-Shi; Wang, Xing-Fu; Lin, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4)-Notch signaling is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis. We had previously found that DLL4 was overexpressed, while Notch1 receptor, which binds to DLL4 during angiogenesis, was absent in the majority of human primary glioblastomas. Thus, DLL4-Notch signaling pathway in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis in primary glioblastoma remains unknown. Tumor tissues from 70 patients with primary glioblastoma were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of components of DLL4-Notch signaling, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvessel density (MVD). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the positive staining of DLL4 and Notch4 was primarily distributed in tumor vascular endothelial cells but rarely detected in tumor cells. However, VEGF, hairy/enhancer of split-1 (HES1; a target gene of Notch signaling), and Notch1-3 expression was seen in both tumor vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells. Univariate analysis showed that the expression levels of VEGF and DLL4, HES1, and Notch4 in tumor endothelial cells were significantly associated with MVD in primary glioblastoma (P < 0.001). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that high expression levels of DLL4, HES1, and Notch4 in tumor endothelial cells were associated with a decrease of MVD in primary glioblastoma, while MVD increased with elevated VEGF expression in contrast. In addition, DLL4, Notch4, and HES1 expression were positively correlated in tumor vascular endothelial cells (P < 0.05). We conclude that the vascular DLL4-Notch4 signaling and VEGF signaling complementing each other plays an important role in the progression of tumor angiogenesis in primary glioblastoma. Graphical abstract A, positive staining of DLL4 in human kidney; B, positive staining of VEGF in human breast cancer; C, positive staining of CD34 in human lung cancer; D, positive staining of HES1 in human breast cancer; E-H, positive staining of Notch1

  4. The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 integrates inputs from TGFbeta/Activin and Wnt pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonaro, Michael Tewari, Shruti Atamna, Wafa Lazarova, Darina L.

    2011-06-10

    Unlike the well-characterized nuclear function of the Notch intracellular domain, it has been difficult to identify a nuclear role for the ligands of Notch. Here we provide evidence for the nuclear function of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in colon cancer (CC) cells exposed to butyrate. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Delta-like 1 (Dll1icd) augments the activity of Wnt signaling-dependent reporters and that of the promoter of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene. Data suggest that Dll1icd upregulates CTGF promoter activity through both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanism is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Smad2/3 proteins and Dll1 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses that revealed the occupancy of Dll1icd on CTGF promoter sequences containing a Smad binding element. The indirect upregulation of CTGF expression by Dll1 is likely due to the ability of Dll1icd to increase Wnt signaling, a pathway that targets CTGF. CTGF expression is induced in butyrate-treated CC cells and results from clonal growth assays support a role for CTGF in the cell growth-suppressive role of butyrate. In conclusion, integration of the Notch, Wnt, and TGFbeta/Activin signaling pathways is in part mediated by the interactions of Dll1 with Smad2/3 and Tcf4.

  5. Non-targeted effects of virus-induced gene silencing vectors on host endogenous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Enikő; Pesti, Réka; Taller, Dénes; Havelda, Zoltán; Várallyay, Éva

    2016-09-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) uses recombinant viruses to study gene function; however, the effect of the virus vector itself on the gene expression of the host is not always considered. In our work, we investigated non-targeted gene expression changes of the host in order to see how often these changes appear. Effects of various VIGS vector infections were analysed by monitoring gene expression levels of housekeeping genes by Northern blot analysis in four different hosts. We found that non-targeted changes happens very often. More importantly, these non-targeted effects can cause drastic changes in the gene-expression pattern of host genes that are usually used as references in these studies. We have also found that in a tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS, the presence of foreign sequences in the cloning site of the vector can also have a non-targeted effect, and even the use of an internal control can lead to unpredicted changes. Our results show that although VIGS is a very powerful technique, the VIGS vector, as a pathogen of the host, can cause unwanted changes in its gene-expression pattern, highlighting the importance of careful selection of both the genes to be tested and those to be used as references in the planned experiments. PMID:27283101

  6. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  7. Forced Activation of Notch in Macrophages Represses Tumor Growth by Upregulating miR-125a and Disabling Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Long; Huang, Fei; He, Fei; Gao, Chun-Chen; Liang, Shi-Qian; Ma, Peng-Fei; Dong, Guang-Ying; Han, Hua; Qin, Hong-Yan

    2016-03-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) contribute greatly to hallmarks of cancer. Notch blockade was shown to arrest TAM differentiation, but the precise role and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. In this study, we employed a transgenic mouse model in which the Notch1 intracellular domain (NIC) is activated conditionally to define the effects of active Notch1 signaling in macrophages. NIC overexpression had no effect on TAM differentiation, but it abrogated TAM function, leading to repressed growth of transplanted tumors. Macrophage miRNA profiling identified a novel downstream mediator of Notch signaling, miR-125a, which was upregulated through an RBP-J-binding site at the first intronic enhancer of the host gene Spaca6A. miR-125a functioned downstream of Notch signaling to reciprocally influence polarization of M1 and M2 macrophages by regulating factor inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor-1α and IRF4, respectively. Notably, macrophages transfected with miR-125a mimetics increased phagocytic activity and repressed tumor growth by remodeling the immune microenvironment. We also identified a positive feedback loop for miR-125a expression mediated by RYBP and YY1. Taken together, our results showed that Notch signaling not only supported the differentiation of TAM but also antagonized their protumorigenic function through miR-125a. Targeting this miRNA may reprogram macrophages in the tumor microenvironment and restore their antitumor potential. PMID:26759236

  8. Fungal virulence genes as targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Perfect, J R

    1996-01-01

    Fungal virulence genes have now met the age of molecular pathogenesis. The definition of virulence genes needs to be broad so that it encompasses the focus on molecular antifungal targets and vaccine epitopes. However, in the broad but simple definition of a virulence gene, there will be many complex genetic and host interactions which investigators will need to carefully define. Nevertheless, with the increasing numbers of serious fungal infections produced by old and newly reported organisms, the paucity of present antifungal drugs, and the likelihood of increasing drug resistance, the need for investigations into understanding fungal virulence at the molecular level has never been more important. PMID:8807043

  9. Gene mutations and molecularly targeted therapies in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Georgiou, Georgios; Benetatos, Leonidas; Briasoulis, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) can progress quickly and without treatment can become fatal in a short period of time. However, over the last 30 years fine-tuning of therapeutics have increased the rates of remission and cure. Cytogenetics and mutational gene profiling, combined with the option of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation offered in selected patients have further optimized AML treatment on a risk stratification basis in younger adults. However there is still an unmet medical need for effective therapies in AML since disease relapses in almost half of adult patients becoming refractory to salvage therapy. Improvements in the understanding of molecular biology of cancer and identification of recurrent mutations in AML provide opportunities to develop targeted therapies and improve the clinical outcome. In the spectrum of identified gene mutations, primarily targetable lesions are gain of function mutations of tyrosine kinases FLT3, JAK2 and cKIT for which specific, dual and multi-targeted small molecule inhibitors have been developed. A number of targeted compounds such as sorafenib, quizartinib, lestaurtinib, midostaurin, pacritinib, PLX3397 and CCT137690 are in clinical development. For loss-of-function gene mutations, which are mostly biomarkers of favorable prognosis, combined therapeutic approaches can maximize the therapeutic efficacy of conventional therapy. Apart from mutated gene products, proteins aberrantly overexpressed in AML appear to be clinically significant therapeutic targets. Such a molecule for which targeted inhibitors are currently in clinical development is PLK1. We review characteristic gene mutations, discuss their biological functions and clinical significance and present small molecule compounds in clinical development, which are expected to have a role in treating AML subtypes with characteristic molecular alterations. PMID:23358589

  10. Homologous recombination is required for AAV-mediated gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    Vasileva, Ana; Linden, R. Michael; Jessberger, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    High frequencies of gene targeting can be achieved by infection of mammalian cells with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors [D. W. Russell and R. K. Hirata (1998) Nature Genet., 18, 325–330; D. W. Russell and R. K. Hirata (2000) J. Virol., 74, 4612–4620; R. Hirata et al. (2002) Nat. Biotechnol., 20, 735–738], but the mechanism of targeting is unclear and random integration often occurs in parallel. We assessed the role of specific DNA repair and recombination pathways in rAAV gene targeting by measuring correction of a mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in cells where homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) had been suppressed by RNAi. EGFP-negative cells were transduced with rAAV vectors carrying a different inactivating deletion in the EGFP, and in parallel with rAAV vectors carrying red fluorescent protein (RFP). Expression of RFP accounted for viral transduction efficiency and long-term random integration. Approximately 0.02% of the infected GFP-negative cells were stably converted to GFP positive cells. Silencing of the essential NHEJ component DNA-PK had no significant effect on the frequency of targeting at any time point examined. Silencing of the SNF2/SWI2 family members RAD54L or RAD54B, which are important for HR, reduced the rate of stable rAAV gene targeting ∼5-fold. Further, partial silencing of the Rad51 paralogue XRCC3 completely abolished stable long-term EGFP expression. These results show that rAAV gene targeting requires the Rad51/Rad54 pathway of HR. PMID:16822856

  11. Correction of human. beta. sup S -globin gene by gene targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Shesely, E.G.; Hyungsuk Kim; Shehee, W.R.; Smithies, O. ); Papayannopoulou, T. ); Popovich, B.W. )

    1991-05-15

    As a step toward using gene targeting for gene therapy, the authors have corrected a human {beta}{sup S}-globin gene to the normal {beta}{sup A} allele by homologous recombination in the mouse-human hybrid cell line BSM. BSM is derived from a mouse erythroleukemia cell line and carries a single human chromosome 11 with the {beta}{sup S}-globin allele. A {beta}{sup A}-globin targeting construct containing a unique oligomer and a neomycin-resistance gene was electroporated into the BSM cells, which were then placed under G418 selection. Then 126 resulting pools containing a total {approx}29,000 G418-resistant clones were screened by PCR for the presence of a targeted recombinant: 3 positive pools were identified. A targeted clone was isolated by replating one of the positive pools into smaller pools and rescreening by PCR, followed by dilution cloning. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the isolated clone had been targeted as planned. The correction of the {beta}{sup S} allele to {beta}{sup A} was confirmed both by allele-specific PCR and by allele-specific antibodies. Expression studies comparing the uninduced and induced RNA levels in unmodified BSM cells and in the targeted clone showed no significant alteration in the ability of the targeted clone to undergo induction, despite the potentially disrupting presence of a transcriptionally active neomycin gene 5{prime} to the human {beta}{sup A}-globin gene. Thus gene targeting can correct a {beta}{sup S} allele to {beta}{sup A}, and the use of a selectable helper gene need not significantly interfere with the induction of the corrected gene.

  12. Chlorotoxin labeled magnetic nanovectors for targeted gene delivery to glioma.

    PubMed

    Kievit, Forrest M; Veiseh, Omid; Fang, Chen; Bhattarai, Narayan; Lee, Donghoon; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-08-24

    Glioma accounts for 80% of brain tumors and currently remains one of the most lethal forms of cancers. Gene therapy could potentially improve the dismal prognosis of patients with glioma, but this treatment modality has not yet reached the bedside from the laboratory due to the lack of safe and effective gene delivery vehicles. In this study we investigate targeted gene delivery to C6 glioma cells in a xenograft mouse model using chlorotoxin (CTX) labeled nanoparticles. The developed nanovector consists of an iron oxide nanoparticle core, coated with a copolymer of chitosan, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polyethylenimine (PEI). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoding DNA was bound to these nanoparticles, and CTX was then attached using a short PEG linker. Nanoparticles without CTX were also prepared as a control. Mice bearing C6 xenograft tumors were injected intravenously with the DNA-bound nanoparticles. Nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor site was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed by histology, and GFP gene expression was monitored through Xenogen IVIS fluorescence imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, the CTX did not affect the accumulation of nanoparticles at the tumor site but specifically enhanced their uptake into cancer cells as evidenced by higher gene expression. These results indicate that this targeted gene delivery system may potentially improve treatment outcome of gene therapy for glioma and other deadly cancers. PMID:20731441

  13. Chlorotoxin Labeled Magnetic Nanovectors for Targeted Gene Delivery to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kievit, Forrest M.; Veiseh, Omid; Fang, Chen; Bhattarai, Narayan; Lee, Donghoon; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Zhang, Miqin

    2010-01-01

    Glioma accounts for 80% of brain tumors, and currently remains one of the most lethal forms of cancers. Gene therapy could potentially improve the dismal prognosis of patients with glioma, but this treatment modality has not yet reached the bedside from the laboratory due to the lack of safe and effective gene delivery vehicles. In this study we investigate targeted gene delivery to C6 glioma cells in a xenograft mouse model using chlorotoxin (CTX) labeled nanoparticles. The developed nanovector consists of an iron oxide nanoparticle core, coated with a copolymer of chitosan, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoding DNA was bound to these nanoparticles, and CTX was then attached using a short PEG linker. Nanoparticles without CTX were also prepared as a control. Mice bearing C6 xenograft tumors were injected intravenously with the DNA bound nanoparticles. Nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor site was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed by histology, and GFP gene expression was monitored through Xenogen IVIS fluorescence imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, the CTX did not affect the accumulation of nanoparticles at the tumor site, but specifically enhanced their uptake into cancer cells as evidenced by higher gene expression. These results indicate that this targeted gene delivery system may potentially improve treatment outcome of gene therapy for glioma and other deadly cancers. PMID:20731441

  14. Rescuing the Failing Heart by Targeted Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kawase, Yoshiaki; Ladage, Dennis; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2011-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. While progress in conventional treatments is making steady and incremental gains to reduce heart failure mortality, there is a critical need to explore new therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy was initially applied in the clinical setting for inherited monogenic disorders. It is now apparent that gene therapy has broader potential that also includes acquired polygenic diseases, such as congestive heart failure. Recent advances in understanding of the molecular basis of myocardial dysfunction, together with the evolution of increasingly efficient gene transfer technology, has placed heart failure within reach of gene-based therapy. Furthermore, the recent successful and safe completion of a phase 2 trial targeting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase pump (SERCA2a) along with the start of more recent phase 1 trials usher a new era for gene therapy for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:21371634

  15. Essential genes as antimicrobial targets and cornerstones of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mario; Eberl, Leo; Church, George M

    2012-11-01

    Essential genes are absolutely required for the survival of any living entity. Investigation of essential genes is therefore expected to advance tremendously our understanding of the universal principles of life. Determination of a minimal set of essential genes needed to sustain life also plays an important role in the emerging field of synthetic biology, whose goals include creation of a stringently controlled minimal cell with predesigned phenotypic traits. In addition, due to their indispensability for survival of bacteria, genes encoding essential cellular functions have great potential in medicine as promising targets for the development of novel antimicrobials. Here, we review recent advances in the investigation of essential genes, with emphasis on the practical applications in medicine and synthetic biology. PMID:22951051

  16. GATA3 induces human T-cell commitment by restraining Notch activity and repressing NK-cell fate.

    PubMed

    Van de Walle, Inge; Dolens, Anne-Catherine; Durinck, Kaat; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Loocke, Wouter; Damle, Sagar; Waegemans, Els; De Medts, Jelle; Velghe, Imke; De Smedt, Magda; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Kerre, Tessa; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges; Rothenberg, Ellen V; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Taghon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The gradual reprogramming of haematopoietic precursors into the T-cell fate is characterized by at least two sequential developmental stages. Following Notch1-dependent T-cell lineage specification during which the first T-cell lineage genes are expressed and myeloid and dendritic cell potential is lost, T-cell specific transcription factors subsequently induce T-cell commitment by repressing residual natural killer (NK)-cell potential. How these processes are regulated in human is poorly understood, especially since efficient T-cell lineage commitment requires a reduction in Notch signalling activity following T-cell specification. Here, we show that GATA3, in contrast to TCF1, controls human T-cell lineage commitment through direct regulation of three distinct processes: repression of NK-cell fate, upregulation of T-cell lineage genes to promote further differentiation and restraint of Notch activity. Repression of the Notch1 target gene DTX1 hereby is essential to prevent NK-cell differentiation. Thus, GATA3-mediated positive and negative feedback mechanisms control human T-cell lineage commitment. PMID:27048872

  17. GATA3 induces human T-cell commitment by restraining Notch activity and repressing NK-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Van de Walle, Inge; Dolens, Anne-Catherine; Durinck, Kaat; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Loocke, Wouter; Damle, Sagar; Waegemans, Els; De Medts, Jelle; Velghe, Imke; De Smedt, Magda; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Kerre, Tessa; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges; Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Taghon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The gradual reprogramming of haematopoietic precursors into the T-cell fate is characterized by at least two sequential developmental stages. Following Notch1-dependent T-cell lineage specification during which the first T-cell lineage genes are expressed and myeloid and dendritic cell potential is lost, T-cell specific transcription factors subsequently induce T-cell commitment by repressing residual natural killer (NK)-cell potential. How these processes are regulated in human is poorly understood, especially since efficient T-cell lineage commitment requires a reduction in Notch signalling activity following T-cell specification. Here, we show that GATA3, in contrast to TCF1, controls human T-cell lineage commitment through direct regulation of three distinct processes: repression of NK-cell fate, upregulation of T-cell lineage genes to promote further differentiation and restraint of Notch activity. Repression of the Notch1 target gene DTX1 hereby is essential to prevent NK-cell differentiation. Thus, GATA3-mediated positive and negative feedback mechanisms control human T-cell lineage commitment. PMID:27048872

  18. Kick it up a notch: Notch signaling and kidney fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sweetwyne, Mariya T; Tao, Jianling; Susztak, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Notch is a critical regulator of kidney development, but the pathway is mostly silenced once kidney maturation is achieved. Recent reports demonstrated increased expression of Notch receptors and ligands both in acute and chronic kidney injury. In vivo studies indicated that Notch activation might contribute to regeneration after acute kidney injury; on the other hand, sustained Notch expression is causally associated with interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the role of the Notch signaling with special focus on kidney fibrosis. PMID:26312157

  19. Bacteriophages and medical oncology: targeted gene therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakhshinejad, Babak; Karimi, Marzieh; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2014-08-01

    Targeted gene therapy of cancer is of paramount importance in medical oncology. Bacteriophages, viruses that specifically infect bacterial cells, offer a variety of potential applications in biomedicine. Their genetic flexibility to go under a variety of surface modifications serves as a basis for phage display methodology. These surface manipulations allow bacteriophages to be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes. Moreover, the excellent safety profile of these viruses paves the way for their potential use as cancer gene therapy platforms. The merge of phage display and combinatorial technology has led to the emergence of phage libraries turning phage display into a high throughput technology. Random peptide libraries, as one of the most frequently used phage libraries, provide a rich source of clinically useful peptide ligands. Peptides are known as a promising category of pharmaceutical agents in medical oncology that present advantages such as inexpensive synthesis, efficient tissue penetration and the lack of immunogenicity. Phage peptide libraries can be screened, through biopanning, against various targets including cancer cells and tissues that results in obtaining cancer-homing ligands. Cancer-specific peptides isolated from phage libraries show huge promise to be utilized for targeting of various gene therapy vectors towards malignant cells. Beyond doubt, bacteriophages will play a more impressive role in the future of medical oncology. PMID:25012686

  20. Notching on Cancer's Door: Notch Signaling in Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Teodorczyk, Marcin; Schmidt, Mirko H H

    2014-01-01

    Notch receptors play an essential role in the regulation of central cellular processes during embryonic and postnatal development. The mammalian genome encodes for four Notch paralogs (Notch 1-4), which are activated by three Delta-like (Dll1/3/4) and two Serrate-like (Jagged1/2) ligands. Further, non-canonical Notch ligands such as epidermal growth factor like protein 7 (EGFL7) have been identified and serve mostly as antagonists of Notch signaling. The Notch pathway prevents neuronal differentiation in the central nervous system by driving neural stem cell maintenance and commitment of neural progenitor cells into the glial lineage. Notch is therefore often implicated in the development of brain tumors, as tumor cells share various characteristics with neural stem and progenitor cells. Notch receptors are overexpressed in gliomas and their oncogenicity has been confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo. To this end, special attention is paid to the impact of Notch signaling on stem-like brain tumor-propagating cells as these cells contribute to growth, survival, invasion, and recurrence of brain tumors. Based on the outcome of ongoing studies in vivo, Notch-directed therapies such as γ-secretase inhibitors and blocking antibodies have entered and completed various clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on Notch signaling in brain tumor formation and therapy. PMID:25601901

  1. Genome-wide expression profiling in the Drosophila eye reveals unexpected repression of Notch signaling by the JAK/STAT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Maria Sol; Zavadil, Jiri; Ekas, Laura A.; Bach, Erika A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the JAK/STAT pathway regulates numerous processes in vertebrates and invertebrates through modulating transcription, its functionally-relevant transcriptional targets remain largely unknown. With one jak and one stat (stat92E), Drosophila provides a powerful system for finding new JAK/STAT target genes. Genome-wide expression profiling on eye discs in which Stat92E is hyperactivated, revealed 584 differentially-regulated genes, including known targets domeless, socs36E and wingless. Other differentially-regulated genes (chinmo, lama, Mo25, Imp-L2, Serrate, Delta) were validated and may represent new Stat92E targets. Genetic experiments revealed that Stat92E cell-autonomously represses Serrate, which encodes a Notch ligand. Loss of Stat92E led to de-repression of Serrate in the dorsal eye, resulting in ectopic Notch signaling and aberrant eye growth there. Thus, our micro-array documents a new Stat92E target gene and a previously-unidentified inhibitory action of Stat92E on Notch signaling. These data suggest that this study will be a useful resource for the identification of additional Stat92E targets. PMID:19504457

  2. Genome-wide expression profiling in the Drosophila eye reveals unexpected repression of notch signaling by the JAK/STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Maria Sol; Zavadil, Jiri; Ekas, Laura A; Bach, Erika A

    2009-09-01

    Although the JAK/STAT pathway regulates numerous processes in vertebrates and invertebrates through modulating transcription, its functionally relevant transcriptional targets remain largely unknown. With one jak and one stat (stat92E), Drosophila provides a powerful system for finding new JAK/STAT target genes. Genome-wide expression profiling on eye discs in which Stat92E is hyperactivated, revealed 584 differentially regulated genes, including known targets domeless, socs36E, and wingless. Other differentially regulated genes (chinmo, lama, Mo25, Imp-L2, Serrate, Delta) were validated and may represent new Stat92E targets. Genetic experiments revealed that Stat92E cell-autonomously represses Serrate, which encodes a Notch ligand. Loss of Stat92E led to de-repression of Serrate in the dorsal eye, resulting in ectopic Notch signaling and aberrant eye growth there. Thus, our micro-array documents a new Stat92E target gene and a previously unidentified inhibitory action of Stat92E on Notch signaling. These data suggest that this study will be a useful resource for the identification of additional Stat92E targets. PMID:19504457

  3. Target gene delivery from targeting ligand conjugated chitosan-PEI copolymer for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joung-Pyo; Nah, Jae-Woon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we designed a novel carrier which was having low cytotoxicity, site-specific target function, and high transfection efficiency using low molecular weight water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCh), branched low molecular weight poly(ethyleneimine) (bPEI), and targeting ligand (epitope type, HER-2/neu). OCMCh/bPEI/targeting ligand, HPOCP copolymer, and targeting ligand-modified polyamphoteric polymer, and were prepared by chemical reaction and characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR. The binding affinity, protecting efficiency, and releasing ability of gene/HPOCP polyplex were confirmed by gel retardation assay. The pDNA(pEGFP)/HPOCP polyplexes showed high gene transfection efficiency in HCT 119 cell. In addition, siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes formed spherical shape and have particle sizes from 100 to 300nm. The siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes have lower cytotoxicity than PEI in the all of siRNA concentrations ranging from 0 to 2μg/μL in HEK 293 cells. The cell viability of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes was performed in SK-Br3 cells with VEGF siRNA or BCL2 siRNA. In addition, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry assay were performed for cellular localization and cellular uptake efficiency of siRNA/HPOCP polyplexes. The results of the present study demonstrate that HPOCP copolymer is a good candidate as gene delivery carriers for gene delivery system or gene therapy. PMID:26453863

  4. Epigenetic Editing: targeted rewriting of epigenetic marks to modulate expression of selected target genes

    PubMed Central

    de Groote, Marloes L.; Verschure, Pernette J.; Rots, Marianne G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances made in epigenetic research in recent decades, many questions remain unresolved, especially concerning cause and consequence of epigenetic marks with respect to gene expression modulation (GEM). Technologies allowing the targeting of epigenetic enzymes to predetermined DNA sequences are uniquely suited to answer such questions and could provide potent (bio)medical tools. Toward the goal of gene-specific GEM by overwriting epigenetic marks (Epigenetic Editing, EGE), instructive epigenetic marks need to be identified and their writers/erasers should then be fused to gene-specific DNA binding domains. The appropriate epigenetic mark(s) to change in order to efficiently modulate gene expression might have to be validated for any given chromatin context and should be (mitotically) stable. Various insights in such issues have been obtained by sequence-specific targeting of epigenetic enzymes, as is presented in this review. Features of such studies provide critical aspects for further improving EGE. An example of this is the direct effect of the edited mark versus the indirect effect of recruited secondary proteins by targeting epigenetic enzymes (or their domains). Proof-of-concept of expression modulation of an endogenous target gene is emerging from the few EGE studies reported. Apart from its promise in correcting disease-associated epi-mutations, EGE represents a powerful tool to address fundamental epigenetic questions. PMID:23002135

  5. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    DOEpatents

    Kephart, Alan R.; Alberts, Alfred H.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip.

  6. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    DOEpatents

    Kephart, A.R.; Alberts, A.H.

    1989-02-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip. 4 figs.

  7. Notch strength of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The notch strength of composites is discussed. The point stress and average stress criteria relate the notched strength of a laminate to the average strength of a relatively long tensile coupon. Tests of notched specimens in which microstrain gages have been placed at or near the edges of the holes have measured strains much larger that those measured in an unnotched tensile coupon. Orthotropic stress concentration analyses of failed notched laminates have also indicated that failure occurred at strains much larger than those experienced on tensile coupons with normal gage lengths. This suggests that the high strains at the edge of a hole can be related to the very short length of fiber subjected to these strains. Lockheed has attempted to correlate a series of tests of several laminates with holes ranging from 0.19 to 0.50 in. Although the average stress criterion correlated well with test results for hole sizes equal to or greater than 0.50 in., it over-estimated the laminate strength in the range of hole sizes from 0.19 to 0.38 in. It thus appears that a theory is needed that is based on the mechanics of failure and is more generally applicable to the range of hole sizes and the varieties of laminates found in aircraft construction.

  8. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  9. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  10. Targeted gene delivery via N-acetylglucosamine receptor mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Kim, You-Kyoung; Jiang, Tai; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kang, Sang-Kee; Cho, Myung-Haing; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2014-11-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a promising approach of gene delivery into the target cells via receptor-ligand interaction. Vimentins at the cell surface are recently known to bind N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue, therefore, the cell surfaces of vimentin-expressing cells could be targeted by using the GlcNAc residue as a specific ligand for receptor-mediated gene delivery. Here, we have developed polymeric gene delivery vectors, based on poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) and poly(aspartamide), namely poly[(aspartamide)(diethylenetriamine)]-b-[PEO-(GlcNAc)] (PADPG) and poly[(aspartamide)(diethylenetriamine)]-b-[PEO] (PADP) to elucidate the efficiency of GlcNAc ligand for gene delivery through receptor mediated endocytosis. To determine the efficiency of these polymeric vectors for specific gene delivery, the DNA condensation ability of PADPG and PADP and the subsequent formation of polymeric nanoparticles were confirmed by gel retardation assay and transmission electron microscopy respectively. Both PADPG and PADP had lower cytotoxicity than polyethylenimine 25 K (PEI 25 K). However, their transfection efficiency was comparatively lower than PEI 25 K due to hydrophilic property of PEO in the vectors. To observe the stability of polymeric nanoparticles, the transfection of PADPG and PADP was carried out in the presence of serum. Favorably, the interfering effect of serum on the transfection efficiency of PADPG and PADP was also very low. Finally, when the cell specificity of these polymeric vectors was investigated, PADPG had high gene transfection in vimentin-expressing cells than vimentin-deficiency cells. The high transfection efficiency of PADPG was attributed to the GlcNAc in the polymeric vector which interact specifically with vimentin in the cells for the receptor-mediated endocytosis. The competitive inhibition assay further proved the receptor-mediated endocytosis of PADPG. Thus, this study demonstrates that conjugation of GlcNAc is an effective and rational

  11. High NOTCH activity induces radiation resistance in non small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Habets, Roger; Span, Paul; Dubois, Ludwig; Paesmans, Kim; Kattenbeld, Bo; Cleutjens, Jack; Groot, Arjan J.; Schuurbiers, Olga C.J.; Lambin, Philippe; Bussink, Jan; Vooijs, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Patients with advanced NSCLC have survival rates <15%. The NOTCH pathway plays an important role during lung development and physiology but is often deregulated in lung cancer, making it a potential therapeutic target. We investigated NOTCH signaling in NSCLC and hypothesized that high NOTCH activity contributes to radiation resistance. Materials and methods NOTCH signaling in NSCLC patient samples was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. H460 NSCLC cells with either high or blocked NOTCH activity were generated and their radiation sensitivity monitored using clonogenic assays. In vivo, xenograft tumors were irradiated and response assessed using growth delay. Microenvironmental parameters were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Patients with high NOTCH activity in tumors showed significantly worse disease-free survival. In vitro, NOTCH activity did not affect the proliferation or intrinsic radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. In contrast, xenografts with blocked NOTCH activity grew slower than wild type tumors. Tumors with high NOTCH activity grew significantly faster, were more hypoxic and showed a radioresistant phenotype. Conclusions We demonstrate an important role for NOTCH in tumor growth and correlate high NOTCH activity with poor prognosis and radioresistance. Blocking NOTCH activity in NSCLC might be a promising intervention to improve outcome after radiotherapy. PMID:23891097

  12. Tumor suppressor role of Notch3 in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma revealed by genetic and pharmacological induction

    PubMed Central

    Jaskula-Sztul, Renata; Eide, Jacob; Tesfazghi, Sara; Dammalapati, Ajitha; Harrison, April D.; Yu, Xiao-Min; Scheinebeck, Casi; Winston-McPherson, Gabrielle; Kupcho, Kevin R.; Robers, Matthew B.; Hundal, Amrit K.; Tang, Weiping; Chen, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Notch1-3 are transmembrane receptors that appear to be absent in Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC). Previous research has shown that induction of Notch1 has a tumor suppressor effect in MTC cell lines, but little is known about the biological consequences of Notch3 activation for the progression of the disease. We elucidate the role of Notch3 in MTC by genetic (doxycycline inducible Notch3 intracellular domain) and pharmacological (AB3, novel HDAC inhibitor) approaches. We find that overexpression of Notch3 leads to the dose dependent reduction of neuroendocrine tumor markers. In addition, Notch3 activity is required to suppress MTC cell proliferation, and the extent of growth repression depends on the amount of Notch3 protein expressed. Moreover, activation of Notch3 induces apoptosis. The translational significance of this finding is highlighted by our observation that MTC tumors lack active Notch3 protein and reinstitution of this isoform could be a therapeutic strategy to treat patients with MTC. We demonstrate, for the first time, that overexpression of Notch3 in MTC cells can alter malignant neuroendocrine phenotype in both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, our study provides a strong rationale for using Notch3 as a therapeutic target to provide novel pharmacological treatment options for MTC. PMID:25512616

  13. Genes Frequently Coexpressed with Hoxc8 Provide Insight into the Discovery of Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Ruthala; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Min, Hyehyun; Yoon, Heejei; Kim, Myoung Hee

    2016-05-31

    Identifying Hoxc8 target genes is at the crux of understanding the Hoxc8-mediated regulatory networks underlying its roles during development. However, identification of these genes remains difficult due to intrinsic factors of Hoxc8, such as low DNA binding specificity, context-dependent regulation, and unknown cofactors. Therefore, as an alternative, the present study attempted to test whether the roles of Hoxc8 could be inferred by simply analyzing genes frequently coexpressed with Hoxc8, and whether these genes include putative target genes. Using archived gene expression datasets in which Hoxc8 was differentially expressed, we identified a total of 567 genes that were positively coexpressed with Hoxc8 in at least four out of eight datasets. Among these, 23 genes were coexpressed in six datasets. Gene sets associated with extracellular matrix and cell adhesion were most significantly enriched, followed by gene sets for skeletal system development, morphogenesis, cell motility, and transcriptional regulation. In particular, transcriptional regulators, including paralogs of Hoxc8, known Hox co-factors, and transcriptional remodeling factors were enriched. We randomly selected Adam19, Ptpn13, Prkd1, Tgfbi, and Aldh1a3, and validated their coexpression in mouse embryonic tissues and cell lines following TGF-β2 treatment or ectopic Hoxc8 expression. Except for Aldh1a3, all genes showed concordant expression with that of Hoxc8, suggesting that the coexpressed genes might include direct or indirect target genes. Collectively, we suggest that the coexpressed genes provide a resource for constructing Hoxc8-mediated regulatory networks. PMID:27025388

  14. Genes Frequently Coexpressed with Hoxc8 Provide Insight into the Discovery of Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kalyani, Ruthala; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Min, Hyehyun; Yoon, Heejei; Kim, Myoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Identifying Hoxc8 target genes is at the crux of understanding the Hoxc8-mediated regulatory networks underlying its roles during development. However, identification of these genes remains difficult due to intrinsic factors of Hoxc8, such as low DNA binding specificity, context-dependent regulation, and unknown cofactors. Therefore, as an alternative, the present study attempted to test whether the roles of Hoxc8 could be inferred by simply analyzing genes frequently coexpressed with Hoxc8, and whether these genes include putative target genes. Using archived gene expression datasets in which Hoxc8 was differentially expressed, we identified a total of 567 genes that were positively coexpressed with Hoxc8 in at least four out of eight datasets. Among these, 23 genes were coexpressed in six datasets. Gene sets associated with extracellular matrix and cell adhesion were most significantly enriched, followed by gene sets for skeletal system development, morphogenesis, cell motility, and transcriptional regulation. In particular, transcriptional regulators, including paralogs of Hoxc8, known Hox co-factors, and transcriptional remodeling factors were enriched. We randomly selected Adam19, Ptpn13, Prkd1, Tgfbi, and Aldh1a3, and validated their coexpression in mouse embryonic tissues and cell lines following TGF-β2 treatment or ectopic Hoxc8 expression. Except for Aldh1a3, all genes showed concordant expression with that of Hoxc8, suggesting that the coexpressed genes might include direct or indirect target genes. Collectively, we suggest that the coexpressed genes provide a resource for constructing Hoxc8-mediated regulatory networks. PMID:27025388

  15. Opposing role of Notch1 and Notch2 in a Kras(G12D)-driven murine non-small cell lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, A; Mazur, P K; Anton, M; Rudelius, M; Schwamborn, K; Feuchtinger, A; Behnke, K; Walch, A; Braren, R; Peschel, C; Duyster, J; Siveke, J T; Dechow, T

    2015-01-29

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recently, we have shown that Notch1 inhibition resulted in substantial cell death of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro. New compounds targeting Notch signal transduction have been developed and are now being tested in clinical trials. However, the tumorigenic role of individual Notch receptors in vivo remains largely unclear. Using a Kras(G12D)-driven endogenous NSCLC mouse model, we analyzed the effect of conditional Notch1 and Notch2 receptor deletion on NSCLC tumorigenesis. Notch1 deficiency led to a reduced early tumor formation and lower activity of MAPK compared with the controls. Unexpectedly, Notch2 deletion resulted in a dramatically increased carcinogenesis and increased MAPK activity. These mice died significantly earlier due to rapidly growing tumor burden. We found that Notch1 regulates Ras/MAPK pathway via HES1-induced repression of the DUSP1 promoter encoding a phosphatase specifically suppressing pERK1/2. Interestingly, Notch1 but not Notch2 ablation leads to decreased HES1 and DUSP1 expression. However, Notch2-depleted tumors showed an appreciable increase in β-catenin expression, a known activator of HES1 and important lung cancer oncogene. Characteristically for β-catenin upregulation, we found that the majority of Notch2-deficient tumors revealed an undifferentiated phenotype as determined by their morphology, E-Cadherin and TTF1 expression levels. In addition, these carcinomas showed aggressive growth patterns with bronchus invasion and obstruction. Together, we show that Notch2 mediates differentiation and has tumor suppressor functions during lung carcinogenesis, whereas Notch1 promotes tumor initiation and progression. These data are further supported by immunohistochemical analysis of human NSCLC samples showing loss or downregulation of Notch2 compared with normal lung tissue. In conclusion, this is the first study characterizing the in vivo functions of

  16. Notch-EGFR/HER2 Bidirectional Crosstalk in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Andrew T.; Zlobin, Andrei; Osipo, Clodia

    2014-01-01

    The Notch pathway is a well-established mediator of cell–cell communication that plays a critical role in stem cell survival, self-renewal, cell fate decisions, tumorigenesis, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance in a variety of cancers. An interesting form of crosstalk exists between the Notch receptor and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase family, which consists of HER-1, -2, -3, and -4. Overexpression of HER and/or Notch occurs in several human cancers including brain, lung, breast, ovary, and skin making them potent oncogenes capable of advancing malignant disease. Continued assessment of interplay between these two critical signaling networks uncovers new insight into mechanisms used by HER-driven cancer cells to exploit Notch as a compensatory pathway. The compensatory Notch pathway maintains HER-induced downstream signals transmitted to pathways such as Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), thereby allowing cancer cells to survive molecular targeted therapies, undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transitioning, and increase cellular invasion. Uncovering the critical crosstalk between the HER and Notch pathways can lead to improved screening for the expression of these oncogenes enabling patients to optimize their personal treatment options and predict potential treatment resistance. This review will focus on the current state of crosstalk between the HER and Notch receptors and the effectiveness of current therapies targeting HER-driven cancers. PMID:25566499

  17. Alteration of Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression by targeted transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Broverman, S; MacMorris, M; Blumenthal, T

    1993-01-01

    We have produced strains carrying a synthetic fusion of parts of two vitellogenin genes, vit-2 and vit-6, integrated into the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. In most of the 63 transformant strains, the plasmid sequences are integrated at random locations in the genome. However, in two strains the transgene integrated by homologous recombination into the endogenous vit-2 gene. In both cases the reciprocal exchange between the chromosome and the injected circular plasmid containing a promoter deletion led to switching of the plasmid-borne promoter and the endogenous promoter, with a reduction in vit-2 expression. Thus in nematodes, transforming DNA can integrate by homologous recombination to result in partial inactivation of the chromosomal locus. The simplicity of the event and its reasonably high frequency suggest that gene targeting by homologous recombination should be considered as a method for directed inactivation of C. elegans genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8506273

  18. Alteration of Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression by targeted transformation.

    PubMed

    Broverman, S; MacMorris, M; Blumenthal, T

    1993-05-15

    We have produced strains carrying a synthetic fusion of parts of two vitellogenin genes, vit-2 and vit-6, integrated into the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. In most of the 63 transformant strains, the plasmid sequences are integrated at random locations in the genome. However, in two strains the transgene integrated by homologous recombination into the endogenous vit-2 gene. In both cases the reciprocal exchange between the chromosome and the injected circular plasmid containing a promoter deletion led to switching of the plasmid-borne promoter and the endogenous promoter, with a reduction in vit-2 expression. Thus in nematodes, transforming DNA can integrate by homologous recombination to result in partial inactivation of the chromosomal locus. The simplicity of the event and its reasonably high frequency suggest that gene targeting by homologous recombination should be considered as a method for directed inactivation of C. elegans genes. PMID:8506273

  19. Imprinted genes as potential genetic and epigenetic toxicologic targets.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, S K; Jirtle, R L

    2000-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in eutherian mammals that results in the differential expression of the paternally and maternally inherited alleles of a gene. Imprinted genes are necessary for normal mammalian development. This requirement has been proposed to have evolved because of an interparental genetic battle for the utilization of maternal resources during gestation and postnatally. The nonrandom requisite for monoallelic expression of a subset of genes has also resulted in the formation of susceptibility loci for neurobehavioral disorders, developmental disorders, and cancer. Since imprinting involves both cytosine methylation within CpG islands and changes in chromatin structure, imprinted genes are potential targets for dysregulation by epigenetic toxicants that modify DNA methylation and histone acetylation. PMID:10698719

  20. Gene Targeting of Mouse Tardbp Negatively Affects Masp2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Samar; Xiao, Shangxi; Miletic, Denise; Robertson, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating adult onset neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. TDP-43, encoded by the TARDBP gene, was identified as a component of motor neuron cytoplasmic inclusions in both familial and sporadic ALS and has become a pathological signature of the disease. TDP-43 is a nuclear protein involved in RNA metabolism, however in ALS, TDP-43 is mislocalized to the cytoplasm of affected motor neurons, suggesting that disease might be caused by TDP-43 loss of function. To investigate this hypothesis, we attempted to generate a mouse conditional knockout of the Tardbp gene using the classical Cre-loxP technology. Even though heterozygote mice for the targeted allele were successfully generated, we were unable to obtain homozygotes. Here we show that although the targeting vector was specifically designed to not overlap with Tardbp adjacent genes, the homologous recombination event affected the expression of a downstream gene, Masp2. This may explain the inability to obtain homozygote mice with targeted Tardbp. PMID:24740308

  1. Genetic linkage analysis of the Ak1, Col5a1, Epb7. 2, Fpgs, Grp78, Pbx3, and Notch1 genes in the region of mouse chromosome 2 homologous to human chromosome 9q

    SciTech Connect

    Pilz, A. ); Prohaska, R. ); Peters, J. ); Abbott, C. Western General Hospital, Edinburgh )

    1994-05-01

    The genes for adenylate kinase-1 (AK1), folyl polyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), the collagen pro[alpha]1(V) chain (COL5A1), erythrocyte protein band 7.2b (EPB72), and a proto-oncogene homeobox (PBX3) all map to the distal portion of human chromosome 9q (HSA9q) but have not previously been mapped by linkage analysis in the mouse. In this study, the authors have used two interspecific backcrosses to map the mouse homologues of each of these genes to mouse chromosome 2 (MMU2). The Ak1, Col5a1, Epb7.2, Fpgs, and Pbx3 genes were mapped with respect to the genes for Grp78, Rxra, Notch1 (the mouse homologue of TAN1), Spna2, Abl, and Hc (the mouse homologue of C5), all of which have previously been mapped by linkage analysis on MMU2 and have human homologues that map to HSA9q. Two of the reference loci for MMU2, D2Mit1 and Acra, were also mapped in the same cross to facilitate comparisons with existing maps. The consensus gene order deduced by combining data from both crosses is D2Mit1-(Dbh,Notch1)-(Col5a1,Rxra)-Spna2-Abl-(Ak1,Fpgs)-(Grp78,Pbx3)-(Epb7.2,Hc,Gsn)-Aera. These loci therefore form part of the conserved synteny between HSA9q and MMU2. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. All-optical regulation of gene expression in targeted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yisen; He, Hao; Li, Shiyang; Liu, Dayong; Lan, Bei; Hu, Minglie; Cao, Youjia; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-06-01

    Controllable gene expression is always a challenge and of great significance to biomedical research and clinical applications. Recently, various approaches based on extra-engineered light-sensitive proteins have been developed to provide optogenetic actuators for gene expression. Complicated biomedical techniques including exogenous genes engineering, transfection, and material delivery are needed. Here we present an all-optical method to regulate gene expression in targeted cells. Intrinsic or exogenous genes can be activated by a Ca2+-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) driven by a short flash of femtosecond-laser irradiation. When applied to mesenchymal stem cells, expression of a differentiation regulator Osterix can be activated by this method to potentially induce differentiation of them. A laser-induced ``Ca2+-comb'' (LiCCo) by multi-time laser exposure is further developed to enhance gene expression efficiency. This noninvasive method hence provides an encouraging advance of gene expression regulation, with promising potential of applying in cell biology and stem-cell science.

  3. Evaluation of drug-targetable genes by defining modes of abnormality in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Junseong; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, many researchers have taken a systematic approach to identifying abnormal genes associated with various diseases. However, the gold standard has not been established, and most of these abnormalities are difficult to be rehabilitated in real clinical settings. In addition to identifying abnormal genes, for a practical purpose, it is necessary to investigate abnormality diversity. In this context, this study is aimed to demonstrate simply restorable genes as useful drug targets. We devised the concept of "drug targetability" to evaluate several different modes of abnormal genes by predicting events after drug treatment. As a representative example, we applied our method to breast cancer. Computationally, PTPRF, PRKAR2B, MAP4K3, and RICTOR were calculated as highly drug-targetable genes for breast cancer. After knockdown of these top-ranked genes (i.e., high drug targetability) using siRNA, our predictions were validated by cell death and migration assays. Moreover, inhibition of RICTOR or PTPRF was expected to prolong lifespan of breast cancer patients according to patient information annotated in microarray data. We anticipate that our method can be widely applied to elaborate selection of novel drug targets, and, ultimately, to improve the efficacy of disease treatment. PMID:26336805

  4. Essential gene identification and drug target prioritization in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenqi; Sillaots, Susan; Lemieux, Sebastien; Davison, John; Kauffman, Sarah; Breton, Anouk; Linteau, Annie; Xin, Chunlin; Bowman, Joel; Becker, Jeff; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry

    2007-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne filamentous fungal pathogen in humans, causing severe and often fatal invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Currently available antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis have limited modes of action, and few are safe and effective. To identify and prioritize antifungal drug targets, we have developed a conditional promoter replacement (CPR) strategy using the nitrogen-regulated A. fumigatus NiiA promoter (pNiiA). The gene essentiality for 35 A. fumigatus genes was directly demonstrated by this pNiiA-CPR strategy from a set of 54 genes representing broad biological functions whose orthologs are confirmed to be essential for growth in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extending this approach, we show that the ERG11 gene family (ERG11A and ERG11B) is essential in A. fumigatus despite neither member being essential individually. In addition, we demonstrate the pNiiA-CPR strategy is suitable for in vivo phenotypic analyses, as a number of conditional mutants, including an ERG11 double mutant (erg11BDelta, pNiiA-ERG11A), failed to establish a terminal infection in an immunocompromised mouse model of systemic aspergillosis. Collectively, the pNiiA-CPR strategy enables a rapid and reliable means to directly identify, phenotypically characterize, and facilitate target-based whole cell assays to screen A. fumigatus essential genes for cognate antifungal inhibitors. PMID:17352532

  5. RFMirTarget: Predicting Human MicroRNA Target Genes with a Random Forest Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Mariana R.; da Fonseca, Guilherme C.; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Alves, Ronnie; Margis, Rogerio; Bazzan, Ana L. C.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are key regulators of eukaryotic gene expression whose fundamental role has already been identified in many cell pathways. The correct identification of miRNAs targets is still a major challenge in bioinformatics and has motivated the development of several computational methods to overcome inherent limitations of experimental analysis. Indeed, the best results reported so far in terms of specificity and sensitivity are associated to machine learning-based methods for microRNA-target prediction. Following this trend, in the current paper we discuss and explore a microRNA-target prediction method based on a random forest classifier, namely RFMirTarget. Despite its well-known robustness regarding general classifying tasks, to the best of our knowledge, random forest have not been deeply explored for the specific context of predicting microRNAs targets. Our framework first analyzes alignments between candidate microRNA-target pairs and extracts a set of structural, thermodynamics, alignment, seed and position-based features, upon which classification is performed. Experiments have shown that RFMirTarget outperforms several well-known classifiers with statistical significance, and that its performance is not impaired by the class imbalance problem or features correlation. Moreover, comparing it against other algorithms for microRNA target prediction using independent test data sets from TarBase and starBase, we observe a very promising performance, with higher sensitivity in relation to other methods. Finally, tests performed with RFMirTarget show the benefits of feature selection even for a classifier with embedded feature importance analysis, and the consistency between relevant features identified and important biological properties for effective microRNA-target gene alignment. PMID:23922946

  6. Dynamic Changes in microRNAs may Regulate Robustness of Wnt/Notch Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunaratne, Preethi

    2008-03-01

    The mechanisms by which highly reproducible patterns are formed during embryonic development and organismal evolution despite stochasticity at the single cell level is one of the remaining mysteries in Biology. It has been proposed that a hidden layer of regulation formed through the interaction of microRNAs with protein coding gene networks maybe responsible. Recently developed next generation sequencing technologies afford an unprecedented opportunity to uncover novel aspects of miRNA function and evolution. We find extensive heterogeneity in sequences that correspond to mmu-let-7 (targets Wnt1) and mmu-miR-191 (targets Notch1). Approximately 20% of let-7 and miR-191 have undergone modifications to increase stability and binding to the Wnt1 and Notch1 targets and are likely to be destroyed. In contrast, 80% bind the targets with imperfect complementarity and lower stability and are likely to be sequestered and prevented from forming protein. We propose that these two species together form a highly fluid system that is able to absorb stochastic perturbations in gene expression. A gene that goes on to be translated into functional protein therefore must escape both buffers by significantly high expression.

  7. Dual Roles of O-Glucose Glycans Redundant with Monosaccharide O-Fucose on Notch in Notch Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2016-06-24

    Notch is a transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions and controls various cell-fate specifications in metazoans. The extracellular domain of Notch contains multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. At least five different glycans are found in distinct sites within these EGF-like repeats. The function of these individual glycans in Notch signaling has been investigated, primarily by disrupting their individual glycosyltransferases. However, we are just beginning to understand the potential functional interactions between these glycans. Monosaccharide O-fucose and O-glucose trisaccharide (O-glucose-xylose-xylose) are added to many of the Notch EGF-like repeats. In Drosophila, Shams adds a xylose specifically to the monosaccharide O-glucose. We found that loss of the terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides had little effect on Notch signaling. However, our analyses of double mutants of shams and other genes required for glycan modifications revealed that both the monosaccharide O-glucose and the terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides function redundantly with the monosaccharide O-fucose in Notch activation and trafficking. The terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides and the monosaccharide O-glucose were required in distinct Notch trafficking processes: Notch transport from the apical plasma membrane to adherens junctions, and Notch export from the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Therefore, the monosaccharide O-glucose and terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides have distinct activities in Notch trafficking, although a loss of these activities is compensated for by the presence of monosaccharide O-fucose. Given that various glycans attached to a protein motif may have redundant functions, our results suggest that these potential redundancies may lead to a serious underestimation of glycan functions. PMID:27129198

  8. Notch-signalling is required for head regeneration and tentacle patterning in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Münder, Sandra; Tischer, Susanne; Grundhuber, Maresa; Büchels, Nathalie; Bruckmeier, Nadine; Eckert, Stefanie; Seefeldt, Carolin A; Prexl, Andrea; Käsbauer, Tina; Böttger, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Local self-activation and long ranging inhibition provide a mechanism for setting up organising regions as signalling centres for the development of structures in the surrounding tissue. The adult hydra hypostome functions as head organiser. After hydra head removal it is newly formed and complete heads can be regenerated. The molecular components of this organising region involve Wnt-signalling and β-catenin. However, it is not known how correct patterning of hypostome and tentacles are achieved in the hydra head and whether other signals in addition to HyWnt3 are needed for re-establishing the new organiser after head removal. Here we show that Notch-signalling is required for re-establishing the organiser during regeneration and that this is due to its role in restricting tentacle activation. Blocking Notch-signalling leads to the formation of irregular head structures characterised by excess tentacle tissue and aberrant expression of genes that mark the tentacle boundaries. This indicates a role for Notch-signalling in defining the tentacle pattern in the hydra head. Moreover, lateral inhibition by HvNotch and its target HyHes are required for head regeneration and without this the formation of the β-catenin/Wnt dependent head organiser is impaired. Work on prebilaterian model organisms has shown that the Wnt-pathway is important for setting up signalling centres for axial patterning in early multicellular animals. Our data suggest that the integration of Wnt-signalling with Notch-Delta activity was also involved in the evolution of defined body plans in animals. PMID:24012879

  9. Inferring gene targets of drugs and chemical compounds from gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Heeju; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Finding genes which are directly perturbed or targeted by drugs is of great interest and importance in drug discovery. Several network filtering methods have been created to predict the gene targets of drugs from gene expression data based on an ordinary differential equation model of the gene regulatory network (GRN). A critical step in these methods involves inferring the GRN from the expression data, which is a very challenging problem on its own. In addition, existing network filtering methods require computationally intensive parameter tuning or expression data from experiments with known genetic perturbations or both. Results: We developed a method called DeltaNet for the identification of drug targets from gene expression data. Here, the gene target predictions were directly inferred from the data without a separate step of GRN inference. DeltaNet formulation led to solving an underdetermined linear regression problem, for which we employed least angle regression (DeltaNet-LAR) or LASSO regularization (DeltaNet-LASSO). The predictions using DeltaNet for expression data of Escherichia coli, yeast, fruit fly and human were significantly more accurate than those using network filtering methods, namely mode of action by network identification (MNI) and sparse simultaneous equation model (SSEM). Furthermore, DeltaNet using LAR did not require any parameter tuning and could provide computational speed-up over existing methods. Conclusion: DeltaNet is a robust and numerically efficient tool for identifying gene perturbations from gene expression data. Importantly, the method requires little to no expert supervision, while providing accurate gene target predictions. Availability and implementation: DeltaNet is available on http://www.cabsel.ethz.ch/tools/DeltaNet. Contact: rudi.gunawan@chem.ethz.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27153589

  10. Identification of key target genes and pathways in laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Du, Jintao; Liu, Jun; Wen, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to screen the key genes associated with laryngeal carcinoma and to investigate the molecular mechanism of laryngeal carcinoma progression. The gene expression profile of GSE10935 [Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) accession number], including 12 specimens from laryngeal papillomas and 12 specimens from normal laryngeal epithelia controls, was downloaded from the GEO database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened in laryngeal papillomas compared with normal controls using Limma package in R language, followed by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed using Cytoscape software and modules were analyzed using MCODE plugin from the PPI network. Furthermore, significant biological pathway regions (sub-pathway) were identified by using iSubpathwayMiner analysis. A total of 67 DEGs were identified, including 27 up-regulated genes and 40 down-regulated genes and they were involved in different GO terms and pathways. PPI network analysis revealed that Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 (RASSF1) was a hub protein. The sub-pathway analysis identified 9 significantly enriched sub-pathways, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and nitrogen metabolism. Genes such as phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), carbonic anhydrase II (CA2), and carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12) whose node degrees were >10 were identified in the disease risk sub-pathway. Genes in the sub-pathway, such as RASSF1, PGK1, CA2 and CA12 were presumed to serve critical roles in laryngeal carcinoma. The present study identified DEGs and their sub-pathways in the disease, which may serve as potential targets for treatment of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:27446427

  11. Metabolic reprogramming induces resistance to anti-NOTCH1 therapies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Herranz, Daniel; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Sudderth, Jessica; Sánchez-Martín, Marta; Belver, Laura; Tosello, Valeria; Xu, Luyao; Wendorff, Agnieszka A.; Castillo, Mireia; Haydu, J. Erika; Márquez, Javier; Matés, José M.; Kung, Andrew L.; Rayport, Stephen; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in NOTCH1 are common in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL). Here we identify glutaminolysis as a critical pathway for leukemia cell growth downstream of NOTCH1 and a key determinant of clinical response to anti-NOTCH1 therapies. Mechanistically, inhibition of NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL induces a metabolic shutdown with prominent inhibition of glutaminolysis and triggers autophagy as a salvage pathway supporting leukemia cell metabolism. Consequently, both inhibition of glutaminolysis and inhibition of autophagy strongly and synergistically enhance the antileukemic effects of anti-NOTCH1 therapies. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pten loss induces increased glycolysis and consequently rescues leukemic cell metabolism abrogating the antileukemic effects of NOTCH1 inhibition. Overall, these results identify glutaminolysis as a major node in cancer metabolism controlled by NOTCH1 and as therapeutic target for the treatment of T-ALL. PMID:26390244

  12. Notch signalling in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and other haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2010-01-01

    Notch receptors participate in a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Deregulated Notch signalling has been implicated in many diseases, but the clearest example of a pathogenic role is found in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-LL), in which the majority of human and murine tumours have acquired mutations that lead to aberrant increases in Notch1 signalling. Remarkably, it appears that the selective pressure for Notch mutations is virtually unique among cancers to T-LL, presumably reflecting a special context-dependent role for Notch in normal T cell progenitors. Nevertheless, there are some recent reports suggesting that Notch signalling has subtle yet important roles in other forms of hematologic malignancy as well. Here, we review the role of Notch signalling in various blood cancers, focusing on T-LL with an eye toward targeted therapeutics. PMID:20967796

  13. Targeted gene knockout by direct delivery of ZFN proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gaj, Thomas; Guo, Jing; Kato, Yoshio; Sirk, Shannon J.; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are versatile reagents that have redefined genome engineering. Realizing the full potential of this technology requires the development of safe and effective methods for delivering ZFNs into cells. We demonstrate the intrinsic cell-penetrating capabilities of the standard ZFN architecture and show that direct delivery of ZFNs as proteins leads to efficient endogenous gene disruption in a variety of mammalian cell types with minimal off-target effects. PMID:22751204

  14. Targeted disruption of the Lowe syndrome gene (OCRL-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenne, P.A.; Olivos, I.; Grinberg, A.

    1994-09-01

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is a rare X-linked disease characterized by congenital cataract formation, mental retardation and renal tubular dysfunction (Fanconi syndrome). The gene for OCRL (OCRL-1) has recently been identified through positional cloning techniques and is highly homologous to a previously reported gene encoding a 75 kDa inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase. Thus OCRL might be caused by an alteration in inositol metabolism. In order to further investigate the role of OCRL-1 in Lowe`s syndrome, we decided to use targeted disruption to create mice lacking a functional OCRL-1 protein. The murine homologue of OCRL-1 (Ocrl-1) was cloned from a 129Sv genomic library. Two targeting vectors were created from the 3{prime}-end of the gene by fusing a neomycin resistance gene (PGK-Neo) into two exons. The first vector employed a classic positive negative selection scheme whereas the second vector included a polyadenylation trap. The vectors were electroporated into CCE or J1 ES cells and recombinants were screened by Southern blotting. Targeted cells were obtained at a frequency of 1/50 (for CCE) and 1/16 (for J1 using the polyadenylation trap). Using antibodies made to an OCRL-1 fusion protein, we could demonstrate a lack of Ocrl-1 protein product in the targeted ES cell lines. Therefore, we had created a null allele at the Ocrl-1 locus. The targeted ES clones were injected into 3.5 dpc C57B1/6 blastocysts and chimeric mice were obtained. Male chimeras have been made from five targeted cell lines. The males were mated with C57B1/6 females and germline transmission has been obtained from males derived from two of the five cell lines (one from CCE and one from J1 targeted ES cells). Preliminary analysis of male Ocrl-1{sup {minus}} mice suggests the presence of a proximal renal tubular dysfunction but the absence of detectable cataracts. We are presently continuing our phenotypic analyses.

  15. Multifactorial ERβ and NOTCH1 control of squamous differentiation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Yang Sui; Ostano, Paola; Jo, Seung-Hee; Dai, Jun; Getsios, Spiro; Dziunycz, Piotr; Hofbauer, Günther F.L.; Cerveny, Kara; Chiorino, Giovanna; Lefort, Karine; Dotto, G. Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Downmodulation or loss-of-function mutations of the gene encoding NOTCH1 are associated with dysfunctional squamous cell differentiation and development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in skin and internal organs. While NOTCH1 receptor activation has been well characterized, little is known about how NOTCH1 gene transcription is regulated. Using bioinformatics and functional screening approaches, we identified several regulators of the NOTCH1 gene in keratinocytes, with the transcription factors DLX5 and EGR3 and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) directly controlling its expression in differentiation. DLX5 and ERG3 are required for RNA polymerase II (PolII) recruitment to the NOTCH1 locus, while ERβ controls NOTCH1 transcription through RNA PolII pause release. Expression of several identified NOTCH1 regulators, including ERβ, is frequently compromised in skin, head and neck, and lung SCCs and SCC-derived cell lines. Furthermore, a keratinocyte ERβ–dependent program of gene expression is subverted in SCCs from various body sites, and there are consistent differences in mutation and gene-expression signatures of head and neck and lung SCCs in female versus male patients. Experimentally increased ERβ expression or treatment with ERβ agonists inhibited proliferation of SCC cells and promoted NOTCH1 expression and squamous differentiation both in vitro and in mouse xenotransplants. Our data identify a link between transcriptional control of NOTCH1 expression and the estrogen response in keratinocytes, with implications for differentiation therapy of squamous cancer. PMID:24743148

  16. Small interfering RNAs targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Jiao; Zhao, Ping-Sen; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Hua-Lei; Liang, Hong-Ru; Zhao, Li-Li; Wu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Yang, Song-Tao; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2012-10-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) infection continues to be a global threat to human and animal health, yet no curative therapy has been developed. RNA interference (RNAi) therapy, which silences expression of specific target genes, represents a promising approach for treating viral infections in mammalian hosts. We designed six small interfering (si)RNAs (N473, N580, N783, N796, N799 and N1227) that target the conserved region of the RABV challenge virus standard (CVS)-11 strain nucleoprotein (N) gene. Using a plasmid-based transient expression model, we demonstrated that N796, N580 and N799 were capable of significantly inhibiting viral replication in vitro and in vivo. These three siRNAs effectively suppressed RABV expression in infected baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells, as evidenced by direct immunofluorescence assay, viral titer measurements, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. In addition, liposome-mediated siRNA expression plasmid delivery to RABV-infected mice significantly increased survival, compared to a non-liposome-mediated delivery method. Collectively, our results showed that the three siRNAs, N796, N580 and N799, targeting the N gene could potently inhibit RABV CVS-11 reproduction. These siRNAs have the potential to be developed into new and effective prophylactic anti-RABV drugs. PMID:22884777

  17. Treating psoriasis by targeting its susceptibility gene Rel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Wang, Shaowen; Yu, Linjiang; Yi, Huqiang; Liu, Ruiling; Geng, Wenwen; Wan, Xiaochun; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao; Chen, Youhai H; Ruan, Qingguo

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin. Accumulating evidence indicates that the Rel gene, a member of the NF-κB family, is a risk factor for the disease. We sought to investigate whether psoriasis can be prevented by directly targeting the Rel gene transcript, i.e., the c-Rel mRNA. Using chemically-modified c-Rel specific siRNA (siRel) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-leucine) (PEG-PLL-PLLeu) micelles, we successfully knocked down the expression of c-Rel, and showed that the expression of cytokine IL-23, a direct target of c-Rel that can drive the development of IL-17-producing T cells, was markedly inhibited. More importantly, treating mice with siRel not only prevented but also ameliorated imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis. Mechanistic studies showed that siRel treatment down-regulated the expression of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results indicate that the susceptibility gene Rel can be targeted to treat and prevent psoriasis. PMID:26993753

  18. TSG attenuates LPC-induced endothelial cells inflammatory damage through notch signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Song, Fan; Xu, Shouzhu; Nian, Lun; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induces inflammation in endothelial cells (ECs) but the mechanism is not fully understood. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in chronic EC inflammation, but its functions in LPC-induced endothelial inflammatory damage and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside's (TSG) protective effect during LPC-induced inflammatory damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is largely unknown. We report that Notch signaling activation contributed to LPC-induced injury in HUVECs, and that TSG protected HUVECs from LPC-induced injury by antagonizing Notch signaling activation by LPC. γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch signaling pathway, and Notch1 siRNA were used to inhibit Notch activity. HUVECs were exposed to LPC in the presence or absence of TSG, DAPT, and Notch1 siRNA. LPC treatment of HUVECs resulted in reduced cell viability, and Notch1 and Hes1 upregulation. Either silencing of Notch1 by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT prevented the loss of cell viability, and induction of apoptosis, and enhanced expression Notch1, Hes1 and MCP-1 by LPC in HUVECs. Similarly, TSG reduced LPC stimulation of Notch1, Hes1, and MCP-1 expression, prevented the release of IL-6 and CRP and rescued HUVECs from LPC-induced cell damage. Our data indicate that the Notch signaling pathway is a crucial mediator of endothelial inflammatory damage and that TSG protects against endothelial inflammatory damage by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that targeting Notch signaling by natural products such as TSG is a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation associated diseases, including atherosclerosis. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):37-50, 2016. PMID:26662286

  19. Target Gene Abundance Contributes to the Efficiency of siRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sun Woo; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Kim, Soyoun; Li, Chiang J.

    2014-01-01

    The gene-silencing activity of a small interfering RNA (siRNA) is determined by various factors. Considering that RNA interference (RNAi) is an unparalleled technology in both basic research and therapeutic applications, thorough understanding of the factors determining RNAi activity is critical. This report presents observations that siRNAs targeting KRT7 show cell-line-dependent activity, which correlates with the expression level of KRT7 mRNA. By modulating the target mRNA level, it was confirmed that highly expressed genes are more susceptible to siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Finally, several genes that show different expression levels in a cell-line dependent manner were tested, which verified the expression-level-dependent siRNA activities. These results strongly suggest that the abundance of target mRNA is a critical factor that determines the efficiency of the siRNA-mediated gene silencing in a given cellular context. This report should provide practical guidelines for designing RNAi experiments and for selecting targetable genes in RNAi therapeutics studies. PMID:24527979

  20. Salivary epithelial cells: an unassuming target site for gene therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Paola; Rowzee, Anne M.; Zheng, Changyu; Adriaansen, Janik; Baum, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands are classical exocrine glands whose external secretions result in the production of saliva. However, in addition to the secretion of exocrine proteins, salivary epithelial cells are also capable of secreting proteins internally, into the bloodstream. This brief review examines the potential for using salivary epithelial cells as a target site for in situ gene transfer, with an ultimate goal of producing therapeutic proteins for treating both systemic and upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. The review discusses the protein secretory pathways reported to be present in salivary epithelial cells, the viral gene transfer vectors shown useful for transducing these cells, model transgenic secretory proteins examined, and some clinical conditions that might benefit from such salivary gland gene transfer. PMID:20219693

  1. Regulatory network of microRNAs, target genes, transcription factors and host genes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lu-Chen; Xu, Zhi-Wen; Wang, Kun-Hao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Shang

    2015-01-01

    Genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in human oncology. However, most of the biological factors are reported in disperse form which makes it hard to discover the pathology. In this study, genes and miRNAs involved in human endometrial cancer(EC) were collected and formed into regulatory networks following their interactive relations, including miRNAs targeting genes, transcription factors (TFs) regulating miRNAs and miRNAs included in their host genes. Networks are constructed hierarchically at three levels: differentially expressed, related and global. Among the three, the differentially expressed network is the most important and fundamental network that contains the key genes and miRNAs in EC. The target genes, TFs and miRNAs are differentially expressed in EC so that any mutation in them may impact on EC development. Some key pathways in networks were highlighted to analyze how they interactively influence other factors and carcinogenesis. Upstream and downstream pathways of the differentially expressed genes and miRNAs were compared and analyzed. The purpose of this study was to partially reveal the deep regulatory mechanisms in EC using a new method that combines comprehensive genes and miRNAs together with their relationships. It may contribute to cancer prevention and gene therapy of EC. PMID:25684474

  2. Tumor targeting and microenvironment-responsive nanoparticles for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shixian; Shao, Kun; Kuang, Yuyang; Liu, Yang; Li, Jianfeng; An, Sai; Guo, Yubo; Ma, Haojun; He, Xi; Jiang, Chen

    2013-07-01

    A tumor targeting nanoparticle system has been successfully developed to response to the lowered tumor extracellular pH (pHe) and upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in the tumor microenvironment. The nanoparticles are modified with activatable cell-penetrating peptide (designated as dtACPP) that's dual-triggered by the lowered pHe and MMP2. In dtACPP, the internalization function of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is quenched by a pH-sensitive masking peptide, linking by a MMP2 substrate. The masking peptide is negatively charged to quench the cationic CPP well after systemic administration. Hence, dtACPP-modified nanoparticles possesses passive tumor targetability via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Once reaching the tumor microenvironment, the pre-existing attraction would be eliminated due to the lowered pHe, accompanying the linker cleaved by MMP2, dtACPP would be activated to expose CPP to drive the nanoparticles' internalization into the intratumoral cells. The studies of plasmid DNA loading, toxicity assessment, cellular uptake, tumor targeting delivery, and gene transfection demonstrate that dtACPP-modified nanoparticle system is a potential candidate for tumor targeting gene delivery. PMID:23562171

  3. Notch signaling in hematopoietic cell transplantation and T cell alloimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ebens, Christen; Maillard, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling can regulate both hematopoietic progenitors and alloimmune T cells in the setting of allogeneic bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Ex vivo culture of multipotent blood progenitors with immobilized Delta-like ligands induces supraphysiological Notch signals and can markedly enhance progenitor expansion. Infusion of Notch-expanded progenitors shortened myelosuppression in preclinical and early clinical studies, while accelerating T cell reconstitution in preclinical models. Notch also plays an essential role in vivo to regulate pathogenic alloimmune T cells that mediate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the most severe complication of allo-HCT. In mouse allo-HCT models, Notch inhibition in donor-derived T cells or transient blockade of Delta-like ligands after transplantation profoundly decreased GVHD incidence and severity, without causing global immunosuppression. These findings identify Notch in T cells as an attractive therapeutic target to control GVHD. In this review, we discuss these contrasting functions of Notch signaling with high translational significance in allo-HCT patients. PMID:24050990

  4. MiR-433 inhibits retinoblastoma malignancy by suppressing Notch1 and PAX6 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Lan; Shuai, Tianjiao; Piao, Tianhua; Wang, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent primary intraocular cancer. It has been demonstrated by previous studies that retinoblastoma is initiated primarily by the inactivation of the retinoblastoma Rb1 gene in retinal cells. However, additional genetic alterations than Rb1 mutation could play important roles in the process of transforming benign retinal cells into retinoblastoma tumor cells. In this study, we identified that microRNA miR-433 is one of such genetic factors. We found that the expression levels of miR-433 were downregulated in RB tissues. We also determined that miR-433 negatively regulated RB cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of RB cells. We used bioinformatics method to predict and confirmed that Notch1 and PAX6 were miR-433 target genes in RB cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that restoration of Notch1 and PAX6 expression partially rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation and metastasis induced by miR-433 overexpression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates RB cell proliferation and metastasis through suppressing the expression of Notch1 and PAX6. PMID:27470361

  5. Vehicular Exhaust Particles Promote Allergic Airway Inflammation via an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Notch Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mingcan; Viera-Hutchins, Loida; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Rivas, Magali Noval; Wise, Petra; MGhee, Sean A.; Chatila, Zena K.; Daher, Nancy; Sioutas, Constantinos; Chatila, Talal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) has been linked to heightened incidence of asthma and allergic diseases. However, molecular mechanisms by which PM exposure promote allergic diseases remain elusive. Objective We sought to determine the expression, function and regulation of pathways involved in the promotion by PM of allergic airway inflammation. Methods We employed gene expression transcriptional profiling, in vitro culture assays, and vivo murine models of allergic airway inflammation. Results We identified genes of the Notch pathway, most notably Jagged 1 (Jag1), as targets of PM induction in human monocytes and murine dendritic cells (DCs). PM, especially ultrafine particles (UFP), upregulated T helper cytokine, IgE production and allergic airway inflammation in mice in a Jag1 and Notch-dependent manner especially in the context of the pro-asthmatic IL-4 receptor allele Il4raR576. PM-induced Jag1 expression was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which bound to and activated AhR response elements in the Jag1 promoter. Pharmacological antagonism of AhR or its lineage-specific deletion in CD11c+ cells abrogated the augmentation of airway inflammation by PM. Conclusion PM activate an AhR-Jag1-Notch cascade to promote allergic airway inflammation in concert with pro-asthmatic alleles. PMID:25825216

  6. Identification of gene targets against dormant phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis J; Brown, James R

    2007-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects approximately 2 billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality due to infectious disease. Current TB therapy involves a regimen of four antibiotics taken over a six month period. Patient compliance, cost of drugs and increasing incidence of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains have added urgency to the development of novel TB therapies. Eradication of TB is affected by the ability of the bacterium to survive up to decades in a dormant state primarily in hypoxic granulomas in the lung and to cause recurrent infections. Methods The availability of M. tuberculosis genome-wide DNA microarrays has lead to the publication of several gene expression studies under simulated dormancy conditions. However, no single model best replicates the conditions of human pathogenicity. In order to identify novel TB drug targets, we performed a meta-analysis of multiple published datasets from gene expression DNA microarray experiments that modeled infection leading to and including the dormant state, along with data from genome-wide insertional mutagenesis that examined gene essentiality. Results Based on the analysis of these data sets following normalization, several genome wide trends were identified and used to guide the selection of targets for therapeutic development. The trends included the significant up-regulation of genes controlled by devR, down-regulation of protein and ATP synthesis, and the adaptation of two-carbon metabolism to the hypoxic and nutrient limited environment of the granuloma. Promising targets for drug discovery were several regulatory elements (devR/devS, relA, mprAB), enzymes involved in redox balance and respiration, sulfur transport and fixation, pantothenate, isoprene, and NAD biosynthesis. The advantages and liabilities of each target are discussed in the context of enzymology, bacterial pathways, target tractability, and drug development

  7. MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes in Gingival Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Stoecklin-Wasmer, C.; Guarnieri, P.; Celenti, R.; Demmer, R.T.; Kebschull, M.; Papapanou, P.N.

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights into the in vivo function of miRNAs in the context of periodontitis, we examined the occurrence of miRNAs in healthy and diseased gingival tissues and validated their in silico-predicted targets through mRNA profiling using whole-genome microarrays in the same specimens. Eighty-six individuals with periodontitis contributed 198 gingival papillae: 158 ‘diseased’ (bleeding-on-probing, PD > 4 mm, and AL ≥ 3 mm) and 40 ‘healthy’ (no bleeding, PD ≤ 4 mm, and AL ≤ 2 mm). Expression of 1,205 miRNAs was assessed by microarrays, followed by selected confirmation by quantitative RT-PCR. Predicted miRNA targets were identified and tested for enrichment by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Enriched gene sets were grouped in functional categories by DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. One hundred fifty-nine miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between healthy and diseased gingiva. Four miRNAs (hsa-miR-451, hsa-miR-223, hsa-miR-486-5p, hsa-miR-3917) were significantly overexpressed, and 7 (hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-1260, hsa-miR-141, hsa-miR-1260b, hsa-miR-203, hsa-miR-210, hsa-miR-205*) were underexpressed by > 2-fold in diseased vs. healthy gingiva. GSEA and additional filtering identified 60 enriched miRNA gene sets with target genes involved in immune/inflammatory responses and tissue homeostasis. This is the first study that concurrently examined miRNA and mRNA expression in gingival tissues and will inform mechanistic experimentation to dissect the role of miRNAs in periodontal tissue homeostasis and pathology. PMID:22879578

  8. Targeted disruption of the NIT8 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J A; Lefebvre, P A

    1995-01-01

    We have used homologous recombination to disrupt the nuclear gene NIT8 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first report of targeted gene disruption of an endogenous locus in C. reinhardtii and only the second for a photosynthetic eukaryote. NIT8 encodes a protein necessary for nitrate and nitrite assimilation by C. reinhardtii. A disruption vector was constructed by placing the CRY1-1 selectable marker gene, which confers emetine resistance, within the NIT8 coding region. nit8 mutants are unable to grow on nitrate as their sole nitrogen source (Nit-) and are resistant to killing by chlorate. One of 2,000 transformants obtained after selection on emetine-chlorate medium contained a homologous insertion of five copies of the disruption plasmid into the NIT8 gene, producing an emetine-resistant, chlorate-resistant Nit- phenotype. The mutant phenotype was rescued by the wild-type NIT8 gene upon transformation. Seven other mutations at the nit8 locus, presumably resulting from homologous recombination with the disruption plasmid, were identified but were shown to be accompanied by deletions of the surrounding genomic region. PMID:7565729

  9. Phytochemicals targeting genes relevant for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2013-06-01

    Nutrigenomic approaches based on ethnopharmacology and phytotherapy concepts have revealed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be susceptible to dietary intervention. Interaction between bioactive food components and the genome may influence cell processes and modulate the onset and progression of the disease. T2DM, characterized by insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction, is one of the leading causes of death and disability. Despite the great advances that have been made in the understanding and management of this complex, multifactorial disease, T2DM has become a worldwide epidemic in the 21st century. Population and family studies have revealed a strong genetic component of T2DM, and a number of candidate genes have been identified in humans. Variations in the gene sequences such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, explain the individual differences in traits like disease susceptibility and response to treatment. A clear understanding of how nutrients affect the expression of genes should facilitate the development of individualized intervention and, eventually, treatment strategies for T2DM. Review of the literature identified many phytochemicals/extracts from traditional medicinal plants that can target diabetogenic genes. This review focuses on the genetic aspects of T2DM, nutrient modification of genes relevant for diabetes, and future prospects of nutritional therapy of T2DM. PMID:23745945

  10. [Driver gene mutation and targeted therapy of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    Although cancers may have many genetic alterations, there are only a few mutations actually associated with essential traits of cancer cells such as cell proliferation or evasion from apoptosis. Because cancer cells are "addicted" to these "drive genes" , pharmacologic inhibition of these gene function is highly effective. Epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor(TKI)(such as gefitinib or erlotinib)treatment of lung cancer harboring EGFR gene mutation is one of the prototypes of such therapies. Several clinical trials clearly demonstrated that progression-free survival of patients treated with EGFR-TKI is significantly longer than that of those treated by conventional platinum doublet chemotherapy. EGFR-TKI therapy dramatically changed the paradigm of lung cancer treatment. Furthermore, in 2012, crizotinib was approved for lung cancer treatment with anaplastic lymphoma kinase(ALK)gene translocation. Targeted therapies for lung cancers "addicted" to other driver gene mutations including ROS1, RET or HER2 are also under development. Through these personalized approaches, lung cancer is changing from an acute fatal disease to a more chronic disease, and eventually we might be able to cure it. PMID:23507588

  11. Stilbenoids remodel the DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer cells and inhibit oncogenic NOTCH signaling through epigenetic regulation of MAML2 transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Lubecka, Katarzyna; Kurzava, Lucinda; Flower, Kirsty; Buvala, Hannah; Zhang, Hao; Teegarden, Dorothy; Camarillo, Ignacio; Suderman, Matthew; Kuang, Shihuan; Andrisani, Ourania; Flanagan, James M.; Stefanska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    DNA hypomethylation was previously implicated in cancer progression and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to examine whether stilbenoids, resveratrol and pterostilbene thought to exert anticancer effects, target genes with oncogenic function for de novo methylation and silencing, leading to inactivation of related signaling pathways. Following Illumina 450K, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis reveals that stilbenoids alter DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer cells. On average, 75% of differentially methylated genes have increased methylation, and these genes are enriched for oncogenic functions, including NOTCH signaling pathway. MAML2, a coactivator of NOTCH targets, is methylated at the enhancer region and transcriptionally silenced in response to stilbenoids, possibly explaining the downregulation of NOTCH target genes. The increased DNA methylation at MAML2 enhancer coincides with increased occupancy of repressive histone marks and decrease in activating marks. This condensed chromatin structure is associated with binding of DNMT3B and decreased occupancy of OCT1 transcription factor at MAML2 enhancer, suggesting a role of DNMT3B in increasing methylation of MAML2 after stilbenoid treatment. Our results deliver a novel insight into epigenetic regulation of oncogenic signals in cancer and provide support for epigenetic-targeting strategies as an effective anticancer approach. PMID:27207652

  12. Stilbenoids remodel the DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer cells and inhibit oncogenic NOTCH signaling through epigenetic regulation of MAML2 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Lubecka, Katarzyna; Kurzava, Lucinda; Flower, Kirsty; Buvala, Hannah; Zhang, Hao; Teegarden, Dorothy; Camarillo, Ignacio; Suderman, Matthew; Kuang, Shihuan; Andrisani, Ourania; Flanagan, James M; Stefanska, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    DNA hypomethylation was previously implicated in cancer progression and metastasis. The purpose of this study was to examine whether stilbenoids, resveratrol and pterostilbene thought to exert anticancer effects, target genes with oncogenic function for de novo methylation and silencing, leading to inactivation of related signaling pathways. Following Illumina 450K, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis reveals that stilbenoids alter DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer cells. On average, 75% of differentially methylated genes have increased methylation, and these genes are enriched for oncogenic functions, including NOTCH signaling pathway. MAML2, a coactivator of NOTCH targets, is methylated at the enhancer region and transcriptionally silenced in response to stilbenoids, possibly explaining the downregulation of NOTCH target genes. The increased DNA methylation at MAML2 enhancer coincides with increased occupancy of repressive histone marks and decrease in activating marks. This condensed chromatin structure is associated with binding of DNMT3B and decreased occupancy of OCT1 transcription factor at MAML2 enhancer, suggesting a role of DNMT3B in increasing methylation of MAML2 after stilbenoid treatment. Our results deliver a novel insight into epigenetic regulation of oncogenic signals in cancer and provide support for epigenetic-targeting strategies as an effective anticancer approach. PMID:27207652

  13. IRF1 marks activated genes in SLE and can induce target gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Lihua; Song, Li; Ephrem, Elshaddai; Petri, Michelle; Sullivan, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective IRF1 both mediates responses to type I interferons and the induction of interferons. It has been implicated in murine lupus models as a critical mediator of inflammation. A previous study of chromatin modifications in SLE patient monocytes implicated IRF1 as associated with increased histone acetylation in SLE patients. This study directly investigated IRF1 binding sites on chromatin using ChIP-seq. Methods Nine female SLE patients and seven female controls were examined. Monocytes were purified from peripheral blood and subjected to library preparation using a validated antibody to IRF1. The effect of IRF1 on target gene expression was confirmed using an overexpression system in cell lines and co-immunoprecipitation was used to define protein interactions. Results IRF1 binding around transcribed regions was increased in SLE patient monocytes but histone modifications at potential IRF1 binding sites without detectable IRF1 binding were also increased. IRF1 overexpression was sufficient to drive transcription of target genes. IRF1 overexpression was also able to alter histone modifications at a focus set of target genes and the use of an IRF1 inhibitor decreased both expression and histone modifications at target genes. IRF1 was found to interact with a select set of histone modifying enzymes and other transcription factors. Conclusions IRF1 is an important signaling protein in the interferon pathway. IRF1 not only activates gene expression as a transcription factor but may perpetuate disease by leading to a dysregulated epigenome. PMID:25418955

  14. Mutations in NOTCH1 cause Adams-Oliver syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stittrich, Anna-Barbara; Lehman, Anna; Bodian, Dale L; Ashworth, Justin; Zong, Zheyuan; Li, Hong; Lam, Patricia; Khromykh, Alina; Iyer, Ramaswamy K; Vockley, Joseph G; Baveja, Rajiv; Silva, Ermelinda Santos; Dixon, Joanne; Leon, Eyby L; Solomon, Benjamin D; Glusman, Gustavo; Niederhuber, John E; Roach, Jared C; Patel, Millan S

    2014-09-01

    Notch signaling determines and reinforces cell fate in bilaterally symmetric multicellular eukaryotes. Despite the involvement of Notch in many key developmental systems, human mutations in Notch signaling components have mainly been described in disorders with vascular and bone effects. Here, we report five heterozygous NOTCH1 variants in unrelated individuals with Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS), a rare disease with major features of aplasia cutis of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects. Using whole-genome sequencing in a cohort of 11 families lacking mutations in the four genes with known roles in AOS pathology (ARHGAP31, RBPJ, DOCK6, and EOGT), we found a heterozygous de novo 85 kb deletion spanning the NOTCH1 5' region and three coding variants (c.1285T>C [p.Cys429Arg], c.4487G>A [p.Cys1496Tyr], and c.5965G>A [p.Asp1989Asn]), two of which are de novo, in four unrelated probands. In a fifth family, we identified a heterozygous canonical splice-site variant (c.743-1 G>T) in an affected father and daughter. These variants were not present in 5,077 in-house control genomes or in public databases. In keeping with the prominent developmental role described for Notch1 in mouse vasculature, we observed cardiac and multiple vascular defects in four of the five families. We propose that the limb and scalp defects might also be due to a vasculopathy in NOTCH1-related AOS. Our results suggest that mutations in NOTCH1 are the most common cause of AOS and add to a growing list of human diseases that have a vascular and/or bony component and are caused by alterations in the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:25132448

  15. Gamma-secretase Inhibitor Prevents Proliferation and Migration of Ductus Arteriosus Smooth Muscle Cells through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Wu, Bin-Nan; Hsu, Jong-Hau

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause morbidity and mortality in neonates. Vascular remodeling, characterized by proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), is an essential process for postnatal DA closure. Notch signaling is an important mediator of vascular remodelling but its role in DA is unkonwn. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, a Notch signaling inhibitor on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation and migration of DASMCs. Proliferation and migration of DASMCs cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were induced by Ang II, with or without DAPT pre-treatment. In addition, potential underlying mechanisms including cell cycle progression, Ca2+ influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, signal transduction of MAPK and Akt, and Notch receptor with its target gene pathway were examined. We found that DAPT inhibited Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration dose dependently. DAPT also arrested the cell cycle progression in the G0/G1-phase, and attenuated calcium overload and ROS production caused by Ang II. Moreover, DAPT inhibited nuclear translocation of Notch3 receptor intracellular domain, with decreased expression of its down-stream genes including HES1, HES2 and HES5. Finally, Ang II-activated ERK1/2, JNK and Akt were also counteracted by DAPT. In conclusion, DAPT inhibits Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration. These effects are potentially mediated by decreased calcium influx, reduced ROS production, and down-regulation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt, through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 pathway. Therefore, Notch signaling has a role in DA remodeling and may provide a target pathway for therapeutic intervention of PDA. PMID:27570480

  16. Gamma-secretase Inhibitor Prevents Proliferation and Migration of Ductus Arteriosus Smooth Muscle Cells through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Wu, Bin-Nan; Hsu, Jong-Hau

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause morbidity and mortality in neonates. Vascular remodeling, characterized by proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), is an essential process for postnatal DA closure. Notch signaling is an important mediator of vascular remodelling but its role in DA is unkonwn. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, a Notch signaling inhibitor on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation and migration of DASMCs. Proliferation and migration of DASMCs cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were induced by Ang II, with or without DAPT pre-treatment. In addition, potential underlying mechanisms including cell cycle progression, Ca(2+) influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, signal transduction of MAPK and Akt, and Notch receptor with its target gene pathway were examined. We found that DAPT inhibited Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration dose dependently. DAPT also arrested the cell cycle progression in the G0/G1-phase, and attenuated calcium overload and ROS production caused by Ang II. Moreover, DAPT inhibited nuclear translocation of Notch3 receptor intracellular domain, with decreased expression of its down-stream genes including HES1, HES2 and HES5. Finally, Ang II-activated ERK1/2, JNK and Akt were also counteracted by DAPT. In conclusion, DAPT inhibits Ang II-induced DASMCs proliferation and migration. These effects are potentially mediated by decreased calcium influx, reduced ROS production, and down-regulation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt, through the Notch3-HES1/2/5 pathway. Therefore, Notch signaling has a role in DA remodeling and may provide a target pathway for therapeutic intervention of PDA. PMID:27570480

  17. Quantitative determination of target gene with electrical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuzhi; Li, Qiufen; Jin, Xianshi; Jiang, Cheng; Lu, Yong; Tavallaie, Roya; Gooding, J. Justin

    2015-07-01

    Integrating loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D), we have developed an electrical sensor for the simultaneous amplification and detection of specific sequence DNA. Using the O26-wzy gene as a model, the amount of initial target gene could be determined via the threshold time obtained by monitoring the progression of the LAMP reaction in real time. Using the optimal conditions, a detection limit of 12.5 copy/μL can be obtained within 30 min. Monitoring the LAMP reaction by C4D has not only all the advantages that existing electrochemical methods have, but also additional attractive features including being completely free of carryover contamination risk, high simplicity and extremely low cost. These benefits all arise from the fact that the electrodes are separated from the reaction solution, that is C4D is a contactless method. Hence in proof of principle, the new strategy promises a robust, simple, cost-effective and sensitive method for quantitative determination of a target gene, that is applicable either to specialized labs or at point-of-care.

  18. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma by in vivo gene targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Rong; Xu, Mei; Toffanin, Sara; Li, Yi; Llovet, Josep M.; Russell, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The distinct phenotypic and prognostic subclasses of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are difficult to reproduce in animal experiments. Here we have used in vivo gene targeting to insert an enhancer-promoter element at an imprinted chromosome 12 locus in mice, thereby converting ∼1 in 20,000 normal hepatocytes into a focus of HCC with a single genetic modification. A 300-kb chromosomal domain containing multiple mRNAs, snoRNAs, and microRNAs was activated surrounding the integration site. An identical domain was activated at the syntenic locus in a specific molecular subclass of spontaneous human HCCs with a similar histological phenotype, which was associated with partial loss of DNA methylation. These findings demonstrate the accuracy of in vivo gene targeting in modeling human cancer and suggest future applications in studying various tumors in diverse animal species. In addition, similar insertion events produced by randomly integrating vectors could be a concern for liver-directed human gene therapy. PMID:22733778

  19. Sgs1 and Exo1 suppress targeted chromosome duplication during ends-in and ends-out gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Štafa, Anamarija; Miklenić, Marina; Zunar, Bojan; Lisnić, Berislav; Symington, Lorraine S; Svetec, Ivan-Krešimir

    2014-10-01

    Gene targeting is extremely efficient in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is performed by transformation with a linear, non-replicative DNA fragment carrying a selectable marker and containing ends homologous to the particular locus in a genome. However, even in S. cerevisiae, transformation can result in unwanted (aberrant) integration events, the frequency and spectra of which are quite different for ends-out and ends-in transformation assays. It has been observed that gene replacement (ends-out gene targeting) can result in illegitimate integration, integration of the transforming DNA fragment next to the target sequence and duplication of a targeted chromosome. By contrast, plasmid integration (ends-in gene targeting) is often associated with multiple targeted integration events but illegitimate integration is extremely rare and a targeted chromosome duplication has not been reported. Here we systematically investigated the influence of design of the ends-out assay on the success of targeted genetic modification. We have determined transformation efficiency, fidelity of gene targeting and spectra of all aberrant events in several ends-out gene targeting assays designed to insert, delete or replace a particular sequence in the targeted region of the yeast genome. Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time that targeted chromosome duplications occur even during ends-in gene targeting. Most importantly, the whole chromosome duplication is POL32 dependent pointing to break-induced replication (BIR) as the underlying mechanism. Moreover, the occurrence of duplication of the targeted chromosome was strikingly increased in the exo1Δ sgs1Δ double mutant but not in the respective single mutants demonstrating that the Exo1 and Sgs1 proteins independently suppress whole chromosome duplication during gene targeting. PMID:25089886

  20. Loss of Notch1-dependent p21Waf1/Cip1 expression influences the Notch1 outcome in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cialfi, Samantha; Palermo, Rocco; Manca, Sonia; De Blasio, Carlo; Vargas Romero, Paula; Checquolo, Saula; Bellavia, Diana; Uccelletti, Daniela; Saliola, Michele; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Talora, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a complex role in carcinogenesis, and its signaling pathway has both tumor-suppressor and oncogenic components. In this study we investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on Notch1 signaling outcome in keratinocyte biology. We demonstrate that Notch1 function contributes to the arsenic-induced keratinocyte transformation. We found that acute exposure to arsenite increases oxidative stress and inhibits proliferation of keratinocyte cells by upregulation of p21waf1/Cip1. The necessity of p21waf1/Cip1 for arsenite-induced cell death was demonstrated by targeted downregulation of p21waf1/Cip1 by using RNA interference. We further demonstrated that on acute exposure to arsenite, p21waf1/Cip1 is upregulated and Notch1 downmodulated, whereas on chronic exposure to arsenite, malignant progression of arsenite-treated keratinocytes cells was accompanied by regained expression and activity of Notch1. Notch1 activity in arsenite-transformed keratinocytes inhibits arsenite-induced upregulation of p21waf1/Cip1 by sustaining c-myc expression. We further demonstrated that c-myc collaborates with Nrf2, a key regulator for the maintenance of redox homeostasis, to promote metabolic activities that support cell proliferation and cytoprotection. Therefore, Notch1-mediated repression of p21waf1/Cip1 expression results in the inhibition of cell death and keratinocytes transformation. Our results not only demonstrate that sustained Notch1 expression is at least one key event implicated in the arsenite human skin carcinogenic effect, but also may provide mechanistic insights into the molecular aspects that determine whether Notch signaling will be either oncogenic or tumor suppressive. PMID:24801890

  1. Development of a successive targeting liposome with multi-ligand for efficient targeting gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Kun; Shen, Haijun; Shen, Song; Xie, Men; Mao, Chuanbin; Qiu, Liyan; Jin, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background A successful gene delivery system needs to breakthrough several barriers to allow efficient transgenic expression. In the present study, successive targeting liposomes (STL) were constructed by integrating various targeting groups into a nanoparticle to address this issue. Methods Polyethylenimine (PEI) 1800-triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with nuclear targeting capability was synthesized by a two-step reaction. Lactobionic acid was connected with cholesterol to obtain a compound of [(2-lactoylamido) ethylamino]formic acid cholesterol ester (CHEDLA) with hepatocyte-targeting capability. The liposome was modified with PEI 1800-TA and CHEDLA to prepare successive targeting liposome (STL). Its physicochemical properties and transfection efficiency were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results The diameter of STL was approximately 100 nm with 20 mV of potential. The confocal microscopy observation and potential assay verified that lipid bilayer of STL was decorated with PEI 1800-TA. Cytotoxicity of STL was significantly lower than that of PEI 1800-TA and PEI 25K. The transfection efficiency of 10% CHEDLA STL in HepG2 cells was the higher than of the latter two with serum. Its transfection efficiency was greatly reduced with excessive free galactose, indicating that STL was absorbed via galactose receptor-mediated endocytosis. The in vivo study in mice showed that 10% CHEDLA STL had better transgenic expression in liver than the other carriers. Conclusions STL with multi-ligand was able to overcome the various barriers to target nucleus and special cells and present distinctive transgenic expression. Therefore, it has a great potential for gene therapy as a nonviral carrier. PMID:21574214

  2. Targeted genes and interacting proteins of hypoxia inducible factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in almost all nucleated mammalian cells. The fundamental process adapted to cellular oxygen alteration largely depends on the refined regulation on its alpha subunit, HIF-1α. Recent studies have unraveled expanding and critical roles of HIF-1α, involving in a multitude of developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes. This review will focus on the current knowledge of HIF-1α-targeting genes and its interacting proteins, as well as the concomitant functional relationships between them. PMID:22773957

  3. Activation of an endothelial Notch1-Jagged1 circuit induces VCAM1 expression, an effect amplified by interleukin-1β

    PubMed Central

    Verginelli, Federica; Adesso, Laura; Limon, Isabelle; Alisi, Anna; Gueguen, Marie; Panera, Nadia; Giorda, Ezio; Raimondi, Lavinia; Ciarapica, Roberta; Campese, Antonio F.; Screpanti, Isabella; Stifani, Stefano; Kitajewski, Jan; Miele, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    The Notch1 and Notch4 signaling pathways regulate endothelial cell homeostasis. Inflammatory cytokines induce the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, including VCAM1, partly by downregulating Notch4 signaling. We investigated the role of endothelial Notch1 in this IL-1β-mediated process. Brief treatment with IL-1β upregulated endothelial VCAM1 and Notch ligand Jagged1. IL-1β decreased Notch1 mRNA levels, but levels of the active Notch1ICD protein remained constant. IL-1β-mediated VCAM1 induction was downregulated in endothelial cells subjected to pretreatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of the γ-secretase, which activates Notch receptors, producing NotchICD. It was also downregulated in cells in which Notch1 and/or Jagged1 were silenced. Conversely, the forced expression of Notch1ICD in naïve endothelial cells upregulated VCAM1 per se and amplified IL-1β-mediated VCAM1 induction. Jagged1 levels increased and Notch4 signaling was downregulated in parallel. Finally, Notch1ICD and Jagged1 expression was upregulated in the endothelium of the liver in a model of chronic liver inflammation. In conclusion, we describe here a cell-autonomous, pro-inflammatory endothelial Notch1-Jagged1 circuit (i) triggering the expression of VCAM1 even in the absence of inflammatory cytokines and (ii) enhancing the effects of IL-1β. Thus, IL-1β regulates Notch1 and Notch4 activity in opposite directions, consistent with a selective targeting of Notch1 in inflamed endothelium. PMID:26646450

  4. Activation of an endothelial Notch1-Jagged1 circuit induces VCAM1 expression, an effect amplified by interleukin-1β.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Federica; Adesso, Laura; Limon, Isabelle; Alisi, Anna; Gueguen, Marie; Panera, Nadia; Giorda, Ezio; Raimondi, Lavinia; Ciarapica, Roberta; Campese, Antonio F; Screpanti, Isabella; Stifani, Stefano; Kitajewski, Jan; Miele, Lucio; Rota, Rossella; Locatelli, Franco

    2015-12-22

    The Notch1 and Notch4 signaling pathways regulate endothelial cell homeostasis. Inflammatory cytokines induce the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, including VCAM1, partly by downregulating Notch4 signaling. We investigated the role of endothelial Notch1 in this IL-1β-mediated process. Brief treatment with IL-1β upregulated endothelial VCAM1 and Notch ligand Jagged1. IL-1β decreased Notch1 mRNA levels, but levels of the active Notch1ICD protein remained constant. IL-1β-mediated VCAM1 induction was downregulated in endothelial cells subjected to pretreatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of the γ-secretase, which activates Notch receptors, producing NotchICD. It was also downregulated in cells in which Notch1 and/or Jagged1 were silenced.Conversely, the forced expression of Notch1ICD in naïve endothelial cells upregulated VCAM1 per se and amplified IL-1β-mediated VCAM1 induction. Jagged1 levels increased and Notch4 signaling was downregulated in parallel. Finally, Notch1ICD and Jagged1 expression was upregulated in the endothelium of the liver in a model of chronic liver inflammation.In conclusion, we describe here a cell-autonomous, pro-inflammatory endothelial Notch1-Jagged1 circuit (i) triggering the expression of VCAM1 even in the absence of inflammatory cytokines and (ii) enhancing the effects of IL-1β. Thus, IL-1β regulates Notch1 and Notch4 activity in opposite directions, consistent with a selective targeting of Notch1 in inflamed endothelium. PMID:26646450

  5. Inhibition of Myostatin Signaling through Notch Activation following Acute Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, Mark; Patton, Amy; Baar, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin is a TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle size. Due to the complexity of the molecular pathway between myostatin mRNA/protein and changes in transcription, it has been difficult to understand whether myostatin plays a role in resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To circumvent this problem, we determined the expression of a unique myostatin target gene, Mighty, following resistance exercise. Mighty mRNA increased by 6 h (82.9±24.21%) and remained high out to 48 h (56.5±19.67%) after resistance exercise. Further examination of the soleus, plantaris and tibialis anterior muscles showed that the change in Mighty mRNA at 6 h correlated with the increase in muscle size associated with this protocol (R2 = 0.9996). The increase in Mighty mRNA occurred both independent of Smad2 phosphorylation and in spite of an increase in myostatin mRNA (341.8±147.14% at 3 h). The myostatin inhibitor SKI remained unchanged. However, activated Notch, another potential inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, increased immediately following resistance exercise (83±11.2%) and stayed elevated out to 6 h (78±16.6%). Electroportion of the Notch intracellular domain into the tibialis anterior resulted in an increase in Mighty mRNA (63±13.4%) that was equivalent to the canonical Notch target HES-1 (94.4±7.32%). These data suggest that acute resistance exercise decreases myostatin signaling through the activation of the TGFβ inhibitor Notch resulting in a decrease in myostatin transcriptional activity that correlates well with muscle hypertrophy. PMID:23844238

  6. Gene Profiling of Mta1 Identifies Novel Gene Targets and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Eswaran, Jeyanthy; Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Background Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a master dual co-regulatory protein is found to be an integral part of NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Histone Deacetylation) complex, which has indispensable transcriptional regulatory functions via histone deacetylation and chromatin remodeling. Emerging literature establishes MTA1 to be a valid DNA-damage responsive protein with a significant role in maintaining the optimum DNA-repair activity in mammalian cells exposed to genotoxic stress. This DNA-damage responsive function of MTA1 was reported to be a P53-dependent and independent function. Here, we investigate the influence of P53 on gene regulation function of Mta1 to identify novel gene targets and functions of Mta1. Methods Gene expression analysis was performed on five different mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) samples (i) the Mta1 wild type, (ii) Mta1 knock out (iii) Mta1 knock out in which Mta1 was reintroduced (iv) P53 knock out (v) P53 knock out in which Mta1 was over expressed using Affymetrix Mouse Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Further Hierarchical Clustering, Gene Ontology analysis with GO terms satisfying corrected p-value<0.1, and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were performed. Finally, RT-qPCR was carried out on selective candidate genes. Significance/Conclusion This study represents a complete genome wide screen for possible target genes of a coregulator, Mta1. The comparative gene profiling of Mta1 wild type, Mta1 knockout and Mta1 re-expression in the Mta1 knockout conditions define “bona fide” Mta1 target genes. Further extensive analyses of the data highlights the influence of P53 on Mta1 gene regulation. In the presence of P53 majority of the genes regulated by Mta1 are related to inflammatory and anti-microbial responses whereas in the absence of P53 the predominant target genes are involved in cancer signaling. Thus, the presented data emphasizes the known functions of Mta1 and serves as a rich resource which could help us identify novel Mta

  7. Targeting human melanoma neoantigens by T cell receptor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Leisegang, Matthias; Kammertoens, Thomas; Uckert, Wolfgang; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In successful cancer immunotherapy, T cell responses appear to be directed toward neoantigens created by somatic mutations; however, direct evidence that neoantigen-specific T cells cause regression of established cancer is lacking. Here, we generated T cells expressing a mutation-specific transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) to target different immunogenic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) that naturally occur in human melanoma. Two mutant CDK4 isoforms (R24C, R24L) similarly stimulated T cell responses in vitro and were analyzed as therapeutic targets for TCR gene therapy. In a syngeneic HLA-A2-transgenic mouse model of large established tumors, we found that both mutations differed dramatically as targets for TCR-modified T cells in vivo. While T cells expanded efficiently and produced IFN-γ in response to R24L, R24C failed to induce an effective antitumor response. Such differences in neoantigen quality might explain why cancer immunotherapy induces tumor regression in some individuals, while others do not respond, despite similar mutational load. We confirmed the validity of the in vivo model by showing that the melan-A-specific (MART-1-specific) TCR DMF5 induces rejection of tumors expressing analog, but not native, MART-1 epitopes. The described model allows identification of those neoantigens in human cancer that serve as suitable T cell targets and may help to predict clinical efficacy. PMID:26808500

  8. Modularly assembled designer TAL effector nucleases for targeted gene knockout and gene replacement in eukaryotes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T; Huang, S; Zhao, XF; Wright, DA; Carpenter, S; Spalding, MH; Weeks, DP; Yang, B

    2011-08-08

    Recent studies indicate that the DNA recognition domain of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors can be combined with the nuclease domain of FokI restriction enzyme to produce TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) that, in pairs, bind adjacent DNA target sites and produce double-strand breaks between the target sequences, stimulating non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here, we exploit the four prevalent TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher to develop a 'modular assembly' method for rapid production of designer TALENs (dTALENs) that recognize unique DNA sequence up to 23 bases in any gene. We have used this approach to engineer 10 dTALENs to target specific loci in native yeast chromosomal genes. All dTALENs produced high rates of site-specific gene disruptions and created strains with expected mutant phenotypes. Moreover, dTALENs stimulated high rates (up to 34%) of gene replacement by homologous recombination. Finally, dTALENs caused no detectable cytotoxicity and minimal levels of undesired genetic mutations in the treated yeast strains. These studies expand the realm of verified TALEN activity from cultured human cells to an intact eukaryotic organism and suggest that low-cost, highly dependable dTALENs can assume a significant role for gene modifications of value in human and animal health, agriculture and industry.

  9. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Judy S.; Singleton, Ciera S.; Miele, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas, and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems such as Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required. PMID:27148486

  10. Nanoparticle optical notch filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinadhuni, Pradeep Kumar

    Developing novel light blocking products involves the design of a nanoparticle optical notch filter, working on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). These light blocking products can be used in many applications. One such application is to naturally reduce migraine headaches and light sensitivity. Melanopsin ganglion cells present in the retina of the human eye, connect to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN-the body's clock) in the brain, where they participate in the entrainment of the circadian rhythms. As the Melanopsin ganglion cells are involved in triggering the migraine headaches in photophobic patients, it is necessary to block the part of visible spectrum that activates these cells. It is observed from the action potential spectrum of the ganglion cells that they absorb light ranging from 450-500nm (blue-green part) of the visible spectrum with a λmax (peak sensitivity) of around 480nm (blue line). Currently prescribed for migraine patients is the FL-41 coating, which blocks a broad range of wavelengths, including wavelengths associated with melanopsin absorption. The nanoparticle optical notch filter is designed to block light only at 480nm, hence offering an effective prescription for the treatment of migraine headaches.

  11. [Targeted modification of CCR5 gene in rabbits by TALEN].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Quanjun; Li, Xiaoping; Fan, Nana; Yang, Yi; Quan, Longquan; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-04-01

    The lack of suitable animal model for HIV-1 infection has become a bottleneck for the development of AIDS vaccines and drugs. Wild-type rabbits can be infected by HIV-1 persistently and HIV-1 can be efficiently replicated resulting in syncytia in rabbit cell line co-expressing human CD4 and CCR5.Therefore, a rabbit highly expressing human CD4 and CCR5 may be an ideal animal model for AIDS disease study. In the present report, by using the efficient gene targeting technology, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), we explored the feasibility of generating a HIV-1 model by knocking in human CD4 and CCR5 into rabbit genome. First we constructed two TALEN vectors targeting rabbit CCR5 gene and a vector with homologous arms. TALEN mRNAs and donor DNA were then co-injected into fertilized oocytes. After 3?5 days, 24 embryos were collected and used to conduct mutation analysis with PCR and sequencing. All the 24 embryos were detected with CCR5 knockouts and 5 were human CD4 and CCR5 knockins. Our results laid a foundation for establishing a new animal model for the study of AIDS. PMID:24846981

  12. Activation Dynamics and Signaling Properties of Notch3 Receptor in the Developing Pulmonary Artery*

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shamik; Paez-Cortez, Jesus R.; Boppidi, Karthik; Vasconcelos, Michelle; Roy, Monideepa; Cardoso, Wellington; Ai, Xingbin; Fine, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Notch3 signaling is fundamental for arterial specification of systemic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the developmental role and signaling properties of the Notch3 receptor in the mouse pulmonary artery remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed selectively in pulmonary artery VSMCs, is activated from late fetal to early postnatal life, and is required to maintain the morphological characteristics and smooth muscle gene expression profile of the pulmonary artery after birth. Using a conditional knock-out mouse model, we show that Notch3 receptor activation in VSMCs is Jagged1-dependent. In vitro VSMC lentivirus-mediated Jagged1 knockdown, confocal localization analysis, and co-culture experiments revealed that Notch3 activation is cell-autonomous and occurs through the physical engagement of Notch3 and VSMC-derived Jagged1 in the interior of the same cell. Although the current models of mammalian Notch signaling involve a two-cell system composed of a signal-receiving cell that expresses a Notch receptor on its surface and a neighboring signal-sending cell that provides membrane-bound activating ligand, our data suggest that pulmonary artery VSMC Notch3 activation is cell-autonomous. This unique mechanism of Notch activation may play an important role in the maturation of the pulmonary artery during the transition to air breathing. PMID:21536678

  13. Gene Targeting to the Uteroplacental Circulation of Pregnant Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vedanta; Ofir, Keren; Swanson, Anna; Kloczko, Ewa; Boyd, Michael; Barker, Hannah; Avdic-Belltheus, Adnan; Martin, John; Zachary, Ian; Peebles, Donald; David, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to target adenoviral gene therapy to the uteroplacental circulation of pregnant guinea pigs in order to develop a novel therapy for fetal growth restriction. Four methods of delivery of an adenovirus encoding β-galactosidase (Ad.LacZ) were evaluated: intravascular injection using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into (1) uterine artery (UtA) or (2) internal iliac artery or external administration in (3) PBS or (4) pluronic F-127 gel (Sigma Aldrich). Postmortem examination was performed 4 to 7 days after gene transfer. Tissue transduction was assessed by X-gal histochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. External vascular application of the adenovirus vector in combination with pluronic gel had 91.7% success rate in terms of administration (85% maternal survival) and gave the best results for maternal/fetal survival and local transduction efficiency without any spread to maternal or fetal tissues. This study suggests an optimal method of gene delivery to the UtAs of a small rodent for preclinical studies. PMID:26865541

  14. Tackling centrosome biology through gene targeting in chicken B cells.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Pavithra L; Gergely, Fanni

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome proteome comprises hundreds of proteins whose function at the organelle and in the cellular context is unknown. Loss-of-function studies present a powerful tool to probe the roles of these individual constituents and hence improve our insight into key questions of centrosome biology such as how centrosomes are built, how they duplicate, and which cellular processes they partake in. In cultured cells ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference remains the most widely used method to achieve protein depletion, but due to the remarkable stability of many centrosome components depletion is often incomplete. In such instances genome editing provides a viable alternative. The exceptionally high homologous recombination rate of chicken DT40 cells makes this lymphocytic cell line ideal for genetic manipulation. Here we describe methods for the design and generation of knockouts and in situ tagging of genes in these cells. Furthermore, we report an optimized technique that allows isolation of centrosomes from DT40 cells for use in in vitro functional assays and proteomic analysis. Gene editing by CRISPR-Cas9 technology is fast replacing RNA interference as a method of choice for loss-of-function studies, but the combination of the fast cell cycle, the robustness in culture and ease of gene targeting, will continue to make DT40 cells a useful model system for studies of vertebrate protein function. PMID:26175435

  15. Targeted Gene Therapy of Cancer: Second Amendment toward Holistic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    It seems solid tumors are developing smart organs with specialized cells creating specified bio-territory, the so called "tumor microenvironment (TME)", in which there is reciprocal crosstalk among cancer cells, immune system cells and stromal cells. TME as an intricate milieu also consists of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can resist against chemotherapies. In solid tumors, metabolism and vascularization appears to be aberrant and tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) functions as physiologic barrier. Thus, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and gene therapy often fail to provide cogent clinical outcomes. It looms that it is the time to accept the fact that initiation of cancer could be generation of another form of life that involves a cluster of thousands of genes, while we have failed to observe all aspects of it. Hence, the current treatment modalities need to be re-visited to cover all key aspects of disease using combination therapy based on the condition of patients. Perhaps personalized cluster of genes need to be simultaneously targeted. PMID:23878787

  16. Structure and Function of the Su(H)-Hairless Repressor Complex, the Major Antagonist of Notch Signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhenyu; Praxenthaler, Heiko; Tabaja, Nassif; Torella, Rubben; Preiss, Anette; Maier, Dieter; Kovall, Rhett A

    2016-07-01

    Notch is a conserved signaling pathway that specifies cell fates in metazoans. Receptor-ligand interactions induce changes in gene expression, which is regulated by the transcription factor CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1 (CSL). CSL interacts with coregulators to repress and activate transcription from Notch target genes. While the molecular details of the activator complex are relatively well understood, the structure-function of CSL-mediated repressor complexes is poorly defined. In Drosophila, the antagonist Hairless directly binds Su(H) (the fly CSL ortholog) to repress transcription from Notch targets. Here, we determine the X-ray structure of the Su(H)-Hairless complex bound to DNA. Hairless binding produces a large conformational change in Su(H) by interacting with residues in the hydrophobic core of Su(H), illustrating the structural plasticity of CSL molecules to interact with different binding partners. Based on the structure, we designed mutants in Hairless and Su(H) that affect binding, but do not affect formation of the activator complex. These mutants were validated in vitro by isothermal titration calorimetry and yeast two- and three-hybrid assays. Moreover, these mutants allowed us to solely characterize the repressor function of Su(H) in vivo. PMID:27404588

  17. Structure and Function of the Su(H)-Hairless Repressor Complex, the Major Antagonist of Notch Signaling in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Torella, Rubben; Preiss, Anette; Maier, Dieter; Kovall, Rhett A.

    2016-01-01

    Notch is a conserved signaling pathway that specifies cell fates in metazoans. Receptor-ligand interactions induce changes in gene expression, which is regulated by the transcription factor CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1 (CSL). CSL interacts with coregulators to repress and activate transcription from Notch target genes. While the molecular details of the activator complex are relatively well understood, the structure-function of CSL-mediated repressor complexes is poorly defined. In Drosophila, the antagonist Hairless directly binds Su(H) (the fly CSL ortholog) to repress transcription from Notch targets. Here, we determine the X-ray structure of the Su(H)-Hairless complex bound to DNA. Hairless binding produces a large conformational change in Su(H) by interacting with residues in the hydrophobic core of Su(H), illustrating the structural plasticity of CSL molecules to interact with different binding partners. Based on the structure, we designed mutants in Hairless and Su(H) that affect binding, but do not affect formation of the activator complex. These mutants were validated in vitro by isothermal titration calorimetry and yeast two- and three-hybrid assays. Moreover, these mutants allowed us to solely characterize the repressor function of Su(H) in vivo. PMID:27404588

  18. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagadec, Chann; Vlashi, Erina; Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  19. Opposing activities of Notch and Wnt signaling regulate intestinal stem cells and gut homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Biehs, Brian; Chiu, Cecilia; Siebel, Christian W; Wu, Yan; Costa, Mike; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-04-01

    Proper organ homeostasis requires tight control of adult stem cells and differentiation through the integration of multiple inputs. In the mouse small intestine, Notch and Wnt signaling are required both for stem cell maintenance and for a proper balance of differentiation between secretory and absorptive cell lineages. In the absence of Notch signaling, stem cells preferentially generate secretory cells at the expense of absorptive cells. Here, we use function-blocking antibodies against Notch receptors to demonstrate that Notch blockade perturbs intestinal stem cell function by causing a derepression of the Wnt signaling pathway, leading to misexpression of prosecretory genes. Importantly, attenuation of the Wnt pathway rescued the phenotype associated with Notch blockade. These studies bring to light a negative regulatory mechanism that maintains stem cell activity and balanced differentiation, and we propose that the interaction between Wnt and Notch signaling described here represents a common theme in adult stem cell biology. PMID:25818302

  20. NOTCH signaling in skeletal progenitors is critical for fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuicui; Inzana, Jason A; Mirando, Anthony J; Ren, Yinshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Jie; O'Keefe, Regis J; Awad, Hani A; Hilton, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Fracture nonunions develop in 10%-20% of patients with fractures, resulting in prolonged disability. Current data suggest that bone union during fracture repair is achieved via proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitors within periosteal and soft tissues surrounding bone, while bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) and other skeletal progenitors may also contribute. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a critical maintenance factor for BMSCs during skeletal development, although the precise role for NOTCH and the requisite nature of BMSCs following fracture is unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOTCH and/or BMSCs are required for fracture repair by performing nonstabilized and stabilized fractures on NOTCH-deficient mice with targeted deletion of RBPjk in skeletal progenitors, maturing osteoblasts, and committed chondrocytes. We determined that removal of NOTCH signaling in BMSCs and subsequent depletion of this population result in fracture nonunion, as the fracture repair process was normal in animals harboring either osteoblast- or chondrocyte-specific deletion of RBPjk. Together, this work provides a genetic model of a fracture nonunion and demonstrates the requirement for NOTCH and BMSCs in fracture repair, irrespective of fracture stability and vascularity. PMID:26950423

  1. NOTCH signaling in skeletal progenitors is critical for fracture repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuicui; Inzana, Jason A.; Mirando, Anthony J.; Liu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Jie; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Awad, Hani A.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture nonunions develop in 10%–20% of patients with fractures, resulting in prolonged disability. Current data suggest that bone union during fracture repair is achieved via proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitors within periosteal and soft tissues surrounding bone, while bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) and other skeletal progenitors may also contribute. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a critical maintenance factor for BMSCs during skeletal development, although the precise role for NOTCH and the requisite nature of BMSCs following fracture is unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOTCH and/or BMSCs are required for fracture repair by performing nonstabilized and stabilized fractures on NOTCH-deficient mice with targeted deletion of RBPjk in skeletal progenitors, maturing osteoblasts, and committed chondrocytes. We determined that removal of NOTCH signaling in BMSCs and subsequent depletion of this population result in fracture nonunion, as the fracture repair process was normal in animals harboring either osteoblast- or chondrocyte-specific deletion of RBPjk. Together, this work provides a genetic model of a fracture nonunion and demonstrates the requirement for NOTCH and BMSCs in fracture repair, irrespective of fracture stability and vascularity. PMID:26950423

  2. Notch signaling enhances FcεRI-mediated cytokine production by mast cells through direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Nobuhiro; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Yagita, Hideo; Hara, Mutsuko; Motomura, Yasutaka; Kubo, Masato; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2015-05-01

    Th2-type cytokines and TNF-α secreted by activated mast cells upon cross-linking of FcεRI contribute to the development and maintenance of Th2 immunity to parasites and allergens. We have previously shown that cytokine secretion by mouse mast cells is enhanced by signaling through Notch receptors. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Notch signaling enhances mast cell cytokine production induced by FcεRI cross-linking. FcεRI-mediated production of cytokines, particularly IL-4, was significantly enhanced in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells by priming with Notch ligands. Western blot analysis showed that Notch signaling augmented and prolonged FcεRI-mediated phosphorylation of MAPKs, mainly JNK and p38 MAPK, through suppression of the expression of SHIP-1, a master negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, resulting in the enhanced production of multiple cytokines. The enhancing effect of Notch ligand priming on multiple cytokine production was abolished by knockdown of Notch2, but not Notch1, and FcεRI-mediated production of multiple cytokines was enhanced by retroviral transduction with the intracellular domain of Notch2. However, only IL-4 production was enhanced by both Notch1 and Notch2. The enhancing effect of Notch signaling on IL-4 production was lost in bone marrow-derived mast cells from mice lacking conserved noncoding sequence 2, which is located at the distal 3' element of the Il4 gene locus and contains Notch effector RBP-J binding sites. These results indicate that Notch2 signaling indirectly enhances the FcεRI-mediated production of multiple cytokines, and both Notch1 and Notch2 signaling directly enhances IL-4 production through the noncoding sequence 2 enhancer of the Il4 gene. PMID:25821223

  3. Notch1 deficiency decreases hepatic lipid accumulation by induction of fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Song, No-Joon; Yun, Ui Jeong; Yang, Sunghee; Wu, Chunyan; Seo, Cho-Rong; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Baik, Sang-Ha; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bo Youn; Bahn, Gahee; Kim, Suji; Kwon, So-Mi; Park, Jin Su; Baek, Seung Hyun; Park, Tae Joo; Yoon, Keejung; Kim, Byung-Joon; Mattson, Mark P; Lee, Sung-Joon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling pathways modulate various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and communication. Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch1 signaling also regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid synthesis. However, the effect of Notch1 signaling on hepatic lipid oxidation has not yet been directly investigated. To define the function of Notch1 signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism, wild type mice and Notch1 deficient antisense transgenic (NAS) mice were fed a high-fat diet. High-fat diet -fed NAS mice exhibited a marked reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation compared with wild type obese mice. The improved fatty liver was associated with an increased expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However, lipogenic genes were not differentially expressed in the NAS liver, suggesting lipolytic-specific regulatory effects by Notch1 signaling. Expression of fatty acid oxidative genes and the rate of fatty acid oxidation were also increased by inhibition of Notch1 signaling in HepG2 cells. In addition, similar regulatory effects on lipid accumulation were observed in adipocytes. Taken together, these data show that inhibition of Notch1 signaling can regulate the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes and may provide therapeutic strategies in obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:26786165

  4. Notch1 deficiency decreases hepatic lipid accumulation by induction of fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Song, No-Joon; Yun, Ui Jeong; Yang, Sunghee; Wu, Chunyan; Seo, Cho-Rong; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Baik, Sang-Ha; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bo Youn; Bahn, Gahee; Kim, Suji; Kwon, So-Mi; Park, Jin Su; Baek, Seung Hyun; Park, Tae Joo; Yoon, Keejung; Kim, Byung-Joon; Mattson, Mark P.; Lee, Sung-Joon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling pathways modulate various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and communication. Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch1 signaling also regulates hepatic glucose production and lipid synthesis. However, the effect of Notch1 signaling on hepatic lipid oxidation has not yet been directly investigated. To define the function of Notch1 signaling in hepatic lipid metabolism, wild type mice and Notch1 deficient antisense transgenic (NAS) mice were fed a high-fat diet. High-fat diet -fed NAS mice exhibited a marked reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation compared with wild type obese mice. The improved fatty liver was associated with an increased expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. However, lipogenic genes were not differentially expressed in the NAS liver, suggesting lipolytic-specific regulatory effects by Notch1 signaling. Expression of fatty acid oxidative genes and the rate of fatty acid oxidation were also increased by inhibition of Notch1 signaling in HepG2 cells. In addition, similar regulatory effects on lipid accumulation were observed in adipocytes. Taken together, these data show that inhibition of Notch1 signaling can regulate the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes and may provide therapeutic strategies in obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:26786165

  5. Performant Mutation Identification Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing of 14 Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Genes.

    PubMed

    Proost, Dorien; Vandeweyer, Geert; Meester, Josephina A N; Salemink, Simone; Kempers, Marlies; Ingram, Christie; Peeters, Nils; Saenen, Johan; Vrints, Christiaan; Lacro, Ronald V; Roden, Dan; Wuyts, Wim; Dietz, Harry C; Mortier, Geert; Loeys, Bart L; Van Laer, Lut

    2015-08-01

    At least 14 causative genes have been identified for both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection (TAA), an important cause of death in the industrialized world. Molecular confirmation of the diagnosis is increasingly important for gene-tailored patient management but consecutive, conventional molecular TAA gene screening is expensive and labor-intensive. To circumvent these problems, we developed a TAA gene panel for next-generation sequencing of 14 TAA genes. After validation, we applied the assay to 100 Marfan patients. We identified 90 FBN1 mutations, 44 of which were novel. In addition, Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification identified large deletions in six of the remaining samples, whereas false-negative results were excluded by Sanger sequencing of FBN1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 in the last four samples. Subsequently, we screened 55 syndromic and nonsyndromic TAA patients. We identified causal mutations in 15 patients (27%), one in each of the six following genes: ACTA2, COL3A1, TGFBR1, MYLK, SMAD3, SLC2A10 (homozygous), two in NOTCH1, and seven in FBN1. We conclude that our approach for TAA genetic testing overcomes the intrinsic hurdles of consecutive Sanger sequencing of all candidate genes and provides a powerful tool for the elaboration of clinical phenotypes assigned to different genes. PMID:25907466

  6. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Peng-Yeh; Tsai, Chong-Bin; Department of Ophthalmology, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, ROC ; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  7. Strategies on the nuclear-targeted delivery of genes

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jing; Fan, Ying; Li, Yuanke; Huang, Leaf

    2016-01-01

    To improve the nuclear-targeted delivery of non-viral vectors, extensive effort has been carried out on the development of smart vectors which could overcome multiple barriers. The nuclear envelope presents a major barrier to transgene delivery. Viruses are capable of crossing the nuclear envelope to efficiently deliver their genome into the nucleus through the specialized protein components. However, non-viral vectors are preferred over viral ones because of the safety concerns associated with the latter. Non-viral delivery systems have been designed to include various types of components to enable nuclear translocation at the periphery of the nucleus. This review summarizes the progress of research regarding nuclear transport mechanisms. “Smart” non-viral vectors that have been modified by peptides and other small molecules are able to facilitate the nuclear translocation and enhance the efficacy of gene expression. The resulting technology may also enhance delivery of other macromolecules to the nucleus. PMID:23964565

  8. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    SciTech Connect

    Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L.; Janssens, Veerle; Ven, Wim J.M. van de Petit, Marleen M.R.

    2009-02-06

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp{sup -/-} females. Fertility of Lpp{sup -/-} males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp{sup -/-} x Lpp{sup -/-} crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp{sup -/-} mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  9. Dual Pten/Tp53 Suppression Promotes Sarcoma Progression by Activating Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, Maria V.; Dahiya, Sonika; Danielson, Laura S.; Segura, Miguel F.; Vales-Lara, Frances M.; Menendez, Silvia; Popiolek, Dorota; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Wei, Jian Jun; Zavadil, Jiri; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Hernando, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Although a subset of soft tissue sarcomas is characterized by simple karyotypes and recurrent chromosomal translocations, the mechanisms driving cytogenetically complex sarcomas are largely unknown. Clinical evidence led us to partially inactivate Pten and Tp53 in the smooth muscle lineage of mice, which developed high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas that widely recapitulate the human disease, including the aberrant karyotype and metastatic behavior. Pten was found haploinsufficient, whereas the wild-type allele of Tp53 invariably gained point mutations. Gene expression profiles showed up-regulated Notch signaling in PtenΔ/+Tp53Δ/+ tumors compared with Pten+/+Tp53Δ/+ tumors. Consistently, Pten silencing exacerbated the clonogenic and invasive potential of Tp53-deficient bone marrow–derived mouse mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells and activated the Notch pathway. Moreover, the increased oncogenic behavior of PtenΔ/+Tp53Δ/+ and shPten-transduced Pten+/+Tp53Δ/+ tumor cells was counteracted by treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor, suggesting that the aggressiveness of those tumors can be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced Notch signaling. This study demonstrates a cooperative role for Pten and Tp53 suppression in complex karyotype sarcomas while establishing Notch as an important functional player in the cross talk of these pathways during tumor progression. Our results highlight the importance of molecularly subclassifying patients with high-grade sarcoma for targeted treatments. PMID:23708211

  10. Preparation and characterization of magnetic gene vectors for targeting gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. W.; Liu, G.; Hong, R. Y.; Li, H. Z.; Li, Y. G.; Wei, D. G.

    2012-10-01

    The PEI-CMD-MNPs were successfully prepared by the surface modification of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) and polyethyleneimine (PEI). The PEI-CMD-MNPs polyplexes exhibited a typical superparamagnetic behavior and were well stable over the entire range of pH and NaCl concentration. These PEI-CMD-MNPs were used as magnetic gene vectors for targeting gene delivery. The prepared MNPs at different surface modification stages were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emissions canning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic laser light scattering (DLS) analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). To evaluate the performance of the magnetic nanoparticles as gene transfer vector, the PEI-CMD-MNPs were used to delivery green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene into BHK21 cells. The expression of GFP gene was detected by fluorescence microscope. DNA-PEI-CMD-MNPs polyplexes absorbed by the cells were also monitored by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The transfection efficiency and gene expression efficiency of that transfected with a magnet were much higher than that of standard transfection.

  11. Deletion of the DNA Ligase IV Gene in Candida glabrata Significantly Increases Gene-Targeting Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yuke; Fiori, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in the United States. Over the last decades, its incidence increased, whereas that of Candida albicans decreased slightly. One of the main reasons for this shift is attributed to the inherent tolerance of C. glabrata toward the commonly used azole antifungal drugs. Despite a close phylogenetic distance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologous recombination works with poor efficiency in C. glabrata compared to baker's yeast, in fact limiting targeted genetic alterations of the pathogen's genome. It has been shown that nonhomologous DNA end joining is dominant over specific gene targeting in C. glabrata. To improve the homologous recombination efficiency, we have generated a strain in which the LIG4 gene has been deleted, which resulted in a significant increase in correct gene targeting. The very specific function of Lig4 in mediating nonhomologous end joining is the reason for the absence of clear side effects, some of which affect the ku80 mutant, another mutant with reduced nonhomologous end joining. We also generated a LIG4 reintegration cassette. Our results show that the lig4 mutant strain may be a valuable tool for the C. glabrata research community. PMID:26048009

  12. Efficient Gene Transfer and Targeted Mutagenesis in Fusobacterium nucleatum

    PubMed Central

    Haake, Susan Kinder; Yoder, Sean; Gerardo, Sharon Hunt

    2006-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobe important in dental biofilm ecology and infectious diseases with significant societal impact. The lack of efficient genetic systems has hampered molecular analyses in this microorganism. We previously reported construction of a shuttle plasmid, pHS17, using the native fusobacterial plasmid pFN1 and an erythromycin resistance cassette. However, the host range of pHS17 was restricted to F. nucleatum, ATCC 10953 and the transformation efficiency was limited. This study was undertaken to improve genetic systems for molecular analysis in F. nucleatum. We identified a second F. nucleatum strain, ATCC 23726, which is transformed with improved efficiency compared to ATCC 10953. Two novel second generation pFN1-based shuttle plasmids, pHS23 and pHS30, were developed and enable transformation of ATCC 23726 at 6.2 x 104 and 1.5 x 106 transformants/microgram of plasmid DNA, respectively. The transformation efficiency of pHS30, which harbors a catP gene conferring resistance to chloramphenicol, was more than 1,000-fold greater than that of pHS17. The improved transformation efficiency facilitated disruption of the chromosomal rnr gene using a suicide plasmid pHS19, the first demonstration of targeted mutagenesis in F. nucleatum. These results provide significant advances in the development of systems for molecular analysis in F. nucleatum. PMID:16115683

  13. A modular gene targeting system for sequential transgene stacking in plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; AlAbed, Diaa; Worden, Andrew; Novak, Stephen; Wu, Huixia; Ausmus, Carla; Beck, Margaret; Robinson, Heather; Minnicks, Tatyana; Hemingway, Daren; Lee, Ryan; Skaggs, Nicole; Wang, Lizhen; Marri, Pradeep; Gupta, Manju

    2015-08-10

    A modular, selection-based method was developed for site-specific integration of transgenes into a genomic locus to create multigene stacks. High-frequency gene targeting was obtained using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) formation at a pre-defined target genomic location using a unique intron directly downstream of a promoter driving a selectable marker gene to facilitate homology between target and donor sequences. In this system, only insertion into the target locus leads to a functional selectable marker, and regeneration from random insertions of the promoterless donor construct are reduced on selection media. A new stack of transgenes can potentially be loaded with each successive cycle of gene targeting by exchanging the selectable marker gene using the intron homology. This system was tested in maize using the pat selectable marker gene, whereby up to 30% of the plants regenerated on Bialaphos-containing medium were observed to have the donor construct integrated into the target locus. Unlike previous gene targeting methods that utilize defective or partial genes for selecting targeted events, the present method exchanges fully functional genes with every cycle of targeting, thereby allowing the recycling of selectable marker genes, hypothetically for multiple generations of gene targeting. PMID:25913173

  14. Reduction of Nfia gene expression and subsequent target genes by binge alcohol in the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyung Tae; Seo, Hyemyung; Chung, Il Yup; Choi, Ihn Geun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-06-26

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in gene expression in the fetal brain (forebrain and hippocampus) caused by maternal binge alcohol consumption. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with distilled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ethanol (2.9 g/kg) from embryonic day (ED) 8-12. Microarray analysis revealed that a significant number of genes were altered at ED 18 in the developing brain. Specifically, in hippocampus, nuclear factor one alpha (Nfia) and three N-methyl-D-aspartate (Nmda) receptors (Nmdar1, Nmdar2b, and Nmdar2d) were down-regulated. The transcription factor Nfia controls gliogenesis, cell proliferation and Nmda-induced neuronal survival by regulating the expression of target genes. Some of the Nfia-target gene (Aldh1a, Folh1, Gjb6, Fgf1, Neurod1, Sept4, and Ntsr2) expressions were also altered as expected. These results suggest that the altered expression of Nfia and Nmda receptors may be associated with the etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The data presented in this report will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of alcohol in FASD individuals. PMID:25982323

  15. Identification of microRNA-regulated gene networks by expression analysis of target genes.

    PubMed

    Gennarino, Vincenzo Alessandro; D'Angelo, Giovanni; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Fernandez, Serena; Russolillo, Giorgio; Sanges, Remo; Mutarelli, Margherita; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Ballabio, Andrea; Verde, Pasquale; Sardiello, Marco; Banfi, Sandro

    2012-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors control eukaryotic cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism through their specific gene regulatory networks. However, differently from transcription factors, our understanding of the processes regulated by miRNAs is currently limited. Here, we introduce gene network analysis as a new means for gaining insight into miRNA biology. A systematic analysis of all human miRNAs based on Co-expression Meta-analysis of miRNA Targets (CoMeTa) assigns high-resolution biological functions to miRNAs and provides a comprehensive, genome-scale analysis of human miRNA regulatory networks. Moreover, gene cotargeting analyses show that miRNAs synergistically regulate cohorts of genes that participate in similar processes. We experimentally validate the CoMeTa procedure through focusing on three poorly characterized miRNAs, miR-519d/190/340, which CoMeTa predicts to be associated with the TGFβ pathway. Using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as a model system, we show that miR-519d and miR-190 inhibit, while miR-340 enhances TGFβ signaling and its effects on cell proliferation, morphology, and scattering. Based on these findings, we formalize and propose co-expression analysis as a general paradigm for second-generation procedures to recognize bona fide targets and infer biological roles and network communities of miRNAs. PMID:22345618

  16. Identification of microRNA-regulated gene networks by expression analysis of target genes

    PubMed Central

    Gennarino, Vincenzo Alessandro; D'Angelo, Giovanni; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Fernandez, Serena; Russolillo, Giorgio; Sanges, Remo; Mutarelli, Margherita; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Ballabio, Andrea; Verde, Pasquale; Sardiello, Marco; Banfi, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors control eukaryotic cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism through their specific gene regulatory networks. However, differently from transcription factors, our understanding of the processes regulated by miRNAs is currently limited. Here, we introduce gene network analysis as a new means for gaining insight into miRNA biology. A systematic analysis of all human miRNAs based on Co-expression Meta-analysis of miRNA Targets (CoMeTa) assigns high-resolution biological functions to miRNAs and provides a comprehensive, genome-scale analysis of human miRNA regulatory networks. Moreover, gene cotargeting analyses show that miRNAs synergistically regulate cohorts of genes that participate in similar processes. We experimentally validate the CoMeTa procedure through focusing on three poorly characterized miRNAs, miR-519d/190/340, which CoMeTa predicts to be associated with the TGFβ pathway. Using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as a model system, we show that miR-519d and miR-190 inhibit, while miR-340 enhances TGFβ signaling and its effects on cell proliferation, morphology, and scattering. Based on these findings, we formalize and propose co-expression analysis as a general paradigm for second-generation procedures to recognize bona fide targets and infer biological roles and network communities of miRNAs. PMID:22345618

  17. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-08-19

    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  18. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'. PMID:24780858

  19. Canonical and non-canonical Notch ligands

    PubMed Central

    D’SOUZA, BRENDAN; MELOTY-KAPELLA, LAURENCE; WEINMASTER, GERRY

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling induced by canonical Notch ligands is critical for normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis through the regulation of a variety of cell fate decisions and cellular processes. Activation of Notch signaling is normally tightly controlled by direct interactions with ligand-expressing cells and dysregulated Notch signaling is associated with developmental abnormalities and cancer. While canonical Notch ligands are responsible for the majority of Notch signaling, a diverse group of structurally unrelated non-canonical ligands has also been identified that activate Notch and likely contribute to the pleiotropic effects of Notch signaling. Soluble forms of both canonical and non-canonical ligands have been isolated, some of which block Notch signaling and could serve as natural inhibitors of this pathway. Ligand activity can also be indirectly regulated by other signaling pathways at the level of ligand expression, serving to spatio-temporally compartmentalize Notch signaling activity and integrate Notch signaling into a molecular network that orchestrates developmental events. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual role of Notch ligands as activators and inhibitors of Notch signaling. Additionally, evidence that Notch ligands function independent of Notch are presented. We also discuss how ligand post-translational modification, endocytosis, proteolysis and spatio-temporal expression regulate their signaling activity. PMID:20816393

  20. FOUR NOTCH ROADLESS AREA, TEXAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, B.B.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Four Notch Roadless Area, Texas, was conducted. The area has a probable resource potential for oil and gas. There is, however, little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources or other energy resources. Acquisition of seismic data and detailed comparisons with logs from wells from the vicinity of the Four Notch Roadless Area is necessary to better determine if the subsurface stratigraphy and structures are favorable for the accumulation of oil or gas.

  1. Does Notch play a tumor suppressor role across diverse squamous cell carcinomas?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Biswas, Sangita; Qin, Xin; Gong, Wenrong; Deng, Wenbing; Yu, Hongjun

    2016-08-01

    The role of Notch pathway in tumorigenesis is highly variable. It can be tumor suppressive or pro-oncogenic, typically depending on the cellular context. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a cancer of the squamous cell, which can occur in diverse human tissues. SCCs are one of the most frequent human malignancies for which the pathologic mechanisms remain elusive. Recent genomic analysis of diverse SCCs identified marked levels of mutations in NOTCH1, implicating Notch signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of SCCs. In this review, evidences highlighting NOTCH's role in different types of SCCs are summarized. Moreover, based on accumulating structural information of the NOTCH receptor, the functional consequences of NOTCH1 gene mutations identified from diverse SCCs are analyzed, emphasizing loss of function of Notch in these cancers. Finally, we discuss the convergent view on an intriguing possibility that Notch may function as tumor suppressor in SCCs across different tissues. These mechanistic insights into Notch signaling pathways will help to guide the research of SCCs and development of therapeutic strategies for these cancers. PMID:27228302

  2. Notch signaling controls chondrocyte hypertrophy via indirect regulation of Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Anat; Rutkowski, Timothy P; Liu, Zhaoyang; Mirando, Anthony J; Zuscik, Michael J; O’Keefe, Regis J; Hilton, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    RBPjk-dependent Notch signaling regulates both the onset of chondrocyte hypertrophy and the progression to terminal chondrocyte maturation during endochondral ossification. It has been suggested that Notch signaling can regulate Sox9 transcription, although how this occurs at the molecular level in chondrocytes and whether this transcriptional regulation mediates Notch control of chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage development is unknown or controversial. Here we have provided conclusive genetic evidence linking RBPjk-dependent Notch signaling to the regulation of Sox9 expression and chondrocyte hypertrophy by examining tissue-specific Rbpjk mutant (Prx1Cre;Rbpjkf/f), Rbpjk mutant/Sox9 haploinsufficient (Prx1Cre;Rbpjkf/f;Sox9f/+), and control embryos for alterations in SOX9 expression and chondrocyte hypertrophy during cartilage development. These studies demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates the onset of chondrocyte maturation in a SOX9-dependent manner, while Notch-mediated regulation of terminal chondrocyte maturation likely functions independently of SOX9. Furthermore, our in vitro molecular analyses of the Sox9 promoter and Notch-mediated regulation of Sox9 gene expression in chondrogenic cells identified the ability of Notch to induce Sox9 expression directly in the acute setting, but suppresses Sox9 transcription with prolonged Notch signaling that requires protein synthesis of secondary effectors. PMID:26558140

  3. Visualized Gene Network Reveals the Novel Target Transcripts Sox2 and Pax6 of Neuronal Development in Trans-Placental Exposure to Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Wei; Chou, Wei-Chun; Chen, Kuan-Hsueh; Cheng, An-Lin; Mao, I-Fang; Chao, How-Ran; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemical in our daily life, and its health effect in response to prenatal exposure is still controversial. Early-life BPA exposure may impact brain development and contribute to childhood neurological disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular target genes of neuronal development in trans-placental exposure to BPA. Methodology A meta-analysis of three public microarray datasets was performed to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in exposure to BPA. The candidate genes of neuronal development were identified from gene ontology analysis in a reconstructed neuronal sub-network, and their gene expressions were determined using real-time PCR in 20 umbilical cord blood samples dichotomized into high and low BPA level groups upon the median 16.8 nM. Principal Findings Among 36 neuronal transcripts sorted from DAVID ontology clusters of 457 DEGs using the analysis of Bioconductor limma package, we found two neuronal genes, sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) and paired box 6 (Pax6), had preferentially down-regulated expression (Bonferroni correction p-value <10−4 and log2-transformed fold change ≤−1.2) in response to BPA exposure. Fetal cord blood samples had the obviously attenuated gene expression of Sox2 and Pax6 in high BPA group referred to low BPA group. Visualized gene network of Cytoscape analysis showed that Sox2 and Pax6 which were contributed to neural precursor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation might be down-regulated through sonic hedgehog (Shh), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and Notch signaling. Conclusions These results indicated that trans-placental BPA exposure down-regulated gene expression of Sox2 and Pax6 potentially underlying the adverse effect on childhood neuronal development. PMID:25051057

  4. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Synergizes with Notch2 to Govern Marginal Zone B Cells in Nonobese Diabetic Mice1,2

    PubMed Central

    Nyhoff, Lindsay E.; Steinberg, Hannah E.; Sullivan, Allison M.; Kendall, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of autoimmune-prone marginal zone (MZ) B cells has been implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). To test disease contributions of MZ B cells in NOD mice, Notch2 haploinsufficiency (Notch2+/−) was introduced, but failed to eliminate the MZ, as it does in C57BL/6 mice. Notch2+/−/NOD have MZ B cell numbers similar to WT C57BL/6, yet still develop diabetes. To test whether BCR-signaling supports Notch2+/−/NOD MZ B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-deficiency was introduced. Surprisingly, MZ B cells failed to develop in Btk-deficient Notch2+/−/NOD mice. Expression of Notch2 and its transcriptional target, Hes5, were increased in NOD MZ B cells compared with C57BL/6 MZ B cells. Btk-deficiency reduced Notch2+/− signaling exclusively in NOD B cells, suggesting that BCR-signaling enhances Notch2 signaling in this autoimmune model. The role of BCR-signaling was further investigated using an anti-insulin transgenic BCR (125Tg). Anti-insulin B cells in 125Tg/Notch2+/−/NOD mice populate an enlarged MZ, suggesting that low level BCR signaling overcomes reliance on Notch2. Tracking clonotypes of anti-insulin B cells in H chain only VH125Tg/NOD mice showed that BTK-dependent selection into the MZ depends on strength of antigenic binding, while Notch2-mediated selection does not. Importantly, anti-insulin B cell numbers were reduced by Btk-deficiency, but not Notch2-haploinsufficiency. These studies show that: 1) Notch2-haploinsufficiency limits NOD MZ B cell expansion without preventing T1D, 2) BTK supports the Notch2 pathway in NOD MZ B cells, and 3) autoreactive NOD B cell survival relies on BTK more than Notch2, regardless of MZ location, which may have important implications for disease-intervention strategies. PMID:26034172

  5. A model of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and its implications for targeting environmental interventions by genotype

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Helen M

    2006-01-01

    Background The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis), gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Method A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918) assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction. Conclusion The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis, a largely environmental

  6. Epithelial Notch signaling regulates lung alveolar morphogenesis and airway epithelial integrity.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Po-Nien; Matsuoka, Chisa; Wei, Shu-Chen; Sato, Atsuyasu; Sato, Susumu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Chen, Hung-Kuan; Ling, Thai-Yen; Mori, Munemasa; Cardoso, Wellington V; Morimoto, Mitsuru

    2016-07-19

    Abnormal enlargement of the alveolar spaces is a hallmark of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Notch signaling is crucial for differentiation and regeneration and repair of the airway epithelium. However, how Notch influences the alveolar compartment and integrates this process with airway development remains little understood. Here we report a prominent role of Notch signaling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to alveolar formation in the developing lung. We found that alveolar type II cells are major sites of Notch2 activation and show by Notch2-specific epithelial deletion (Notch2(cNull)) a unique contribution of this receptor to alveologenesis. Epithelial Notch2 was required for type II cell induction of the PDGF-A ligand and subsequent paracrine activation of PDGF receptor-α signaling in alveolar myofibroblast progenitors. Moreover, Notch2 was crucial in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial and smooth muscle layers of the distal conducting airways. Our data suggest that epithelial Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of postnatal development in the distal lung and may represent a potential target for intervention in pulmonary diseases. PMID:27364009

  7. The Notch-mediated hyperplasia circuitry in Drosophila reveals a Src-JNK signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Diana M; Pallavi, SK; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling controls a wide range of cell fate decisions during development and disease via synergistic interactions with other signaling pathways. Here, through a genome-wide genetic screen in Drosophila, we uncover a highly complex Notch-dependent genetic circuitry that profoundly affects proliferation and consequently hyperplasia. We report a novel synergistic relationship between Notch and either of the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src42A and Src64B to promote hyperplasia and tissue disorganization, which results in cell cycle perturbation, JAK/STAT signal activation, and differential regulation of Notch targets. Significantly, the JNK pathway is responsible for the majority of the phenotypes and transcriptional changes downstream of Notch-Src synergy. We previously reported that Notch-Mef2 also activates JNK, indicating that there are commonalities within the Notch-dependent proliferation circuitry; however, the current data indicate that Notch-Src accesses JNK in a significantly different fashion than Notch-Mef2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05996.001 PMID:26222204

  8. Epithelial Notch signaling regulates lung alveolar morphogenesis and airway epithelial integrity

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Po-Nien; Matsuoka, Chisa; Wei, Shu-Chen; Sato, Atsuyasu; Sato, Susumu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Chen, Hung-kuan; Ling, Thai-Yen; Mori, Munemasa; Cardoso, Wellington V.; Morimoto, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal enlargement of the alveolar spaces is a hallmark of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Notch signaling is crucial for differentiation and regeneration and repair of the airway epithelium. However, how Notch influences the alveolar compartment and integrates this process with airway development remains little understood. Here we report a prominent role of Notch signaling in the epithelial–mesenchymal interactions that lead to alveolar formation in the developing lung. We found that alveolar type II cells are major sites of Notch2 activation and show by Notch2-specific epithelial deletion (Notch2cNull) a unique contribution of this receptor to alveologenesis. Epithelial Notch2 was required for type II cell induction of the PDGF-A ligand and subsequent paracrine activation of PDGF receptor-α signaling in alveolar myofibroblast progenitors. Moreover, Notch2 was crucial in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial and smooth muscle layers of the distal conducting airways. Our data suggest that epithelial Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of postnatal development in the distal lung and may represent a potential target for intervention in pulmonary diseases. PMID:27364009

  9. Notch1-Snail1-E-cadherin pathway in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Qi; Zhang, Wu; Lui, Eric L H; Zhu, Yongqiang; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiaoming; Sun, Jisan; Yang, Sitian; Poon, Ronnie T P; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2012-08-01

    Notch signaling, a critical pathway for tissue development, also contributes to tumorigenesis in many cancers, but its pathological function in liver cancer is not well defined. In our study, Notch1 expression and its clinicopathological parameters were evaluated in 82 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Plasmid-based siNotch1 shRNA was transiently or stably transfected into metastatic HCC cells and subsequently evaluated for the effects on orthotopic liver tumor metastasis in a mouse model as well as the effects on downstream pathways. Aberrant high expression of Notch1 was significantly associated with metastatic disease parameters in HCC patients, such as tumor-node-metastasis Stages III-IV and tumor venous invasion. Knocking-down Notch1 reduced cell motility in vitro and orthotopic tumor metastasis from the liver to the lung in vivo in a mouse model. In metastatic HCC cells, abnormal expression of Notch1 was associated with increased expression of Snail1 and repressed expression of E-cadherin; the Notch1-Snail1-E-cadherin association can also be found in HCC patient tumors. Inhibition of Notch1 by shRNA abolished Snail1 expression, which further resulted in the re-establishment of repressed E-cadherin in metastatic HCC cells. Thus, abnormal Notch1 expression was strongly associated with HCC metastatic disease, which might be mediated through the Notch1-Snail1-E-cadherin pathway. Knock-down of Notch1 reversed HCC tumor metastasis in a mouse model. Therefore, these data suggest that effective targeting of Notch signaling might also inhibit tumor metastasis. PMID:22052196

  10. Notch1 Regulates Hippocampal Plasticity Through Interaction with the Reelin Pathway, Glutamatergic Transmission and CREB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Astori, Simone; Fredj, Naila Ben; Perry, Elisabeth; Lamy, Christophe; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in adult brain function such as synaptic plasticity, memory and olfaction. Several reports suggest an involvement of this pathway in neurodegenerative dementia. Yet, to date, the mechanism underlying Notch activity in mature neurons remains unresolved. In this work, we investigate how Notch regulates synaptic potentiation and contributes to the establishment of memory in mice. We observe that Notch1 is a postsynaptic receptor with functional interactions with the Reelin receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the ionotropic receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Targeted loss of Notch1 in the hippocampal CA fields affects Reelin signaling by influencing Dab1 expression and impairs the synaptic potentiation achieved through Reelin stimulation. Further analysis indicates that loss of Notch1 affects the expression and composition of the NMDAR but not AMPAR. Glutamatergic signaling is further compromised through downregulation of CamKII and its secondary and tertiary messengers resulting in reduced cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling. Our results identify Notch1 as an important regulator of mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. These findings emphasize the possible involvement of this signaling receptor in dementia. Highlights In this paper, we propose a mechanism for Notch1-dependent plasticity that likely underlies the function of Notch1 in memory formation: Notch1 interacts with another important developmental pathway, the Reelin cascade. Notch1 regulates both NMDAR expression and composition. Notch1 influences a cascade of cellular events culminating in CREB activation. PMID:26635527

  11. Acute Blockage of Notch Signaling by DAPT Induces Neuroprotection and Neurogenesis in the Neonatal Rat Brain After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongxia; Wang, Jiangping; Zhao, Congying; Ren, Keming; Xia, Zhezhi; Yu, Huimin; Jiang, Kewen

    2016-04-01

    Notch signaling is critically involved in various biological events. Notch undergoes cleavage by the γ-secretase enzyme to release Notch intracellular domain that will translocate into nucleus to result in expression of target gene. γ-Secretase inhibitors have been developed as potential treatments for neurological degenerative diseases, but its effects against ischemic injury remain relatively uncertain. In the present study, we demonstrated that N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a γ-secretase inhibitor not only rescued the cerebral hypoperfusion or ischemia neonatal rats from death, reduced apoptosis in penumbra, but also reduced brain infarct size. Furthermore, DAPT elicited some morphologic hallmarks such as neurogenesis and angiogenesis that related to the brain repair and functional recovery after stroke: increased accumulations of newborn cells in the peri-infarct region with a higher fraction of them adopting immature neuronal and glial markers instead of microglial markers on 5 days, enhanced vascular densities in penumbra at 14 days, and evident regulations of the gene profiles associated with neurogenesis in penumbral tissues. The current results suggest that DAPT is a potential neuroprotectants against ischemic injury in immature brain, and future treatment strategies such as clinical trials using γ-secretase inhibitors would be an attractive therapy for perinatal ischemia. PMID:26691164

  12. NOTCH3 Is Induced in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Promotes Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kayamori, Kou; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Sakamoto, Kei; Ohyama, Yoshio; Hirai, Hideaki; Yukimori, Akane; Ohata, Yae; Akashi, Takumi; Saitoh, Masao; Harada, Kiyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Notch signaling is involved in many types of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). However, the role of Notch signaling in the tumor microenvironment is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of NOTCH3 signaling in cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in OSCCs. Immunohistochemical study of 93 human tongue OSCC cases indicated that about one third of OSCCs showed NOTCH3 expression in CAFs, and that this expression significantly correlated with tumor-size. In vitro study showed that OSCC cell lines, especially HO1-N-1 cells stimulated NOTCH3 expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) through direct cell-to-cell contact. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis using human OSCC samples demonstrated that NOTCH3 expression in CAFs significantly correlated with micro-vessel density in cancer stroma. In vitro angiogenesis assays involving co-culture of NHDFs with HO1-N-1 and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), and NOTCH3 knockdown in NHDFs using siRNA, demonstrated that HO1-N-1 cells significantly promoted tube formation dependent on NOTCH3-expression in NHDFs. Moreover, NOTCH3 expression in CAFs was related to poor prognosis of the OSCC patients. This work provides a new insight into the role of Notch signaling in CAFs associated with tumor angiogenesis and the possibility of NOTCH3-targeted molecular therapy in OSCCs. PMID:27124156

  13. A Novel High-Throughput 1536-well Notch1 γ-Secretase AlphaLISA Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chau, De-ming; Shum, David; Radu, Constantin; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Gin, David; Gilchrist, M. Lane; Djaballah, Hakim; Li, Yue-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The Notch pathway plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions through controlling various cellular processes. Overactive Notch signal contributes to cancer development from leukemias to solid tumors. γ-Secretase is an intramembrane protease responsible for the final proteolytic step of Notch that releases the membrane-tethered Notch fragment for signaling. Therefore, γ-secretase is an attractive drug target in treating Notch-mediated cancers. However, the absence of high-throughput γ-secretase assay using Notch substrate has limited the identification and development of γ-secretase inhibitors that specifically target the Notch signaling pathway. Here, we report on the development of a 1536-well γ-secretase assay using a biotinylated recombinant Notch1 substrate. We effectively assimilated and miniaturized this newly developed Notch1 substrate with the AlphaLISA detection technology and demonstrated its robustness with a calculated Z’ score of 0.66. We further validated this optimized assay by performing a pilot screening against a chemical library consisting of ~5,600 chemicals and identified known γ-secretase inhibitors e.g. DAPT, and Calpeptin; as well as a novel γ-secretase inhibitor referred to as KD-I-085. This assay is the first reported 1536-well AlphaLISA format and represents a novel high-throughput Notch1-γ-secretase assay, which provides an unprecedented opportunity to discover Notch-selective γ-secretase inhibitors that can be potentially used for the treatment of cancer and other human disorders. PMID:23448293

  14. Hepatitis B Virus HBx Activates Notch Signaling via Delta-Like 4/Notch1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kongkavitoon, Pornrat; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Palaga, Tanapat

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis virus B (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). HBx protein encoded in HBV genome is one of the key viral factors leading to malignant transformation of infected cells. HBx functions by interfering with cellular functions, causing aberration in cellular behaviour and transformation. Notch signalling is a well-conserved pathway involved in cellular differentiation, cell survival and cell death operating in various types of cells. Aberration in the Notch signalling pathways is linked to various tumors, including HCC. The role of HBx on the Notch signalling in HCC, however, is still controversial. In this study, we reported that HBV genome-containing HCC cell line HepG2 (HepG2.2.15) expressed higher Notch1 and Delta-like 4 (Dll4), compared to the control HepG2 without HBV genome. This upregulation coincided with increased appearance of the cleavage of Notch1, indicating constitutively activated Notch signalling. Silencing of HBx specifically reduced the level of Dll4 and cleaved Notch1. The increase in Dll4 level was confirmed in clinical specimens of HCC lesion, in comparison with non-tumor lesions. Using specific signalling pathway inhibitors, we found that MEK1/2, PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways are critical for HBx-mediated Dll4 upregulation. Silencing of HBx clearly decreased the level of phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2. Upon silencing of Dll4 in HepG2.2.15, decreased cleaved Notch1, increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were observed, suggesting a critical role of HBx-Dll4-Notch1 axis in regulating cell survival in HCC. Furthermore, clonogenic assay confirmed the important role of Dll4 in regulating cell survival of HBV-genome containing HCC cell line. Taken together, we reported a link between HBx and the Notch signalling in HCC that affects cell survival of HCC, which can be a potential target for therapy. PMID:26766040

  15. Using PCR to Target Misconceptions about Gene Expression †

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Leslie K.; Newman, Dina L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a PCR-based laboratory exercise that can be used with first- or second-year biology students to help overcome common misconceptions about gene expression. Biology students typically do not have a clear understanding of the difference between genes (DNA) and gene expression (mRNA/protein) and often believe that genes exist in an organism or cell only when they are expressed. This laboratory exercise allows students to carry out a PCR-based experiment designed to challenge their misunderstanding of the difference between genes and gene expression. Students first transform E. coli with an inducible GFP gene containing plasmid and observe induced and un-induced colonies. The following exercise creates cognitive dissonance when actual PCR results contradict their initial (incorrect) predictions of the presence of the GFP gene in transformed cells. Field testing of this laboratory exercise resulted in learning gains on both knowledge and application questions on concepts related to genes and gene expression. PMID:23858358

  16. Canonical Notch Signaling Is Dispensable for Early Cell Fate Specifications in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shaolin; Stahl, Mark; Lu, Linchao; Stanley, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The canonical Notch signaling pathway mediated by Delta- and Jagged-like Notch ligands determines a variety of cell fates in metazoa. In Caenorhabditis elegans and sea urchins, canonical Notch signaling is essential for different cell fate specifications during early embryogenesis or the formation of endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm germ layers. Transcripts of Notch signaling pathway genes are present during mouse blastogenesis, suggesting that the canonical Notch signaling pathway may also function in early mammalian development. To test this directly, we used conditional deletion in oocytes carrying a ZP3Cre recombinase transgene to generate mouse embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic protein O-fucosyltransferase 1, a cell-autonomous and essential component of canonical Notch receptor signaling. Homozygous mutant embryos derived from eggs lacking Pofut1 gene transcripts developed indistinguishably from the wild type until approximately embryonic day 8.0, a postgastrulation stage after the formation of the three germ layers. Thus, in contrast to the case with C. elegans and sea urchins, canonical Notch signaling is not required in mammals for earliest cell fate specifications or for formation of the three germ layers. The use of canonical Notch signaling for early cell fate specifications by lower organisms may represent co-option of a regulatory pathway originally used later in development by all metazoa. PMID:16227600

  17. Network analysis of microRNAs, transcription factors, target genes and host genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HAO; XU, ZHIWEN; MA, MENGYAO; WANG, NING; WANG, KUNHAO

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies on the morbidity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have identified several genes, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) and transcription factors (TFs) that influence the pathogenesis of NPC. However, summarizing all the regulatory networks involved in NPC is challenging. In the present study, the genes, miRNAs and TFs involved in NPC were considered as the nodes of the so-called regulatory network, and the associations between them were investigated. To clearly represent these associations, three regulatory networks were built seperately, namely, the differentially expressed network, the associated network and the global network. The differentially expressed network is the most important one of these three networks, since its nodes are differentially expressed genes whose mutations may lead to the development of NPC. Therefore, by modifying the aberrant expression of those genes that are differentially expressed in this network, their dysregulation may be corrected and the tumorigenesis of NPC may thus be prevented. Analysis of the aforementioned three networks highlighted the importance of certain pathways, such as self-adaptation pathways, in the development of NPC. For example, cyclin D1 (CCND1) was observed to regulate Homo sapiens-miR-20a, which in turn targeted CCND1. The present study conducted a systematic analysis of the pathogenesis of NPC through the three aforementioned regulatory networks, and provided a theoretical model for biologists. Future studies are required to evaluate the influence of the highlighted pathways in NPC. PMID:27313701

  18. Gene targeting, genome editing: from Dolly to editors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenfang; Proudfoot, Chris; Lillico, Simon G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    One of the most powerful strategies to investigate biology we have as scientists, is the ability to transfer genetic material in a controlled and deliberate manner between organisms. When applied to livestock, applications worthy of commercial venture can be devised. Although initial methods used to generate transgenic livestock resulted in random transgene insertion, the development of SCNT technology enabled homologous recombination gene targeting strategies to be used in livestock. Much has been accomplished using this approach. However, now we have the ability to change a specific base in the genome without leaving any other DNA mark, with no need for a transgene. With the advent of the genome editors this is now possible and like other significant technological leaps, the result is an even greater diversity of possible applications. Indeed, in merely 5 years, these 'molecular scissors' have enabled the production of more than 300 differently edited pigs, cattle, sheep and goats. The advent of genome editors has brought genetic engineering of livestock to a position where industry, the public and politicians are all eager to see real use of genetically engineered livestock to address societal needs. Since the first transgenic livestock reported just over three decades ago the field of livestock biotechnology has come a long way-but the most exciting period is just starting. PMID:26847670

  19. kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of Drosophila Notch

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Toby; Kidd, Simon; Young, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    Loss of Kuzbanian, a member of the ADAM family of metalloproteases, produces neurogenic phenotypes in Drosophila. It has been suggested that this results from a requirement for kuzbanian-mediated cleavage of the Notch ligand Delta. Using transgenic Drosophila expressing transmembrane Notch proteins, we show that kuzbanian, independent of any role in Delta processing, is required for the cleavage of Notch. We show that Kuzbanian can physically associate with Notch and that removal of kuzbanian activity by RNA-mediated interference in Drosophila tissue culture cells eliminates processing of ligand-independent transmembrane Notch molecules. Our data suggest that in Drosophila, kuzbanian can mediate S2 cleavage of Notch. PMID:11799064

  20. Response to Nodal morphogen gradient is determined by the kinetics of target gene induction

    PubMed Central

    Dubrulle, Julien; Jordan, Benjamin M; Akhmetova, Laila; Farrell, Jeffrey A; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    Morphogen gradients expose cells to different signal concentrations and induce target genes with different ranges of expression. To determine how the Nodal morphogen gradient induces distinct gene expression patterns during zebrafish embryogenesis, we measured the activation dynamics of the signal transducer Smad2 and the expression kinetics of long- and short-range target genes. We found that threshold models based on ligand concentration are insufficient to predict the response of target genes. Instead, morphogen interpretation is shaped by the kinetics of target gene induction: the higher the rate of transcription and the earlier the onset of induction, the greater the spatial range of expression. Thus, the timing and magnitude of target gene expression can be used to modulate the range of expression and diversify the response to morphogen gradients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05042.001 PMID:25869585

  1. Reiterated Targeting Peptides on the Nanoparticle Surface Significantly Promote Targeted Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Delivery to Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Dong; Yang, Mingying; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-12-14

    Nonviral gene delivery vectors hold great promise for gene therapy due to the safety concerns with viral vectors. However, the application of nonviral vectors is hindered by their low transfection efficiency. Herein, in order to tackle this challenge, we developed a nonviral vector integrating lipids, sleeping beauty transposon system and 8-mer stem cell targeting peptides for safe and efficient gene delivery to hard-to-transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The 8-mer MSC-targeting peptides, when synthetically reiterated in three folds and chemically presented on the surface, significantly promoted the resultant lipid-based nanoparticles (LBNs) to deliver VEGF gene into MSCs with a high transfection efficiency (∼52%) and long-lasting gene expression (for longer than 170 h) when compared to nonreiterated peptides. However, the reiterated stem cell targeting peptides do not enable the highly efficient gene transfer to other control cells. This work suggests that the surface presentation of the reiterated stem cell-targeting peptides on the nonviral vectors is a promising method for improving the efficiency of cell-specific nonviral gene transfection in stem cells. PMID:26588028

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenyan; An, Yanli; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.

  3. A protocol for construction of gene targeting vectors and generation of homologous recombinant ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Bouabe, Hicham; Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Summary The completion of human and mouse genome sequencing has confronted us with huge amount of data sequences that certainly need decades and many generations of scientists to be reasonably interpreted and assigned to physiological functions, and subsequently fruitfully translated into medical application. A means to assess the function of genes provides gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells that enables to introduce site-specific modifications in the mouse genome, and analyze their physiological consequences. Gene targeting enables almost any type of genetic modifications of interest, ranging from gene insertion (e.g. insertion of human-specific genes or reporter genes), gene disruption, point mutations, short and long range deletions, inversions. Site-specific modification into the genome of ES cells can be reached by homologous recombination using targeting vectors. Here, we describe a protocol to generate targeting constructs and homologous recombinant ES cells. PMID:23996269

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Kirov, Julia V.; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, Kent C.

    2016-01-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3’ UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  5. A gene locus for targeted ectopic gene integration in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Kilaru, S; Schuster, M; Latz, M; Das Gupta, S; Steinberg, N; Fones, H; Gurr, S J; Talbot, N J; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the cellular organization and biology of fungal pathogens requires accurate methods for genomic integration of mutant alleles or fluorescent fusion-protein constructs. In Zymoseptoria tritici, this can be achieved by integrating of plasmid DNA randomly into the genome of this wheat pathogen. However, untargeted ectopic integration carries the risk of unwanted side effects, such as altered gene expression, due to targeting regulatory elements, or gene disruption following integration into protein-coding regions of the genome. Here, we establish the succinate dehydrogenase (sdi1) locus as a single "soft-landing" site for targeted ectopic integration of genetic constructs by using a carboxin-resistant sdi1(R) allele, carrying the point-mutation H267L. We use various green and red fluorescent fusion constructs and show that 97% of all transformants integrate correctly into the sdi1 locus as single copies. We also demonstrate that such integration does not affect the pathogenicity of Z. tritici, and thus the sdi1 locus is a useful tool for virulence analysis in genetically modified Z. tritici strains. Furthermore, we have developed a vector which facilitates yeast recombination cloning and thus allows assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments in a single cloning step for high throughput vector and strain generation. PMID:26092798

  6. A Genome-Wide Map of AAV-Mediated Human Gene Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, David R.; Hansen, R. Scott; Cornea, Anda M.; Li, Li B.; Burt, Amber A.; Alexander, Ian E.; Sandstrom, Richard S.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Wei, Chia-Lin; Russell, David W.

    2014-01-01

    To determine which genomic features promote homologous recombination, we created a genome-wide map of gene targeting sites. An adeno-associated virus vector was used to target identical loci introduced as transcriptionally active retroviral vector proviruses. A comparison of ~2,000 targeted and untargeted sites showed that targeting occurred throughout the human genome and was not influenced by the presence of nearby CpG islands, sequence repeats, or DNase I hypersensitive sites. Targeted sites were preferentially found within transcription units, especially when the target loci were transcribed in the opposite orientation to their surrounding chromosomal genes. The impact of DNA replication was determined by mapping replication forks, which revealed a preference for recombination at target loci transcribed towards an incoming fork. Our results constitute the first genome-wide screen of gene targeting in mammalian cells, and they demonstrate a strong recombinogenic effect of colliding polymerases. PMID:25282150

  7. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Viral Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (vIRF4/K10) Is a Novel Interaction Partner of CSL/CBF1, the Major Downstream Effector of Notch Signaling▿

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, Katharina; Scholz, Barbara A.; Nowak, Agnes; Fossum, Even; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Haas, Juergen; Frank, Ronald; Kempkes, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    In cells infected with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), CSL/CBF1 signaling is essential for viral replication and promotes the survival of KSHV-infected cells. CSL/CBF1 is a DNA adaptor molecule which recruits coactivator and corepressor complexes to regulate viral and cellular gene transcription and which is a major downstream effector molecule of activated Notch. The interaction of KSHV RTA and LANA with CSL/CBF1 has been shown to balance the lytic and latent viral life cycle. Here we report that a third KSHV protein, viral interferon regulatory factor 4 (vIRF4/K10), but none of the three other KSHV-encoded vIRFs, interacts with CSL/CBF1. Two regions of vIRF4 with dissimilar affinities contribute to CSL/CBF1 binding. Similar to Notch, vIRF4 targets the hydrophobic pocket in the beta trefoil domain of CSL/CBF1 through a short peptide motif which closely resembles a motif found in Notch but does not strictly follow the ΦWΦP consensus conserved in human and mouse Notch proteins. Our results suggest that vIRF4 might compete with Notch for CSL/CBF1 binding and signaling. PMID:20861242

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral interferon regulatory factor 4 (vIRF4/K10) is a novel interaction partner of CSL/CBF1, the major downstream effector of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Katharina; Scholz, Barbara A; Nowak, Agnes; Fossum, Even; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Haas, Juergen; Frank, Ronald; Kempkes, Bettina

    2010-12-01

    In cells infected with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), CSL/CBF1 signaling is essential for viral replication and promotes the survival of KSHV-infected cells. CSL/CBF1 is a DNA adaptor molecule which recruits coactivator and corepressor complexes to regulate viral and cellular gene transcription and which is a major downstream effector molecule of activated Notch. The interaction of KSHV RTA and LANA with CSL/CBF1 has been shown to balance the lytic and latent viral life cycle. Here we report that a third KSHV protein, viral interferon regulatory factor 4 (vIRF4/K10), but none of the three other KSHV-encoded vIRFs, interacts with CSL/CBF1. Two regions of vIRF4 with dissimilar affinities contribute to CSL/CBF1 binding. Similar to Notch, vIRF4 targets the hydrophobic pocket in the beta trefoil domain of CSL/CBF1 through a short peptide motif which closely resembles a motif found in Notch but does not strictly follow the ΦWΦP consensus conserved in human and mouse Notch proteins. Our results suggest that vIRF4 might compete with Notch for CSL/CBF1 binding and signaling. PMID:20861242

  9. Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: Compare specificity and sensitivity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting single and multi-copy gene regions of Escherichia coli. Methods and Results: A previously reported assay targeting the uidA gene (uidA405) was used as the basis for comparing the taxono...

  10. Targeted Mutagenesis, Precise Gene Editing, and Site-Specific Gene Insertion in Maize Using Cas9 and Guide RNA.

    PubMed

    Svitashev, Sergei; Young, Joshua K; Schwartz, Christine; Gao, Huirong; Falco, S Carl; Cigan, A Mark

    2015-10-01

    Targeted mutagenesis, editing of endogenous maize (Zea mays) genes, and site-specific insertion of a trait gene using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)-guide RNA technology are reported in maize. DNA vectors expressing maize codon-optimized Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease and single guide RNAs were cointroduced with or without DNA repair templates into maize immature embryos by biolistic transformation targeting five different genomic regions: upstream of the liguleless1 (LIG1) gene, male fertility genes (Ms26 and Ms45), and acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes (ALS1 and ALS2). Mutations were subsequently identified at all sites targeted, and plants containing biallelic multiplex mutations at LIG1, Ms26, and Ms45 were recovered. Biolistic delivery of guide RNAs (as RNA molecules) directly into immature embryo cells containing preintegrated Cas9 also resulted in targeted mutations. Editing the ALS2 gene using either single-stranded oligonucleotides or double-stranded DNA vectors as repair templates yielded chlorsulfuron-resistant plants. Double-strand breaks generated by RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease also stimulated insertion of a trait gene at a site near LIG1 by homology-directed repair. Progeny showed expected Mendelian segregation of mutations, edits, and targeted gene insertions. The examples reported in this study demonstrate the utility of Cas9-guide RNA technology as a plant genome editing tool to enhance plant breeding and crop research needed to meet growing agriculture demands of the future. PMID:26269544

  11. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel ROR{alpha} target gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Ulrika; Nilsson, Tina; McPheat, Jane; Stroemstedt, Per-Erik; Bamberg, Krister; Balendran, Clare; Kang, Daiwu . E-mail: Daiwu.Kang@astrazeneca.com

    2005-04-29

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-{alpha} (ROR{alpha}) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that ROR{alpha} regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that ROR{alpha} also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ROR{alpha} increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and ROR{alpha} also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate ROR{alpha} transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPAR{alpha}. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby ROR{alpha} modulates lipid metabolism and implies ROR{alpha} as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  12. Genetic and molecular characterization of a Notch mutation in its Delta- and Serrate-binding domain in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    de Celis, J F; Barrio, R; del Arco, A; García-Bellido, A

    1993-01-01

    The Drosophila Notch gene product is a transmembrane protein that functions as a receptor of intercellular signals in several Drosophila developmental processes. Two other transmembrane proteins, encoded by the genes Delta and Serrate, genetically and molecularly behave as Notch ligands. All these proteins share the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats in their extracellular domain. The Notch protein has 36 EGF-like repeats, 2 of which, numbers 11 and 12, are required for the interaction with the Delta and Serrate ligands. We have isolated and molecularly characterized a Notch mutation in its Delta- and Serrate-binding domain that behaves genetically as both a Notch antimorphic and a loss-of-function mutation. This mutation, NM1, carries a Glu-->Val substitution in the Notch EGF repeat 12. The NM1 allele interacts with other Notch alleles such as Abruptex and split and with mutations in the Notch-ligand genes Delta and Serrate. The basis for the genetic antimorphism of NM1 seems to reside in the titration of Notch wild-type products into NM1/N+ nonfunctional dimers and/or the titration of Delta products into nonfunctional ligand-receptor complexes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8483919

  13. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted mutagenesis, gene replacement and stacking of genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Mutagenesis continues to play an essential role for understanding plant gene function and, in some instances, provides an opportunity for plant improvement. The development of gene editing technologies such as TALENs and zinc fingers has revolutionised the targeted mutation specificity that can now be achieved. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is the most recent addition to gene editing technologies and arguably the simplest requiring only two components; a small guide RNA molecule (sgRNA) and Cas9 endonuclease protein which complex to recognise and cleave a specific 20 bp target site present in a genome. Target specificity is determined by complementary base pairing between the sgRNA and target site sequence enabling highly specific, targeted mutation to be readily engineered. Upon target site cleavage, error-prone endogenous repair mechanisms produce small insertion/deletions at the target site usually resulting in loss of gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has been rapidly adopted in plants and successfully undertaken in numerous species including major crop species. Its applications are not restricted to mutagenesis and target site cleavage can be exploited to promote sequence insertion or replacement by recombination. The multiple applications of this technology in plants are described. PMID:27146973

  14. Targeted gene knockout in mammalian cells by using engineered zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Yolanda; Chan, Edmond; Liu, Pei-Qi; Orlando, Salvatore; Zhang, Lin; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Holmes, Michael C.; Guschin, Dmitry; Waite, Adam; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Klug, Aaron; Collingwood, Trevor N.

    2008-01-01

    Gene knockout is the most powerful tool for determining gene function or permanently modifying the phenotypic characteristics of a cell. Existing methods for gene disruption are limited by their efficiency, time to completion, and/or the potential for confounding off-target effects. Here, we demonstrate a rapid single-step approach to targeted gene knockout in mammalian cells, using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). ZFNs can be designed to target a chosen locus with high specificity. Upon transient expression of these nucleases the target gene is first cleaved by the ZFNs and then repaired by a natural—but imperfect—DNA repair process, nonhomologous end joining. This often results in the generation of mutant (null) alleles. As proof of concept for this approach we designed ZFNs to target the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. We observed biallelic gene disruption at frequencies >1%, thus obviating the need for selection markers. Three new genetically distinct DHFR−/− cell lines were generated. Each new line exhibited growth and functional properties consistent with the specific knockout of the DHFR gene. Importantly, target gene disruption is complete within 2–3 days of transient ZFN delivery, thus enabling the isolation of the resultant DHFR−/− cell lines within 1 month. These data demonstrate further the utility of ZFNs for rapid mammalian cell line engineering and establish a new method for gene knockout with application to reverse genetics, functional genomics, drug discovery, and therapeutic recombinant protein production. PMID:18359850

  15. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  16. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 Protein Expression in the Distinction of Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a protooncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch derepression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  17. Effect of verteporfin-PDT on the Notch signaling pathway in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerec, Virginie; Andreola, Fausto; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence supports a pro-oncogenic function for Notch signaling in several solid tumors. Therefore, Notch inhibitory agents, such as gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI), are being investigated as cancer therapeutic agents and a potential adjuvant to conventional chemo/radiotherapy. To date, no in vitro data are available on the cellular response and effect of either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or GSI on human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Consequently, we aimed to study the: (i) constitutive expression of Notch signaling pathway in CCA cell lines; (ii) response to Verteporfin-PDT and to GSI, as single agents on CCA cell lines; (iii) effect of Verteporfin-PDT on Notch signaling pathway expression. Expression of Notch signaling components was studied in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, HuCCT1 and TFK-1 (intra- and extrahepatic, respectively). No difference in basal expression of Notch1, 2 and Jagged1 was observed in either cell line. In contrast, Notch3 was found to be weakly and highly expressed in HuCCT1 and TFK-1 cells, respectively - supporting our recent microarray data which showed Notch3 overexpression in biliary brushings from patients with extrahepatic CCA. HuCCT1 and TFK-1 differentially responded to Verteporfin-PDT treatment; preliminary data showed no clear effect of GSI on proliferation/apoptosis in either cell line following short exposure (6 and 24h). Following Verteporfin-PDT, Notch1, 2 and Jagged-1 expression was down-regulated in both cell lines, while Notch3 expression was unaffected in HuCCT1 cells and down-regulated in TFK-1 cells. The Notch signaling pathway could represent a potential target for combination therapy in CCA treatment.

  18. Seamless Genome Editing in Rice via Gene Targeting and Precise Marker Elimination.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Positive-negative selection using hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DT-A) as positive and negative selection markers, respectively, allows enrichment of cells harboring target genes modified via gene targeting (GT). We have developed a successful GT system employing positive-negative selection and subsequent precise marker excision via the piggyBac transposon derived from the cabbage looper moth to introduce desired modifications into target genes in the rice genome. This approach could be applied to the precision genome editing of almost all endogenous genes throughout the genome, at least in rice. PMID:27557691

  19. Canonical Notch signaling plays an instructive role in auditory supporting cell development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Dean P.; Chrysostomou, Elena; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The auditory sensory epithelium, composed of mechano-sensory hair cells (HCs) and highly specialized glial-like supporting cells (SCs), is critical for our ability to detect sound. SCs provide structural and functional support to HCs and play an essential role in cochlear development, homeostasis and repair. Despite their importance, however, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding SC differentiation. Here, we provide evidence that in addition to its well-characterized inhibitory function, canonical Notch signaling plays a positive, instructive role in the differentiation of SCs. Using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to acutely block canonical Notch signaling, we identified a cohort of Notch-regulated SC-specific genes, with diverse functions in cell signaling, cell differentiation, neuronal innervation and synaptogenesis. We validated the newly identified Notch-regulated genes in vivo using genetic gain (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26N1ICD/+) and loss-of-function approaches (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26DnMAML1/+). Furthermore, we demonstrate that Notch over-activation in the differentiating murine cochlea (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26N1ICD/+) actively promotes a SC-specific gene expression program. Finally, we show that outer SCs –so called Deiters’ cells are selectively lost by prolonged reduction (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26DnMAML1/+/+) or abolishment of canonical Notch signaling (Fgfr3-iCreER; Rbpj−/Δ), indicating a critical role for Notch signaling in Deiters’ cell development. PMID:26786414

  20. Canonical Notch signaling plays an instructive role in auditory supporting cell development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dean P; Chrysostomou, Elena; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The auditory sensory epithelium, composed of mechano-sensory hair cells (HCs) and highly specialized glial-like supporting cells (SCs), is critical for our ability to detect sound. SCs provide structural and functional support to HCs and play an essential role in cochlear development, homeostasis and repair. Despite their importance, however, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding SC differentiation. Here, we provide evidence that in addition to its well-characterized inhibitory function, canonical Notch signaling plays a positive, instructive role in the differentiation of SCs. Using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to acutely block canonical Notch signaling, we identified a cohort of Notch-regulated SC-specific genes, with diverse functions in cell signaling, cell differentiation, neuronal innervation and synaptogenesis. We validated the newly identified Notch-regulated genes in vivo using genetic gain (Emx2(Cre/+); Rosa26(N1ICD/+)) and loss-of-function approaches (Emx2(Cre/+); Rosa26(DnMAML1/+)). Furthermore, we demonstrate that Notch over-activation in the differentiating murine cochlea (Emx2(Cre/+); Rosa26(N1ICD/+)) actively promotes a SC-specific gene expression program. Finally, we show that outer SCs -so called Deiters' cells are selectively lost by prolonged reduction (Emx2(Cre/+); Rosa26(DnMAML1/+/+)) or abolishment of canonical Notch signaling (Fgfr3-iCreER; Rbpj(-/Δ)), indicating a critical role for Notch signaling in Deiters' cell development. PMID:26786414

  1. Network and pathway analysis of microRNAs, transcription factors, target genes and host genes in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; ZHAO, SHISHUN; XU, ZHIWEN

    2016-01-01

    To date, there has been rapid development with regard to gene and microRNA (miR/miRNA) research in gliomas. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the associated genes and miRNAs remain unclear. In the present study, the genes, miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) were considered as elements in the regulatory network, and focus was placed on the associations between TFs and miRNAs, miRNAs and target genes, and miRNAs and host genes. In order to show the regulatory correlation clearly, all the elements were investigated and three regulatory networks, namely the differentially-expressed, related and global networks, were constructed. Certain important pathways were highlighted, with analysis of the similarities and differences among the networks. Next, the upstream and downstream elements of differentially-expressed genes, miRNAs and predicted TFs were listed. The most notable aspect of the present study was the three levels of network, particularly the differentially-expressed network, since the differentially-expressed associations that these networks provide appear at the initial stages of cancers such as glioma. If the states of the differentially-expressed associations can be adjusted to the normal state via alterations in regulatory associations, which were also recorded in the study networks and tables, it is likely that cancer can be regulated or even avoided. In the present study, the differentially-expressed network illuminated the pathogenesis of glioma; for example, a TF can regulate one or more miRNAs, and a target gene can be targeted by one or more miRNAs. Therefore, the host genes and target genes, the host genes and TFs, and the target genes and TFs indirectly affect each other through miRNAs. The association also exists between TFs and TFs, target genes and target genes, and host genes and host genes. The present study also demonstrated self-adaption associations and circle-regulations. The related network further described the regulatory mechanism

  2. Notch signaling is active in normal mouse middle ear epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIANG; SHENG, HAI-BIN; MA, RUI; YANG, JUAN-MEI; LUO, WEN-WEI; YANG, XIAO-YU; REN, DONG-DONG; CHI, FANG-LU

    2016-01-01

    Mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear epithelium is associated with the occurrence of otitis media with effusion during infections. However, the mechanism by which Notch signaling regulates cell fate in the middle ear epithelium is unclear. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this mechanism by investigating the localization of Notch receptors, such as Notch1 and Notch2, and Notch ligands, such as Jagged1, in the normal mouse middle ear epithelium (NMMEE) using immunofluorescence. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of Notch receptors and ligands were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effects of the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT) on epithelial cell proliferation were determined using 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining and immunofluorescence staining of the apoptosis marker caspase-3 and the epithelial proliferation marker pan-cytokeratine. In addition, the differentiation of the NMMEE cells was characterized by evaluating the mRNA expression levels of the mucous cell-associated genes Arg2, Muc2, Spdef, Spink4 and Tff1 using quantitative PCR. Notch1, Notch2 and Jagged1 were observed to be co-localized throughout the mouse middle ear epithelium. Furthermore, Notch1-4, Jagged1, Jagged2, Dll1 and Dll4 mRNAs were expressed in the NMMEE cells. The inhibition of Notch by DAPT resulted in fewer EdU-positive cells and the upregulation of the expression levels of various mucous cell-associated genes. The results indicate that DAPT suppresses the proliferation of NMMEE cells while promoting their differentiation into mucous cells. Therefore, DAPT may provide a specific therapeutic strategy for the reversal of multiple pathological processes that are associated with epithelium thickening in the middle ear. PMID:27168786

  3. Cas9-Assisted Targeting of CHromosome segments CATCH enables one-step targeted cloning of large gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Xuejin; Gabrieli, Tslil; Lou, Chunbo; Ebenstein, Yuval; Zhu, Ting F.

    2015-01-01

    The cloning of long DNA segments, especially those containing large gene clusters, is of particular importance to synthetic and chemical biology efforts for engineering organisms. While cloning has been a defining tool in molecular biology, the cloning of long genome segments has been challenging. Here we describe a technique that allows the targeted cloning of near-arbitrary, long bacterial genomic sequences of up to 100 kb to be accomplished in a single step. The target genome segment is excised from bacterial chromosomes in vitro by the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease at two designated loci, and ligated to the cloning vector by Gibson assembly. This technique can be an effective molecular tool for the targeted cloning of large gene clusters that are often expensive to synthesize by gene synthesis or difficult to obtain directly by traditional PCR and restriction-enzyme-based methods. PMID:26323354

  4. Notch2 transduction by feline leukemia virus in a naturally infected cat.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Ochi, Haruyo; Anai, Yukari; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases in cats. The transduction of cellular genes by FeLV is sometimes observed and associated with neoplastic diseases including lymphoma and sarcoma. Here, we report the first natural case of feline Notch2 transduction by FeLV in an infected cat with multicentric lymphoma and hypercalcemia. We cloned recombinant FeLVs harboring Notch2 in the env gene. Notch2 was able to activate expression of a reporter gene, similar to what was previously reported in cats with experimental FeLV-induced thymic lymphoma. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Notch2 strongly correlates with FeLV-induced lymphoma. PMID:24317268

  5. Prognostic values of four Notch receptor mRNA expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wentao; Tang, Ding; Xiao, Haijuan; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Che; Yao, Xuequan; Liu, Fukun; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Notch ligands and receptors are frequently deregulated in several human malignancies including gastric cancer. The activation of Notch signaling has been reported to contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and progression. However, the prognostic roles of individual Notch receptors in gastric cancer patients remain elusive. In the current study, we accessed the prognostic roles of four Notch receptors, Notch 1–4, in gastric cancer patients through “The Kaplan-Meier plotter” (KM plotter) database, in which updated gene expression data and survival information include a total of 876 gastric cancer patients. All four Notch receptors’ high mRNA expression was found to be correlated to worsen overall survival (OS) for all gastric cancer patients followed for 20 years. We further accessed the prognostic roles of individual Notch receptors in different clinicopathological features using Lauren classification, pathological grades, clinical grades, HER2 status and different choices of treatments of gastric cancer patients. These results indicate that there are critical prognostic values of the four Notch receptors in gastric cancer. This information will be useful for better understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity in the molecular biology of gastric cancer and to develop tools to more accurately predict their prognosis. PMID:27363496

  6. Applications of Gene Targeting Technology to Mental Retardation and Developmental Disability Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimenta, Aurea F.; Levitt, Pat

    2005-01-01

    The human and mouse genome projects elucidated the sequence and position map of innumerous genes expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), advancing our ability to manipulate these sequences and create models to investigate regulation of gene expression and function. In this article, we reviewed gene targeting methodologies with emphasis on…

  7. An integrated database of genes responsive to the Myc oncogenic transcription factor: identification of direct genomic targets

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Karen I; Jegga, Anil G; Aronow, Bruce J; O'Donnell, Kathryn A; Dang, Chi V

    2003-01-01

    We report a database of genes responsive to the Myc oncogenic transcription factor. The database Myc Target Gene prioritizes candidate target genes according to experimental evidence and clusters responsive genes into functional groups. We coupled the prioritization of target genes with phylogenetic sequence comparisons to predict c-Myc target binding sites, which are in turn validated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This database is essential for the understanding of the genetic regulatory networks underlying the genesis of cancers. PMID:14519204

  8. MiR-34a Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells via the RBP2/NOTCH1/CYCLIN D1 Coregulatory Network.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cong; Jia, Lingfei; Zheng, Yunfei; Jin, Chanyuan; Liu, Yunsong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2016-08-01

    MiR-34a was demonstrated to be upregulated during the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Overexpression of miR-34a significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization capacity, and the expression of osteogenesis-associated genes in hASCs in vitro. Enhanced heterotopic bone formation in vivo was also observed upon overexpression of miR-34a in hASCs. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-34a inhibited the expression of retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2) and reduced the luciferase activity of reporter gene construct comprising putative miR-34a binding sites in the 3' UTR of RBP2. Moreover, miR-34a downregulated the expression of NOTCH1 and CYCLIN D1 and upregulated the expression of RUNX2 by targeting RBP2, NOTCH1, and CYCLIN D1. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-34a promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the RBP2/NOTCH1/CYCLIN D1 coregulatory network, indicating that miR-34a-targeted therapy could be a valuable approach to promote bone regeneration. PMID:27453008

  9. Zeb2 recruits HDAC-NuRD to inhibit Notch and controls Schwann cell differentiation and remyelination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lai Man Natalie; Wang, Jincheng; Conidi, Andrea; Zhao, Chuntao; Wang, Haibo; Ford, Zachary; Zhang, Liguo; Zweier, Christiane; Ayee, Brian G; Maurel, Patrice; Zwijsen, An; Chan, Jonah R; Jankowski, Michael P; Huylebroeck, Danny; Lu, Q Richard

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms that coordinate and balance a complex network of opposing regulators to control Schwann cell (SC) differentiation remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2, also called Sip1) transcription factor is a critical intrinsic timer that controls the onset of SC differentiation by recruiting histone deacetylases HDAC 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) and nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex (NuRD) co-repressor complexes in mice. Zeb2 deletion arrests SCs at an undifferentiated state during peripheral nerve development and inhibits remyelination after injury. Zeb2 antagonizes inhibitory effectors including Notch and Sox2. Importantly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals a Zeb2 target gene encoding the Notch effector Hey2 as a potent inhibitor for Schwann cell differentiation. Strikingly, a genetic Zeb2 variant associated with Mowat-Wilson syndrome disrupts the interaction with HDAC1/2-NuRD and abolishes Zeb2 activity for SC differentiation. Therefore, Zeb2 controls SC maturation by recruiting HDAC1/2-NuRD complexes and inhibiting a Notch-Hey2 signaling axis, pointing to the critical role of HDAC1/2-NuRD activity in peripheral neuropathies caused by ZEB2 mutations. PMID:27294509

  10. Nuclear retention of Fbw7 by specific inhibitors of nuclear export leads to Notch1 degradation in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiankun; Azmi, Asfar S; Aboukameel, Amro; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Abou-Samra, Abdul-Badi; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2014-06-15

    Chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) also called Exportin 1 (Xpo1), a protein found elevated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), blocks tumor suppressor protein (TSP) function through constant nuclear export. Earlier we had shown that targeting CRM1 by our newly developed specific inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) leads to inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth arrest. In this paper we define the mechanism of SINE action. Our lead SINE KPT-185 inhibits PDAC cell growth, cell migration, tumor invasion and induces apoptosis and G2-M cell cycle arrest in low nano molar range (IC50s~150 nM). Mechanistically we demonstrate that the activity of KPT-185 is associated with nuclear retention of Fbw7; which degrades nuclear Notch-1 leading to decreased tumor promoting markers such as C-Myc, Cyclin-D1, Hes1 and VEGF. The orally bioavailable SINE (KPT-251) showed potent anti-tumor activity in a Colo-357 PDAC xenografts model; residual tumor analysis showed activation of Fbw7 concomitant with attenuation of Notch1 and its downstream genes. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of KPT-185 is in part due to nuclear retention of Fbw7 and consequent Notch1 degradation. The new CRM1 inhibitors, therefore, hold strong potential and warrant further clinical investigations for PDAC. PMID:24899509

  11. p53 Pulses Diversify Target Gene Expression Dynamics in an mRNA Half-Life-Dependent Manner and Delineate Co-regulated Target Gene Subnetworks.

    PubMed

    Porter, Joshua R; Fisher, Brian E; Batchelor, Eric

    2016-04-27

    The transcription factor p53 responds to DNA double-strand breaks by increasing in concentration in a series of pulses of fixed amplitude, duration, and period. How p53 pulses influence the dynamics of p53 target gene expression is not understood. Here, we show that, in bulk cell populations, patterns of p53 target gene expression cluster into groups with stereotyped temporal behaviors, including pulsing and rising dynamics. These behaviors correlate statistically with the mRNA decay rates of target genes: short mRNA half-lives produce pulses of gene expression. This relationship can be recapitulated by mathematical models of p53-dependent gene expression in single cells and cell populations. Single-cell transcriptional profiling demonstrates that expression of a subset of p53 target genes is coordinated across time within single cells; p53 pulsing attenuates this coordination. These results help delineate how p53 orchestrates the complex DNA damage response and give insight into the function of pulsatile signaling pathways. PMID:27135539

  12. Neurotrophins Acting Via TRKB Receptors Activate the JAGGED1-NOTCH2 Cell-Cell Communication Pathway to Facilitate Early Ovarian Development

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Mauricio D.; Kerr, Bredford; Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Paredes, Alfonso H.; Dissen, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Tropomyosin-related kinase (TRK) receptor B (TRKB) mediates the supportive actions of neurotrophin 4/5 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on early ovarian follicle development. Absence of TRKB receptors reduces granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and delays follicle growth. In the present study, we offer mechanistic insights into this phenomenon. DNA array and quantitative PCR analysis of ovaries from TrkB-null mice revealed that by the end of the first week of postnatal life, Jagged1, Hes1, and Hey2 mRNA abundance is reduced in the absence of TRKB receptors. Although Jagged1 encodes a NOTCH receptor ligand, Hes1 and Hey2 are downstream targets of the JAGGED1-NOTCH2 signaling system. Jagged1 is predominantly expressed in oocytes, and the abundance of JAGGED1 is decreased in TrkB−/− oocytes. Lack of TRKB receptors also resulted in reduced expression of c-Myc, a NOTCH target gene that promotes entry into the cell cycle, but did not alter the expression of genes encoding core regulators of cell-cycle progression. Selective restoration of JAGGED1 synthesis in oocytes of TrkB−/− ovaries via lentiviral-mediated transfer of the Jagged1 gene under the control of the growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) promoter rescued c-Myc expression, GC proliferation, and follicle growth. These results suggest that neurotrophins acting via TRKB receptors facilitate early follicle growth by supporting a JAGGED1-NOTCH2 oocyte-to-GC communication pathway, which promotes GC proliferation via a c-MYC-dependent mechanism. PMID:22028443

  13. MicroRNA target prediction by expression analysis of host genes.

    PubMed

    Gennarino, Vincenzo Alessandro; Sardiello, Marco; Avellino, Raffaella; Meola, Nicola; Maselli, Vincenza; Anand, Santosh; Cutillo, Luisa; Ballabio, Andrea; Banfi, Sandro

    2009-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by inducing RNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Most human miRNAs are intragenic and are transcribed as part of their hosting transcription units. We hypothesized that the expression profiles of miRNA host genes and of their targets are inversely correlated and devised a novel procedure, HOCTAR (host gene oppositely correlated targets), which ranks predicted miRNA target genes based on their anti-correlated expression behavior relative to their respective miRNA host genes. HOCTAR is the first tool for systematic miRNA target prediction that utilizes the same set of microarray experiments to monitor the expression of both miRNAs (through their host genes) and candidate targets. We applied the procedure to 178 human intragenic miRNAs and found that it performs better than currently available prediction softwares in pinpointing previously validated miRNA targets. The high-scoring HOCTAR predicted targets were enriched in Gene Ontology categories, which were consistent with previously published data, as in the case of miR-106b and miR-93. By means of overexpression and loss-of-function assays, we also demonstrated that HOCTAR is efficient in predicting novel miRNA targets and we identified, by microarray and qRT-PCR procedures, 34 and 28 novel targets for miR-26b and miR-98, respectively. Overall, we believe that the use of HOCTAR significantly reduces the number of candidate miRNA targets to be tested compared to the procedures based solely on target sequence recognition. Finally, our data further confirm that miRNAs have a significant impact on the mRNA levels of most of their targets. PMID:19088304

  14. Dissecting Human Gene Functions Regulating Islet Development With Targeted Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Pauerstein, Philip T.; Sugiyama, Takuya; Stanley, Susan E.; McLean, Graeme W.; Wang, Jing; Martín, Martín G.

    2015-01-01

    During pancreas development, endocrine precursors and their progeny differentiate, migrate, and cluster to form nascent islets. The transcription factor Neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) is required for islet development in mice, but its role in these dynamic morphogenetic steps has been inferred from fixed tissues. Moreover, little is known about the molecular genetic functions of NEUROG3 in human islet development. We developed methods for gene transduction by viral microinjection in the epithelium of cultured Neurog3-null mutant fetal pancreas, permitting genetic complementation in a developmentally relevant context. In addition, we developed methods for quantitative assessment of live-cell phenotypes in single developing islet cells. Delivery of wild-type NEUROG3 rescued islet differentiation, morphogenesis, and live cell deformation, whereas the patient-derived NEUROG3R107S allele partially restored indicators of islet development. NEUROG3P39X, a previously unreported patient allele, failed to restore islet differentiation or morphogenesis and was indistinguishable from negative controls, suggesting that it is a null mutation. Our systems also permitted genetic suppression analysis and revealed that targets of NEUROG3, including NEUROD1 and RFX6, can partially restore islet development in Neurog3-null mutant mouse pancreata. Thus, advances described here permitted unprecedented assessment of gene functions in regulating crucial dynamic aspects of islet development in the fetal pancreas. PMID:25901096

  15. Notch1 Pathway Activity Determines the Regulatory Role of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Melanoma Growth and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongwei; Kong, Ranran; Ferrari, Massimiliano L.; Radtke, Freddy; Capobianco, Anthony J.; Liu, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) play a crucial role in regulating cancer progression, yet the molecular determinant that governs the tumor regulatory role of CAF remains unknown. Using a mouse melanoma model in which exogenous melanoma cells were grafted on the skin of two lines of mice where the genetic activation or inactivation of Notch1 signaling specifically occurs in natural host stromal fibroblasts, we demonstrated that Notch1 pathway activity could determine the tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressing phenotype in CAF. CAF carrying elevated Notch1 activity significantly inhibited melanoma growth and invasion, while those with a null Notch1 promoted melanoma invasion. These findings identify the Notch1 pathway as a molecular determinant that controls the regulatory role of CAF in melanoma skin growth and invasion, unveiling Notch1 signaling as a potential therapeutic target for melanoma and potentially other solid tumors. PMID:26562315

  16. Notch1 Signaling Is Activated in Cells Expressing Embryonic Stem Cell Proteins in Human Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Peng, Jianhua; Zhang, Huxiang; Zhu, Yi; Wan, Li; Chen, Jianfu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Lin, Renyu; Li, He; Mao, XiaoOu; Jin, Kunlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of Notch1 signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry on surgically resected NPC using antibodies against embryonic stem (ES) cell proteins and against Notch1 signaling components. Results: We found that ES cell protein markers SOX2 and OCT4 were expressed in a subpopulation of cells for all three subtypes of NPC but barely in the normal control. Double immunostaining shows that SOX2- and OCT4-positive cells coexpressed proliferative markers, suggesting that human NPC may contain cancer stem–like cells. In addition, we found that Notch1 signaling was activated in NPC. Confocal images show that the Notch1 signaling activated form and Hes1, a downstream target of Notch1 signaling, was predominantly found in SOX2- and OCT4-positive cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the Notch1 signaling pathway might be a regulator of cancer stem–like cells in NPC. PMID:20211102

  17. PPARgene: A Database of Experimentally Verified and Computationally Predicted PPAR Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Zhang, Man; Li, Yanhui; Liu, Yan; Cui, Qinghua; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon ligand binding, PPARs activate target gene transcription and regulate a variety of important physiological processes such as lipid metabolism, inflammation, and wound healing. Here, we describe the first database of PPAR target genes, PPARgene. Among the 225 experimentally verified PPAR target genes, 83 are for PPARα, 83 are for PPARβ/δ, and 104 are for PPARγ. Detailed information including tissue types, species, and reference PubMed IDs was also provided. In addition, we developed a machine learning method to predict novel PPAR target genes by integrating in silico PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) analysis with high throughput gene expression data. Fivefold cross validation showed that the performance of this prediction method was significantly improved compared to the in silico PPRE analysis method. The prediction tool is also implemented in the PPARgene database. PMID:27148361

  18. PPARgene: A Database of Experimentally Verified and Computationally Predicted PPAR Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Li; Zhang, Man; Li, Yanhui; Liu, Yan; Cui, Qinghua; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon ligand binding, PPARs activate target gene transcription and regulate a variety of important physiological processes such as lipid metabolism, inflammation, and wound healing. Here, we describe the first database of PPAR target genes, PPARgene. Among the 225 experimentally verified PPAR target genes, 83 are for PPARα, 83 are for PPARβ/δ, and 104 are for PPARγ. Detailed information including tissue types, species, and reference PubMed IDs was also provided. In addition, we developed a machine learning method to predict novel PPAR target genes by integrating in silico PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) analysis with high throughput gene expression data. Fivefold cross validation showed that the performance of this prediction method was significantly improved compared to the in silico PPRE analysis method. The prediction tool is also implemented in the PPARgene database. PMID:27148361

  19. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kazuo; Ikeya, Makoto; Fukuta, Makoto; Woltjen, Knut; Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo; Otsuka, Takanobu; Toguchida, Junya

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico