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Sample records for nothofagus obliqua mirb

  1. Physiological variability arising from in vitro propagation of Nothofagus obliqua.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pastur, G; Arena, M; Caso, O

    1998-12-01

    As with cuttings, the microcuttings produced from in vitro generated shoots could be affected by topophysis. Very little research has been done about such in vitro effect. This paper reports the influence of the topophysis on the regeneration response (shoot multiplication, microcutting rooting and plantlet acclimation) of explants on the in vitro culture of juvenile N. obliqua trees. The results showed that the main responsible of the physiological variability arising from all the in vitro propagation stages is topophysis. This influence was found in the first culture and can be extended to the next subculture (multiplication stage). Growth of the obtained plants was also affected (rooting of microcuttings and plantlet acclimation). The multiplication rate was lower in apical portion (1:3.66) than basal portion (1:5.8) while rooting was 48.6% and 27.0% respectively. By the way, length of acclimated explants was 52.4 mm in the apical rooted explants and 28.7 mm in the basal ones at the 30th day. In order to reduce such variability, it is necessary to take into account the initial position of the explants during the establishment and multiplication stages of micropropagation of forest trees. PMID:10892444

  2. Preformation and distribution of staminate and pistillate flowers in growth units of Nothofagus alpina and N. obliqua (Nothofagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Puntieri, Javier G.; Grosfeld, Javier E.; Heuret, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The distribution and differentiation times of flowers in monoecious wind-pollinated plants are fundamental for the understanding of their mating patterns and evolution. Two closely related South American Nothofagus species were compared with regard to the differentiation times and positions of staminate and pistillate flowers along their parent growth units (GUs) by quantitative means. Methods Two samples of GUs that had extended in the 2004–2005 growing season were taken in 2005 and 2006 from trees in the Lanín National Park, Patagonia, Argentina. For the first sample, axillary buds of the parent GUs were dissected and the leaf, bud and flower primordia of these buds were identified. The second sample included all branches derived from the parent GUs in the 2005–2006 growing season. Key Results Both species developed flowering GUs with staminate and/or pistillate flowers; GUs with both flower types were the most common. The position of staminate flowers along GUs was similar between species and close to the proximal end of the GUs. Pistillate flowers were developed more distally along the GUs in N. alpina than in N. obliqua. In N. alpina, the nodes bearing staminate and pistillate flowers were separated by one to several nodes with axillary buds, something not observed in N. obliqua. Markovian models supported this between-species difference. Flowering GUs, including all of their leaves and flowers were entirely preformed in the winter buds. Conclusions Staminate and pistillate flowers of N. alpina and N. obliqua are differentiated at precise locations on GUs in the growing season preceding that of their antheses. The differences between N. alpina and N. obliqua (and other South American Nothofagus species) regarding flower distribution might relate to the time of anthesis of each flower type and, in turn, to the probabilities of self-pollination at the GU level. PMID:19033286

  3. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile

    PubMed Central

    González, Jorge; Fuentes, Glenda; Alarcón, Diego; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. PMID:27446942

  4. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile.

    PubMed

    Hasbún, Rodrigo; González, Jorge; Iturra, Carolina; Fuentes, Glenda; Alarcón, Diego; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. PMID:27446942

  5. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi. PMID:21148871

  6. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): hemostasis implications.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Silviane; Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal. PMID:26248250

  7. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. PMID:19483186

  8. Population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and natural history of the South American species of Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) inferred from nuclear microsatellite data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Rodrigo; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of glaciation on the levels and patterns of genetic variation has been well studied in the Northern Hemisphere. However, although glaciation has undoubtedly shaped the genetic structure of plants in the Southern Hemisphere, fewer studies have characterized the effect, and almost none of them using microsatellites. Particularly, complex patterns of genetic structure might be expected in areas such as the Andes, where both latitudinal and altitudinal glacial advance and retreat have molded modern plant communities. We therefore studied the population genetics of three closely related, hybridizing species of Nothofagus (N. obliqua, N. alpina, and N. glauca, all of subgenus Lophozonia; Nothofagaceae) from Chile. To estimate population genetic parameters and infer the influence of the last ice age on the spatial and genetic distribution of these species, we examined and analyzed genetic variability at seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in 640 individuals from 40 populations covering most of the ranges of these species in Chile. Populations showed no significant inbreeding and exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (HE = 0.502–0.662) and slight, but significant, genetic structure (RST = 8.7–16.0%). However, in N. obliqua, the small amount of genetic structure was spatially organized into three well-defined latitudinal groups. Our data may also suggest some introgression of N. alpina genes into N. obliqua in the northern populations. These results allowed us to reconstruct the influence of the last ice age on the genetic structure of these species, suggesting several centers of genetic diversity for N. obliqua and N. alpina, in agreement with the multiple refugia hypothesis. PMID:25360279

  9. Structural Requirements for the Activity of the MirB Ferrisiderophore Transporter of Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Carroll, Cassandra S.; Nesbitt, Jason R.; Henry, Kevin A.; Pinto, Linda J.; Moinzadeh, Mina; Scott, Jamie K.

    2012-01-01

    Siderophores have been identified as virulence factors in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The 14-pass transmembrane protein MirB is postulated to function as a siderophore transporter, responsible for uptake of the hydroxamate siderophore N,N′,N″-triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC). Our aim was to identify amino acids of A. fumigatus MirB that are crucial for uptake of TAFC. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create MirB mutants. Expression of wild-type and mutant proteins in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PHY14, which lacks endogenous siderophore transporters, was confirmed by Western blotting. TAFC transport assays using 55Fe-labeled TAFC and growth assays with Fe-TAFC as the sole iron source identified alanine 125, tyrosine 577, loop 3, and the second half of loop 7 (Loop7Del2) as crucial for function, since their substitution or deletion abrogated uptake completely. Wild-type MirB transported ferricrocin and coprogen as well as TAFC but not ferrichrysin. MirB was localized by fluorescence microscopy using antisera raised against a MirB extracellular loop peptide. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that in yeast, wild-type MirB had a punctate distribution under the plasma membrane, as did the A125D and Y577A strains, indicating that the defect in transport of these mutants was unlikely to be due to mislocalization or degradation. MirB immunolocalization in A. fumigatus showed that the transporter was found in vesicles which cycled between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane and was concentrated at the hyphal tips. The location of MirB was not influenced by the presence of the siderophore TAFC but was sensitive to internal iron stores. PMID:22903978

  10. Thermal energy dissipation and its components in two developmental stages of a shade-tolerant species, Nothofagus nitida, and a shade-intolerant species, Nothofagus dombeyi.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Ivanov, Alexander G; Huner, Norman P A; Alberdi, Miren; Corcuera, Luis J; Bravo, León A

    2009-05-01

    Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Blume and Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser, two evergreens in the South Chilean forest, regenerate in open habitats and under the canopy, respectively. Both overtop the forest canopy when they are in the adult stage, suggesting that their photoprotective mechanisms differ in ontogenetic dynamics. We postulated that N. nitida, a shade-tolerant species increases its capacity to tolerate photoinhibitory conditions (low temperature and high irradiance) by thermal energy dissipation of excess energy during its transition from the seedling to the adult stage, whereas N. dombeyi, a shade-intolerant species, maintains a high capacity for photoprotection by thermal energy dissipation from the seedling to the adult stage. To test this hypothesis, the main photoprotective mechanisms in plants - the fast- and slow-relaxing components of thermal energy dissipation (NPQ, non-photochemical quenching) NPQ(F) and NPQ(S), respectively, and state transitions - were studied in seedlings and adults of both species grown in their natural habitats and in a common garden. In adults, NPQ(F) and NPQ(S) did not differ between species and seasons. The greatest differences in these parameters were observed in seedlings. The xanthophyll cycle was more active in N. dombeyi seedlings than in N. nitida seedlings at low temperature and high irradiance, consistent with a higher NPQ(F) in N. dombeyi. Under all study conditions, N. nitida seedlings had higher NPQ(S) than N. dombeyi seedlings. The state transition capability was higher in N. nitida seedlings than in N. dombeyi seedlings. Therefore, although (shade-intolerant) N. dombeyi was able to thermally dissipate the excess absorbed energy, under natural conditions its photochemical energy quenching was efficient in both developmental stages, decreasing its need for thermal dissipation. In contrast, the seedlings of N. nitida were more sensitive to photoinhibition than the adult trees, suggesting a change from shade

  11. Lonomia obliqua venomous secretion induces human platelet adhesion and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; Reck, José; Terra, Renata M S; Beys da Silva, Walter O; Santi, Lucélia; Pinto, Antônio F M; Vainstein, Marilene H; Termignoni, Carlos; Guimarães, Jorge A

    2010-10-01

    The caterpillar Lonomia obliqua is a venomous animal that causes numerous accidents, especially in southern Brazil, where it is considered a public health problem. The clinical manifestations include several haemostatic disturbances that lead to a hemorrhagic syndrome. Considering that platelets play a central role in hemostasis, in this work we investigate the effects of L. obliqua venomous secretion upon blood platelets responses in vitro. Results obtained shows that L. obliqua venom directly induces aggregation and ATP secretion in human washed platelets in a dose-dependent manner. Electron microscopy studies clearly showed that the venomous bristle extract was also able to produce direct platelets shape change and adhesion as well as activation and formation of platelet aggregates. Differently from other enzyme inhibitors, the venom-induced platelet aggregation was significatively inhibited by p-bromophenacyl bromide, a specific inhibitor of phospholipases A2. Additional experiments with different pharmacological antagonists indicate that the aggregation response triggered by the venom active components occurs through a calcium-dependent mechanism involving arachidonic acid metabolite(s) of the cyclooxygenase pathway and activation of phosphodiesterase 3A, an enzyme that leads to the consumption of intracellular cAMP content. It was additionally found that L. obliqua-induced platelet aggregation was independent of ADP release. Altogether, these findings are in line with the need for a better understanding of the complex hemorrhagic syndrome resulting from the envenomation caused by L. obliqua caterpillars, and can also give new insights into the management of its clinical profile. PMID:20157842

  12. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers. PMID:26392710

  13. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs. PMID:19470091

  14. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  15. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  16. Development of an antivenom against toxins of Lonomia obliqua caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, W D; Campos, C M; Gonçalves, L R; Sousa-e-Silva, M C; Higashi, H G; Yamagushi, I K; Kelen, E M

    1996-09-01

    Skin contact with caterpillars of Lonomia moths causes haemostatic disorders that may evolve into a haemorrhagic syndrome. Replacement therapy has been shown to exacerbate the clinical symptoms of this envenoming. In this study it is shown that horses immunized with a bristle extract of L. obliqua caterpillars produced IgG antibodies that completely neutralized, in vitro, the toxin(s) responsible for the blood incoagulability observed in rats. This antivenom offers the possibility of specific treatment for envenoming caused by contact with caterpillars of Lonomia moths. PMID:8896196

  17. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua.

    PubMed

    Scally, M; Into, F; Thomas, D B; Ruiz-Arce, R; Barr, N B; Schuenzel, E L

    2016-08-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific relationships within A. obliqua as well as interspecific relationships to other Anastrepha species using a multi-locus data set comprising nine loci (seven nuclear, two mitochondrial) with 105 operational taxonomic units. The results based on a concatenated set of nuclear loci strongly support the monophyly of A. obliqua and most of the other species previously identified by morphology. A split between Peruvian A. obliqua samples and those from other locations was also identified. These results contrast with prior findings of relationships within A. obliqua based on mitochondrial data, as we found a marked discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial loci. These analyses suggest that introgression, particularly between A. obliqua and fraterculus species, may be one explanation for the discrepancy and the high mitochondrial diversity reported for A. obliqua could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. PMID:27126185

  18. [Accidents with caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855). An emerging problem].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Matías N; Mignone Chagas, Mariana A; Casertano, Sergio A; Cavagnaro, Luis E; Peichoto, María E

    2015-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855) is a moth from the family Saturniidae, widely distributed in tropical rainforests of South America. In its larval stage (caterpillar) it is characterized by bristles that cover the animal's body. These structures are hard and branched spiny evaginations of the cuticle, underneath which a complex mixture of toxic molecules is stored. When spicules are brought into contact with the skin of people, toxins enter passively through the injury, causing not only local but also systemic poisoning (primarily hemorrhagic manifestations). When the whole animal is accidentally crushed, the insect's chitinous bristles are broken and the venomous secretions penetrate the human skin, reaching the blood circulation. Due to the numerous registered cases of erucism in Southern Brazil, the Butantan Institute has produced an antivenom able to neutralize the deleterious effects produced by contact with L. obliqua caterpillar bristles. In Argentina, these kinds of accidents are rare and restricted to the province of Misiones. Taking into account that to date there is no report in this country about clinical cases submitted to a specific treatment (antivenom), our aim is to communicate here six cases of Lonomia caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome that were treated in the Hospital SAMIC of Puerto Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina) during 2014 with the antilonomic serum produced in Brazil. It is worthy to note that all patients evolved favorably within the first few hours, and for this reason, the use of this antivenom is recommended to treat the cases of Lonomia erucism in Argentina. PMID:26502471

  19. Physiological responses to water stress and waterlogging in Nothofagus species.

    PubMed

    Sun, O J; Sweet, G B; Whitehead, D; Buchan, G D

    1995-10-01

    Gas exchange and water relations were investigated in Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (Hook. f.) Poole (mountain beech) and Nothofagus menziesii (Hook. f.) Oerst (silver beech) seedlings in response to water stress and waterlogging. At soil matric potentials (Psi(soil)) above -0.005 MPa, N. solandri had significantly higher photosynthetic rates (A), and stomatal and residual conductances (g(sw) and g(rc)), and lower predawn xylem water potentials (Psi(predawn)) than N. menziesii. The relative tolerance of plants to water stress was defined in terms of critical soil matric potential (Psi(cri)) and lethal xylem water potential (Psi(lethal)). The estimated values of Psi(cri) and Psi(lethal) were -1.2 and -7 MPa, respectively, for N. solandri, and -0.7 and -4 MPa, respectively, for N. menziesii. Photosynthesis was sustained to a xylem water potential (Psi(xylem)) of -7 MPa in N. solandri compared with -4 MPa in N. menziesii. Following rewatering, both A and Psi(xylem) recovered quickly in N. solandri, whereas the two variables recovered more slowly in N. menziesii. During the development of water stress, nonstomatal inhibition significantly affected A in both N. solandri and N. menziesii. Nothofagus menziesii was more susceptible to inhibition of A by waterlogging than N. solandri. However, the tolerance of N. solandri to severe waterlogging was also limited as a result of a failure to form adventitious roots, suggesting a lack of adaptation to these conditions. The differences in tolerance to water stress and waterlogging between the two species are consistent with the distribution patterns of N. solandri and N. menziesii in New Zealand. PMID:14965996

  20. Introduced species and management of a Nothofagus/Austrocedrus forest.

    PubMed

    Simberloff, Daniel; Relva, Maria Andrea; Nunez, Martin

    2003-02-01

    Isla Victoria (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina), a large island dominated by native Nothofagus and Austrocedrus forest, has old plantations of many introduced tree species, some of which are famed invaders of native ecosystems elsewhere. There are also large populations of introduced deer and shrubs that may interact in a complex way with the introduced trees, as well as a recently arrived population of wild boar. Long-standing concern that the introduced trees will invade and transform native forest may be unwarranted, as there is little evidence of progressive invasion, even close to the plantations, despite over 50 years of opportunity. Introduced and native shrubs allow scattered introduced trees to achieve substantial size in abandoned pastures, but in almost all areas neither the trees nor the shrubs appear to be spreading beyond these sites. These shrub communities may be stable rather than successional, but the technology for restoring them to native forest is uncertain and probably currently impractical. Any attempt to remove the exotic tree seedlings and saplings from native forest would probably create the very conditions that would favor colonization by exotic plants rather than native trees, while simply clear-cutting the plantations would be unlikely to lead to regeneration of Nothofagus or Austrocedrus. The key to maintaining native forest is preventing catastrophic fire, as several introduced trees and shrubs would be favored over native dominant trees in recolonization. Deer undoubtedly interact with both native and introduced trees and shrubs, but their net effect on native forest is not yet clear, and specific management of deer beyond the current hunting by staff is unwarranted, at least if preventing tree invasion is the goal. The steep terrain and shallow soil make the recently arrived boar a grave threat to the native forest. Eradication is probably feasible and should be attempted quickly. PMID:12520381

  1. Reidentification of Sex Pheromones of Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiu; Zhang, Longwa; Guo, Feng; Long, Yanhua; Wang, Yun; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-02-01

    Tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important defoliator of the tree crop Camellia sinensis L. in China. The sex pheromones of E. obliqua have not been identified, but have potential importance relative to the biological control of this predator. In this study, the female sex pheromones of E. obliqua were identified and evaluated for use in the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest. The sex pheromone extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified chemicals were synthesized and applied to wind-tunnel tests and field experiments. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene were determined to be the primary sex pheromones produced by the female E. obliqua; the latter elicits the strongest electroantennogram responses from male E. obliqua antennae. However, males did not respond to single components in the wind-tunnel tests. The results of a field-trapping experiment indicated that a 4:6 v/v blend of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene was highly effective in attracting male moths. PMID:26491188

  2. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron

  3. Proteases from Lonomia obliqua venomous secretions: comparison of procoagulant, fibrin(ogen)olytic and amidolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antônio F M; Silva, Kátia R L M; Guimarães, Jorge A

    2006-01-01

    The hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia obliqua caterpillars is an increasing problem in Southern Brazil. The clinical profile is characterized by both hemorrhagic and pro-coagulant symptoms, constituting a paradoxical action of the venom. The effects upon blood coagulation and fibrin(ogen)olysis have been shown to result from the combined action of several active principles found mostly in the bristle extract. The present study reports quali-quantitative differences among L. obliqua secretions: Cryosecretion, hemolymph, bristle extract and tegument extract. Cryosecretion and hemolymph displayed strong amidolytic activity upon several substrates, presented moderated procoagulant activity and high fibrinogen degrading ability. Bristle and tegument extracts presented low amidolytic activity, but bristle extract showed the most potent procoagulant activity and both extracts presented low fibrinogen degrading ability. The differential involvement of these secretions during the accidents with L. obliqua can elucidate the different symptoms presented after envenomation. PMID:16360724

  4. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michael; Stöckler, Karen; Havell, David; Delsuc, Frédéric; Sebastiani, Federico; Lockhart, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Nothofagus (southern beech), with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota. PMID:15660155

  5. Environmental stability and morphologic variation in the bryozoan Homotrypa obliqua

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.M. Jr

    1985-01-01

    Bryozoans as colonial organisms permit the separation of environmental and genetic contributions to morphologic variation. Previous analyses attempted to establish the effects of environmental stability on the partitioning of morphologic variation. Regrettably they utilized multiple species in different environments. To test this model definitively, colonies of the Ordovician bryozoan Homotrypa obliqua were sampled from paleoenvironments of different stabilities from Cincinnati. The Corryville and Fairmount beds provided ten colonies on which measures of zooecial shape and spacing on and between monticules were made. ANOVA and discriminant function analysis revealed that colonies from the deeper more stable environment of the Corryville beds exhibit more between colony variation. Colonies from the less stable Fairmount beds show relatively more within colony variation. This difference most likely results from less microenvironmental perturbation and/or greater within genotype developmental regulation in colonies from more stable environments. This is confirmed by correlation coefficient matrices that show biologically expected interdependence between characters only in the Corryville colonies. Thus, the partitioning of morphologic variation is a useful tool for predicting paleoenvironmental stability.

  6. Phylogeography of Anastrepha obliqua inferred with mtDNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Barr, Norman B; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; McPheron, Bruce A

    2012-12-01

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean with occasional infestations having occurred in the southern tier states (California, Florida, and Texas) of the United States. This fly is associated with many plant species and is a major pest of mango and plum. We examine the genetic diversity of the West Indian fruit fly based on mitochondrial COI and ND6 DNA sequences. Our analysis of 349 individuals from 54 geographic collections from Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America detected 61 haplotypes that are structured into three phylogenetic clades. The distribution of these clades among populations is associated with geography. Six populations are identified in this analysis: Mesoamerica, Central America, Caribbean, western Mexico, Andean South America, and eastern Brazil. In addition, substantial differences exist among these genetic types that warrants further taxonomic review. PMID:23356081

  7. Mechanisms of acute kidney injury induced by experimental Lonomia obliqua envenomation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Yates, John R; Vieira, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Guimarães, Jorge Almeida

    2015-03-01

    Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation causes acute kidney injury (AKI), which can be responsible for its deadly actions. This study evaluates the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. To characterize L. obliqua venom effects, we subcutaneously injected rats and examined renal functional, morphological and biochemical parameters at several time points. We also performed discovery-based proteomic analysis to measure protein expression to identify molecular pathways of renal disease. L. obliqua envenomation causes acute tubular necrosis, which is associated with renal inflammation; formation of hematic casts, resulting from intravascular hemolysis; increase in vascular permeability and fibrosis. The dilation of Bowman's space and glomerular tuft is related to fluid leakage and intra-glomerular fibrin deposition, respectively, since tissue factor procoagulant activity increases in the kidney. Systemic hypotension also contributes to these alterations and to the sudden loss of basic renal functions, including filtration and excretion capacities, urinary concentration and maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In addition, envenomed kidneys increase the expression of proteins involved in cell stress, inflammation, tissue injury, heme-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and complement system activation. Finally, the localization of the venom in renal tissue agrees with morphological and functional alterations, suggesting also a direct nephrotoxic activity. In conclusion, the mechanisms of L. obliqua-induced AKI are complex involving mainly glomerular and tubular functional impairment and vascular alterations. These results are important to understand the mechanisms of renal injury and may suggest more efficient ways to prevent or attenuate the pathology of Lonomia's envenomation. PMID:24798088

  8. Phylogeography of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, inferred with mtDNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...

  9. Mechanisms of Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Experimental Lonomia obliqua Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O.; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Yates, John R.; Ribeiro, Maria Aparecida; Guimarães, Jorge Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Background Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation causes acute kidney injury (AKI), which can be responsible for its deadly actions. This study evaluates the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. Methods To characterize L. obliqua venom effects we subcutaneously injected rats and examined renal functional, morphological and biochemical parameters at several time points. We also performed discovery based proteomic analysis to measure protein expression to identify molecular pathways of renal disease. Results L. obliqua envenomation causes acute tubular necrosis, which is associated with renal inflammation; formation of hematic casts, resulting from intravascular hemolysis; increase in vascular permeability and fibrosis. The dilation of Bowman’s space and glomerular tuft is related to fluid leakage and intra-glomerular fibrin deposition, respectively, since tissue factor procoagulant activity increases in the kidney. Systemic hypotension also contributes to these alterations and to the sudden loss of basic renal functions, including filtration and excretion capacities, urinary concentration and maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In addition, envenomed kidneys increases expression of proteins involved in cell stress, inflammation, tissue injury, heme-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and complement system activation. Finally, the localization of the venom in renal tissue agrees with morphological and functional alterations, suggesting also a direct nephrotoxic activity. Conclusions Mechanisms of L. obliqua-induced AKI are complex involving mainly glomerular and tubular functional impairment and vascular alterations. These results are important to understand the mechanisms of renal injury and may suggest more efficient ways to prevent or attenuate the pathology of Lonomia’s envenomation. PMID:24798088

  10. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific variation within Anastre...

  11. Revised status of Schinia Unimacula Smith including morphological comaprisons with Schinia Obliqua Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The revised status of Schinia unimacula is defended, based on differences in maculation and male and female genitalic structures. Schinia coolidgei Hill remains a synonym of S. unimacula. Genitalia of both sexes of S. unimacula and S. obliqua are described and illustrated for the first time....

  12. The Gene doublesex of the Fruit Fly Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, M. Fernanda; Stefani, Rominy N.; Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O.; Perondini, André L. P.; Selivon, Denise; Sánchez, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The gene doublesex of Anastrepha obliqua is composed of four instead of the usual six exons. It is transcribed in both sexes and its primary transcript undergoes sex-specific splicing, producing female DsxF and male DsxM proteins, which have in common the amino-terminal region but which differ at the carboxyl-terminal region. PMID:16085699

  13. Morphometric divergence in populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Colombia and some Neotropical locations

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Maria R.; Selivon, Denise; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Soto, Alberto; Canal, Nelson A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is one of seven species of quarantine importance of its genus and is one of the most economically important fruit fly pests in Colombia. The taxonomic status of this species is a key issue for further implementation of any pest management program. Several molecular studies have shown enough variability within Anastrepha obliqua to suggest its taxonomic status could be revised; however, there are no morphological studies supporting this hypothesis. The aim of this work was to describe the morphological variability of Colombian populations of Anastrepha obliqua, comparing this variability with that of other samples from the Neotropics. Measurements were performed on individuals from 11 populations collected from different geographic Colombian localities and were compared with populations from Mexico (2), Dominica Island (1), Peru (1) and Brazil (2). Linear morphometric analyses were performed using 23 female morphological traits, including seven variables of the aculeus, three of the thorax, and six of the wing; seven ratios among them were also considered. Discriminant function analyses showed significant morphological differentiation among the Colombian populations, separating them into two groups. Furthermore, in the comparisons between Colombian samples with those from other countries, three clusters were observed. The possibility of finding more than one species within the nominal Anastrepha obliqua population is discussed. PMID:26798254

  14. Declining moisture availability in late Eocene Antarctica as deduced from Nothofagus sporopollenin δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griener, K. W.; Nelson, D. M.; Warny, S.

    2012-12-01

    Palynological data demonstrate that significant changes in vegetation and climate occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) Boundary on the Antarctic Peninsula. These changes include decreases in terrestrial palynomorph abundance and diversity as well as dinoflagellate assemblages that reflect colder sea surface temperatures and increased glaciation (Warny and Askin, 2011). Understanding the factors controlling these changes in climate and vegetation is a topic of great interest. One area of remaining uncertainty is how the hydrologic regime varied during Antarctica's shift from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. For example, estimates of Antarctic precipitation from around the E-O boundary based on plant leaf margins (e.g. Francis et al., 2008), clay mineralogy (e.g. Christian and Kennett, 1997), and models (Thorn and DeConto 2006) are vastly different. We used a moving-wire device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (Sessions et al., 2005; Nelson et al., 2008) to analyze δ13C of small quantities of Nothofagus sporopollenin extracted from Antarctic Eocene SHALDRIL cores from ~35.9 Mya, just prior to the E-O Boundary (Bohaty et al., 2011). We also analyzed δ13C of modern Nothofagus sporopollenin from herbaria specimens and related these results to historical climate data. Our modern data show that carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of Nothofagus sporopollenin is positively correlated with mean annual and growing-season precipitation, consistent with prior studies that demonstrate a strong relationship between Δ and water availability in C3 plants. Eocene Nothofagus Δ values progressively decreased through time, implying a decline in moisture availability. There is a close correlation between Nothofagus palynomorph abundance (Warny and Askin, 2011) and Δ, indicating that Nothofagus abundance declined in response to decreasing moisture availability. We consider changes in sea surface temperatures as well as increased glaciation as possible causes

  15. Field evaluation of potential fruit-derived lures for Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a nine-component blend (ethyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, hexan-1-ol, propyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, isopentyl butyrate, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl octanoate) isolated from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit are attractive to both sexes of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in laboratory and field cage tests. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of traps baited with the nine-component blend in capturing wild A. obliqua in a mango, Mangifera indica L. variety Ataulfo) orchard. In addition, we tested other S. mombin-derived lures to determine whether any of these effectively mimic the nine-component blend in attracting A. obliqua. In all trials, we compared the attractiveness of the S. mombin-derived lures against hydrolyzed protein, the standard bait for monitoring A. obliqua. We found that, in some trials, there was no difference in the number of females caught by traps baited with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. In other trials, traps baited with hydrolyzed protein captured more females than traps baited with the nine-component blend. For males, in general there were no differences in the number of flies caught by traps baited either with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with other S. mombin-derived lures captured fewer A. obliqua than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with S. mombin-derived lures caught fewer species of nontarget tephritid flies and nontarget insects than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. PMID:20069833

  16. Occurrence and characterization of a tetrahedral nucleopolyhedrovirus from Spilarctia obliqua (Walker).

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; D'Silva, Sharon; Jinsha, J; Rajna, S

    2015-11-01

    Spilarctia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is a polyphagous insect pest damaging pulses, oil seeds, cereals, vegetables and medicinal and aromatic plants in India. The pest also infests turmeric and ginger sporadically in Kerala. We observed an epizootic caused by a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) in field populations of the insects in December 2013. The NPV was purified and characterized. The isolate was tetrahedral in shape and belonged to multicapsid NPV. The REN profile of the SpobNPV genome with Pst I, Xho I and HindIII enzymes showed a genome size of 99.1±3.9 kbp. Partialpolh, lef-8 and lef-9 gene sequences of the isolate showed a close relationship with HycuNPV and SpphNPV. Phylogram and K-2-P distances between similar isolates suggested inclusion of the present SpobNPV isolate to group I NPV. The biological activity of the isolate was tested under laboratory conditions against third instar larvae of S. obliqua and the LC50 was 4.37×10(3)OBs/ml occlusion bodies (OBs) per ml. The median survival time (ST50) was 181 h at a dose of 1×10(6)OBs/ml and 167 h at a dose of 1×10(8)OBs/ml. SpobNPV merits further field evaluation as a potential biological control agent of S. obliqua, a serious pest of many agriculturally important crops in the Oriental region. PMID:26449395

  17. Gymnopanella nothofagi, a new genus and species of gymnopoid fungi (Omphalotaceae) from Chilean Nothofagus forest.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Leiva, Pablo Andrés; McDonald, Jennifer V; Thorn, R Greg

    2016-01-01

    A novel, lignicolous agaric from Nothofagus forests of southern Chile is described as a new genus and species, Gymnopanella nothofagi This taxon falls within the family Omphalotaceae as a sister group to Gymnopus in phylogenetic analyses based on sequences spanning the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 region of nuclear 28S rDNA. Morphologically it is characterized by convex to flabellate basidiomata with distinctly gelatinized trama, pileipellis in the form of a cutis with erect fascicles of cylindrical, spirally incrusted hyphae and nonamyloid, broadly ellipsoid basidiospores. This combination of features, in particular the lack of a rameales structure, serve to distinguish Gymnopanella from Gymnopus, Marasmiellus and other similar genera of the Omphalotaceae or Marasmiaceae. The new taxon is known only from Chilean Nothofagus forests at approximately 45-46° south latitude, but concerted searching in similar habitats in surrounding areas or in New Zealand may extend the known range considerably. PMID:27055572

  18. Selection of Nothofagus host trees by the aphids Neuquenaphis staryi and Neuquenaphis edwardsi.

    PubMed

    Russell, Graeme B; Faundez, Eric H; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2004-11-01

    Leaf volatiles were collected from three Nothofagus species growing in close proximity in Los Ruiles National Reserve, Chile. The volatile preparation from leaves of No. alessandrii were attractive to the specialist aphid, Neuquenaphis staryi, but not to the generalist aphid, Ne. edwardsi, while the volatile preparations of No. dombeyi and No. glauca were attractive to Ne. edwardsi, but not to Ne. staryi. This reflects the pattern of aphid/host-plant associations. Alpha-Agarofuran was found to occur in all leaf volatile preparations and was shown by electroantennography and olfactometry to be attractive for both Neuquenaphis spp., suggesting it may be the Nothofagus host-recognition factor for Neuquenaphis. The factor(s) mediating Ne. stayi's specialization on No. alessandrii remain to be identified. PMID:15672667

  19. Early Miocene Nothofagus in Antarctica based on fossil leaves from the Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobleski, S. A.; Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Nothofagus (Southern Beech) is the most widely reported plant from Cenozoic Antarctic fossil assemblages. Most of the fossils are of pollen morphotypes and it is assumed that the plants the pollen represents were growing on the continent. However, because of the uncertainties with systematics, long-distance dispersal, and reworking, it has been difficult to interpret the assemblages in terms of paleoenvironments and paleoclimate. Here, we report an in situ assemblage of Nothofagus leaves and pollen from the Friis Hills (77⁰ 45'S, 161⁰ 28'E). The leaves are preserved as carbonaceous impressions in brown, fissile shales that represent the deposits of a lake occupying a glacial valley. The leaves most probably accumulated from deciduous shrubs. Based on the stratigraphic relationship to a tephra with a 40 Ar/39 Ar age of c. 20 Ma, the leaf assemblage is of early Miocene age. Nothofagus pollen from the shale suggests that at least 3 species were represented. A total of 227 leaves were examined and lengths, widths, and areas recorded. The preservation is generally good but only a few of the specimens represent complete leaves; the spectrum is 30-100%. Plots of the measurements of the leaves provide a summary of size variation but were otherwise not useful for separating out different taxa . The most useful characters for establishing differences between the leaves were the leaf margins, of which three or four types were distinguished: 1. margins entire or finely serrate between ribs; 2. margins with one or two convex lobes between the ribs; 3. margins with convex lobes over the ribs. The leaf study indicates that three or possibly four species were co-inhabiting the valley in the early Miocene and were part of a dynamic vegetation that colonized the valley with each deglaciation. A possible analog today would be at low elevations in Tierra del Fuego where three species of Nothofagus coexist. The stem diameters of abundant wood preserved in adjacent facies indicates

  20. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aragão-Silva, C. W.; Andrade, M. S.; Ardisson-Araújo, D. M. P.; Fernandes, J. E. A.; Morgado, F. S.; Báo, S. N.; Moraes, R. H. P.; Wolff, J. L. C.; Melo, F. L.; Ribeiro, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  1. Food-based lure performance in three locations in Puerto Rico: attractiveness to Anastrepha suspensa and A. obliqua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different lures based on hydrolyzed protein products were assayed in the field for their ability to attract Anastrepha suspensa and A. obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae). Typically, ammonium acetate with putrescine and freeze-dried NuLure with ammonium acetate and putrescine attracted more flies than ot...

  2. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Aragão-Silva, C W; Andrade, M S; Ardisson-Araújo, D M P; Fernandes, J E A; Morgado, F S; Báo, S N; Moraes, R H P; Wolff, J L C; Melo, F L; Ribeiro, B M

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  3. Lonomia obliqua caterpillar spicules trigger human blood coagulation via activation of factor X and prothrombin.

    PubMed

    Donato, J L; Moreno, R A; Hyslop, S; Duarte, A; Antunes, E; Le Bonniec, B F; Rendu, F; de Nucci, G

    1998-03-01

    In southern Brazil, envenomation by larvae of the moth Lonomia obliqua (Walker) may result in blood clotting factor depletion, leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation with subsequent haemorrhage and acute renal failure which may prove fatal. We have examined the effect of a crude extract of spicules from these caterpillars on in vitro hemostasis. The extract alone did not aggregate platelets and had no detectable effect on purified fibrinogen, suggesting that extract induces clot formation by triggering activation of the clotting cascade. In agreement with the presence of thrombin-mediated activity, hirudin prevented clot formation. The extract was found to activate both prothrombin and factor X, suggesting that the depletion of blood clotting factors results from the steady activation of factor X and prothrombin. Heating and diisopropylfluorophosphate abolished the procoagulant activity of the extract, indicating that the active component involved is a protein that may belong to the serine protease family of enzymes. The ability of hirudin to inhibit this coagulant activity suggests that this inhibitor could be beneficial in the treatment of patients envenomed by L. obliqua caterpillars. PMID:9531036

  4. Influence of Methoprene on Pheromone Emission and Sexual Maturation of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) males.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrios, Rodolfo; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Gómez-Simuta, Yeudiel; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that the application of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, reduces the time required for sexual maturation and enhances mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. This study examined the effect of different concentrations of methoprene incorporated into the diet of adult flies and distinct sugar:protein (S:P) ratios on sexual maturity and pheromone emission of Anastrepha obliqua males. Diets with 0.2 and 0.5% of methoprene accelerated sexual maturation of males compared with untreated males. In subsequent assays, the enhancement of male pheromone emission and sexual maturation by the incorporation of 0.02% methoprene into a 24:1 (S: P) diet was confirmed. Among the volatiles released by males, (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienol were emitted at higher quantities by flies treated with methoprene than untreated ones. The results show that methoprene accelerates sexual maturation of mass-reared A. obliqua males and increases their mating propensity. This would reduce the time required to attain sexual maturation by sterile males, thus decreasing fly handling costs and improving the efficacy of the sterile insect technique. PMID:26797870

  5. Halfway encounters: meeting points of colonization routes among the southern beeches Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica.

    PubMed

    Soliani, Carolina; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Bagnoli, Francesca; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Marchelli, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The Patagonian region is characterized by a complex biogeographic history, with evidence of deep phylogeographic breaks shared among species. Of particular interest to conservation is the nature of colonization and settlement patterns after the last glacial period, including the detection of secondary contact between different lineages and/or hybridization among related species around phylogeographic breaks. Here we studied population demography and past hybridization of two widespread tree species endemic to South America, Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica. Using 8 nuclear microsatellites we genotyped 41 populations of both species. Genetic variation and structure across the geographic region were evaluated within and among species and the past demographic history of hybridization between the two species was inferred using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). Northern and southern lineages were identified in each species, and Bayesian clustering revealed their convergence at mid latitudes (42°S). Spatial genetic structure (SGS) also indicated the existence of a genetic discontinuity at these latitudes, which is in agreement with previous data from maternal DNA markers. Several populations around 42-44°S presented high levels of genetic diversity with a decrease toward southern populations. Even though the species are clearly differentiated (G'ST=0.335), admixed gene pools were observed in both species. Two independent runs of ABC suggested that inter species admixture-like patterns occurred within the timescale of the Last Glacial Maximum (around 20,000 BP). We also provide evidences of recent and bi-directional hybridization/introgression between the two Nothofagus species and describe features of the populationś demography in the past. The settlement of a secondary contact zone in Nothofagus species around 42-44°S coincides with the phylogeographic breaks and hotspots of genetic diversity found in other plant and animal species in Patagonia

  6. Alkaline protease from Spilosoma obliqua: potential applications in bio-formulations.

    PubMed

    Anwar, A; Saleemuddin, M

    2000-04-01

    Some properties of the purified alkaline protease from larvae of the insect Spilosoma obliqua (Lepidoptera) and its potential application as an additive in various bio-formulations are reported. The novel feature of the present study is the use of insect protease. The protease was found to be compatible with some of the commercial detergents tested, and was also effective in cleaving various protein substrates tested, albeit to different extents, implying broader substrate specificity and effectiveness of the protease against a wide variety of stains. This property of the protease can also be exploited by using it as an active component in enzymic debriders in view of its ability to digest various protein substrates. The insect protease appears to be potentially useful as an additive in detergent, stain remover and other bio-formulations. PMID:10744951

  7. Mating time of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Henning, Frederico; Matioli, Sergio R

    2006-01-01

    Allochronic reproductive isolation seems to be an important factor in speciation processes in Tephritidae since specific mating times are a widespread feature of its species. The timing of matings of the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) was investigated through group-focal observations, during ten days, under laboratory conditions. The number of observed matings and males exhibiting calling behavior varied significantly according to time of day. Sexual activities seemed to be concentrated in the afternoon period, with the male calling behavior reaching a peak between 3:30p.m. and 4:30p.m., and mating occurred most frequently from 2:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. PMID:17352082

  8. Expression of an antiviral protein from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph in baculovirus/insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A C V; Giovanni, D N S; Corrêa, T P; Martins, L M; Stocco, R C; Suazo, C A T; Moraes, R H P; Veiga, A B G; Mendonça, R Z

    2012-05-01

    The control of viral infections, mainly those caused by influenza viruses, is of great interest in Public Health. Several studies have shown the presence of active properties in the hemolymph of arthropods, some of which are of interest for the development of new pharmacological drugs. Recently, we have demonstrated the existence of a potent antiviral property in the hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua caterpillars. The aim of this study was to produce an antiviral protein in a baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. The resulting bacmid contains the sequence coding for the antiviral protein previously described by our group. Total RNA from L. obliqua caterpillars was extracted with Trizol and used in the reverse transcription assay with oligo(d)T primer followed by polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) with specific primers for the cDNA coding for the antiviral protein, based on the sequence deposited in the GenBank database. Restriction sites were inserted in the cDNA for ligation in the donor plasmid pFastBac1™. The recombinant plasmid was selected in Escherichia coli DH5α and subsequently used in the transformation of E. coli DH10Bac for the construction of the recombinant bacmid. This bacmid was used for the expression of the antiviral protein in the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. After identifying the protein by western blot, activity tests were performed, showing that the purified recombinant protein was able to significantly reduce viral replication (about 4 logs). Studies on the optimization of the expression system for the production of this antiviral protein in insect cells are in progress. PMID:22230047

  9. Juvenile hormone analog enhances calling behavior, mating success, and quantity of volatiles released by Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chacón-Benavente, Roxana; López-Guillen, Guillermo; Hernández, Emilio; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A

    2013-04-01

    The application of a juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, to newly emerged adult males reduced the time required for sexual maturation and enhanced mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. In this work, we investigated the effect of topical methoprene application on West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), male calling, mating, and volatile release. Males treated with topical methoprene exhibited sexual maturation and reproductive behavior 2 d earlier when compared with control males treated with acetone. Methoprene-treated males began calling and mating at 4 d old, whereas control males did not call and mate until 6 d old. The gas chromotography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles showed that during calling A. obliqua males consistently released four compounds; three of them were identified as (Z)-3-nonenol, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and a fourth compound with the appearance of a farnesene isomer. Both treated and control males released the same compounds, although treated males started to release volatiles before that control males. The results are discussed in view of possible methoprene application with the aim of reducing costs in fly emergence and release facilities before eventual release of A. obliqua in the field, thus improving the sterile insect technique. PMID:23575016

  10. Structures involved in production, secretion and injection of the venom produced by the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Veiga, A B; Blochtein, B; Guimarães, J A

    2001-09-01

    The number of accidents caused by injection of the venom of Lonomia obliqua caterpillars in Southern Brazil has increased in the last years. Even though this kind of envenomation has an important social and medical impact, nothing is known about the cellular structures responsible for the production and secretion of this venom. Here we identify and analyse morphological structures possibly responsible for the production and secretion of the active principles of the venom, as well as the histological relationship of these structures with the urticating spines of L. obliqua. Detailed microscopic observations showed that: (a) L. obliqua has a complex tegument, with several cuticular specializations, (b) there are no pores along the tegument neither in the spines and (c) the spines bear a hollow canal--where the venom is deposited--and an area that can be easily broken when touched, releasing the venom. Histological and histochemical techniques revealed that: (a) there is no single gland cell that produces the venom, (b) a secretory epithelium, composed of cells containing vesicles that increase in size and number as they reach the apical region, underlies the tegument and the spines and is responsible for secretion of the venomous substances and (c) the venom is deposited in the subcuticular space and at the tips of the spines. PMID:11384722

  11. Seed dormancy responses to temperature relate to Nothofagus species distribution and determine temporal patterns of germination across altitudes in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Arana, María V; Gonzalez-Polo, Marina; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Gallo, Leonardo A; Benech-Arnold, Roberto L; Sánchez, Rodolfo A; Batlla, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Seeds integrate environmental cues that modulate their dormancy and germination. Although many mechanisms have been identified in laboratory experiments, their contribution to germination dynamics in existing communities and their involvement in defining species habitats remain elusive. By coupling mathematical models with ecological data we investigated the contribution of seed temperature responses to the dynamics of germination of three Nothofagus species that are sharply distributed across different altitudes in the Patagonian Andes. Seed responsiveness to temperature of the three Nothofagus species was linked to the thermal characteristics of their preferred ecological niche. In their natural distribution range, there was overlap in the timing of germination of the species, which was restricted to mid-spring. By contrast, outside their species distribution range, germination was temporally uncoupled with altitude. This phenomenon was described mathematically by the interplay between interspecific differences in seed population thermal parameters and the range in soil thermic environments across different altitudes. The observed interspecific variations in seed responsiveness to temperature and its environmental regulation, constitute a major determinant of the dynamics of Nothofagus germination across elevations. This phenomenon likely contributes to the maintenance of patterns of species abundance across altitude by placing germinated seeds in a favorable environment for plant growth. PMID:26306993

  12. The urticating apparatus in the caterpillar of Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Soares, Magna Aparecida Maltauro; Moraes, Roberto Henrique Pinto; Sano-Martins, Ida Sigueko; Sciani, Juliana Mozer

    2016-09-01

    The presence of specialized cells for venom production in the Lonomia obliqua caterpillar has long been a controversial topic. In this study, we identify a cell inside the spine that specializes in the production of toxins. Our histological study showed that this glandular cell was inserted at the subapical region of the spine, in a constricted region like a ring. This cell type was not observed in all spines of the scolus. The constricted region of the spine observed by scanning electron microscopy displayed a circular groove in which the apical portion of the spine fits perfectly; however, some spines in the same scolus lacked this groove. After breaking off the spine at the most apical region, a small drop of orange or green liquid was observed to flow from its tip. These secretions were analysed by MALDI-ToF and found to possess biochemically different compositions. The green secretion demonstrated greater similarity to the haemolymph of the caterpillar than the orange secretion. Based on our findings, the spines with a groove probably contain the venom glands and produce an orange secretion. However, it is also possible that both secretions play an important role in envenoming because all spines in contact with the skin of the accidental victim should break regardless of whether they are present in a groove. PMID:27319295

  13. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  14. Losac, a factor X activator from Lonomia obliqua bristle extract: Its role in the pathophysiological mechanisms and cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez Flores, Miryam Paola; Fritzen, Marcio; Reis, Cleyson V.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa . E-mail: amchudzinski@butantan.gov.br

    2006-05-19

    Contact with the bristles of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua can cause serious hemorrhage. Previously it was reported that a procoagulant protein (Lopap) in the bristle extract of L. obliqua increases cell longevity by inhibiting apoptosis. In this work, we purified from bristle extract a factor X activator that stimulates proliferation of endothelial cells. This protein, named Losac, was purified by ion exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Losac is a 45-kDa protein that activates factor X in a concentration-dependent manner and does not depend on calcium ions. In cultures of HUVECs, Losac increased cell proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis induced by starvation. HUVECs incubated with Losac (0.58 {mu}M for 1 h) increased release of nitric oxide and tissue-plasminogen activator, which both may mediate anti-apoptosis. Losac also increased slightly the decay-accelerating factor (DAF = CD55), which protects cells from complement-mediated lysis. On the other hand, Losac did not alter the release or expression of von Willebrand factor, tissue factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-8, and prostacyclin. These characteristics indicate that Losac, a protein with procoagulant activity, also functions as a growth stimulator and an inhibitor of cellular death for endothelial cells. Losac may have biotechnological applications, including the reduction of cell death and consequently increased productivity of animal cell cultures, and the use of hemolymph of L. obliqua for this purpose is already being explored. Further study is required to elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition of apoptosis by Losac.

  15. [Occurrence of accidents caused by Lonomia obliqua Walker, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Danni-Oliveira, Inês Moresco

    2007-01-01

    The present article aimed to show the distribution of accidents involving the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua, Walker, 1855, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001. The data were obtained from the Environmental Health Department of Paraná. The information collected was mapped using the Arcview program, and maps of the seasonal occurrence of accidents were generated. This seasonality was correlated with the insects life cycle and summer was shown to be the period with greatest incidence of accidents. The greatest concentrations occurred in the central-southern, southeastern and southwestern regions of the State. PMID:17568899

  16. Preformation and Neoformation in Shoots of Nothofagus antarctica (G. Forster) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) Shrubs from Northern Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    PUNTIERI, J. G.; STECCONI, M.; BARTHÉLÉMY, D.

    2002-01-01

    The size (length and diameter) and number of leaf primordia of winter buds of Nothofagus antarctica (G. Forster) Oerst. shrubs were compared with the size and number of leaves of shoots derived from buds in equivalent positions. Buds developed in two successive years were compared in terms of size and number of leaf primordia. Bud size and the number of leaf primordia per bud were greater for distal than for proximally positioned buds. Shoots that developed in the five positions closest to the distal end of their parent shoots had significantly more leaves than more proximally positioned shoots of the same parent shoots. The positive relationship between the size of a shoot and that of its parent shoot was stronger for proximal than for distal positions on the parent shoots. For each bud position on the parent shoots there were differences in the number of leaf primordia per bud between consecutive years. The correlations between the number of leaf primordia per bud and bud size, bud position and parent shoot size varied between years. Only shoots produced close to the distal end of a parent shoot developed neoformed leaves; more proximal sibling shoots consisted entirely of preformed leaves. Leaf neoformation, a process usually linked with high shoot vigour in woody plants, seems to be widespread among the relatively small shoots developed in N. antarctica shrubs, which may relate to the species’ opportunistic response to disturbance. PMID:12102521

  17. Toxicity and bioefficacy of individual and combination of diversified insecticides against jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Ramesh, V; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, S

    2015-11-01

    Toxicity of conventional (profenofos 50 EC and λ-cyhalothrin 5 EC) and non-conventional (flubendiamide 480 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG) insecticides was determined on the basis of median lethal concentration (LC50) values on third instar larvae of jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua under laboratory conditions. Further, the promising binary insecticides combinations with lesser LC50 values and adequate synergistic activity were evaluated under field conditions. The LC50 values calculated for insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and profenophos were 0.212, 0.232, 0.511, 0.985 and 3.263 ppm, respectively. Likewise, the LC50 values for flubendiamide with λ-cyhalothrin in 3:1 proportion was most toxic (0.103 ppm) amongst all the other binary combinations with λ-cyhalothrin. Chlorantraniliprole in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion (0.209 ppm) was most toxic followed by 3:1 proportion (0.345 ppm). Similarly, emamectin benzoate in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion was more toxic (0.271 ppm) than 3:1 ratio (0.333 ppm). Toxicity index of flubendiamide + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1 ratio) was highest (970.87). Bioefficacy of synergistic binary combinations along with individual insecticides established the superiority of profenophos + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1) with 89.12% reduction in infestation and recorded maximum fibre yield 38.67qha' under field condition. Moreover, combination of diverse insecticides group might sustain toxicity against the target insect for longer period with least probability of resistance development. PMID:26688981

  18. Food-based lure performance in three locations in Puerto Rico: attractiveness to Anastrepha suspensa and A. obliqua (Diptera;Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures based on odors released by hydrolyzed protein were assessed for their attractiveness to Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at three locations in Puerto Rico in August through October 2009. Lures compared included ammonium acetate combined with putrescine, hydrolyzed corn protein (Nulure) with ...

  19. Reference genes for accessing differential expression among developmental stages and analysis of differential expression of OBP genes in Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Aline Minali; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lima, André Luís A.; Taniguti, Cristiane Hayumi; Sobrinho Jr., Iderval; Torres, Felipe Rafael; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control strategies. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of three OBP genes, Obp19d_2, Obp56a and Obp99c, across different phases of A. obliqua development by qPCR. In order to do so, we tested eight and identified three reference genes for data normalization, rpl17, rpl18 and ef1a, which displayed stability for the conditions here tested. All OBPs showed differential expression on adults and some differential expression among adult stages. Obp99c had an almost exclusive expression in males and Obp56a showed high expression in virgin females. Thereby, our results provide relevant data not only for other gene expression studies in this species, as well as for the search of candidate genes that may help in the development of new pest control strategies. PMID:26818909

  20. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits. PMID:26411483

  1. Retracing the evolutionary history of Nothofagus in its geo-climatic context: new developments in the emerging field of phylogeology.

    PubMed

    Acosta, M C; Mathiasen, P; Premoli, A C

    2014-11-01

    Phylogeographic studies have made a significant contribution to the interpretation of genetic lineage distribution in response to climate changes, such as during glaciation events of the Neogene. However, the effects of ancient landscapes associated with global sea level rises, tectonic processes, and climatology driving lineage evolution have been largely overlooked. These effects can be tested in widespread lineages of cold-tolerant species that have endured cooling, and thus, phylogeographic patterns may reflect large-scale processes that were not reset by the ice ages. We hereby combine geological evidence from marine sedimentary basins, Andean orogeny, and climatology with molecular dating and statistical phylogeography to infer how geological and climatic processes affected the distribution of lineages in cold-tolerant Nothofagus species during the Cenozoic. A total of 239 populations along the entire range of all species within the genus Nothofagus (N. antarctica, N. betuloides, N. dombeyi, N. nitida, and N. pumilio) were sampled and analyzed by sequencing three non-coding regions of the chloroplast. We found 30 chloroplast DNA haplotypes that were geographically structured. Molecular dating calibrated with fossils revealed that ancestral lineages appeared in Eocene/Oligocene, whereas most divergences took place during the Miocene; in turn, Bayesian skyline plots showed that population expansion occurred in the Early Pleistocene (1.5-1 million years ago). Lineage divergence from all wide-ranging Nothofagus was spatially and temporally concordant with episodic marine transgressions and warmer times in Patagonia during Eocene/Miocene Epochs. Long-lasting stable raised areas preserved haplotype diversity throughout Patagonia, from where cold-tolerant taxa expanded their ranges during pre-Quaternary times. The detailed study of such ancient divergences is novel and allows us to infer the effects of geological processes on distribution patterns of ancient

  2. Size-Specific Tree Mortality Varies with Neighbourhood Crowding and Disturbance in a Montane Nothofagus Forest

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jennifer M.; Allen, Robert B.; Coomes, David A.; Duncan, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Tree mortality is a fundamental process governing forest dynamics, but understanding tree mortality patterns is challenging because large, long-term datasets are required. Describing size-specific mortality patterns can be especially difficult, due to few trees in larger size classes. We used permanent plot data from Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (mountain beech) forest on the eastern slopes of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, where the fates of trees on 250 plots of 0.04 ha were followed, to examine: (1) patterns of size-specific mortality over three consecutive periods spanning 30 years, each characterised by different disturbance, and (2) the strength and direction of neighbourhood crowding effects on size-specific mortality rates. We found that the size-specific mortality function was U-shaped over the 30-year period as well as within two shorter periods characterised by small-scale pinhole beetle and windthrow disturbance. During a third period, characterised by earthquake disturbance, tree mortality was less size dependent. Small trees (<20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die, in all three periods, if surrounded by a high basal area of larger neighbours, suggesting that size-asymmetric competition for light was a major cause of mortality. In contrast, large trees (≥20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die in the first period if they had few neighbours, indicating that positive crowding effects were sometimes important for survival of large trees. Overall our results suggest that temporal variability in size-specific mortality patterns, and positive interactions between large trees, may sometimes need to be incorporated into models of forest dynamics. PMID:22046327

  3. Ectomycorrhizas naturally established in Nothofagus nervosa seedlings under different cultivation practices in a forest nursery.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Natalia V; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2013-10-01

    Mycorrhizas are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and plant roots which usually improve water and nutrient uptake, influencing plant fitness. Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is an ecologically and economically important species of South American temperate forests. Since this native tree species yields valuable timber, it was overexploited and its natural distribution area was critically reduced, so it is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Among the factors that should be considered in these programs are the ectomycorrhizas (EcM), which would be important for the successful establishment and survival of outplanted seedlings. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and diversity of EcM in N. nervosa nursery-cultivated seedlings assessed by morphotyping, fungal isolation, and DNA sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) occurrence was also studied. A 2-year trial was conducted following the cultivation conditions used for domestication programs. Seedlings were cultivated under two different cultivation practices (greenhouse and nursery soil) without artificial inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi. Seedlings' roots were examined at different times. It was observed that they developed EcM between 6 and 12 months after germination and AMs were not detected in any plant. The most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi present in seedlings' roots were Tomentella ellisii (Basidiomycota) and an unidentified fungus named Ascomicetous EcM sp. 1. Abundance and diversity of EcM varied between the two cultivation techniques analyzed in this study, since seedlings that continued growing in the greenhouse had higher colonization values, but those transplanted to the nursery soil were colonized by a higher diversity of fungal taxa. PMID:23636582

  4. Foliar anatomical and morphological variation in Nothofagus pumilio seedlings under controlled irradiance and soil moisture levels.

    PubMed

    Ivancich, Horacio S; Lencinas, María V; Pastur, Guillermo J Martínez; Esteban, Rosina M Soler; Hernández, Luis; Lindstrom, Ivone

    2012-05-01

    Foliar anatomy and morphology are strongly related to physiological performance; therefore, phenotypic plasticity in leaves to variations in environmental conditions, such as irradiance and soil moisture availability, can be related to growth rate and survivorship, mainly during critical growth phases, such as establishment. The aim of this work was to analyze changes in the foliar internal anatomy (tissue proportions and cell dimensions) and external morphology (leaf length, width and area) of Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp. et Endl.) Krasser seedlings growing in a greenhouse under controlled irradiance (three levels) and soil moisture (two levels) during one growing season (measured three times), and to relate them to physiological traits. Three irradiance levels (4, 26 and 64% of the natural incident light) and two soil moisture levels (40 and 80% soil capacity) were evaluated during November, January and March. Internal foliar anatomy of seedlings was analyzed using digital photographs of histological cuttings, while leaf gross morphology was measured using digital calipers and image analysis software. Most internal anatomical variables presented significant differences under different irradiance levels during the growing season, but differences were not detected between soil moisture levels. Palisade parenchyma was the tissue most sensitive to irradiance levels, and high irradiance levels (64% natural incident light) produced greater values in most of the internal anatomical variables than lower irradiance levels (4-24% natural incident light). Complementarily, larger leaves were observed in medium and low irradiance levels, as well as under low soil moisture levels (40% soil capacity). The relationship of main results with some eco-physiological traits was discussed. Foliar internal anatomical and external morphological plasticity allows quick acclimation of seedlings to environmental changes (e.g., during harvesting). These results can be used to propose new

  5. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Carolina V; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:27617993

  6. Solar radiation transmission in and around canopy gaps in an uneven-aged Nothofagus betuloides forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promis, Alvaro; Schindler, Dirk; Reif, Albert; Cruz, Gustavo

    2009-07-01

    The transmission of direct, diffuse and global solar radiation in and around canopy gaps occurring in an uneven-aged, evergreen Nothofagus betuloides forest during the growing season (October 2006-March 2007) was estimated by means of hemispherical photographs. The transmission of solar radiation into the forest was affected not only by a high level of horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of the forest canopy, but also by low angles of the sun’s path. The below-canopy direct solar radiation appeared to be variable in space and time. On average, the highest amount of transmitted direct solar radiation was estimated below the undisturbed canopy at the southeast of the gap centre. The transmitted diffuse and global solar radiation above the forest floor exhibited lower variability and, on average, both were higher at the centre of the canopy gaps. Canopy structure and stand parameters were also measured to explain the variation in the below-canopy solar radiation in the forest. The model that best fit the transmitted below-canopy direct solar radiation was a growth model, using plant area index with an ellipsoidal angle distribution as the independent variable ( R 2 = 0.263). Both diffuse and global solar radiation were very sensitive to canopy openness, and for both cases a quadratic model provided the best fit for these data ( R 2 = 0.963 and 0.833, respectively). As much as 75% and 73% of the variation in the diffuse and global solar radiation, respectively, were explained by a combination of stand parameters, namely basal area, crown projection, crown volume, stem volume, and average equivalent crown radius.

  7. The southernmost Andean Mountain soils: a toposequence from Nothofagus Forest to Sub Antarctic Tundra at Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firme Sá, Mariana M.; Schaefer, Carlos E.; Loureiro, Diego C.; Simas, Felipe N.; Francelino, Marcio R.; Senra, Eduardo O.

    2015-04-01

    Located at the southern tip of the Fuegian Andes Cordilhera, the Martial glacier witnessed a rapid process of retreat in the last century. Up to now little is known about the development and genesis of soils of this region. A toposequence of six soils, ranging from 430-925 m a.s.l, was investigated, with emphasis on genesis, chemical and mineralogical properties. The highest, youngest soil is located just below the Martial Glacier Martial Sur sector, and the lowest soils occur on sloping moraines under Nothofagus pumilio forests. Based on chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics, the soils were classified according to the Soil taxonomy, being keyed out as Inceptisols and Entisols. Soil parent material of the soil is basically moraines, in which the predominant lithic components dominated by metamorphic rocks, with allochthonous contributions of wind-blown materials (very small fragments of volcanic glass) observed by hand lens in all horizons, except the highest profile under Tundra. In Nothofagus Deciduous Forests at the lowest part of the toposequence, poorly developed Inceptisols occur with Folistic horizons, with mixed "andic" and "spodic" characters, but with a predominance of andosolization (Andic Drystrocryepts). Under Tundra vegetation, Inceptisols are formed under hydromorphism and andosolization processes (Oxiaquic Dystrocrepts and Typic Dystrocrepts). On highland periglacial environments, soils without B horizon with strong evidence of cryoturbation and cryogenesis occur, without present-day permafrost down to 2 meters (Typic Cryorthents and Lithic Haploturbels). The mountain soils of Martial glacier generalize young, stony and rich in organic matter, with the exception of barely vegetated Tundra soils at higher altitudes. The forest soils are more acidic and have higher Al3+activity. All soils are dystrophic, except for the highest profile of the local periglacial environment. The organic carbon amounts are higher in forest soils and

  8. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  9. Genetic Diversity in Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae), an Endangered Endemic Tree Species of the Coastal Maulino Forest of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; González, Fidelina; Fuentes, Glenda; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The endemic tree Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae) has been historically restricted to the coastal range of Region VII of central Chile, and its forests have been increasingly destroyed and fragmented since the end of the 19th century. In this study, the patterns of within- and among-population genetic diversity in seven fragments of this endangered narrowly endemic tree were examined. Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of seven loci of N. alessandrii was used to estimate genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Key Results High levels of genetic diversity were found as shown by mean expected heterozygosity (He = 0·182 ± 0·034), percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp = 61·2 %), mean number of alleles per locus (A = 1·8) and mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (Ap = 2·3). Genetic differentiation was also high (GST = 0·257 and Nm = 0·7). These values are high compared with more widespread congeneric species. Conclusions Despite its endemic status and restricted geographical range N. alessandrii showed high levels of genetic diversity. The observed patterns of diversity are explained in part by historical processes and more recent human fragmentation. PMID:17513870

  10. Yeast and yeast-like fungi associated with dry indehiscent fruits of Nothofagus nervosa in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Natalia V; Mestre, M Cecilia; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2012-04-01

    Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is a native tree species that yields valuable timber. It was overexploited in the past and is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Several research programs have focused on the characterization of epiphytic microorganisms because it has been demonstrated that they can affect plant-pathogen interactions and/or promote plant growth. Although the microbial ecology of leaves has been well studied, less is known about microorganisms occurring on seeds and noncommercial fruits. In this work, we analyzed the yeast and yeast-like fungi present on N. nervosa fruits destined for the propagation of this species, as well as the effects of fruit preservation and seed dormancy-breaking processes on fungal diversity. Morphological and molecular methods were used, and differences between fungal communities were analyzed using a similarity index. A total of 171 isolates corresponding to 17 species were recovered, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. The majority of the species develop mycelia, produce pigments and mycosporines, and these adaptation strategies are discussed. It was observed that the preservation process considerably reduced yeast and yeast-like fungal diversity. This is the first study concerning microbial communities associated with this ecologically and economically important species, and the information presented is relevant to domestication programs. PMID:22224476

  11. Are the oxygen isotopic compositions of Fitzroya cupressoides and Nothofagus pumilio cellulose promising proxies for climate reconstructions in northern Patagonia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavergne, Aliénor; Daux, Valérie; Villalba, Ricardo; Pierre, Monique; Stievenard, Michel; Vimeux, Françoise; Srur, Ana Marina

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring δ18O chronologies from two native species (Fitzroya cupressoides and Nothofagus pumilio) in northern Patagonia were developed to assess their potential for paleoclimate reconstructions. The five annually resolved cellulose δ18O chronologies (two for F. cupressoides and three for N. pumilio) are located on the Andes along the steep west-to-east precipitation gradient. Over the common 60 years long interval, the five site-δ18Ocell chronologies exhibit a strong common signal as indicated by the significant mean intercorrelation (r = 0.61, p < 0.05) and the high percentage (65%) of total variance explained by the first empirical orthogonal function. Although correlation analyses reveal that the two mean species-δ18Ocell chronologies are mainly modulated by December-May temperature, the N. pumilio chronology shows a greater sensitivity to record temperature variations (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). The δ18Ocell of N. pumilio contains a regional temperature signal representative of a large area in southern South America under the influence of the Southern Annular Mode. This study indicates that δ18Ocell in N. pumilio is a promising proxy to reconstruct past variations in temperature in South America south of 38°S.

  12. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua, the main Tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged, fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time,...

  13. Genetic differentiation in spite of high gene flow in the dominant rainforest tree of southeastern Australia, Nothofagus cunninghamii.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C J; Worth, J R P; Jordan, G J; Jones, R C; Vaillancourt, R E

    2016-01-01

    Nothofagus cunninghamii is a long-lived, wind-pollinated tree species that dominates the cool temperate rainforests of southeastern Australia. The species' distribution is more or less continuous in western Tasmania but is fragmented elsewhere. However, it is unknown whether this fragmentation has affected the species' genetic architecture. Thus, we examined N. cunninghamii using 12 nuclear microsatellites and 633 individuals from 18 populations spanning the species' natural range. Typical of wind-pollinated trees, there was low range-wide genetic structure (FST=0.04) consistent with significant gene flow across most of the species' range. However, gene flow was not high enough to overcome the effects of drift across some disjunctions. Victorian populations (separated from Tasmania by the 240 km wide Bass Strait) formed a genetic group distinct from Tasmanian populations, had lower diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar)=5.4 in Victoria versus 6.9 in Tasmania) and were significantly more differentiated from one another than those in Tasmania (FST=0.045 in Victoria versus 0.012 in Tasmania). Evidence for bottlenecking was found in small populations that were at least 20 km from other populations. Interestingly, we found little divergence in microsatellite markers between the extremes of genetically based morphological and physiological altitudinal clines suggesting adaptive differentiation is strongly driven by selection because it is likely to be occurring in the presence of gene flow. Even though the cool temperate rainforests of Australia are highly relictual, the species is relatively robust to population fragmentation due to high levels of genetic diversity and gene flow, especially in Tasmania. PMID:26350630

  14. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with < 1.3 m high, and at the advanced stage with >1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies. PMID:26708647

  15. No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. δ13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

  16. Multi-stemmed trees of Nothofagus pumilio second-growth forest in Patagonia are formed by highly related individuals

    PubMed Central

    Till-Bottraud, Irène; Fajardo, Alex; Rioux, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Multi-stemmed trees (tree clusters) in Nothofagus pumilio, a dominant tree species in Patagonia, are very uncommon and are restricted to the edge of second-growth forests following human-provoked fires. No vegetative reproduction has been reported so far. The genetic structure of multi-stemmed trees of this species was investigated and it was hypothesized that genets within a cluster were more closely related than average in the population. Methods Fifteen clusters (composed of at least three purported stems) and 15 single trees were sampled at the edge of a second-growth forest and genotyped using two amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. We obtained 119 polymorphic markers that allowed clonality to be determined, together with sibship structure and relatedness among samples. Key Results Clonality was detected in seven clusters but all clusters had at least two different genotypes. Full sibs were found exclusively within clusters and in all clusters. Within a cluster, stems that were not identified as full sibs were often half sibs. Relatedness values for the full sibs and half sibs were higher than the theoretical values of 0·5 and 0·25 but the relatedness between clusters was very low. Conclusions Tree clusters that are merged at the edge of the second-growth forest of N. pumilio are composed of stems of the same genotype and of other genotypes that are highly related (but not always). It is suggested that this peculiar genetic structure results from a combination of several causes, including selection for merging of related individuals. PMID:22782238

  17. Solar UV-B radiation affects leaf quality and insect herbivory in the southern beech tree Nothofagus antarctica.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, M Cecilia; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Searles, Peter S; Scopel, Ana L; Aphalo, Pedro J; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2004-03-01

    We examined the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant-insect interactions in Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S), Argentina, an area strongly affected by ozone depletion because of its proximity to Antarctica. Solar UV-B under Nothofagus antarctica branches was manipulated using a polyester plastic film to attenuate UV-B (uvb-) and an Aclar film to provide near-ambient UV-B (uvb+). The plastic films were placed on both north-facing (i.e., high solar radiation in the Southern Hemisphere) and south-facing branches. Insects consumed 40% less leaf area from north- than from south-facing branches, and at least 30% less area from uvb+ branches than from uvb- branches. The reduced herbivory on leaves from uvb+ branches occurred for both branch orientations. Leaf mass per area increased and relative water content decreased on north- versus south-facing branches, while no differences were apparent between the UV-B treatments. Solar UV-B did lead to lower gallic acid concentration and higher flavonoid aglycone concentration in uvb+ leaves relative to uvb- leaves. Both the flavonoid aglycone and quercetin-3-arabinopyranoside were higher on north-facing branches. In laboratory preference experiments, larvae of the dominant insect in the natural community, Geometridae "Brown" (Lepidoptera), consumed less area from field-grown uvb+ leaves than from uvb- leaves in 1996-97, but not in 1997-98. Correlation analyses suggested that the reduction in insect herbivory in the field under solar UV-B may be mediated in part by the UV-B effects on gallic acid and flavonoid aglycone. PMID:14740287

  18. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  19. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  20. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests. PMID:26930056

  1. Acute Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation-induced physiopathological alterations in rats: evidence of new toxic venom activities and the efficacy of serum therapy to counteract systemic tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Santi, Lucélia; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Jorge, Patrícia Mendes; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Driemeier, David; Vieira, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Guimarães, Jorge Almeida

    2013-11-01

    The clinical manifestations of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation are systemic hemorrhage and acute kidney injury. In an effort to better understand the physiopathological mechanisms of envenomation, a rat model was established to study systemic tissue damage during L. obliqua envenomation. An array of acute venom effects was characterized, including biochemical, hematological, histopathological, myotoxic and genotoxic alterations. Rapid increases in serum alanine and aspartate transaminases, γ-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid were observed, indicating that intravascular hemolysis and liver and kidney damage had occurred. Treatment with a specific antivenom (antilonomic serum) for up to 2 h post-venom injection neutralized the biochemical alterations. However, treatment after 6 h post-venom injection failed to normalize all biochemical parameters, despite its efficacy in reversing coagulation dysfunction. The hematological findings were consistent with hemolytic anemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis. The histopathological alterations were mainly related to hemorrhage and inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue, lung, heart and kidneys. Signs of congestion and hemosiderosis were evident in the spleen, and hemoglobin and/or myoglobin casts were also detected in the renal tubules. Increased levels of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB were correlated with the myocardial necrosis observed in vivo and confirmed the myotoxicity detected in vitro in isolated extensor digitorum longus muscles. Significant DNA damage was observed in the kidneys, heart, lung, liver and lymphocytes. The majority of the DNA lesions in the kidney were due to oxidative damage. The results presented here will aid in understanding the pathology underlying Lonomia's envenomation. PMID:23994591

  2. A catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Ana B G; Ribeiro, José M C; Guimarães, Jorge A; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2005-08-01

    Accidents with the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. In the present study, we have constructed cDNA libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. Over one thousand cDNAs were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library and 368 for the bristle library. We have thus identified dozens of full-length cDNAs coding for proteins with sequence homology to snake venom prothrombin activator, trypsin-like enzymes, blood coagulation factors and prophenoloxidase cascade activators. We also report cDNA coding for cysteine proteases, Group III phospholipase A2, C-type lectins, lipocalins, in addition to protease inhibitors including serpins, Kazal-type inhibitors, cystatins and trypsin inhibitor-like molecules. Antibacterial proteins and housekeeping genes are also described. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be defined. We also report the N-terminus of the most abundant proteins present in the bristle, tegument, hemolymph, and "cryosecretion". Thus, we have created a catalog that contains the predicted molecular weight, isoelectric point, accession number, and putative function for each selected molecule from the venomous structures of L. obliqua. The role of these molecules in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome caused by envenomation with this caterpillar is discussed. All sequence information and the , including figures and tables with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the databases, are available at http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/projects/omes. PMID:16023793

  3. A catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Ana B. G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Guimarães, Jorge A.; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Accidents with the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. In the present study, we have constructed cDNA libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. Over one thousand cDNAs were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library and 368 for the bristle library. We have thus identified dozens of full-length cDNAs coding for proteins with sequence homology to snake venom prothrombin activator, trypsin-like enzymes, blood coagulation factors and prophenoloxidase cascade activators. We also report cDNA coding for cysteine proteases, Group III phospholipase A2, C-type lectins, lipocalins, in addition to protease inhibitors including serpins, Kazal-type inhibitors, cystatins and trypsin inhibitor-like molecules. Antibacterial proteins and housekeeping genes are also described. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be defined. We also report the N-terminus of the most abundant proteins present in the bristle, tegument, hemolymph, and "cryosecretion". Thus, we have created a catalog that contains the predicted molecular weight, isoelectric point, accession number, and putative function for each selected molecule from the venomous structures of L. obliqua. The role of these molecules in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome caused by envenomation with this caterpillar is discussed. All sequence information and the Supplemental Data, including Figures and Tables with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the Databases, are available at http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/projects/omes. PMID:16023793

  4. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    PubMed

    Ma, Long; Li, Zhao-Qun; Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests. PMID:26930056

  5. Examination of the Ligand-Binding and Enzymatic Properties of a Bilin-Binding Protein from the Poisonous Caterpillar Lonomia obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Ana B. G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Xu, Xueqing; Guimarães, Jorge A.; Andersen, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The bilin-binding proteins (BBP) from lepidopteran insects are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a special role in pigmentation through the binding of biliverdin IXγ. Lopap, a BBP-like protein from the venom of the toxic caterpillar Lonomia obliqua has been reported to act as a serine protease that activates the coagulation proenzyme prothrombin. Here we show that BBPLo, a variant of lopap from the same organism binds biliverdin IXγ, forming a complex that is spectrally identical with previously described BBP proteins. Although BBPLo is nearly identical in sequence to lopap, no prothrombinase activity was detected in our recombinant preparations using reconstituted systems containing coagulation factors Xa and Va, as well as anionic phospholipids. In addition to biliverdin, BBPLo was found to form a 1∶1 complex with heme prompting us to examine whether the unusual biliverdin IXγ ligand of BBPs forms as a result of oxidation of bound heme in situ rather than by a conventional heme oxygenase. Using ascorbate or a NADPH+-ferredoxin reductase-ferredoxin system as a source of reducing equivalents, spectral changes are seen that suggest an initial reduction of heme to the Fe(II) state and formation of an oxyferrous complex. The complex then disappears and a product identified as a 5-coordinate carbonyl complex of verdoheme, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of biliverdin, is formed. However, further reaction to form biliverdin was not observed, making it unlikely that biliverdin IXγ is formed by this pathway. PMID:24972000

  6. Living on the edge: adaptive and plastic responses of the tree Nothofagus pumilio to a long-term transplant experiment predict rear-edge upward expansion.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Current climate change affects the competitive ability and reproductive success of many species, leading to local extinctions, adjustment to novel local conditions by phenotypic plasticity or rapid adaptation, or tracking their optima through range shifts. However, many species have limited ability to expand to suitable areas. Altitudinal gradients, with abrupt changes in abiotic conditions over short distances, represent "natural experiments" for the evaluation of ecological and evolutionary responses under scenarios of climate change. Nothofagus pumilio is the tree species which dominates as pure stands the montane forests of Patagonia. We evaluated the adaptive value of variation in quantitative traits of N. pumilio under contrasting conditions of the altitudinal gradient with a long-term reciprocal transplant experimental design. While high-elevation plants show little response in plant, leaf, and phenological traits to the experimental trials, low-elevation ones show greater plasticity in their responses to changing environments, particularly at high elevation. Our results suggest a relatively reduced potential for evolutionary adaptation of high-elevation genotypes, and a greater evolutionary potential of low-elevation ones. Under global warming scenarios of forest upslope migration, high-elevation variants may be outperformed by low-elevation ones during this process, leading to the local extinction and/or replacement of these genotypes. These results challenge previous models and predictions expected under global warming for altitudinal gradients, on which the leading edge is considered to be the upper treeline forests. PMID:26868524

  7. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks. PMID:24665723

  8. Continental and local climatic influences on hydrology of eucalypt-Nothofagus ecosystems revealed by δ2H, δ13C, and δ18O of ecosystem samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Gessler, Arthur; Rennenberg, Heinz; Weston, Christopher J.; Adams, Mark A.

    2010-03-01

    Marrying knowledge of variation in large-scale climatic parameters such as rainfall and evaporation to physiological ecology has long been argued as a powerful approach to advancing understanding of hydrology of catchments. Widely used hydrological models for assessing water yield depend on key plant attributes such as whether or not plant water use is coupled to atmospheric and/or soil water status. We analyzed δ2H and δ18O signatures of long-term rainwater collections from coastal sites near Melbourne, Australia, and in northwest Tasmania and compared them with their counterparts in rainwater, stream water, soil water, and twig water data collected over a 2 year period from south facing Eucalyptus-Nothofagus forests in the Cement Creek catchment of Mt. Donna Buang, about 70 km east of the city of Melbourne. Within the catchment, progressive evaporative enrichment among rain, soil, and twig water accounted for observed δ2H and δ18O signatures. We observed a major shift in both δ2H and δ18O signatures of rain and stream water between 2001/2002 and 2003. The shift was likely due to changes in atmospheric conditions and especially relative contributions to rainwater from oceanic and continental sources. Our plant isotope data argue strongly that radiation, not water, is a primary limitation for Nothofagus on Mt. Donna Buang. The δ18O and δ13C signatures of foliage varied with season and with topography. For the wettest and driest years in the 1978-2000 record, strong and consistent altitudinal gradients in δ13C of tree rings had a slope of between 4‰ and 5‰ km-1 of altitude. Our data highlight the importance of background (e.g., rainfall and atmospheric CO2) isotope data to interpretation of plant isotope data. Taken together with the literature, our isotope data lead us to conclude that (1) in periods of close to average rainfall, the observed meteoric water line at Mt. Donna Buang and at other stations in southeast Australia departs strongly in slope

  9. Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  10. Effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of the tephritids Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to multilure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure in mango orchards.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    The physiological state of an insect is likely the most important endogenous factor influencing resource-oriented behavior, and it varies considerably among individuals. Trials were conducted in mango orchards to study the effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of two fly species, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Maquart (Diptera: Tephritidae), to BioLure and NuLure baits. The biological factors of the two fly species that were tested were the following: 1) fertility status-sterile (irradiated) and fertile flies; 2) two types of diets (only sugar and a 3:1 mixture of sugar and hydrolyzed yeast protein; 3) sex, and 4) two sexual maturity conditions (2-4- and 15-18-d-old flies, representing immature and sexually mature flies, respectively, and 2-4-d-old flies treated with methoprene as an artificially induced sexually state male condition). The laboratory-treated flies were released into three different mango orchards. The trials were conducted in four blocks per orchard using eight traps in each block (50:50 BioLure: NuLure). The traps were replaced every 2 d during the 12-d period and the flies per trap per day values were calculated. More protein-fed, fertile, female, immature, and A. obliqua flies were caught compared with the other flies tested. In addition, the traps baited with NuLure attracted more flies than those baited with BioLure. Interaction analyses indicated that the type of bait and the sexual maturity status were the most important factors affecting the responses of the flies. Our study demonstrated that lures attract only a small segment of the fly population, those that have a specific hunger for amino acids-immature flies-and those that were protein-starved. The implications for improved trapping system designs are discussed. PMID:25026661

  11. Nutrient dynamics during the development of a Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.) stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, J.; Marques, R.; Colin-Belgrand, M.

    The general process of nutrient cycling in forest stands is relatively well-known. Nevertheless, fluxes in representative ecosystems have not yet been quantified, certainly due to the amount of measurements required. The unavailability of such information is delaying the validation of models describing the ecosystem function. Numerous observations of nutrient stocks and fluxes carried out on a chronosequence of Douglas-fir stands in the Beaujolais mountains (France) were used: i) to quantify the main fluxes of the biological cycle of nutrients for the main stages of development of a single stand, ii) to characterize their dynamics during forest development and iii) to quantify the real amount of nutrients involved in forest growth and to identify their origins. The present soil nutrient reserves of the ecosystem studied were relatively low if compared to stand nutrient uptake. The biological cycle represents a key process in the maintenance of forest productivity under such conditions. Cumulation of fluxes during rotation was very useful in quantifying the real amounts of nutrients involved in tree nutrition, in demonstrating the efficiency of the system's use of the limited pool of nutrients needed to produce biomass and to show the relevance of the biological cycle in the soil function. These results will be helpful in understanding the nutrient behaviour in a highly productive forest plantation and thereby providing decisive information for their sustainable management.

  12. Sequestrate fungi from Patagonian Nothofagus forests: Cystangium (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Trierveiler-Pereira, Larissa; Smith, Matthew E; Trappe, James M; Nouhra, Eduardo R

    2015-01-01

    Six species of Cystangium, a genus of sequestrate taxa related to Russula, were collected in Patagonia (Argentina and Chile) during autumn 2001. Two species, C. depauperatum Singer & A.H. Sm. and C. nothofagi (E. Horak) Trappe, Castellano & T. Lebel, were already known from this region, while four new species, C. domingueziae, C. gamundiae, C. grandihyphatum and C. longisterigmatum, are described, illustrated and a key to the species is provided. In addition, sequences of the ITS (rDNA) region were obtained to explore the phylogenetic relationships of our South American Cystangium species. PMID:25232070

  13. XEROMORPHY INCREASES IN SHOOTS OF PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (MIRB.) FRANCO SEEDLINGS WITH EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BUT NOT ELEVATED CO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedling structure influences tree structure and function, ultimately determining the potential productivity of trees and their competitiveness for resources. We investigated changes in shoot organ structure, as indicated by biomass allocation, allometry and anatomy in response ...

  14. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C.

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans (Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs in H. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua (Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. obliqua revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  15. Solar sterilization of abscised fruit: a cultural practice to reduce infestations of Anastrepha obliqua around orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abscised mangoes, Mangifera indica L., of several varieties were stored under varying conditions of insolation, including no sun (stored in a laboratory), shade (stored under the shade of a mango tree), full sun (stored in direct view of the sun), and covered in a black plastic bag and stored in dir...

  16. Total Synthesis of 4,5-Didehydroguadiscine: A Potent Melanogenesis Inhibitor from the Brazilian Medicinal Herb, Hornschuchia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Sugano, Youta; Shirato, Miki; Sonoda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2015-07-24

    The first total synthesis of the 7,7-dimethylaporphinoid, 4,5-didehydroguadiscine (6), originally isolated from the stems and roots of Hornschuchia oblique (Annonaceae), was achieved by the condensation of homopiperonylamine (7) with an α,α-dimethylphenylacetic acid derivative (8) and subsequent Pschorr reaction of the resulting benzylisoquinoline intermediate (22). The reported (13)C NMR data were partially revised on the basis of the analysis of HMBC spectra measured under different conditions. The melanogenesis inhibitory activity (IC50 = 4.7 μM) of 6 was 40 times stronger than that of arbutin (174 μM), which was used as reference standard. Furthermore, 6 was the most potent natural melanogenesis inhibitor within this class of compounds. PMID:26135746

  17. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    PubMed

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding

  18. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; van Cleemput, O.; Godoy, R.; Oyarzún, C.

    2005-02-01

    The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM). In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  19. The spatial distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues depends on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Díaz, Leila Milena; Villanueva, Claudia Añazco; Heyser, Wolfgang; Boeckx, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes are involved in the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P) and polyphosphate accumulated in the fungal tissues of ectomycorrhizal roots, thereby influencing the amounts of P that are stored in the fungus and transferred to the host plant. This study evaluated the effects of ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility on ACP activity in the extraradical mycelium (ACP(myc)), the mantle (ACP(mantle)) and the Hartig net region (ACP(Hartig)) of ectomycorrhizal Nothofagus obliqua seedlings. ACP activity was quantified in vivo using enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) substrate, confocal laser microscopy and digital image processing routines. There was a significant effect of ectomycorrhizal morphotype on ACP(myc), ACP(mantle) and ACP(Hartig), while soil fertility had a significant effect on ACP(myc) and ACP(Hartig). The relative contribution of the mantle and the Hartig net region to the ACP activity on the ectomycorrhizal root was significantly affected by ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility. A positive correlation between ACP(Hartig) and the shoot P concentration was found, providing evidence that ACP activity at the fungus:root interface is involved in P transfer from the fungus to the host. It is concluded that the spatial distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus. PMID:21902696

  20. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host.

    PubMed

    González-González, Angélica; Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans(Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs inH. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua(Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. oblique revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  1. Succession of ground-dwelling beetle assemblages after fire in three habitat types in the Andean forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  2. Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  3. Chilean and Southeast Pacific paleoclimate variations during the last glacial cycle: directly correlated pollen and δ18O records from ODP Site 1234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, Linda; Heusser, Cal; Mix, Alan; McManus, Jerry

    2006-12-01

    Joint pollen and oxygen isotope data from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1234 in the southeast Pacific provide the first, continuous record of temperate South American vegetation and climate from the last 140 ka. Located at ˜36°S, ˜65 km offshore of Concepcion, Chile, Site 1234 monitors the climatic transition zone between northern semi-arid, summer dry-winter wet climate and southern year-round, rainy, cool temperate climate. Dominance of onshore winds suggests that pollen preserved here reflects transport to the ocean via rivers that drain the region and integrate conditions from the coastal mountains to the Andean foothills. Down-hole changes in diagnostic pollen assemblages from xeric lowland deciduous forest (characterized by grasses, herbs, ferns, and trees such as deciduous beech, Nothofagus obliqua), mesic Valdivian Evergreen Forest (including conifers such as the endangered Prumnopitys andina), and Subantarctic Evergreen Rainforest (comprised primarily of southern beech, N. dombeyi) reveal large rapid shifts that likely reflect latitudinal movements in atmospheric circulation and storm tracks associated with the southern westerly winds. During glacial intervals (MIS 2-4, and 6), rainforests and parkland dominated by Nothofagus moved northward into the region. At the MIS 6/5e transition, coeval with the rapid shift to lower isotopic values, rainforest vegetation was rapidly replaced by xeric plant communities associated with Mediterranean-type climate. An increased prominence of halophytic vegetation suggests that MIS 5e was more arid and possibly warmer than MIS 1. Although rainforest pollen rises again at the end of MIS 5e, lowland deciduous forest pollen persists through MIS 5d and 5c, into MIS 5b. Substantial millennial-scale variations occur in both interglacial and glacial regimes, attesting to the sensitivity of the southern westerly belt to climate change. Comparison of the cool, mesic N. dombeyi rainforest assemblage from Site 1234 with δ18O in

  4. In the Right Place at the Right Time: Habitat Representation in Protected Areas of South American Nothofagus-Dominated Plants after a Dispersal Constrained Climate Change Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  6. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  7. Human neural progenitor cells retain viability, phenotype, proliferation, and lineage differentiation when labeled with a novel iron oxide nanoparticle, Molday ION Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Plachez, Celine; Chan, Amanda; Yarnell, Deborah; Puche, Adam C; Fishman, Paul S; Yarowsky, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (USPIOs) loaded into stem cells have been suggested as a way to track stem cell transplantation with magnetic resonance imaging, but the labeling, and post-labeling proliferation, viability, differentiation, and retention of USPIOs within the stem cells have yet to be determined for each type of stem cell and for each type of USPIO. Molday ION Rhodamine B™ (BioPAL, Worcester, MA, USA) (MIRB) has been shown to be a USPIO labeling agent for mesenchymal stem cells, glial progenitor cells, and stem cell lines. In this study, we have evaluated MIRB labeling in human neuroprogenitor cells and found that human neuroprogenitor cells are effectively labeled with MIRB without use of transfection reagents. Viability, proliferation, and differentiation properties are unchanged between MIRB-labeled neuroprogenitors cells and unlabeled cells. Moreover, MIRB-labeled human neuroprogenitor cells can be frozen, thawed, and replated without loss of MIRB or even without loss of their intrinsic biology. Overall, those results show that MIRB has advantageous properties that can be used for cell-based therapy. PMID:24348036

  8. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  9. Development and Characterization of an Antibody-Labeled Super-Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Contrast Agent Targeting Prostate Cancer Cells for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bates, David; Abraham, Suraj; Campbell, Michael; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Curiel, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study we developed, characterized and validated in vitro a functional superparagmagnetic iron-oxide based magnetic resonance contrast agent by conjugating a commercially available iron oxide nanoparticle, Molday ION Rhodamine-B Carboxyl (MIRB), with a deimmunized mouse monoclonal antibody (muJ591) targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). This functional contrast agent is intended for the specific and non-invasive detection of prostate cancer cells that are PSMA positive, a marker implicated in prostate tumor progression and metastasis. The two-step carbodiimide reaction used to conjugate the antibody to the nanoparticle was efficient and we obtained an elemental iron content of 1958±611 per antibody. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that the conjugated muJ591:MIRB complex specifically binds to PSMA-positive (LNCaP) cells. The muJ591:MIRB complex reduced cell adhesion and cell proliferation on LNCaP cells and caused apoptosis as tested by Annexin V assay, suggesting anti-tumorigenic characteristics. Measurements of the T2 relaxation time of the muJ591:MIRB complex using a 400 MHz Innova NMR and a multi-echo spin-echo sequence on a 3T MRI (Achieva, Philips) showed a significant T2 relaxation time reduction for the muJ591:MIRB complex, with a reduced T2 relaxation time as a function of the iron concentration. PSMA-positive cells treated with muJ591:MIRB showed a significantly shorter T2 relaxation time as obtained using a 3T MRI scanner. The reduction in T2 relaxation time for muJ591:MIRB, combined with its specificity against PSMA+LNCaP cells, suggest its potential as a biologically-specific MR contrast agent. PMID:24819929

  10. Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However

  11. Effects of the iron oxide nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B on the viability and regenerative function of neural stem cells: relevance to clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Umashankar, Abhishek; Corenblum, Mandi J; Ray, Sneha; Valdez, Michel; Yoshimaru, Eriko S; Trouard, Theodore P; Madhavan, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    An essential component of developing successful neural stem cell (NSC)-based therapies involves the establishment of methodologies to noninvasively monitor grafted NSCs within brain tissues in real time. In this context, ex vivo labeling with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles has been shown to enable efficient tracking of transplanted NSCs via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, whether and how USPIO labeling affects the intrinsic biology of NSCs is not thoroughly understood, and remains an active area of investigation. Here, we perform a comprehensive examination of rat NSC survival and regenerative function upon labeling with the USPIO, Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB), which allows for dual magnetic resonance and optical imaging. After optimization of labeling efficiency, two specific doses of MIRB (20 and 50 μg/mL) were chosen and were followed for the rest of the study. We observed that both MIRB doses supported the robust detection of NSCs, over an extended period of time in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into the striata of host rats, using MRI and post hoc fluorescence imaging. Both in culture and after neural transplantation, the higher 50 μg/mL MIRB dose significantly reduced the survival, proliferation, and differentiation rate of the NSCs. Interestingly, although the lower 20 μg/mL MIRB labeling did not produce overtly negative effects, it increased the proliferation and glial differentiation of the NSCs. Additionally, application of this dose also changed the morphological characteristics of neurons and glia produced after NSC differentiation. Importantly, the transplantation of NSCs labeled with either of the two MIRB doses upregulated the immune response in recipient animals. In particular, in animals receiving the 50 μg/mL MIRB-labeled NSCs, this immune response consisted of an increased number of CD68+-activated microglia, which appeared to have phagocytosed MIRB particles and cells contributing to an

  12. Impacts of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled materials on biological characteristics and osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangping; Na, Zhenwen; Ren, Bin; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Weixian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (Molday ION Rhodamine B, MIRB) on bioactivities and osteogenetic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) method was used to detect the proliferation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled BMSCs and observed the distribution of MIRB in cells; real time -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used to analyze the expressions of such osteogenesis-related genes as bone sialoprotein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), RUNX2, bonemorphogeneticprotein-2 (BMP-2), type 1 collagen (COL-1) and type 3 collagen (COL-3); ALP-Alizarin red staining and poly-biochemical analyzer were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the osteogenetic metabolites. The labeled MIRB particles distributed in the cytoplasm of BMSCs, the diameter of larger particles could be up to several hundred nanometers, and concentrated around the nuclei, the particles far away from the nuclei were smaller, but the labeled-cells’ skeletons and adherent morphology did not change significantly; under the concentration of 25 μg Fe/mL of, MIRB did not affect cellular viabilities of BMSCs, but the gene expressions of bone sialoprotein, ALP, RUNX2 and BMP-2 were decreased, and the secretion amount of ALP and osteocalcin were also declined. MIRB would not affect the proliferation and cell structures of BMSCs, but the SPIO particles aggregated and formed larger granules around the nuclei, which might affect the osteogenesis of BMSCs. PMID:26550127

  13. Assessment of biological characteristics of adipose tissue-derived stem cells co-labeled with Molday ION Rhodamine B™ and green fluorescent protein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hua; Huang, Jiacheng; Li, Hongmian; Li, Qiong; Liu, Dalie

    2013-11-01

    The current study aimed to investigate adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vivo by multimodality imaging following implantation for cellular therapy. The biological characteristics of ADSCs co-labeled with Molday ION Rhodamine B™ (MIRB) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were studied in vitro. Following rat ADSC isolation and culture, a combined labeling strategy for ADSCs based on genetic modification of the reporter gene GFP with lentiviral vector expression enhancement and physical MIRB labeling was performed. Cell viability, proliferation, membrane-bound antigens and multiple differentiation ability were compared between the labeled and unlabeled ADSCs. The ADSCs were successfully labeled with GFP and MIRB, showing various fluorescent colors for marker identification. The fluorescence emitted by the GFP protein was sustained and exhibited stable expression, while MIRB fluorescence decreased with time. Compared with the unlabeled ADSCs, no significant differences were detected in cell viability, proliferation, membrane-bound antigens and multiple differentiation ability in the co-labeled samples (P>0.05). No significant effects on the biophysical properties of ADSCs were observed following co-labeling with lentiviral vectors encoding the gene for emerald green fluorescent protein and MIRB. The ADSCs were able to be efficiently tracked in vitro and in vivo by multimodality imaging thus, the co-labeling approach provides a novel strategy for therapeutic gene studies. PMID:24065138

  14. Impacts of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled materials on biological characteristics and osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangping; Na, Zhenwen; Ren, Bin; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Weixian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (Molday ION Rhodamine B, MIRB) on bioactivities and osteogenetic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) method was used to detect the proliferation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled BMSCs and observed the distribution of MIRB in cells; real time -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used to analyze the expressions of such osteogenesis-related genes as bone sialoprotein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), RUNX2, bonemorphogeneticprotein-2 (BMP-2), type 1 collagen (COL-1) and type 3 collagen (COL-3); ALP-Alizarin red staining and poly-biochemical analyzer were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the osteogenetic metabolites. The labeled MIRB particles distributed in the cytoplasm of BMSCs, the diameter of larger particles could be up to several hundred nanometers, and concentrated around the nuclei, the particles far away from the nuclei were smaller, but the labeled-cells' skeletons and adherent morphology did not change significantly; under the concentration of 25 μg Fe/mL of, MIRB did not affect cellular viabilities of BMSCs, but the gene expressions of bone sialoprotein, ALP, RUNX2 and BMP-2 were decreased, and the secretion amount of ALP and osteocalcin were also declined. MIRB would not affect the proliferation and cell structures of BMSCs, but the SPIO particles aggregated and formed larger granules around the nuclei, which might affect the osteogenesis of BMSCs. PMID:26550127

  15. Cell-Based Therapy in TBI: Magnetic Retention of Neural Stem Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Plachez, Céline; Tsymbalyuk, Orest; Tsymbalyuk, Natalya; Xu, Su; Smith, Aaron M; Michel, Sarah L J; Yarnell, Deborah; Mullins, Roger; Gullapalli, Rao P; Puche, Adam; Simard, J Marc; Fishman, Paul S; Yarowsky, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is under active investigation for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Noninvasive stem cell delivery is the preferred method, but retention of stem cells at the site of injury in TBI has proven challenging and impacts effectiveness. To investigate the effects of applying a magnetic field on cell homing and retention, we delivered human neuroprogenitor cells (hNPCs) labeled with a superparamagnetic nanoparticle into post-TBI animals in the presence of a static magnetic field. We have previously devised a method of loading hNPCs with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB™). Labeling of hNPCs (MIRB-hNPCs) does not affect hNPC viability, proliferation, or differentiation. The 0.6 tesla (T) permanent magnet was placed ∼4 mm above the injured parietal cortex prior to intracarotid injection of 4 × 10(4) MIRB-hNPCs. Fluorescence imaging, Perls' Prussian blue histochemistry, immunocytochemistry with SC121, a human-specific antibody, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging ex vivo revealed there was increased homing and retention of MIRB-hNPCs in the injured cortex as compared to the control group in which MIRB-hNPCs were injected in the absence of a static magnetic field. Fluoro-Jade C staining and immunolabeling with specific markers confirmed the viability status of MIRB-hNPCs posttransplantation. These results show that increased homing and retention of MIRB-hNPCs post-TBI by applying a static magnetic field is a promising technique to deliver cells into the CNS for treatment of neurological injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26395573

  16. SPATIAL EFFECTS OF RETENTION TREES ON MYCORRHIZAS OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention forestry places seedlings in proximity to residual trees, exposing seedlings to additional sources of ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF) inoculum. To investigate this, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were planted near (2-6 m) and far (16-30 m) from 44- to 72-year-ol...

  17. Triterpene derivatives from Abies spectabilis leaves of Nepalese origin.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Minesso, Paola; Comai, Stefano; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Gewali, Mohan Bikram; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Innocenti, Gabbriella

    2011-06-01

    Our ongoing studies of Nepalese medicinal plants has led to the isolation and characterization of five new triterpenes, two known triterpenes and two phenolic derivatives from Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb leaves grown in the high mountain. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and MS techniques. PMID:21815413

  18. INFLUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST GROWTH RESPONSE TO NUTRIENT AMENDMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the influence of precipitation and temperature deviations on regional volume growth rates in even-aged, second-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands, some of which received N fertilizer treatments. etween 1969 and 1986, average volum...

  19. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS DURING THE THIRD AND FOURTH YEAR OF EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on seasonal patterns of photosynthesis in Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in sunlit chambers controlled to track either ambient (~400 ppm) CO2 or am...

  20. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  1. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  2. ELEVATED CO2 AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AFFECT CARBON AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS BUT NOT ACCUMULATION IN PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the impact of climate change on concentrations and accumulation of C and N in trees, we grew Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings treated with ambient or elevated (+180 mol mol-1) CO2, and with ambient or elevated (+3.5 C) temperature for f...

  3. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  4. Non-invasive tracking of CD4+ T cells with a paramagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle in brain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wei-Na; Yang, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhiguo; Li, Minshu; Shi, Samuel Xiang-Yu; Wood, Kristofer; Fu, Ying; Han, Wei; Xu, Yun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes play a key role in ischemic brain injury. However, there is still a lack of viable approaches to non-invasively track infiltrating lymphocytes and reveal their key spatiotemporal events in the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe an in vivo imaging approach for sequential monitoring of brain-infiltrating CD4+ T cells in experimental ischemic stroke. We show that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or Xenogen imaging combined with labeling of SPIO-Molday ION Rhodamine-B (MIRB) can be used to monitor the dynamics of CD4+ T cells in a passive transfer model. MIRB-labeled CD4+ T cells can be longitudinally visualized in the mouse brain and peripheral organs such as the spleen and liver after cerebral ischemia. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed similar kinetics of MIRB-labeled CD4+ T cells when compared with in vivo observations. Our results demonstrated the use of MIRB coupled with in vivo imaging as a valid method to track CD4+ T cells in ischemic brain injury. This approach will facilitate future investigations to identify the dynamics and key spatiotemporal events for brain-infiltrating lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases. PMID:26661207

  5. Container Height and Douglas Fir Bark Texture Affect Substrate Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to quantify the effect of substrate texture on water holding capacity of douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] bark (DFB) in containers of varying height. Increasing container height resulted in a linear decrease in CC and a linear increase in AS. Fine texture DF...

  6. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  7. Effect of Peat Moss and Pumice on Douglas Fir Bark based Soilless Substrate Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.(Franco)] bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss, and pumice are the most common substrate components used in the Oregon nursery industry. The objective of this study was to document the effect of peat and pumice addition on the physical and hydrological properties o...

  8. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON COLD HARDINESS AND SPRING BUD BURST AND GROWTH IN DOUGLAS-FIR (PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on cold hardiness and bud burst of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Two-year-old seedlings were grown for 2.5 years in semi-closed, sunlit chambers at either ambient or elevated (ambient+apprxeq 4deg...

  9. Non-invasive tracking of CD4+ T cells with a paramagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei-Na; Yang, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhiguo; Li, Minshu; Shi, Samuel Xiang-Yu; Wood, Kristofer; Liu, Qingwei; Fu, Ying; Han, Wei; Xu, Yun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Liu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes play a key role in ischemic brain injury. However, there is still a lack of viable approaches to non-invasively track infiltrating lymphocytes and reveal their key spatiotemporal events in the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe an in vivo imaging approach for sequential monitoring of brain-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells in experimental ischemic stroke. We show that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or Xenogen imaging combined with labeling of SPIO-Molday ION Rhodamine-B (MIRB) can be used to monitor the dynamics of CD4(+) T cells in a passive transfer model. MIRB-labeled CD4(+) T cells can be longitudinally visualized in the mouse brain and peripheral organs such as the spleen and liver after cerebral ischemia. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed similar kinetics of MIRB-labeled CD4(+) T cells when compared with in vivo observations. Our results demonstrated the use of MIRB coupled with in vivo imaging as a valid method to track CD4(+) T cells in ischemic brain injury. This approach will facilitate future investigations to identify the dynamics and key spatiotemporal events for brain-infiltrating lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases. PMID:26661207

  10. FOLIAR NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND NATURAL ABUNDANCE OF 15N SUGGEST NITROGEN ALLOCATION PATTERNS OF DOUGLAS-FIR AND MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI DURING DEVELOPMENT IN ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an experiment using Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings and a 2x2 factorial design in enclosed mesocosms, temperatures were maintained at ambient or +3.5 degrees C above ambient, and CO2 levels were maintained at ambient or 179 ppm above ambient. Two ...

  11. Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with Pheromone Baited Multiple-Funnel Traps to Reduce Tree Mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir beetle (Dendroctonuspseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the ability of pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps to protect small, high-value stands of trees, such as ...

  12. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER NITROGEN ALLOCATION IN DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on principal carbon constituents (PCC) and C and N allocation between needle, woody (stem and branches) and root tissue of Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco seedlings were determined. The seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled-envi...

  13. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  14. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  15. Description of immature stages of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), an ectoparasitoid of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the egg, larva and pupa of Eurytoma sivinskii Gates and Grissell (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid that attacks Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) pupae in Veracruz, Mexico. Using lab-reared A. ludens (Loew) pupae as hosts, we obtained all immature st...

  16. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other species of Anastrepha (A. ludens, A. obliqua, ...

  17. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  18. Host status of litchi and rambutan to the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of litchi, (Litchi chinensis) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) were collected from the field in 2006 and 2007 and monitored for the emergence of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua. Fruit clusters of rambutan and litchi, with a piece of the peel removed to allow access to ovipositing f...

  19. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestia beckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderes obliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestia beckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  20. Late-Holocene rodent middens from Rio Limay, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markgraf, Vera; Betancourt, J.; Rylander, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pollen analysis of late-Holocene amberat deposits from two caves near the forest-steppe ecotone in northern Patagonia documents a major shift from Austrocedrus-Nothofagus forest to steppe shrub assemblages some time after 1800 and before 1300 BP. The probable explanation of the reduction of tree taxa calls for either drier summers or intensified land use or a combination of both.

  1. TWO NEW SPECIES OF MEALYBUGS FROM PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA (HEMIPTERA: COCCOIDEA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of mealybugs have been discovered in the Patagonia Region of Argentina collected on Nothofagus dombeyi and Stipa sp. Adult females and available immature stages of each species are described and illustrated and are compared with other mealybugs from the area....

  2. Piracy in the high trees: ectomycorrhizal fungi from an aerial 'canopy soil' microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Orlovich, David A; Draffin, Suzy J; Daly, Robert A; Stephenson, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    The mantle of dead organic material ("canopy soil") associated with the mats of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes found on the branches of trees in the temperate rainforests along the southwestern coast of the South Island of New Zealand were examined for evidence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. DNA sequencing and cluster analysis were used to identify the taxa of fungi present in 74 root tips collected from the canopy soil microhabitat of three old growth Nothofagus menziesii trees in the South West New Zealand World Heritage Area. A diverse assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to infect an extensive network of adventitious canopy roots of Nothofagus menziesii in this forest, including 14 phylotypes from nine genera of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi. Seven of the genera identified previously were known to form ectomycorrhizas with terrestrial roots of Nothofagus: Cortinarius, Russula, Cenococcum, Thelephora/Tomentella, Lactarius and Laccaria; two, Clavulina and Leotia, previously have not been reported forming ectomycorrhizas with Nothofagus. Canopy ectomycorrhizas provide an unexpected means for increased host nutrition that may have functional significance in some forest ecosystems. Presumably, canopy ectomycorrhizas on host adventitious roots circumvent the tree-ground-soil nutrient cycle by accessing a wider range of nutrients directly in the canopy than would be possible for non-mycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal canopy roots. In this system, both host and epiphytes would seem to be in competition for the same pool of nutrients in canopy soil. PMID:22778170

  3. Improvement of l-lactic acid productivity from sweet sorghum juice by repeated batch fermentation coupled with membrane separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Meng, Hongyu; Cai, Di; Wang, Bin; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to efficiently produce l-lactic acid from non-food feedstocks, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), which is rich of fermentable sugars, was directly used for l-lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA-04-1. A membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was developed for productivity improvement. High-cell-density fermentation was achieved with a final cell density (OD620) of 42.3, and the CCR effect was overcomed. When SSJ (6.77gL(-1) glucose, 4.51gL(-1) fructose and 50.46gL(-1) sucrose) was used as carbon source in MIRB process, l-lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 1.45gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 1) to 17.55gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 6). This process introduces an effective way to produce l-lactic acid from SSJ. PMID:27023384

  4. Shrub communities as inhibitors of plant succession in southern Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilleur, Alain; Véronneau, Hélène; Bouchard, André

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of our research was to identify shrub species growing in southern Quebec that inhibit ecological succession in power-line corridors. Results are presented in three parts. First, clonal characteristics that allowed the establishment of stable communities were identified. Second, successional vector analysis identified those species that have the potential to inhibit succession. In poorly drained sites those species were Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, and Spiraea alba. In well-drained sites, those species were Zanthoxylum americanum, Rubus idaeus, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, and Thuja occidentalis. Third, analysis of variance showed that there is a significantly larger number of tree seedlings found in adjacent herbaceous communities than found under the dense cover of Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, Rubus idaeus, Thuya occidentalis, and Zanthoxylum americanum. These results indicate that the planting of selected shrub species could, through biological control, delay reforestation.

  5. Late-glacial and Holocene record of vegetation and climate from Cynthia Bay, Lake St Clair, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, F. V. L.; Colhoun, E. A.; Barton, C. E.

    2000-10-01

    A Late-glacial-Holocene pollen record was obtained from a 3.96 m sediment core taken from Lake St Clair, central Tasmania. Modern vegetation and pollen analyses formed the basis for interpretation of the vegetation and climate history. Following deglaciation and before ca. 18450 yr BP Podocarpus lawrencei coniferous heath and Astelia-Plantago wet alpine herbfield became established at Lake St Clair. A distinct Poaceae-Plantago peak occurs between 18450 and 11210 yr BP and a mean annual temperature depression from ca. 6.2°C to 3°C below present is inferred for this period. The marked reduction in Podocarpus and strong increase of Poaceae suggests reduced precipitation levels during the period of widespread deglaciation (ca. 18.5-11 kyr BP). The local Late Pleistocene-Holocene non-forest to forest biostratigraphical boundary is dated at 11.2 kyr BP. It is characterised by expansion of the subalpine taxa Athrotaxis/Diselma with Nothofagus gunnii, and by the establishment of Nothofagus cunninghamii with Eucalyptus spp. A Phyllocladus bulge prior to the expansion of Nothofagus cunninghamii, reported at other Tasmanian sites, is not present at Lake St Clair. Nothofagus cunninghamii cool temperate rainforest peaked at 7800 yr BP, probably under wetter climatic conditions than present. The maximum development of rainforest in the early-middle Holocene may indicate that the temperature was slightly warmer than present, but the evidence is not definitive. The expansion of Eucalyptus spp. and Poaceae after 6000 yr BP may be partly a disclimax effect as a result of Aboriginal burning, but appears also to reflect reduced precipitation. The changes in vegetation and inferred climate can be explained by major changes in synoptic patterns of southern Australia and the adjacent southwest Pacific.

  6. A new species of Acanthostigma (Tubeufiaceae, Dothideomycetes) from the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R M; Miller, A N; Bianchinotti, M V

    2012-01-01

    A new species belonging to the Dothideomycete genus Acanthostigma is described from bark of two Nothofagus species from Argentina. Its identity as a new species is based on both morphology and molecular sequence data. Acanthostigma patagonica differs from other species in the genus by having larger ascomata and setae and wider, asymmetrical ascospores. An amended key to Acanthostigma species is provided along with a discussion of other species previously described from South America. PMID:21914826

  7. New species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from the Patagonian Andes forests.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Francisco; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Rajchenberg, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tomentella forms abundant ectomycorrhizae in coniferous and deciduous forests worldwide. Molecular identification of root tips suggests undescribed species in the Nothofagus forests of Patagonia, Argentina. Tomentella tenuissima, T. pulvinulata and T. patagonica are described here as new to science based on morphological and molecular analyses. Their host range is addressed using available soil sequences. The identity of previous records of T. galzinii and T. radiosa are discussed with morphological and molecular evidence. PMID:27091385

  8. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate of southern Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, Calvin J.

    1989-05-01

    Vegetation and climate over approximately the past 13,000 yr are reconstructed from fossil pollen in a 9.4-m mire section at Caleta Róbalo on Beagle Channel, Isla Navarino (54°56'S, 67°38'W), southern Tierra del Fuego. Fifty surface samples reflecting modern pollen dispersal serve to interpret the record. Chronologically controlled by nine radiocarbon dates, fossil pollen assemblages are: Empetrum-Gramineae- Gunnera-Tubuliflorae (zone 3b, 13,000-11,850 yr B.P.), Gramineae- Empetrum-assorted minor taxa (zone 3a, 11,850-10,000 yr B.P.), Nothofagus-Gramineae-Tubuliflorae-Polypodiaceae (zone 2, 10,000-5000 yr B.P.), Nothofagus-Empetrum (zone 1b, 5000-3000 yr B.P.), and Empetrum-Nothofagus (zone 1a, 3000-0 yr B.P.). Assemblages show tundra under a cold, dry climate (zone 3), followed by open woodland (zone 2), as conditions became warmer and less dry, and later, with greater humidity and lower temperatures, by closed forest and the spread of mires (zone 1). Comparisons drawn with records from Antarctica, New Zealand, Tasmania, and the subantarctic islands demonstrate broadly uniform conditions in the circumpolar Southern Hemisphere. The influences of continental and maritime antarctic air masses were apparently considerable in Tierra del Fuego during cold late-glacial time, whereas Holocene climate was largely regulated by interplay between maritime polar and maritime tropical air.

  9. Environmental and climatic changes in central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Porras, M. E.; Maldonado, A.; Quintana, F. A.; Martel-Cea, A.; Reyes, O.; Méndez, C.

    2014-05-01

    Multi-millennial environmental and climatic changes in central Chilean Patagonia (44-49° S) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle have been of particular interest as changes in the position and strength of the southern westerlies are the major forcing factor conditioning the environmental dynamics. Recent attempts to reconstruct regional environmental and climatic signals from central Chilean Patagonia reveal some discrepancies and unclear issues among the records. This paper presents the 13 ka pollen and charcoal records from Mallín El Embudo (44° 40' S, 71° 42' W) located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest in the middle Río Cisnes valley. The paper aims to (1) establish the timing and magnitude of local vegetation changes and fire activity since the Late Glacial and (2) integrate these results at the regional scale in order to discuss the discrepancies and depict the environmental and climatic dynamics in central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial. Open landscapes dominated by grasses associated with scattered Nothofagus forest patches dominated the middle Río Cisnes valley between 13 and 11.2 ka suggesting low effective moisture but also indicating that landscape configuration after glacial retreat was still ongoing. At 11.2 ka, the sudden development of an open and quite dynamic Nothofagus forest probably associated with the synchronous high fire activity occurred, suggesting a rise in effective moisture associated with dry summers. Since 9.5 ka, the record reflects the presence of a closed Nothofagus forest related to higher effective moisture conditions than before combined with moderate dry summers that may have triggered a high frequency of low-magnitude crown fires that did not severely affect the forest. The forest experienced a slight canopy opening after 5.7 ka, probably due to slightly drier conditions than before followed by a sudden change to open forest conditions around 4.2 ka associated with fire and volcanic disturbances. Around

  10. Environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Porras, M. E.; Maldonado, A.; Quintana, F. A.; Martel-Cea, A.; Reyes, O.; Méndez, C.

    2013-10-01

    Multi-millennial environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia (44-49° S) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle have been of particular interest as changes in the position and strength of the Southern Westerlies are the major forcing factor conditioning the environmental dynamics. Recent attempts to reconstruct regional environmental and climatic signals from Central Chilean Patagonia reveal some discrepancies and unclear issues among the records. This paper presents the 13 ka pollen and charcoal records from Mallín El Embudo (44°40' S; 71°42' W) located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest in the middle Río Cisnes valley. The paper aims to (1) establish the timing and magnitude of local vegetation changes and fire activity since the Late Glacial and (2) integrate these results at the regional scale in order to discuss the discrepancies and depict the Central Chilean Patagonia environmental and climatic dynamics since Late Glacial. Open landscapes dominated by grasses associated with scattered Nothofagus forest patches dominated middle Río Cisnes valley between 13-11.2 ka suggesting low effective moisture but also reflecting that landscape configuration after glacial retreat was still ongoing. At 11.2 ka, a sudden development of an open and quite dynamic Nothofagus forest probably associated to the synchronous high fire activity occurred suggesting a rise in effective moisture. Since 9.5 ka, the record reflects the presence of a closed Nothofagus forest related to higher/similar effective moisture conditions than before but under an unmarked precipitation seasonality. The forest experienced a slight canopy opening since 5.7 ka, probably due to slightly drier conditions than before followed by a sudden change around 4.2 ka associated with fire and volcanic disturbances. The recovery of an open Nothofagus forest related to slight wetter conditions (similar to present) occurred around 2 ka and persisted under highly variable climatic

  11. Genetic variation and seed zones of douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.; Sugano, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    The provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth rhythm were assessed in the common garden. Within the Forest, three breeding blocks were recommended, with different numbers of elevational bands in each block: from 0 to 610 meters, from 611 to 838 meters, and then a series of bands 152 meters wide at higher elevations.

  12. Human urine and chicken feces as fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attractants for resource-poor fruit growers.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime; Aluja, Martín; Vázquez, Alejandro; Equihua, Miguel; Varón, Jorge

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated human urine and chicken feces, two naturally occurring, inexpensive, and readily available substances, as baits for the capture of Anostrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) by using glass McPhail traps. Two studies were performed simultaneously in a commercial mango orchard in Veracruz, México. In the first study, we compared a 50% water dilution of human urine against hydrolyzed protein, both compounds at the fresh and 5-d-old stages, and water alone (control treatment). In the second study, we tested fresh chicken feces mixed with water, a torula yeast/borax solution at three different ages (1-4, 5-9, and 10-15 d), and water (control treatment). Both human urine and chicken feces were attractive to Anastrepha adults compared with water alone, but attracted two and three times fewer adults than hydrolyzed protein and torula yeast/borax, respectively. However, unlike torula yeast/borax, aging of human urine did not decrease its attractiveness. Five-day old human urine attracted numerically more A. serpentina females than males, similar numbers of A. obliqua males and females, and significantly more sexually immature A. obliqua females than mature ones. Chicken feces proved to be as attractive as the aged torula yeast/borax treatments for A. obliqua and A. serpentina. We argue that because both human urine and chicken feces are cost-free and can be easily obtained, they are viable, low-technology alternatives to costly commercial attractants, particularly for low-income growers or backyard farmers in Mexico and other Latin American countries. PMID:14994798

  13. Losac, the First Hemolin that Exhibits Procogulant Activity through Selective Factor X Proteolytic Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Flores, Miryam Paola; Furlin, Daniel; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Balan, Andrea; Konno, Katsuhiro; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Envenoming by the contact of human skin with Lonomia obliqua caterpillars promotes a hemorrhagic syndrome characterized by a consumptive coagulopathy. Losac (Lonomia obliqua Stuart factor activator) is a component of the bristle of L. obliqua that is probably partially responsible for the observed syndrome because it activates factor X and is recognized by an effective antilonomic serum. Here we unveil the proteolytic activity of Losac and demonstrate the feasibility of its recombinant production. On the other hand, Losac has no homology to known proteases, but it can be inhibited by PMSF, a serine protease inhibitor. Instead, it shows closer homology to members of the hemolin family of proteins, a group of cell adhesion molecules. The recombinant protein (rLosac) shortened the coagulation time of normal and deficient plasmas, whereas it was ineffective in factor X-deficient plasma unless reconstituted with this protein. rLosac was able to activate factor X in a dose- and time-dependent manner but not γ-carboxyglutamic acid domainless factor X. Moreover, phospholipids and calcium ions increased rLosac activity. Also, rLosac had no effect on fibrin or fibrinogen, indicating its specificity for blood coagulation activation. Linear double reciprocal plots indicate that rLosac follows a Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Cleavage of factor X by rLosac resulted in fragments that are compatible with those generated by RVV-X (a well known factor X activator). Together, our results validate Losac as the first protein from the hemolin family exhibiting procoagulant activity through selective proteolysis on coagulation factor X. PMID:21177860

  14. Coumarins and related compounds in members of the connaraceae.

    PubMed

    Vickery, M; Vickery, B

    1980-02-01

    Members of the Cnestis, Agelea and Byrsocarpus genera (Connaraceae) examined, viz. C. corniculatus, C. ferruginea, A. nitida, A. obliqua, A. trifolia and B. coccineus, all of which are toxic to rabbits, contained dicoumarol and 4-hydroxycoumarin, the concentration of dicoumarol being relatively low in fresh leaves. Coumarin and a glycoside of coumaric acid were also present in some species. The production of dicoumarol may be due to the presence of a micro-organism, since it was present in higher concentration in mouldy leaves. PMID:7466836

  15. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  16. The phylogenetic position of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rajchenberg, Mario; Pildain, María Belén; Bianchinotti, María V; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Six poroid Hymenochaetaceae from Patagonia, Argentina, were studied phylogenetically with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S rDNA sequences, together with morphological data. Two new genera and a new species are introduced as well as two new combinations proposed. Arambarria destruens gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for a taxon fruiting on fallen or standing, dead Diostea juncea and Lomatia hirsuta and previously recorded erroneously as Inocutis jamaicensis; it is distinguished by annual, effused to effused-reflexed basidiomes forming pilei, a monomitic hyphal system, thick-walled and yellowish basidiospores (brownish chestnut in potassium hydroxide solution), lack of a granular core in the context and lack of setoid elements. Nothophellinus gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate Phellinus andinopatagonicus, the main white wood-rotting polypore of standing Nothofagus pumilio and also an important wood-decayer of other Nothofagus species from southern Argentina and Chile. It is morphologically similar to Phellopilus (type species P. nigrolimitatus) but differs by lacking setae. The new combinations Pseudoinonotus crustosus and Phellinopsis andina are proposed for Inonotus crustosus and Phellinus andinus, respectively. Phellinus livescens, which decays the sapwood of several standing Nothofagus species, is closely related to Phellinus uncisetus, a Neotropical species related to Fomitiporia; for the time being P. livescens is retained in Phellinus sensu lato. An unidentified taxon responsible for a white heart-rot in living Austrocedrus chilensis grouped with Phellinus caryophyllii and Fulvifomes inermis, but its generic affinities remain ambiguous. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm this unidentified taxon has an imperforate parenthesome, which is typical of the Hymenochaetaceae. PMID:25911700

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants. PMID:26886573

  18. The influence of microhabitat on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species in a semiarid area of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, K A; Santos, J M F F; Andrade, J R; Lima, E N; Albuquerque, U P; Ferraz, E M N; Araújo, E L

    2016-02-01

    Variation in annual rainfall is considered the most important factor influencing population dynamics in dry environments. However, different factors may control population dynamics in different microhabitats. This study recognizes that microhabitat variation may attenuate the influence of climatic seasonality on the population dynamics of herbaceous species in dry forest (Caatinga) areas of Brazil. We evaluated the influence of three microhabitats (flat, rocky and riparian) on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species (Delilia biflora, Commelina obliqua, Phaseolus peduncularis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in a Caatinga (dry forest) fragment at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Research Institute of Pernambuco in Brazil, over a period of three years. D. biflora, C. obliqua and P. peduncularis were found in all microhabitats, but they were present at low densities in the riparian microhabitat. There was no record of E. heterophylla in the riparian microhabitat. Population size, mortality rates and natality rates varied over time in each microhabitat. This study indicates that different establishment conditions influenced the population size and occurrence of the four species, and it confirms that microhabitat can attenuate the effect of drought stress on mortality during the dry season, but the strength of this attenuator role may vary with time and species. PMID:26909622

  19. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity. PMID:24849380

  20. Pseudotsuga menziesii invasion in native forests of Patagonia, Argentina: What about mycorrhizas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado Salomón, María Eugenia; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Rajchenberg, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Pseudotsuga menziesii is one of the most widely planted conifers in the Patagonian Andes of Argentina, with invading characteristics that are widely reported. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of its obligate mycorrhizal associations in limiting or fostering the establishment of invading seedlings. We studied the richness and abundance of endo- (AM) and ectomycorrhizae (EM) present in P. menziesii seedlings growing in six Nothofagus forests invaded by P. menziesii seedlings (Nothofagus + P. menziesii) matrices. One transect along the maximum effective recruitment distance (ERA) was established at each site in order to wrench seedlings and sample soils. P. menziesii showed effective associations with a wide range of mycorrhizal symbionts: AM (ranging between 13.21 and 37.11%), EM (ranging between 79.91 and 89.14%) and Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE). Seedlings' mycorrhization percentages were always high, suggesting a good nursery effect provided by neighboring plantations. Mycorrhizal abundance (AM% and EM%), EM morphotypes richness and evenness showed significant differences between sites, indicating that P. menziesii displays a high plasticity being capable to select the more convenient mycorrhizal arrangement at each invaded site.

  1. Postglacial history of the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone (41-43°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Virginia; Whitlock, Cathy; Markgraf, Vera; Bianchi, María Martha

    2014-06-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 23,000 years. Although the vegetation history has been inferred from individual pollen records, the regional patterns and drivers of vegetation development are poorly understood. High resolution pollen and charcoal data from eleven sites located along the eastern flanks of the Patagonian Andes (41-43°S) were examined to reconstruct the Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of steppe/forest ecotone and separate the relative influence of climatic versus non-climatic factors in shaping the patterns of ecological change. Pollen data indicate that, as the Lateglacial climate became progressively wetter, the initial steppe vegetation was replaced by open forest of Nothofagus in the Lateglacial and early Holocene periods, and by closed forest in the late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the Lateglacial/early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Prior to ca 5000 cal yr BP, the conifer Austrocedrus chilensis possibly persisted in isolated populations along the eastern boundary of its modern distribution. Cooler/more humid conditions after ca 5000 cal yr BP allowed the development of the modern mixed Nothofagus-Austrocedrus forest. The paleoenvironmental record points to the sensitivity of the forest/steppe ecotone in the past, not only to climate but also to complex environmental feedbacks that amplified the effects of climate change.

  2. Hydro-Geomorphologic Effects Of Large Wood Jams On A Third-Order Stream (Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, L.; Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.; Iturraspe, R.; Burns, S.; Novillo, M. G.

    2007-05-01

    Dead wood pieces, especially when organized in jams, play an important geomorphic role in streams because of the effects on flow hydraulics, pool formation and sediments storage. The increase of stream morphological diversity and complexity also exerts also an important ecological role. This work reports on geomorphic role of large wood pieces and jams in a third order mountain stream located in the Southern Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), and draining an old-growth nothofagus forested basin not influenced by the beavers damming activity. Even if the in-stream number of wood pieces (length > 1m; diameter > 0.1 m) is comparable to what observed in other climatic areas, the slow growth of the nothofagus forest causes a lower wood abundance in terms of volumetric load. Since the relatively small dimensions of the surveyed large wood pieces, almost the 70% of them demonstrated to have been fluvial transported and the also wood jams reflect the apparent dynamic of wood in the channel. Wood jams exert a significant influence on the channel morphology, representing almost the half of the drop caused by steps and being responsible for the creation of 30% of the pools. The LW-forced pool volume is strongly and positively correlated to the height of the LW jam, and a significant inverse relationship between pool spacing and wood density within is evident if only the LW-forced pools are considered. The geomorphic influence of LW jams is also exerted by a considerable sediment storing capacity.

  3. Forest Management Influence On Hydric Production in a Temperate Rain Forest: a Comparative Study of Small Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, C.; McPhee, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this work we compare hydric production between two micro-watersheds (surface area less than 10 hectares) covered with Nothofagus oblicua and Nothofagus alpina saplings. One of the watersheds was subject to management by thinning on 2002, and contains 23% less trees, which is equivalent to 33% less basal surface respect to the unmanaged control basin. It is expected that differences be solely related to land use differences given that both watersheds have similar geomorphology. Four years (April 2003 through Jun 2007) of hourly streamflow and precipitation data collected on each watershed are analyzed by separating base flow and direct runoff for specific storms selected to represent different conditions of initial soil moisture. Several hydrograph- separation algorithms are tested in order to increase the robustness of our conclusions. Variations in rainfall- runoff coefficients are analyzed in relation to differences in soil cover and antecedent moisture. Preliminary results show that managed watersheds produce more direct runoff, albeit subject to initial moisture conditions. On the other hand a greater fraction of precipitation becomes baseflow for natural forests. This has important implications for ecosystem hydrologic services valuation and management.

  4. Effects of CO[sub 2] and climate change on forest trees: TERA, a state-of-the-science research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Waschmann, R.S.; Jarrell, G.D.; Johnson, M.G. ); McVeety, B.D. ); Rygiewicz, P.T.; Olszyk, D.M. )

    1994-06-01

    The Terestrial Ecophysiological Research Area (TERA) is a facility being used to examine the effects of elevated CO[sub 2] and global climate change on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco) seedlings. TERA consists of 12 climate-controlled growth chambers (Terracosms) that are illuminated with natural sunlight. Terracosm environmental conditions continuously mimic diurnal and seasonal changes in ambient air temperature, dew point temperature, and CO[sub 2] concentration to [+-] 1.5[degrees]C, [+-] 5[degrees]C, and [+-] 20 ppm, respectively. The terracosms are extensively instrumented in order to examine above- and belowground processes. All sensors, analytical instruments, and data acquisition equipment required for independent operation are located at each Terracosm. Data quality control is insured with centralized, redundant instrumentation. The TERA research facility will be described, including overall system performance and terracosm climate control.

  5. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  6. Biogeochemical prospecting for uranium with conifers: results from the Midnite Mine area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Ward, Frederick Norville

    1977-01-01

    The ash of needles, cones, and duff from Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) growing near uranium deposits of the Midnite mine, Stevens County, Wash., contain as much as 200 parts per million (ppm) uranium. Needle samples containing more than 10 ppm uranium define zones that correlate well with known uranium deposits or dumps. Dispersion is as much as 300 m but generally is less. Background is about 1 ppm. Tree roots are judged to be sampling ore, low-grade uranium halo, or ground water to a depth of about 15 m. Uptake of uranium by Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) needles appears to be about the same as by Ponderosa pine needles. Cones and duff are generally enriched in uranium relate to needles. Needles, cones, and duff are recommended as easily collected, uncomplicated sample media for geochemical surveys. Samples can be analyzed by standard methods and total cost per sample kept to about $6.

  7. Copper, zinc, and arsenic in soil surrounding Douglas-fir poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA).

    PubMed

    Morrell, J J; Keefe, Donn; Baileys, Randall T

    2003-01-01

    The levels of copper, zinc, and arsenic in soil surrounding Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] utility poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) were investigated at sites in Florida, Virginia, and New York. Copper levels were elevated near the poles and declined with both horizontal distance away from the pole and depth beneath the soil surface. Zinc levels were also elevated next to the poles, but the levels declined more slowly than did those of copper. Arsenic levels were elevated in soil immediately next to the poles but declined to near background levels farther away. The results indicate that metals can leach from ACZA-treated poles, but do not migrate far in the soil, and thus the levels decline sharply with distance from the poles. PMID:14674531

  8. [Species identification of the fragment of wood found in the left eye socket bone during exhumation of general Władysław Sikorski's corpse].

    PubMed

    Wasik, Radosław

    2009-01-01

    During the exhumation of general Władysław Sikorski's corpse, a fragment of wood was found embedded in the left eye socket bone. The wood fragment was referred by the Institute of Forensic Research to the laboratory of Department of Forest and Wood Utilization, University of Agriculture in Krakow, where investigations were performed, aiming at determining the species of the wood. The fragment was cut into 20 microm thick microtome scraps of three anatomy sections: transverse, tangential and radial. The scraps were immersed in 99.8% ethyl alcohol for 24 hours and then for about 1 hour in xylene. Subsequently, they were placed between a microscope slide and a cover-glass in Canada balsam. The thus prepared scraps were then analyzed with the use of a Jenaval Carl Zeiss microscope. On the basis of microscope observations it was determined that the investigated fragment of wood belonged to Douglas-fir species (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). PMID:19711820

  9. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  10. Species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete sporocarps on a moisture gradient in the Tsuga heterophylla zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dell, Thomas E.; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Schreiner, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    Sporocarps of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation data were collected from eight Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. - Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco stands along a wet to dry gradient in Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A. One hundred and fifty species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected from a total sample area of 2.08 ha. Over 2 years, fungal species richness ranged from 19 to 67 taxa per stand. Sporocarp standing crop ranged from 0 to 3.8 kg/ha, averaging 0.58 kg/ha, 0.06 kg/ha in spring and 0.97 kg/ha in fall. Sporocarp standing crop and fungal species richness were correlated with precipitation. These results demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp abundance and species richness can be partly explained in terms of an environmental gradient.

  11. MIR retroposon exonization promotes evolutionary variability and generates species-specific expression of IGF-1 splice variants.

    PubMed

    Annibalini, Giosuè; Bielli, Pamela; De Santi, Mauro; Agostini, Deborah; Guescini, Michele; Sisti, Davide; Contarelli, Serena; Brandi, Giorgio; Villarini, Anna; Stocchi, Vilberto; Sette, Claudio; Barbieri, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 is a pleiotropic hormone exerting mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects. Inclusion or exclusion of exon 5 into the IGF-1 mRNA gives rise to three transcripts, IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb and IGF-1Ec, which yield three different C-terminal extensions called Ea, Eb and Ec peptides. The biological significance of the IGF-1 splice variants and how the E-peptides affect the actions of mature IGF-1 are largely unknown. In this study we investigated the origin and conservation of the IGF-1 E-peptides and we compared the pattern of expression of the IGF-1 isoforms in vivo, in nine mammalian species, and in vitro using human and mouse IGF-1 minigenes. Our analysis showed that only IGF-1Ea is conserved among all vertebrates, whereas IGF-1Eb and IGF-1Ec are an evolutionary novelty originated from the exonization of a mammalian interspersed repetitive-b (MIR-b) element. Both IGF-1Eb and IGF-1Ec mRNAs were constitutively expressed in all mammalian species analyzed but their expression ratio varies greatly among species. Using IGF-1 minigenes we demonstrated that divergence in cis-acting regulatory elements between human and mouse conferred species-specific features to the exon 5 region. Finally, the protein-coding sequences of exon 5 showed low rate of synonymous mutations and contain disorder-promoting amino acids, suggesting a regulatory role for these domains. In conclusion, exonization of a MIR-b element in the IGF-1 gene determined gain of exon 5 during mammalian evolution. Alternative splicing of this novel exon added new regulatory elements at the mRNA and protein level potentially able to regulate the mature IGF-1 across tissues and species. PMID:27048986

  12. Five new species and three new subspecies of Erebidae and Noctuidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) from Northwestern North America, with notes on Chytolita Grote (Erebidae) and Hydraecia Guenée (Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Crabo, Lars G.; Davis, Melanie; Hammond, Paul; Tomas Mustelin;  Jon Shepard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Several taxonomic issues in the moth families Erebidae and Noctuidae are addressed for Northwestern North America. Drasteria parallelaCrabo & Mustelin andCycnia oregonensis tristisCrabo in the Erebidae and Eudryas brevipennis bonneville Shepard & Crabo, Resapamea diluvius Crabo, Resapamea angelika Crabo, Resapamea mammuthus Crabo, Fishia nigrescens Hammond & Crabo, and Xestia perquiritata orca Crabo & Hammond in the Noctuidae are described as new. The following new synonyms are proposed: Chytolita petrealis Grote with Herminea morbidalis Guenée; Gortyna columbia Barnes & Benjamin and Gortyna ximena Barnes & Benjamin with Gortyna obliqua Harvey; and Hydroecia pallescens Smith with Hydroecia medialis Smith. The type locality of Gortyna intermedia Barnes & Benjamin is restricted to Lundbreck, Municipality of Crowsnest Pass, Alberta, Canada. PMID:23730179

  13. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-two plant species from various regions of the USA were screened for their energy-producing potential. Samples were analysed for oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbon and protein. Oil fractions of some species were analysed for classes of lipid constituents and yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were determined. Hydrocarbon fractions of some species were analysed for rubber, gutta and waxes. Average MW and MW distribution of rubber and gutta were determined. Complete analytical data for 16 species is presented. Large quantities of oil were obtained from Philadelphus coronarius, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Lindera benzoin and Koelreuteria paniculata. High yields of polyphenols came from Acer ginnala, Cornus obliqua and Salix caprea and maximum yields of hydrocarbon and protein were from Elymus virginicus and Lindera benzoin, respectively.

  14. An evaluation of the impacts of energy tree plantations on water resources in the United Kingdom under present and future UKCIP02 climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Ian R.; Nisbet, Tom; Harrison, Jennifer A.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrological Land Use Change model was used to assess the range of water resource impacts associated with four potential energy tree species (Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus gunnii, Nothofagus sp., and Fraxinus excelsior) at eight United Kingdom locations under present and future, Environment Agency Rainfall and Weather Impacts Generator, climate scenarios generated using UK Climate Impacts Programme 2002 (UKCIP02). Parameter values were derived using expert opinion and interpolation because of limited data. For Fraxinus excelsior, there are questions concerning the unusual, in a world context, published findings that evaporation from a tree crop is less than that from grass. Model predictions indicated that under the present climate all tree species, excepting Fraxinus excelsior, at all sites have greater mean annual evaporation, (8 to 84%) and reduced water yields (-6 to -97%) compared with grass. The predicted increase in tree evaporation arises from parameter values reflecting both increased rainfall interception and higher transpiration due to deeper rooting depths. Under future climate scenarios, (1) "potential annual yield" (difference between actual rainfall and potential evaporation) will decrease, becoming negative at all studied sites in England and Wales by 2080; (2) at drier sites and for species with highest evaporation rates, E. nitens and Nothofagus, evaporation rates will decrease; (3) at wetter sites and for all species, evaporation rates will increase; (4) at all sites and for all species, water yields will decrease; (5) differences between species remain the same, with evaporation rates increasing and water yield decreasing in the order Fraxinus excelsior, grass, E. gunnii, Nothofagus, and E. Nitens; and (6) there is an overall trend through time toward convergence in water yields from trees and grass. If higher water yield predictions for Fraxinus excelsior are proved correct, this would represent an attractive land use option for water and

  15. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  16. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. PMID:26850034

  17. First evidence for Wollemi Pine-type pollen (Dilwynites: Araucariaceae) in South America.

    PubMed

    Macphail, Mike; Carpenter, Raymond J; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We report the first fossil pollen from South America of the lineage that includes the recently discovered, extremely rare Australian Wollemi Pine, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). The grains are from the late Paleocene to early middle Eocene Ligorio Márquez Formation of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, Argentina, and are assigned to Dilwynites, the fossil pollen type that closely resembles the pollen of modern Wollemia and some species of its Australasian sister genus, Agathis. Dilwynites was formerly known only from Australia, New Zealand, and East Antarctica. The Patagonian Dilwynites occurs with several taxa of Podocarpaceae and a diverse range of cryptogams and angiosperms, but not Nothofagus. The fossils greatly extend the known geographic range of Dilwynites and provide important new evidence for the Antarctic region as an early Paleogene portal for biotic interchange between Australasia and South America. PMID:23894439

  18. Rainfall interception by an evergreen beech forest, Nelson, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, L. K.

    1983-10-01

    Throughfall under a beech ( Nothofagus) forest canopy at Donald Creek, Nelson, averaged 69% of the rain falling on the canopy, i.e. 1060 mm of 1530 mm in a year of normal rainfall. Using an estimate for stemflow at 2% of gross rainfall, interception loss averaged 29% of the annual rainfall, or 440 mm yr. -1. Seasonal differences in interception loss were significant, ranging from 22% in winter to 35% in summer, and resulted from seasonal variation in evaporation rates from a wet canopy. Seasonal variation in rainfall rate was slight. Four models, storm linear regression, monthly linear regression, sine curve and Gash's analytical model, were tested by comparison of predicted and observed interception. All gave very satisfactory estimates (< 10% error) and tended to slightly underestimate the measured interception loss.

  19. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile.  PMID:25662142

  20. Decoupling of unpolluted temperate forests from rock nutrient sources revealed by natural 87Sr/86Sr and 84Sr tracer addition

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Martin J.; Hedin, Lars O.; Derry, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental tracer addition of 84Sr to an unpolluted temperate forest site in southern Chile, as well as the natural variation of 87Sr/86Sr within plants and soils, indicates that mechanisms in shallow soil organic horizons are of key importance for retaining and recycling atmospheric cation inputs at scales of decades or less. The dominant tree species Nothofagus nitida feeds nearly exclusively (>90%) on cations of atmospheric origin, despite strong variations in tree size and location in the forest landscape. Our results illustrate that (i) unpolluted temperate forests can become nutritionally decoupled from deeper weathering processes, virtually functioning as atmospherically fed ecosystems, and (ii) base cation turnover times are considerably more rapid than previously recognized in the plant available pool of soil. These results challenge the prevalent paradigm that plants largely feed on rock-derived cations and have important implications for understanding sensitivity of forests to air pollution. PMID:12119394

  1. First Evidence for Wollemi Pine-type Pollen (Dilwynites: Araucariaceae) in South America

    PubMed Central

    Macphail, Mike; Carpenter, Raymond J.; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We report the first fossil pollen from South America of the lineage that includes the recently discovered, extremely rare Australian Wollemi Pine, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). The grains are from the late Paleocene to early middle Eocene Ligorio Márquez Formation of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, Argentina, and are assigned to Dilwynites, the fossil pollen type that closely resembles the pollen of modern Wollemia and some species of its Australasian sister genus, Agathis. Dilwynites was formerly known only from Australia, New Zealand, and East Antarctica. The Patagonian Dilwynites occurs with several taxa of Podocarpaceae and a diverse range of cryptogams and angiosperms, but not Nothofagus. The fossils greatly extend the known geographic range of Dilwynites and provide important new evidence for the Antarctic region as an early Paleogene portal for biotic interchange between Australasia and South America. PMID:23894439

  2. Lignin analysis by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, U.P.; Obst, J.R.; Cannon, A.B.

    1996-10-01

    Traditional methods of lignin analysis, such as Klason (acid insoluble) lignin determinations, give satisfactory results, are widely accepted, and often are considered as standard analyses. However, the Klason lignin method is laborious and time consuming; it also requires a fairly large-amount of isolated analyte. FT-Raman spectroscopy offers an opportunity to simplify and speed up lignin analyses. FT-Raman data for a number of hardwoods (angiosperms) and softwoods (gymnosperms) are compared with data obtained using other analytical methods, including Klason lignin (with corrections for acid soluble lignin), acetyl bromide, and FT-IR determinations. In addition, 10 different specimens of Nothofagus dombeyii (chosen because of the widely varying syringyl:guaiacyl monomer compositions of their lignins) were also analyzed. Lignin monomer compositions were determined by thioacidolysis of by nitrobenzene oxidation.

  3. A new species of Rhytidognathus (Carabidae, Migadopini) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus. PMID:23275755

  4. Coevolution and the adaptive value of autumn tree colours: colour preference and growth rates of a southern beech aphid.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, C C; Lavandero, B; Archetti, M

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary explanation for the change in leaf colour during autumn is still debated. Autumn colours could be a signal of defensive commitment towards insects (coevolution) or an adaptation against physical damage because of light at low temperatures (photoprotection). These two hypotheses have different predictions: (1) under the coevolution hypothesis, insects should not prefer red leaves in autumn and grow better in spring on trees with green autumn leaves; and (2) under the photoprotection hypothesis, insects should prefer and grow better on trees with red leaves because they provide better nutrition. Studying colour preference in autumn and growth rates in spring of a southern beech aphid species (Neuquenaphis staryi) on Nothofagus alessandrii, we found preference for green leaves in autumn but no differential performance of aphids in spring. We suggest that aphid preference for green might have evolved to exploit better their host during the autumn rather than to improve their performance in spring. PMID:18034803

  5. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, S; Ardiles, K; Figueroa, R A; González-Acuña, D

    2013-02-01

    Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum) is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile. PMID:23644784

  6. Vegetation, Fire and Climate Over the Last 2000 Yrs in Central West Patagonia (45°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Martinez, R. P.; Simi, E. I.; Moreno, P. I.

    2014-12-01

    We report high-resolution pollen and charcoal records from lake sediments obtained from Lago Mellizas and Lago Churrasco to reconstruct the history of vegetation, fire and past variations of the southern westerly winds (SWW) over the last 2000 years. Both sites are located near to the climate-modulated forest-steppe ecotone in central west Patagonia. In this region the SWW are the only source of precipitation and is ideal for reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation. This is facilitated by the marked west-east precipitation gradient across the Patagonian Andes that induces a zonation of the regional vegetation which can be used for inferring past changes in precipitation regimes based on fossil pollen records. Furthermore, the Chilean-European colonization process in central west Patagonia started early in the 20th century, allowing characterization of natural vegetation and climate variability in the absence of human disturbance until the end of the 19th century. The pollen records shows dominance of Nothofagus deciduous forests with minor fluctuations and low herb and aquatics abundances, which suggest humid climate conditions. We detect a major change in the pollen stratigraphy at 200 cal yr BP, when started a sustained decreasing trend in Nothofagus, along with increases of Poaceae and aquatics plants (Cyperaceae, Myriophyllum). We interpret these changes as a forest opening and centripetal expansion of littoral environments toward the lake center driven by lake-level lowering in response to lowered precipitation brought by the SWW. Pinus, Rumex, Plantago, which indicate human perturbation, increase in 1900 AD. Macroscopic charcoal increases at 1750, 1400, 850-700, 500, and 200 cal yr BP, suggesting local fires, followed by sharp increases during the last 100 years. We interpret the pre-20th century charcoal peaks as dry intervals with lowered SWW influence. Acknowledgement: Fondecyt 1121141, Fondap 15110009, and ICM grants P02-51 and NC120066.

  7. Environmental change and fire in the Owen Stanley Ranges, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Kosipe, an upland valley at 2000 m altitude in the Owen Stanley Ranges of southeastern New Guinea, is known for the discovery of large stone waisted blades dated to 31 400 cal a BP. The purpose of these tools and the nature of occupation are unknown. The altitude is too high for most food crops today and may have stood close to the treeline during the last glaciation. Three pollen and charcoal diagrams from a large swamp in the Kosipe Valley provide a record of swamp and dryland changes for more than 50 000 years. There have been considerable fluctuations in vegetation on the slopes and on the swamp which reflect both environmental change and anthropogenic influences. A gymnosperm-rich forest at the base is replaced by mountain forest dominated by Nothofagus about 42 000 years ago. Fire first becomes apparent across the swamp around 40 000 years ago but is not common during the time when subalpine herbs reach their best representation. Tree fern-rich grasslands form a mosaic with montane forest in a near-treeline environment. The Pleistocene-Holocene boundary is marked by a decline in Nothofagus and increase in lower montane mixed forest taxa. Charcoal increases before this time and the swamp vegetation becomes more grass-rich. Charcoal is at its maximum through the last 3000 years possibly reflecting climate variability as well as sedentary occupation and agriculture on the swamp margin. Supplementary pollen diagrams from two higher altitude sites support the evidence from the Kosipe Swamp cores. Charcoal, local catchment erosion and increases in disturbance taxa become more widespread in the last 5000 years at these sites, suggesting that local settlement at Kosipe may have lagged behind general landscape use by populations from lower altitudes.

  8. First comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus Erysiphe (Erysiphales, Erysiphaceae) II: the Uncinula lineage.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Ito Arakawa, Hanako; Shiroya, Yoshiaki; Kiss, Levente; Heluta, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Uncinula lineage, which is the basal group in the genus Erysiphe, were investigated with 167 sequences of nuc ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 and the 28S rDNA regions. Backbone tree analyses with six datasets and two tree-constructing methods revealed that the Uncinula lineage is divided into seven distinct clades. Clades 1-5 each contained a representative powdery mildew species, namely E. australiana in Clade 1, E. liquidambaris in Clade 2, E. adunca in Clade 3, E. fraxinicola in Clade 4 and E. actinidiae in Clade 5. Clade 6 comprises 71 sequences including the Microsphaera lineage and 17 species of the Uncinula lineage, such as E. carpinicola, E. carpinilaxiflorae, E. miyabei, E. glycines and E. necator. Topology tests supported the Microsphaera lineage forming a monophyletic clade in Clade 6, suggesting that Microsphaera-type appendages appeared only once in this clade to diverge into the Microsphaera lineage. Clade 7 consists of 72 sequences containing 30 species, including species of sects. Californiomyces and Typhulochaeta, four species from Nothofagus, species of sect. Erysiphe parasitising herbaceous plants belonging to the Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Saxifragaceae. Molecular clock analysis suggests that the major seven clades appeared 50-30 million years ago (Ma) in the Paleogene Period. The Microsphaera lineage may have split from the Uncinula lineage at the boundary of the Paleogene and Neogene, when appendages with dichotomously branched tips appeared. The clade of the species on Nothofagus split from the northern hemisphere species about 20-10 million years ago (Ma) in the Miocene Epoch, and host-shift from trees to herbs also might have occurred in this period. PMID:26240302

  9. Impact of alternative regeneration methods on genetic diversity in coastal Douglas-fir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.T.; Zuo, J.; Shimizu, J.Y.; Tappeiner, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic implications of natural and artificial regeneration following three regeneration methods (group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut) were investigated in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) using genetic markers (17 allozyme loci). In general, harvesting followed by either natural or artificial regeneration resulted in offspring populations little altered from those in the previous generation. Cutting the smallest trees to form shelterwoods, however, resulted in the removal of rare, presumably deleterious, alleles, such that slightly fewer alleles per locus were observed among residual trees (2.76) and natural regeneration (2.75) than found in uncut (control) stands (2.86). Thus, although the shelterwood regime appears quite compatible with gene conservation, it would be best to leave parent trees of a range of sizes in shelterwoods designated as gene conservation reserves, in order to maximize the number of alleles (regardless of current adaptive value) in naturally regenerated offspring. Seedling stocks used for artificial regeneration in clearcut, shelterwood, and group selection stands (7 total) had significantly greater levels of genetic diversity, on average, than found in natural regeneration. This is probably because the seeds used in artificial seedling stocks came from many wild stands and thus, sampled more diversity than found in single populations.Genetic implications of natural and artificial regeneration following three regeneration methods (group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut) were investigated in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) using genetic markers (17 allozyme loci). In general, harvesting followed by either natural or artificial regeneration resulted in offspring populations little altered from those in the previous generation. Cutting the smallest trees to form shelterwoods, however, resulted in the removal of rare, presumably deleterious, alleles

  10. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    PubMed

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  11. Conifer somatic embryogenesis: improvements by supplementation of medium with oxidation-reduction agents.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Copeland-Kamp, Brandi; Crockett, Jonathan; Lucrezi, Jacob; May, Sheldon W; Bucalo, Kylie

    2015-02-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue (ET) and continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment has been shown to decrease this recalcitrance. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiological concentrations. Major differences in stage-specific oxidation-reduction (redox) agents were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate potential growth-promotion of natural and inorganic redox agents added to early-stage somatic embryo growth medium. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase initiation of loblolly pine. Low-cost reducing agents sodium dithionite and sodium thiosulfate increased ET initiation for loblolly pine and Douglas fir (Mirb) Franco. Germination medium supplementation with GSSG increased somatic embryo germination. Early-stage somatic embryos grown on medium with or without sodium thiosulfate did not differ in GSH or GSSG content, suggesting that sodium thiosulfate-mediated growth stimulation does not involve GSH or GSSG. We have developed information demonstrating that alteration of the redox environment in vitro can improve ET initiation, early-stage embryo development and somatic embryo germination in loblolly pine. PMID:25716878

  12. Clonal expansion and seedling recruitment of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests: comparisons with salal (Gaultheria shallon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, D.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1997-01-01

    Seedling regeneration and morphology of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa Pursh) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) were studied in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Above- and below-ground growth of both species were significantly and negatively correlated with stand density. Oregon grape appears to have less potential for vegetative spread than does salal. It produced two to three times fewer rhizome extensions, and rhizome extensions were only half as long as those of salal. Oregon grape seedlings were common in areas of moss ground cover among patches of the two species. Salal seedlings were restricted to decaying logs. Seedling densities of Oregon grape in thinned stands were more than six times those in unthinned stands. For Oregon grape, understory establishment is accomplished by seedling establishment and recruitment of new genets. In contrast, salal maintains itself in forest understories primarily through vegetative growth, since its seedling establishment is restricted mainly to decayed wood. Continual recruitment of new aerial stems or ramets enables Oregon grape to maintain a dense cover once it is established in the understory.

  13. Needle anatomy changes with increasing tree age in Douglas-fir.

    PubMed

    Apple, Martha; Tiekotter, Ken; Snow, Michael; Young, James; Soeldner, Al; Phillips, Donald; Tingey, David; Bond, Barbara J

    2002-02-01

    Morphological differences between old-growth trees and saplings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross sections of previous-year needles of old-growth Douglas-fir trees and saplings at the Wind River Canopy Crane site in Washington and at three sites in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. We also compared needle anatomy across a chronosequence of 10-, 20-, 40- and 450-year-old Douglas-fir trees from the Wind River site. Anatomy differed significantly between needles of old-growth trees and saplings at all sites, suggesting a developmental change in needle anatomy with increasing tree age. Compared with needles of old-growth trees, needles of saplings were longer and had proportionately smaller vascular cylinders, larger resin canals and few hypodermal cells. Astrosclereids, which sequester lignin in their secondary cell walls and occupy space otherwise filled by photosynthetic cells, were scarce in needles of saplings but abundant in needles of old-growth trees. Needles of old-growth trees had an average of 11% less photosynthetic mesophyll area than needles of saplings. The percentage of non-photosynthetic area in needles increased significantly with increasing tree age from the chronosequence of 10-, 20-, 40- and 450-year-old trees at the Wind River site. This reduction in photosynthetic area may contribute to decreased growth rates in old trees. PMID:11830409

  14. Large wood recruitment and redistribution in headwater streams in the southern Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Christine L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Large wood recruitment and redistribution mechanisms were investigated in a 3.9 km2 basin with an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forest, located in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. Stream size and topographic setting strongly influenced processes that delivered wood to the channel network. In small colluvial channels draining steep hillslopes, processes associated with slope instability dominated large wood recruitment. In the larger alluvial channel, windthrow was the dominant recruitment process from the local riparian area. Consequently, colluvial channels received wood from further upslope than the alluvial channel. Input and redistribution processes influenced piece location relative to the direction of flow and thus, affected the functional role of wood. Wood recruited directly from local hillslopes and riparian areas was typically positioned adjacent to the channel or spanned its full width, and trapped sediment and wood in transport. In contrast, wood that had been fluvially redistributed was commonly located in mid-channel positions and was associated with scouring of the streambed and banks. Debris flows were a unique mechanism for creating large accumulations of wood in small streams that lacked the capacity for abundant fluvial transport of wood, and for transporting wood that was longer than the bank-full width of the channel.

  15. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    PubMed

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  16. Use of shaking treatments and preharvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides to reduce risk of yellowjackets and other insects on Christmas trees imported into Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert G; Chastagner, Gary A; Reimer, Neil J; Oishi, Darcy E; Landolt, Peter J; Paull, Robert E

    2009-02-01

    Insects are commonly found by Hawaii's quarantine inspectors on Christmas trees imported from the Pacific Northwest. To reduce the risk of importing yellowjacket (Vespula spp.) queens and other insects, an inspection and tree shaking certification program was begun in 1990. From 1993 to 2006, the annual percentage of shipped containers rated by Hawaii quarantine inspectors as moderately or highly infested with insects was significantly higher for manually shaken trees than for mechanically shaken trees. Between 1993 and 2001, 343 insect species in total were recovered from Christmas trees. Live western yellowjacket [Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] queens were intercepted both from containers certified as manually shaken and from containers certified as mechanically shaken. The standard manual shaking protocol removed about one-half of the queens from Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees that were naturally infested with western yellowjacket queens. We investigated the use of preharvest sprays of permethrin as a complement to shaking procedures used to control yellowjackets and other insects. Western yellowjacket queens and honey bees (surrogates for wasp pests) were exposed to Noble fir foliage that had been sprayed in the field with permethrin > 6 wk before harvest. Pesticide residues provided complete control (moribundity or mortality) in both species. The sprays did not affect needle retention or quality of Noble fir foliage. We conclude that preharvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides could be used in combination with mechanical shaking to greatly reduce the quarantine risk of yellowjacket queens and other insects in exported Christmas trees. PMID:19253620

  17. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C., II

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  18. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C., II; Huffman, D.; Spies, T.; Bailey, John D.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the ages and diameter growth rates of trees in former Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) old-growth stands on 10 sites and compared them with young-growth stands (50-70 years old, regenerated after timber harvest) in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The diameters and diameter growth rates for the first 100 years of trees in the old-growth stands were significantly greater than those in the young-growth stands. Growth rates in the old stands were comparable with those from long-term studies of young stands in which density is about 100-120 trees/ha; often young-growth stand density is well over 500 trees/ha. Ages of large trees in the old stands ranged from 100 to 420 years; ages in young stands varied by only about 5 to 10 years. Apparently, regeneration of old-growth stands on these sites occurred over a prolonged period, and trees grew at low density with little self-thinning; in contrast, after timber harvest, young stands may develop with high density of trees with similar ages and considerable self-thinning. The results suggest that thinning may be needed in dense young stands where the management objective is to speed development of old-growth characteristics.

  19. Astringency of douglas-fir foliage in relation to phenology and xylem pressure potential.

    PubMed

    Horner, J D

    1988-04-01

    Astringency (tannin content) of Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] foliage was examined in relation to phenology and water status. Foliage was sampled from control trees, trees on south-facing slopes, and trenched trees prior to budbreak and at periods of two, six, and 12 weeks after budbreak. Astringency of prebudbreak foliage from untrenched trees was comparable to that of mature foliage. Foliage expansion was accompanied by dilution of the tannin content. Percent relative astringency of control trees was significantly and positively related to the absolute value of predawn xylem pressure potential, while this relationship was negative for trees in the south-facing group. Coefficients of determination for the relationship between astringency and predawn xylem pressure potential were high (0.67 and 0.79 for the control and south-facing groups, respectively). Astringency of foliage from trees in the south-facing group also was affected significantly by daytime xylem pressure potential. Astringency of foliage from trees in the control and south-facing groups was not significantly related to tissue age, while that from trenched trees was significantly related only to age. Results demonstrate that water status is a better predictor of foliage astringency than is tissue age in unperturbed trees of this species and that, depending on the magnitude and/or timing of water deficits, opposite relationships between astringency and xylem pressure potential can be observed. PMID:24276206

  20. Hydrological and geopedological dynamics of a forested slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraedt, Deborah; Colinet, Gilles; Degré, Aurore

    2013-04-01

    Though forested watersheds are really particular in terms of hydrodynamics, most of the hydrological models oversimplify the phenomena involved. More investigations are unavoidable to improve the knowledge and the modelling of this environment. Here is the aim of this study. The studied slope is located on the Houille watershed in the West of the Belgian Ardenne (50°1'47''N, 4°53'22''E) on a silty rocky soil. The site is situated under a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO) and spruce stand cover (Picea abies (L.) Karst). It is about 160 meters long with a North-West facing slope between 7 and 55%. The goal of the study is : - to characterise the hydrological and pedogeological dynamics along a forested slope, - to compare these dynamics with the tree growth. For the geopedological part of the study, eight pits were dug to describe the soil and take some soil samples used for granulometric, chemical, etc. analysis. We have used geophysical methods (Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar) to estimate the soil depth. As for the hydrological part of this study, moisture sensors (capacitive and TDR) have been installed in the pits along the slope. A dye tracing test has been performed to underline the preferential flow and the importance of the subsurface flow. Several trees have been equipped with dendrometers and some measures of the LAI and the height of the trees are planned. The poster will present the first results of these investigations.

  1. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. PMID:26547588

  2. Role of relative humidity in colony founding and queen survivorship in two carpenter ant species.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2011-06-01

    Conditions necessary for optimal colony foundation in two carpenter ant species, Camponotus modoc Wheeler and Camponotus vicinus Mayr, were studied. Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco) and Styrofoam blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70, 80, or 100% RH. Nanitic workers produced after 12 wk were used to assess the effects of substrate and moisture content on colony initiation. Queens of C. vicinus in Douglas-fir and Styrofoam produced worker numbers that did not differ significantly with moisture content; however, the number of colonies initiated by C. modoc differed significantly with moisture content. The results indicate that colony founding in C. vicinus is less sensitive to moisture content than C. modoc for Douglas-fir and Styrofoam. In another test, groups of queens of each species were exposed to 20, 50, 70, and 100% RH and the time until 50% mortality occurred was recorded for each species. C. vicinus lived significantly longer at each of the test humidities than C. modoc, suggesting that the former species is adapted to better survive under xeric conditions. PMID:21735888

  3. Role of O-methyltransferase in the lignification of Douglas-fir cultured tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    O-methyltransferase (OMT) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin. This enzyme was isolated and characterized in an effort to understand why Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) callus tissue does not form appreciable amounts of lignin yet does form large amounts of the related flavonoids and tannins. It was shown that the OMT in the callus tissue is a cell wall associated, membrane-bound enzyme, in contrast to that of all reported plant species and to Douglas-fir seedlings, which have either a microsomal or soluble OMT. The effect this had on the OMT kinetic constants was studied. It was found that the callus OMT had much higher K/sub m/ constants for caffeic acid in both the membrane-bound and free forms compared with seedlings. The callus membrane-bound K/sub m/ for caffeic acid is 333 ..mu..M. The callus membrane-free K/sub m/ for caffeic acid is 250 ..mu..M. The seedling K/sub m/ for caffeic acid is 90 ..mu..M.

  4. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. PMID:26626827

  5. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesen, T.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Cromack, K., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-term impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics within the forest floor (FF, Oe and Oa horizons) and the mineral soil (0-10 cm). Twelve of our stands burned approximately 150 years ago ('young'), and the other 12 burned approximately 550 years ago ('old'). Forest floor mean C and N pools were significantly greater in old stands than young stands (N pools: 1823 ?? 132 kg??ha-1 vs. 1450 ?? 98 kg??ha -1; C pools: 62 980 ?? 5403 kg??ha-1 vs. 49 032 ?? 2965 kg??ha-1, mean ?? SE) as a result of significant differences in FF mass. Forest floor C and N concentrations and C/N ratios did not differ by time since fire, yet potential N mineralization rates were significantly higher in FF of old sites. Old and young mineral soils did not differ significantly in pools, concentrations, C/N ratios, or cycling rates. Our results suggest that C and N are sequestered in FF of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests over long (???400 year) intervals, but that shorter fire return intervals may prevent that accumulation. ?? 2008 NRC.

  6. Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.

    PubMed

    Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application. PMID:18689739

  7. Climate-vegetation-fire linkages on decadal-to-millennial time scales along the Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone (41 - 43°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 16,000 years. Although patterns of vegetation change are relatively clear, our understanding of the processes that produce them is limited. In this study, we reconstructed the vegetation and fire history of the North Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone (41 - 43°S) and linked past ecological changes to variations in large-scale synoptic controls of climate and past human activity. Postglacial vegetation and fire dynamics were inferred from high-resolution pollen and charcoal records from seven lakes located along the forest-steppe ecotone in the eastern flanks of the Andes. We fit Mixed Generalized Additive Models to these time series to estimate regional trends in vegetation composition and biomass burning through time, and compared them with independent paleoclimate data so as to assess long-term vegetation-fire-climate linkages. Pollen data indicate that late-glacial steppe was replaced by open forest in the early Holocene and by closed forest in the middle and late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the late-glacial to early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Long-term vegetation and fire patterns responded to variations in seasonal and annual insolation and their effect on moisture during the growing season. Submillennial-scale precipitation variability explained much of the fine-scale ecotonal behavior, mainly through its effect on fire, which can amplify or override the direct influence of climate on ecotone composition. During the late Holocene, in particular, century-long oscillations in forest composition were largely driven by changes in humidity, associated with the strengthening of the westerlies and ENSO variability. Humid periods (4900-3800 cal yr BP, 2850-1350 cal yr BP) promoted Nothofagus forest, and dry times (3800-2850 cal yr BP, 1350-450 cal yr BP) favored Austrocedrus expansion. At intermediate moisture levels

  8. Miocene Antarctic Terrestrial Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an

  9. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    because there is anecdotal evidence of plant damage on the saguaros that has been linked to increased UV radiation, and (3) the forests of Nothofagus spp. and the steppe of Patagonia where the risk of plant damage at 35S is 5% and increases to as much as 15% at 55S due to increased UV-B radiation. Measurements of UV-B radiation impinging on the surface at 55S largely exceed the predicted UV-B radiation values at 50 latitude and 0% ozone depletion. Preliminary HPLC analyses of UV-B absorbing compounds in Nothofagus antartica, N. pumilio, N. betuloides and Rumex sp. in natural conditions show species-specific patterns. The spectrum of N. antartica grown at 38S differs significantly from that of N. antartica in natural conditions in Ushuaia (55S). These results suggest that the selected main area (Patagonia) is appropriate for assessing the problem and its magnitude and that Nothofagus is appropriate for our study.

  10. The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil

  11. The vegetation cover of New Zealand at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newnham, Rewi; McGlone, Matt; Moar, Neville; Wilmshurst, Janet; Vandergoes, Marcus

    2013-08-01

    A new reconstruction of the vegetation cover for New Zealand at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is presented, based primarily on a database of 66 pollen site records and a more limited range of plant macrofossil and coleopteran records. Extensive forest is evident only from Auckland northwards. Conifer-broadleaf forest similar to that in the region today, but with Agathis australis scarce, persisted in the far north, whilst Nothofagus trees and a range of shrub taxa characterised the more open forests elsewhere in Northland. Survival of Nothofagus-dominated forest in coastal and exposed continental shelf locations to the southwest of Auckland and northwestern South Island is also indicated. Beyond these regions, vegetation cover comprised shrubland- and grassland-dominant communities, with the latter more prominent in eastern areas, to the south and presumably at higher altitudes. Nevertheless the survival of forest trees is indicated unambiguously in most regions apart from the eastern South Island. Thus the concept of 'micro glacial forest refugia' in New Zealand remains supported by this latest glacial vegetation reconstruction and we draw possible parallels with the developing but contentious concept of 'northern cryptic refugia' in Europe. Recent assertions that pollen and beetle reconstructions of the New Zealand LGM vegetation patterns diverge significantly are not supported by this analysis. Rather, the two proxies are readily reconciled if the term 'woody' as indicated by coleoptera is not restricted to tall forest trees but extended to the widespread woody shrub and small tree elements of the New Zealand flora. Regional distinctions in the LGM vegetation reconstruction concur broadly with the contemporary vegetation pattern, suggesting that, along with temperature depression and likely drier growing conditions, a zonal circulation regime with prominent southern westerly winds was important at 21 ka, as it is today. Pollen-climate modelling of the extent of

  12. North Patagonia climate over the last millennium inferred from variations in tree-ring width and isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavergne, Aliénor; Villalba, Ricardo; Daux, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    To disentangle natural variability from man-induced climate changes, current climatic trends should be placed in a longer perspective. Tree-rings provide a wealth of information on past climates with high-resolution records covering up to thousands years. Recent tree-ring studies have highlighted the divergence phenomenon in Northern Hemisphere forests. At some temperature-limited northern sites, tree growth responses to climate during recent decades have changed, raising concerns about the quality of historical climate reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. This shift in the eco-physiological response of trees to climate has not yet been documented in the Southern Hemisphere. The aim of this study is to present the tree-ring evolution over the last centuries in northern Patagonia (southern South America; 41° 10'S-71° 50'W) in order to assess 1) divergence in tree-growth response to climate in recent decades, and 2) the potential of tree-ring parameters (width and δ18O) to reconstruct temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Based on quality and extent, instrumental temperature records across North Patagonia (39° -41° S) were selected for comparison with tree-ring records. Detection and correction of series inhomogeneities were conducted using HOMER software. A set of homogenized temperature data was developed for the period 1901-2013. Increment-borer samples from Fitzroya cupressoides and Nothofagus pumilio were collected along the regional precipitation gradient from the wet Valdivian rainforest to the mesic Patagonian forests during the austral summer of 2013. Six sampling sites (2 for Fitzroya, 4 for Nothofagus) along the gradient were established to maximize differences in tree-growth responses to climate and to assess the effect of precipitation on the responses. More than 500 cores were cross-dated, detrended and indexed. Composite tree-ring index (TRI) chronologies of F. cupressoides and N. pumilio

  13. Environmental changes in two lakes of Northern Patagonia (Chile): A 1000 yr reconstruction based on pollen and charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicole, Vargas; Laura, Torres; Alberto, Araneda; Fabiola, Cruces; Fernando, Torrejón; Denisse, Alvarez; G, Bizama; Nathalie, Fagel; Roberto, Urrutia

    2010-05-01

    We aim to reconstruct the environmental changes experimented in Patagonian ecosystems during the last 1000 years. We analyze sediment cores from two lakes (Thompson and Burgos), located in Aysen Region, Southern Chile. The samples were obtained using a gravity corer and sampled at intervals of 1 cm to 30 cm depth and every 5 cm until the end of the core. Thompson lake sediment core was sampled every 5 cm. Age model is based on radiocarbon datings on bulk sediments and macroremains. In Burgos lake we evidence two main climatic changes. A wet period between 876-1444 AD is marked by the presence of Pteridophytes. A colder and dryer period is then evidenced by an increase of Berberis sp between 1444 and 1656 AD. From 1834 AD to Present the sediment record is mainly affected by human activities. High concentrations of carbon particles and a sharp change in pollen assemblage (increase of Poaceae, decrease of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type) are indicators of two large fire events. The lacustrine sediment of Thompson is characterized by a wetter period, between 874 - 1168 AD, with abundance of Pteridophytes. Then from 1168 AD to Present the environmental conditions of the watershed were characterized by lower ferns and fire events. Two major fires were evidenced between 1850 AD and Present. Like in Burgos they are marked by major changes in plant associations (sharp increase in Poaceae, drastic loss of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type). Wet periods identified in both lakes at the base of the sediment record could correspond to manifestations of a warm climate anomaly like the Medieval Warm Period. The dry and cold period, especially obvious in the Burgos record, could be associated to a cold climate anomaly. Finally the great changes in vegetation that occurred from the year ~ 1830 in the basin of the two lakes were directly related to human activities (forest cutting) developed during the ninetheenth and twentieth centuries. This research is funded by both Chilean and Belgian projects

  14. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Nitschke, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment. PMID:25409871

  15. A new species of the archaic primate Zanycteris from the late Paleocene of western Colorado and the phylogenetic position of the family Picrodontidae.

    PubMed

    Burger, Benjamin John

    2013-01-01

    A new species of an archaic primate (Pleisadapiformes) is described based on a maxilla containing the first and second upper molars from the Fort Union Formation, Atwell Gulch Member in northwestern Colorado. The preserved teeth show the unusual dental characteristics of members of the rare and poorly documented Picrodontidae family, including an elongated centrocrista and wide occlusal surface. The new species is placed within the genus Zanycteris (represented by a single specimen from southern Colorado). This placement is based on similarities in regard to the parastyle, curvilinear centrocrista, and wider anterior stylar shelf on the upper molars. However, the new species differs from the only known species of Zanycteris in exhibiting an upper first molar that is 30% larger in area, while retaining a similarly sized upper second molar. Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Picrodontidae family from the Paromomyidae, while still recognizing picrodontids position within Pleisadapiformes. The unusual dental features of the upper molars likely functioned in life as an enhanced shearing surface between the centrocrista and cristid obliqua crests for a specialized diet of fruit. A similar arrangement is found in the living bat Ariteus (Jamaican fig-eating bat), which feeds on fleshy fruit. The new species showcases the rapid diversification of archaic primates shortly after the extinction of the dinosaurs during the Paleocene, and the unusual dental anatomy of picrodontids to exploit new dietary specializations. PMID:24255808

  16. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment.

  17. The Relationship Between Soil Air Filled Porosity and Soil Methane Oxidation is Almost Identical in Both Dry and Wet Temperate Eucalypt Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, B. J.; Wardlaw, T.; Hinko-Najera, N.; Arndt, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the temporal variation in soil methane (CH4) exchange in temperate evergreen eucalypt forests in south-eastern Australia we measured soil CH4 exchange in high temporal resolution (every 2 hours or less) over two consecutive years (Wombat State Forest, Victoria, AUS) and over one year (Warra, Tasmania, AUS) in two temperate Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her) forests with contrasting annual precipitation (Wombat State Forest = 870 mm yr-1, Warra = 1700 mm yr-1). Both forests were continuous CH4 sinks with the Victorian site having a sink strength of -1.79 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 and the Tasmanian site having a sink strength of -3.83 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that CH4 uptake was strongly controlled by soil moisture at both sites and explained up to 90% of the temporal variability in CH4 uptake. Furthermore, when soil moisture was expressed as soil air filled porosity (AFP) we were able to predict the CH4 uptake of one site by the linear regression between AFP and CH4 uptake from the other site. Soil temperature only had an apparent control over seasonal variation in CH4 uptake during periods when soil moisture and soil temperature were closely correlated. The fluctuation of the generally low soil nitrogen levels did not influence soil CH4 uptake at either site.

  18. New Early Eocene Basal tapiromorph from Southern China and Its Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bin; Wang, Yuanqing; Meng, Jin; Li, Qian; Jin, Xun

    2014-01-01

    A new Early Eocene tapiromorph, Meridiolophus expansus gen. et sp. nov., from the Sanshui Basin, Guangdong Province, China, is described and discussed. It is the first reported Eocene mammal from the basin. The new taxon, represented by a left fragmentary mandible, is characterized by an expanded anterior symphyseal region, a long diastema between c1 and p1, a rather short diastema between p1 and p2, smaller premolars relative to molars, an incipient metaconid appressed to the protoconid on p3, a prominent entoconid on p4, molar metaconid not twinned, cristid obliqua extending mesially and slightly lingually from the hypoconid, inclined metalophid and hypolophid, and small hypoconulid on the lower preultimate molars. Meridiolophus is morphologically intermediate between basal Homogalax-like taxa and derived tapiromorphs (such as Heptodon). Phylogenetic analysis indicates Equidae is more closely related to Tapiromorpha than to Palaeotheriidae, although the latter is only represented by a single species Pachynolophus eulaliensis. ‘Isectolophidae’, with exception of Meridiolophus and Karagalax, has the closest affinity with Chalicotherioidea. Furthermore, the majority rule consensus tree shows that Meridiolophus is closer to Karagalax than to any other ‘isectolophid’, and both genera represent stem taxa to crown group Ceratomorpha. PMID:25353987

  19. New record for Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Ichneumonidae: Diplazontinae), a hymenopteran parasitoid of syrphid flies in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappadonna, Justin; Euaparadorn, Melody; Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) attacks the larvae of syrphid flies (Syrphidae). Woldstedtius flavolineatus was collected in Hawaii for the first time during an extensive malaise trap-based survey of parasitoids in Hawaiian forests. Since its initial collection on Hawaii Island in January 2006, it has been collected at five additional sites on Hawaii Island and at one site each on Maui and Oahu. Malaise trap results from Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge showed a strong seasonal pattern of abundance, with peak population levels reached during July–September. Rearing of its host, Allograpta obliqua (Say), collected from koa (Acacia koa Gray) at Hakalau over two days, revealed a parasitism rate of approximately 95%. Broader impacts of this alien wasp are unknown, but a reduction in host syrphid abundance could result in an increase in numbers of psyllids and aphids (Homoptera) that are preyed upon by syrphid larvae. Furthermore, a reduction in adult syrphids could impact the reproductive success of some of the plants they pollinate.

  20. [Maxillary and mandibular fractures. Treatment concepts in maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Waiss, W; Gosau, M; Koyama, K; Reichert, T E

    2011-11-01

    Maxillary and mandibular fractures are a relatively frequent occurrence due to the exposed location of the jaws and are caused mainly by acts of violence, traffic and recreational accidents. Mandibular fractures can be treated conservatively with dental splints and intermaxillary fixation. Since Michelet, miniplate osteosynthesis via intraoral access has become the method of choice. Champy showed that the monocortical fixation of miniplates at the level of the linea obliqua results in stable osteosynthesis, despite postoperative micro-movements in the fracture gap, and postulated the principle of dynamic compression. Dislocated fractures of the mandibular collum are treated with stable osteosynthesis via an intra- or extraoral approach, while fractures of the mandibular joint are usually treated conservatively and early functional rehabilitation is favored. For mandibular fractures, the principle of load-bearing and load-sharing should be considered, i.e. in the case of sufficient bone and uncomplicated fractures, the bone can bear most of the force, such that miniplates are sufficient (load-sharing). If bones are weakened by atrophy or in the case of infected, comminuted or defect fractures osteosynthesis plates must bear the load alone (load-bearing). PMID:22012486

  1. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up <1% of the syrphids reared. T. marginatus and Sphaerophoria sulfuripes were commonly collected from romaine plants with few or no detectable aphids. P. stegnus was observed to deposit in clusters of eggs, and was only reared in significant numbers from highly infested fields. Approximately 5% of syrphid larvae overall were parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). PMID:17370807

  2. A new species of the archaic primate Zanycteris from the late Paleocene of western Colorado and the phylogenetic position of the family Picrodontidae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A new species of an archaic primate (Pleisadapiformes) is described based on a maxilla containing the first and second upper molars from the Fort Union Formation, Atwell Gulch Member in northwestern Colorado. The preserved teeth show the unusual dental characteristics of members of the rare and poorly documented Picrodontidae family, including an elongated centrocrista and wide occlusal surface. The new species is placed within the genus Zanycteris (represented by a single specimen from southern Colorado). This placement is based on similarities in regard to the parastyle, curvilinear centrocrista, and wider anterior stylar shelf on the upper molars. However, the new species differs from the only known species of Zanycteris in exhibiting an upper first molar that is 30% larger in area, while retaining a similarly sized upper second molar. Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Picrodontidae family from the Paromomyidae, while still recognizing picrodontids position within Pleisadapiformes. The unusual dental features of the upper molars likely functioned in life as an enhanced shearing surface between the centrocrista and cristid obliqua crests for a specialized diet of fruit. A similar arrangement is found in the living bat Ariteus (Jamaican fig-eating bat), which feeds on fleshy fruit. The new species showcases the rapid diversification of archaic primates shortly after the extinction of the dinosaurs during the Paleocene, and the unusual dental anatomy of picrodontids to exploit new dietary specializations. PMID:24255808

  3. Complete Sequence, Analysis and Organization of the Orgyia leucostigma Nucleopolyhedrovirus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Thumbi, David K.; Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Lucarotti, Christopher J.; Lapointe, Renée; Graham, Robert I.; Pavlik, Lillian; Lauzon, Hilary A. M.; Arif, Basil M.

    2011-01-01

    The complete genome of the Orgyia leucostigma nucleopolyhedrovirus (OrleNPV) isolated from the whitemarked tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma, Lymantridae: Lepidoptera) was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to other baculovirus genomes. The size of the OrleNPV genome was 156,179 base pairs (bp) and had a G+C content of 39%. The genome encoded 135 putative open reading frames (ORFs), which occupied 79% of the entire genome sequence. Three inhibitor of apoptosis (ORFs 16, 43 and 63), and five baculovirus repeated ORFs (bro-a through bro-e) were interspersed in the OrleNPV genome. In addition to six direct repeat (drs), a common feature shared among most baculoviruses, OrleNPV genome contained three homologous regions (hrs) that are located in the latter half of the genome. The presence of an F-protein homologue and the results from phylogenetic analyses placed OrleNPV in the genus Alphabaculovirus, group II. Overall, OrleNPV appears to be most closely related to group II alphabaculoviruses Ectropis obliqua (EcobNPV), Apocheima cinerarium (ApciNPV), Euproctis pseudoconspersa (EupsNPV), and Clanis bilineata (ClbiNPV). PMID:22163346

  4. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. PMID:21735933

  5. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  6. Climate change and wildfire influence the methane uptake capacity in Australian eucalypt forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Stefan; Fest, Benedikt; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Forest ecosystems comprise the largest soil sink for the greenhouse gas methane and climate change and fire can have significant impacts on this important process. We present data from a number of long-term field studies that investigated the impacts of reduced rainfall and fire regimes on soil methane flux in Australian forest systems. Long term soil methane flux measurements with automated chambers indicated that around 90% of soil methane uptake variability in dry- and wet-sclerophyll Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her.) forests was explained by soil moisture through influencing methane diffusivity. The application of rainfall reduction shelters in the dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest caused an average reduction of 14.6% in soil volumetric water content but an increase in soil methane uptake of around 38%, again a consequence of increased methane diffusivity. Consequently, the potential reductions in rainfall in large parts of Australia are likely to result in an increase in methane uptake. Wildfire disturbance also altered forest soil methane uptake and here the methane uptake capacity was related to stand age dependent changes in stand structure likely linked to changes in stand water use. Stands that had dryer soils displayed greater methane uptake, indicating that soil methane uptake changes during forest stand development. Wildfire can therefore have significant impacts on landscape level methane uptake.

  7. Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M; Walia, S; Dhingra, S; Khambay, B P

    2001-03-01

    Fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), when subjected to steam distillation, yielded ginger oil in which curcumene was found to be the major constituent. The thermally labile zingiberene-rich fraction was obtained from its diethyl ether extract. Column chromatography of ginger oleoresin furnished a fraction from which [6]-gingerol was obtained by preparative TLC. Naturally occurring [6]-dehydroshogaol was synthesised following condensation of dehydrozingerone with hexanal, whereas zingerone and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butane were obtained by hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone with 10% Pd/C. The structures of the compounds were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass (EI-MS and ES-MS) spectral analysis. The test compounds exhibited moderate insect growth regulatory (IGR) and antifeedant activity against Spilosoma obliqua, and significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Among the various compounds, [6]-dehydroshogaol exhibited maximum IGR activity (EC50 3.55 mg ml-1), while dehydrozingerone imparted maximum antifungal activity (EC50 86.49 mg litre-1). PMID:11455660

  8. Antiprotozoal activities of Colombian plants.

    PubMed

    Weniger, B; Robledo, S; Arango, G J; Deharo, E; Aragón, R; Muñoz, V; Callapa, J; Lobstein, A; Anton, R

    2001-12-01

    In our search for therapeutical alternatives for antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 44 plants from western Colombia upon ethnopharmacological and chemotaxonomic considerations. Polar and apolar extracts of these species were examined for antimalarial activity using in vitro tests with two clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity were determined in vitro using promastigote and amastigote forms of several strains of Leishmania sp. and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, the 15 following species showed good or very good antiprotozoal activity in vitro: Aspidosperma megalocarpon, Campnosperma panamense, Conobea scoparioides, Guarea polymera, Guarea guidonia, Guatteria amplifolia, Huberodendron patinoi, Hygrophila guianensis, Jacaranda caucana, Marila laxiflora, Otoba novogranatensis, Otoba parviflora, Protium amplium, Swinglea glutinosa and Tabernaemontana obliqua. Cytotoxicity was assessed in U-937 cells and the ratio of cytotoxicity to antiprotozoal activity was determined for the active extracts. Ten extracts from eight species showed selectivity indexes > or = 10. Among the extracts that showed leishmanicidal activity, the methylene chloride extract of leaves from C. scoparioides showed a selectivity index in the same range that the one of the Glucantime control. Several of the active leishmanicidal plants are traditionally used against leishmaniasis by the population of the concerned area. PMID:11694364

  9. Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antoni, Hector; Rothschild, Lynn; Schultz, Cynthia; Burgess, Seth; Skiles, J. W.

    2007-11-01

    A survey over two mountain slopes (Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco) in the vicinity of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) showed normal results for the region in terms of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of the dominant tree species Nothofagus antarctica, N. pumilio and N. betuloides, and soil variables such as temperature, moisture, pH, and concentration of nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Solar radiation, on the other hand, showed high values of ultraviolet over the 200-400 nm range, suggesting that the environment is extreme in terms of incoming solar radiation. The forest canopy absorbs and/or reflects a significant amount of that radiation. In separate analyses we showed that these tree species contain UV-absorbing pigments (cyanidin, delphidin, and flavonol glycosides). We submit that the rippled and glossy surface of leaves serves as a reflection/backscattering mechanism that protects their inner structure and function. The presence of krummholz (= twisted, dwarf trees) in the upper end of the forest shows the effects of an extreme environment.

  10. Assessment of land influence on a high-latitude marine coastal system: Tierra del Fuego, southernmost Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, Oscar; Comoglio, Laura; Spetter, Carla; Duarte, Claudia; Asteasuain, Raúl; Freije, Rubén Hugo; Marcovecchio, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    The study deals with the determination of physico-chemical parameters, inorganic nutrients, particulate organic matter, and photosynthetic pigments on a monthly basis during an annual cycle from nine sampling sites of the coastal zone of a high-latitude ecosystem (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). Nitrites and phosphates concentrations were similar to other systems of the south Atlantic coast (median, 0.30 and 1.02 μM, respectively), while nitrates were higher in all sampling periods (median, 45.37 μM), and silicates were significantly smaller (median, 7.76 μM). Chlorophyll a and phaeopigments have shown median values of 0.38 and 0.85 mg m(-3), respectively, while saturated values of dissolved oxygen were recorded throughout the study. The analysis reflected that nutrient enrichment seems to be linked to an anthropogenic source, the presence of peatlands areas, and a sink of Nothofagus pumilio woods. The area could be characterized in three zones related to (1) high urban influence, (2) natural inputs of freshwater, and (3) mixed inputs coming from moderate urban impacts. PMID:20473562

  11. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  12. Palo Podrido: Model for Extensive Delignification of Wood by Ganoderma applanatum.

    PubMed

    Dill, I; Kraepelin, G

    1986-12-01

    Chemical and micromorphological analysis revealed that South Chilean "palo podrido" results from a white-rot fungus that causes highly selective and extensive delignification. Palo podrido samples from 10 different hardwood trunks (Eucryphia cordifolia, Drimys winteri, and Nothofagus dombeyi) decayed by Ganoderma applanatum were analyzed. Of 14 samples, 11 had extremely low Klason lignin values, ranging from 6.1 to 0.4% (dry weight). The most remarkable and unusual feature was that delignification and defibration were not restricted to small pockets but extended throughout large areas in the interior of trunks subjected to undisturbed rotting over long periods of time. Comparative analysis of water content, swelling capacity, and lignin content led to the conclusion that besides lignin degradation, suppression of the cellulolytic activity of the rotting organisms plays a decisive role. Among various nutrients added to a palo podrido sample (3% residual Klason lignin), the nitrogen source was the only one leading to almost complete cellulose degradation. We suggest that the extremely low nitrogen content (0.037 to 0.073% [dry weight]) of the investigated wood species was the primary cause for the extensive delignification as well as the concomitant suppression of cellulose breakdown. The low temperatures, high humidity, and microaerobic conditions maintained within the decaying trunks are discussed as additional ecological factors favoring delignification in South Chilean rain forests. PMID:16347235

  13. Palo Podrido: Model for Extensive Delignification of Wood by Ganoderma applanatum

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Ingrid; Kraepelin, Gunda

    1986-01-01

    Chemical and micromorphological analysis revealed that South Chilean “palo podrido” results from a white-rot fungus that causes highly selective and extensive delignification. Palo podrido samples from 10 different hardwood trunks (Eucryphia cordifolia, Drimys winteri, and Nothofagus dombeyi) decayed by Ganoderma applanatum were analyzed. Of 14 samples, 11 had extremely low Klason lignin values, ranging from 6.1 to 0.4% (dry weight). The most remarkable and unusual feature was that delignification and defibration were not restricted to small pockets but extended throughout large areas in the interior of trunks subjected to undisturbed rotting over long periods of time. Comparative analysis of water content, swelling capacity, and lignin content led to the conclusion that besides lignin degradation, suppression of the cellulolytic activity of the rotting organisms plays a decisive role. Among various nutrients added to a palo podrido sample (3% residual Klason lignin), the nitrogen source was the only one leading to almost complete cellulose degradation. We suggest that the extremely low nitrogen content (0.037 to 0.073% [dry weight]) of the investigated wood species was the primary cause for the extensive delignification as well as the concomitant suppression of cellulose breakdown. The low temperatures, high humidity, and microaerobic conditions maintained within the decaying trunks are discussed as additional ecological factors favoring delignification in South Chilean rain forests. Images PMID:16347235

  14. Submillennial palynology and palaeoecology of the last glaciation at Taiquemó (˜50,000 cal yr, MIS 2 4) in southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, C. J.; Heusser, L. E.

    2006-03-01

    Stratigraphic palynology of core HE94-2B from a mire at Taiquemó (42.17°S, 73.60°W) on Isla Grande de Chiloé is one of the most closely sampled, continuous Pleistocene records in southern South America. Chronology of the 655-cm core that extends from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 through the Lateglacial is controlled by 27 finite radiocarbon dates. Sampled at 1-cm intervals, the high temporal resolution (mean ˜85 yr cm -1) captures short-term palaeoecological changes and successional restabilization of plant communities. Preponderance of Gramineae (grass) with Nothofagus dombeyi type (southern beech) characterizing Subantarctic Parkland under a cold climate in MIS 4 was followed by a conspicuously milder interval that lasted for some ten millennia in MIS 3. Of greater frequency and diversity at this time were more thermophilic taxa associated with North Patagonian Evergreen Forest ( Podocarpus, Pilgerodendron type , Pseudopanax, Myrtaceae). Subsequently with increasing cold and hyperhumidity, N. dombeyi type-Gramineae assemblages that included Subantarctic Parkland indicator taxa ( Lepidothamnus, Astelia, Gaimardia) increased stepwise in MIS 2-3. Parkland maxima in MIS 2 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) date to glacial advances between ˜17,800 and 33,400 cal yr BP. On deglaciation, Lateglacial North Patagonian Evergreen Forest was subject to short-term stadial and interstadial climatic fluctuations. The high-resolution Taiquemó pollen record details and supports previous conclusions of interhemispheric synchrony of climatic and glacial events.

  15. Facilitation within species: a possible origin of group-selected superorganisms.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-07-01

    Facilitation (positive interactions) has emerged as a dominant ecological mechanism in many ecosystems. Its importance has recently been expanded to include intraspecific interactions, creating the potential for higher-level natural selection within species. Using multiple lines of evidence, we show that conspecific facilitation within the southern beech tree, Nothofagus pumilio, appears to overcome competition in two life phases. In a seedling experiment addressing stress and planting-density effects, we found that mortality was lowest (∼0%) where there was no stress and was indistinguishable across densities. Furthermore, in mature forests (45 years old), genetically variable, merged individuals had lower mortality (-50%) than unmerged individuals in locations without identifiable stress. Thus, a full understanding of the occurrence of facilitation may require a more general model of resource improvements than the commonly cited stress gradient hypothesis. Additionally, the merged trees showed a density-dependent mortality pattern at the level of the group. These data demonstrate a potential mechanism (facilitation) driving natural selection at this higher level, via stem merging. These merged "superorganisms" would confirm theoretical predictions whereby facilitation acts as an ecological mechanism driving group selection. PMID:21670580

  16. Palynological analysis of camelid coprolites: seasonality in the use of the site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Nadia Jimena; Burry, Lidia Susana; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Civalero, María Teresa; Aschero, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Palynological, palaeoparasitological and paleobotanical studies of coprolites found in archaeological sites from Perito Moreno National Park (47°57‧S72°05‧W) yielded information on diet, palaeoenvironment and health. These studies allowed adding evidence to the reconstruction of life history of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited Patagonia during the Holocene. We examined the season of the year when camelid Lama guanicoe coprolites (5400 ± 64 yr 14C BP to 9640 ± 190 yr 14C BP) were deposited at Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (site CCP7). The study used palynological evidence and comparison with pollen spectra of modern feces collected during summer, fall, winter and spring of 2010. The dominant types were: pollen of Nothofagus, Empetrum rubrum, Asteraceae subfam. Asteroideae, Nassauvia, Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae; fern spores; remains of Eimeria macusaniensis; and plant remains of Poaceae, Festuca pallescens, Stipa speciosa, Armeria maritima, Gaultheria mucronata and E. rubrum. Pollen spectra of modern and fossil feces were used for multivariate analysis. Coprolites associated to fall and winter modern feces. These results and those obtained from pollen concentration values and the presence of pollen types indicators of seasonality, allowed the determination of summer, fall and winter coprolites. However, caution must be taken with the seasonality results of coprolites dated earlier than 9000 years BP since the environmental conditions differed from now. The site was probably a camelid shelter during the unfavorable seasons.

  17. Antarctic glacial geologic record and GCM modeling: A test

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, D.H.; Bromwich, D.H.; Harwood, D.M.; Webb, P.

    1992-03-01

    A recent GCM (General Circulation Model) study of Antarctic glaciation by Oglesby concluded that (1) oceanic heat transport is relatively unimportant in the development and maintenance of Antarctic glaciation; (2) height and polar position, not the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, have led to thermal isolation; and (3) surface elevation may be crucial for glaciation. Model results are here evaluated against the Pliocene geologic record for Antarctica. The Sirius Group, widely distributed in the Transantarctic Mountains, contains diatom floras suggesting open marine conditions in interior East Antarctica as recently as about 3 m.y. ago. The Sirius deposits also contain a sparse fossil flora including Nothofagus wood, demonstrating snow-free conditions and elevated summer temperatures within 500 km of the South Pole. Based on fission track data and marine sediments, uplift rates for the Transantarctic Mountains are estimated to average 50-100 m m.y.-1 for the last 10 m.y., although rates may have been higher during the last 3 m.y. The continental interior is also most unlikely to have changed elevation by more than a few hundred meters in the last 3 m.y. If the dating of the Sirius is correct and uplift rates have not been an order of magnitude higher, then polar location and elevation cannot be primary controls on the formation and subsequent fluctuations of the ice sheet.

  18. Dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of flash floods in the Patagonian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casteller, Alejandro; Stoffel, Markus; Crespo, Sebastián; Villalba, Ricardo; Corona, Christophe; Bianchi, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Flash floods represent a significant natural hazard in small mountainous catchments of the Patagonian Andes and have repeatedly caused loss to life and infrastructure. At the same time, however, documentary records of past events remain fairly scarce and highly fragmentary in most cases. In this study, we therefore reconstruct the spatiotemporal patterns of past flash flood activity along the Los Cipreses torrent (Neuquén, Argentina) using dendrogeomorphic methods. Based on samples from Austrocedrus chilensis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Nothofagus dombeyi, we document 21 flash flood events covering the period A.D. 1890-2009 and reconstruct mean recurrence intervals of events at the level of individual trees being impacted, which varies from 4 to 93 years. Results show that trees tend to be older (younger) in sectors of the torrent with gentler (steeper) slope gradients. Potential triggers of flash floods were analyzed using daily temperature and precipitation data from a nearby weather station. Weather conditions leading to flash floods are abundant precipitations during one to three consecutive days, combined with temperatures above the rain/snow threshold (2 °C) in the whole watershed.

  19. Plesiosaur-bearing rocks from the Late Cretaceous Tahora Fm, Mangahouanga, New Zealand - a palaeoenvironmental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, Vivi; Raine, J. Ian

    2010-05-01

    Mangahouanga Stream, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand is world-famous for its high southern latitude vertebrate fossils including plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and more rarely, dinosaurs. The fossils are preserved in the conglomeratic facies of the Maungataniwha Sandstone Member of the Tahora Formation. A palynological investigation of sediments from the boulders hosting vertebrate fossils reveals well-preserved palynological assemblages dominated by pollen and spores from land plants but also including marine dinoflagellate cysts in one sample. The palynofacies is strongly dominated by wood fragments including charcoal, and the sample taken from a boulder hosting plesiosaur vertebrae is entirely terrestrially derived, suggesting a fresh-water habitat for at least some of these plesiosaurs. The key-pollen taxa Nothofagidites senectus and Tricolpites lilliei, together with the dinocyst Isabelidinium pellucidum and the megaspore Grapnelispora evansii, strongly indicate an early Maastrichtian age for the host rock. The terrestrial palynoflora reflects a mixed vegetation dominated by podocarp conifers and angiosperms with a significant tree-fern subcanopy component. The presence of taxa with modern temperate distributions such as Nothofagus (southern beech), Proteaceae and Cyatheaceae (tree-ferns), indicates a mild-temperate climate and lack of severe winter freezing during the latest Cretaceous, providing an ecosystem which most probably made it possible for polar dinosaurs to overwinter. The paper is dedicated to Mrs Joan Wiffen who with her great persistence, enthusiasm and courage put Mangahouanga on the world map, becoming a role model for many young scientists.

  20. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  1. Differential snow accumulation and melt at southern hemisphere deciduous forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, James; Huerta, Marlene; Molotch, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the differential snow dynamics resulting from forest cover in southern hemisphere alpine regions. Tree species variability and differences in local climate preclude extrapolation of northern hemisphere results and introduce uncertainty on the future impacts of climate change on snow-cover duration, maximum accumulation and melt rates. This research presents preliminary results from field observations obtained at an experimental watershed in the Nevados de Chillan region, in south-central Chile. The relatively low elevation of the Andes Cordillera and higher latitude of the site allows the existence of mixed Nothofagus forests, sometimes combined with bamboo-type undergrowth. Rain-on-snow events can be observed during winter and in the early stages of the austral spring. We installed four instrument clusters at the Valle Hermoso experimental catchments, where snow depth, air temperature and relative humidity were measured both under canopy and in forest clearings. The clusters where positioned in order to cover a range of elevations and sun exposure. Preliminary results from two winter seasons suggest that forest cover can impact accumulation rates as much as elevation does, and that melt rates are fairly sensitive to forest cover even in low LAI conditions.

  2. A Holocene record of climate, vegetation change and peat bog development, east Otago, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    1999-05-01

    A Holocene record of pollen, macrofossils, testate amoebae and peat humification is presented from a small montane bog. Sediment accumulation began before 9000 yr BP, but peat growth not until ca. 7000 BP. From 12 000 to 7000 yr BP, a shrub-grassland dominated under a dry climate, with increasing conifer forest and tall scrub from ca. 9600 yr BP. At 7000 yr BP a dense montane-subalpine low conifer forest established under a moist, cool climatic regime. Between 7000 and 700 yr BP the bog surface was shrubby, tending to be dry but with highly variable surface wetness. The catchment was affected by major fire at least four times between 4000 and 1000 yr BP. Both fire and bog surface wetness may have been linked to ENSO-caused variations in rainfall. Cooler, cloudier winters and disturbance by fire promoted the expansion of the broadleaf tree Nothofagus menziesii between 4000 yr BP and 1300 yr BP at the expense of the previous conifer forest-scrub vegetation. Polynesian fires (ca. 700 yr BP) reduced the vegetation to tussock grassland and bracken. Deforestation did not markedly affect the hydrology of the site. European pastoralism since ad 1860 has increased run-off and rising water tables in the bog have led to a Sphagnum-dominated cover.

  3. Baseline element composition of foliose and fruticose lichens along the steep climatic gradient of SW Patagonia (Aisén Region, Chile).

    PubMed

    Monaci, Fabrizio; Fantozzi, Federica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Parra, Oscar; Bargagli, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Samples of foliose (Nephroma antarcticum) and fruticose (Usnea sp.) lichens were collected across a steep climatic and vegetation gradient in a remote, almost pristine region of SW Chilean Patagonia. Concentrations of major and trace elements in lichens from the rainforest were among the lowest ever reported worldwide for foliose and fruticose lichens and can be considered background levels for the region. The two lichen growth forms showed different elemental compositions mainly due to the greater capacity of foliose thalli to intercept elements from windborne and canopy-leached particles. The patterns of spatial variation in the chemical composition of lichens were effectively explained by statistical methods and reflected the different availability of wet and dry deposition along the steep climatic gradient. Baseline values established for N. antarcticum samples growing in temperate Nothofagus forests were therefore distinct from those of samples growing in more open, drier habitats. The fruticose Usnea sp. showed a higher affinity for atmophile Hg, low concentrations of lithophilic elements, and the same baseline composition whether from temperate forests or from dry, barren environments. The provided background and baseline values against which variations can be measured will be useful in the early detection of local or regional climatic and environmental change, especially in view of the planned construction of hydropower dams under the recently approved HidroAysén Project. PMID:22790117

  4. Strong host preference of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forest as revealed by DNA barcoding and taxon-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Jairus, Teele; Horton, Bryony M; Abarenkov, Kessy; Suvi, Triin; Saar, Irja; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is a widespread plant nutrition strategy in Australia, especially in semiarid regions. This study aims to determine the diversity, community structure and host preference of ECM fungi in a Tasmanian wet sclerophyll forest. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified based on anatomotyping and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-large subunit (LSU) sequence analysis using taxon-specific primers. Host tree roots were identified based on root morphology and length differences of the chloroplast trnL region. A total of 123 species of ECM fungi were recovered from root tips of Eucalyptus regnans (Myrtaceae), Pomaderris apetala (Rhamnaceae) and Nothofagus cunninghamii (Nothofagaceae). The frequency of two thirds of the most common ECM fungi from several lineages was significantly influenced by host species. The lineages of Cortinarius, Tomentella-Thelephora, Russula-Lactarius, Clavulina, Descolea and Laccaria prevailed in the total community and their species richness and relative abundance did not differ by host species. This study demonstrates that strongly host-preferring, though not directly specific, ECM fungi may dominate the below-ground community. Apart from the richness of Descolea, Tulasnella and Helotiales and the lack of Suillus-Rhizopogon and Amphinema-Tylospora, the ECM fungal diversity and phylogenetic community structure is similar to that in the Holarctic realm. PMID:18631297

  5. New species of dictyostelids from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C; Romeralo, Maria; Edwards, Sally M; Stephenson, Steven L; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    In late Jan and early Feb 2005 samples for isolation of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (dictyostelids) were collected in five different provinces and from six national parks (all located 39-55°S) in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Southern beech (Nothofagus) forests represented the primary vegetation type investigated, but some samples were obtained from Patagonian steppe, alpine meadows, Valdivian temperate rainforests and coniferous forests dominated by Araucaria, Austrocedrus and Fitzroya. Among the dictyostelids isolated from the samples we collected were seven species new to science. These species (Dictyostelium austroandinum, D. chordatum, D. fasciculoideum, D. gargantuum, D. leptosomopsis, D. valdivianum and Polysphondylium patagonicum) are described herein on the basis of both morphology and molecular (SSU rDNA) data. One of the new species, D. gargantuum, is one of the largest representatives of the group reported to date. Another unusual species, D. chordatum, produces long interwoven sorocarps that do not appear to respond to a spacing gas similar to the condition first noted in D. implicatum. PMID:20943559

  6. Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast.

    PubMed

    Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Valério, Elisabete; Gonçalves, Carla; Dover, Jim; Johnston, Mark; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-08-30

    Domestication of plants and animals promoted humanity's transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles, demographic expansion, and the emergence of civilizations. In contrast to the well-documented successes of crop and livestock breeding, processes of microbe domestication remain obscure, despite the importance of microbes to the production of food, beverages, and biofuels. Lager-beer, first brewed in the 15th century, employs an allotetraploid hybrid yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus (syn. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), a domesticated species created by the fusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale-yeast with an unknown cryotolerant Saccharomyces species. We report the isolation of that species and designate it Saccharomyces eubayanus sp. nov. because of its resemblance to Saccharomyces bayanus (a complex hybrid of S. eubayanus, Saccharomyces uvarum, and S. cerevisiae found only in the brewing environment). Individuals from populations of S. eubayanus and its sister species, S. uvarum, exist in apparent sympatry in Nothofagus (Southern beech) forests in Patagonia, but are isolated genetically through intrinsic postzygotic barriers, and ecologically through host-preference. The draft genome sequence of S. eubayanus is 99.5% identical to the non-S. cerevisiae portion of the S. pastorianus genome sequence and suggests specific changes in sugar and sulfite metabolism that were crucial for domestication in the lager-brewing environment. This study shows that combining microbial ecology with comparative genomics facilitates the discovery and preservation of wild genetic stocks of domesticated microbes to trace their history, identify genetic changes, and suggest paths to further industrial improvement. PMID:21873232

  7. Using genetic techniques to quantify reinvasion, survival and in situ breeding rates during control operations.

    PubMed

    Veale, A J; Edge, K-A; McMurtrie, P; Fewster, R M; Clout, M N; Gleeson, D M

    2013-10-01

    Determining the origin of individuals caught during a control/eradication programme enables conservation managers to assess the reinvasion rates of their target species and evaluate the level of success of their control methods. We examine how genetic techniques can focus management by distinguishing between hypotheses of 'reinvasion' and 'survivor', and defining kin groups for invasive stoats (Mustela erminea) on Secretary Island, New Zealand. 205 stoats caught on the island were genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci, along with 40 stoats from the opposing mainland coast, and the age and sex were determined for each individual. Using these data, we compare and combine a variety of genetic techniques including genetic clustering, population assignment and kinship-based techniques to assess the origin of each stoat. The population history and individual movement could be described in fine detail, with results indicating that both in-situ survival and breeding, and reinvasion are occurring. Immigration to the island was found to be generally low, apart from in 1 year where around 8 stoats emigrated from the mainland. This increased immigration was probably linked to a stoat population spike on the mainland in that year, caused by a masting event of southern beech forest (Nothofagus sp.) and the subsequent rodent irruption. Our study provides an example of some of the ways genetic analyses can feed directly into informing management practices for invasive species. PMID:24033616

  8. Late Glacial beech forest: an 18,000 5000-BP pollen record from Auckland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancashire, A. K.; Flenley, J. R.; Harper, M.

    2002-07-01

    Australia, New Zealand and South America are the main sources of terrestrial climate change records for midlatitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The advantage of studying the New Zealand record is that its vegetation has been subject to human influence for only the last thousand years. Vegetation records for Auckland are important because earlier work indicates that during the Last Glacial Maximum, the boundary between scrubland and forest lay in the Auckland region. Auckland is situated in a volcanic field and the coring site was in the crater of a small extinct volcano (Crater Hill, formed about 29 ka BP). The 4-m long core contained sediment dating from c. 5 to c. 18 ka BP. We present pollen and diatom records from this core. The pollen records from basal clays indicate southern beech forest (mainly Nothofagus menziesii) was present in the region around Crater Hill from 18 to 14.5 ka BP. At this time, there were areas of scrub in the crater surrounding a hardwater lake. The southern forest limit could well have been close to the site. Records from overlying peat indicate beech forest was replaced by Podocarp broadleaf forest as the Last Glacial ended. Metrosideros spp. (coastal forest trees) peak in the early Holocene. This coincides with an impoverished diatom flora which indicates drier conditions in the basin. When the lake reformed in the Holocene on peat its water was more acidic.

  9. Vegetation, fire and climate change in central-east Isla Grande de Chiloé (43°S) since the Last Glacial Maximum, northwestern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce, O. H.; Moreno, P. I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a detailed record from Lago Lepué to examine vegetation, climate and fire-regime changes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in central-east Isla Grande de Chiloé (43°S), northwestern Patagonia. Precipitation in this region correlates with the intensity of the southern westerly winds (SWW), allowing reconstruction of past SWW behavior through precipitation-sensitive sensors. Recession from the LGM glacier margins exposed the central-east sector of Isla Grande de Chiloé by 17,800 cal yr BP, followed by the immediate colonization of pioneer cold-resistant herbs/shrubs and rapid establishment of closed-canopy Nothofagus forests by 17,000 cal yr BP. Broad-leaved temperate rainforests have persisted since then with compositional changes driven by changes in temperature, hydrologic balance and disturbance regimes. We detect low lake levels and enhanced fire activity between 800-2000, 4000-4300, ˜8000-11,000 and 16,100-17,800 cal yr BP, implying southward shifts and/or weaker SWW flow that alternated with cold, humid phases with muted fire activity. Covariation in paleoclimate trends revealed by the Lago Lepué record with tropical and Antarctic records since the LGM, suggests that the SWW have been a highly dynamic component of the climate system capable of linking climate changes from low- and high-southern latitudes during the Last Glacial termination and the current interglacial.

  10. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined. PMID:25041507