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Sample records for nova-like bb doradus

  1. Nova-like variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    On grounds of different observable characteristics five classes of nova-like objects are distinguished: the UX Ursae Majoris stars, the antidwarf novae, the DQ Herculis stars, the AM Herculis stars, and the AM Canum Venaticorum stars. Some objects have not been classified specifically. Nova-like stars share most observable features with dwarf novae, except for the outburst behavior. The understanding is that dwarf novae, UX Ursae Majoris stars, and anti-dwarf novae are basically the same sort of objects. The difference between them is that in UX Ursae Majoris stars the mass transfer through the accretion disc always is high so the disc is stationary all the time; in anti-dwarf novae for some reason the mass transfer occasionally drops considerably for some time, and in dwarf novae it is low enough for the disc to undergo semiperiodic changes between high and low accretion events. DQ Herculis stars are believed to possess weakly magnetic white dwarfs which disrupt the inner disc at some distance from the central star; the rotation of the white dwarf can be seen as an additional photometric period. In AM Herculis stars, a strongly magnetic white dwarf entirely prevents the formation of an accretion disk and at the same time locks the rotation of the white dwarf to the binary orbit. Finally, AM Canum Venaticorum stars are believed to be cataclysmic variables that consist of two white dwarf components.

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Nova-Like Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive review of nova-like variable stars of the VY Sculptoris and UX Ursa Majoris subtypes is presented. All that has been learned, up to the present time, from observations in the X-ray, far ultraviolet, optical and infrared bandpasses will be discussed. Spectroscopic analyses of high optical brightness states and low optical brightness states of nova-like variables will be summarized. The application of standard and non-standard accretion disk models as well as boundary layer structure will be discussed. The results of searches for nova shells, the evolutionary state of nova-likes as well as new spectroscopic results on BZ Cam (the bow shock CV) and BB Dor will also be included. This work is supported by NASA ADP grants NNX13AF12G and NNX13AF11G to Villanova University.

  3. Doradus Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panoramic view of a vast, sculpted area of gas and dust where thousands of stars are being born has been captured by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/21 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The photo offers an unprecedented, detailed view of the entire inner region of the fertile, star-forming 30 Doradus Nebula. The mosaic picture shows that ultraviolet radiation and high-speed material unleashed by the stars in the cluster, called R136 (the large blue blob left of center), are weaving a tapestry of creation and destruction, triggering the collapse of looming gas and dust clouds and forming pillar-like structures that incubate newborn stars.

    The 30 Doradus Nebula is in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way located 170,000 light-years from Earth. Nebulas like 30 Doradus are signposts of recent star birth. High-energy ultraviolet radiation from young, hot, massive stars in R136 causes surrounding gaseous material to glow. Previous Hubble telescope observations showed that R136 contains several dozen of the most massive stars known, each about 100 times the mass of the Sun and about 10 times as hot. These stellar behemoths formed about 2 million years ago.

    The stars in R136 produce intense 'stellar winds,' streams of material traveling at several million miles an hour. These winds push the gas away from the cluster and compress the inner regions of the surrounding gas and dust clouds (seen in the image as the pinkish material). The intense pressure triggers the collapse of parts of the clouds, producing a new star formation around the central cluster. Most stars in the nursery are not visible because they are still encased in cocoons of gas and dust.

    This mosaic image of 30 Doradus consists of five overlapping

  4. The Nova-like star RW Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, S. J.; Evans, J. M.; Bianchini, A.; Canterna, R.

    2000-12-01

    We have analyzed 17 medium resolution spectra of RW Sex taken in 1988 at La Silla in the spectral range is 4000-5000 Å with a dispersion of 60 Å/mm and spectral resolution of about 2 Å/pixel. The mean spectrum of the object shows the continuum energy distribution slightly brighter and steeper than that observed by Beuermann, Stasiewski and Schwope (1992). In both cases the slope seems to be steeper that the λ -2.33 power law predicted for standard accretion discs (see Warner 1995). This might be due to uncertain flux calibration or to the dramatic intrinsic variability of this nova-like system (Honeycutt et al. 1998). Like in Beuerman et al.'s, the hydrogen and the HeI lines appear in absorption with superimposed central emission components. Relatively weak emissions from HeII at λ λ 4542,4686 and the blend CIII+NIII at λ4640 -50 are also seen. The peaks of the narrow emissions components of Hβ , HeIλ4471 and HeIλ4922 have been measured using Gaussian fittings. The new ephemeris are: T0(HJD) = 2446486.5061 +/- 0.0010 + 0.245064 +/- 0.000004 The radial velocity curve produced by the absorption components of the hydrogen and the HeI lines are in antiphase with respect to that produced by the emission cores. The amplitudes of all the radial velocity curves are consistent with those shown by Beuermann, Stasiewski and Schwope (1992). According to these authors the absorption lines are produced in the optically thick accretion disc while the narrow emissions arise from the heated atmosphere of the secondary. We fail however to detect the broad emission components observed by these authors and attributed to the hot disc corona. This point should deserve future investigation.

  5. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Seven Nova-Like Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusawa, Trisha; Merritt, Jason; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Bonaro, Michael; Foran, Sean; Plumberg, Christopher; Stewart, Heather; Wiley, Trayer; Sion, Edward M.

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of a multicomponent synthetic spectral analysis of the archival far ultraviolet spectra of several key nova-like variables including members of the SW Sex, RW Tri, UX UMa, and VY Scl subclasses: KR Aur, RW Tri, V825 Her, V795 Her, BP Lyn, V425 Cas, and HL Aqr. Accretion rates as well as the possible flux contribution of the accreting white dwarf are included in our analysis. Except for RW Tri, which has a reliable trigonometric parallax, we computed the distances to the nova-like systems using the method of Knigge. Our analysis of seven archival IUE spectra of RW Tri at its parallax distance of 341 pc consistently indicates a low mass (~0.4 Msolar) white dwarf and an average accretion rate, {\\overset{.}{M}} = 6.3 × 10-9 Msolar yr-1. For KR Aur, we estimate that the white dwarf has Teff = 29,000 ± 2000 K, log g = 8.4, and contributes 18% of the far-UV flux, while an accretion disk with accretion rate {\\overset{.}{M}} = 3 × 10-10 Msolar yr-1 at an inclination of 41° contributes the remainder. We find that an accretion disk dominates the far-UV spectrum of V425 Cas but a white dwarf contributes nonnegligibly with approximately 18% of the far-UV flux. For the two high state nova-likes, HL Aqr and V825 Her, their accretion disks totally dominate with {\\overset{.}{M}} = 1 × 10-9 Msolar yr-1 and 3 × 10-9 Msolar yr-1, respectively. For BP Lyn we find {\\overset{.}{M}} = 1 × 10-8 Msolar yr-1 while for V795 Her, we find an accretion rate of {\\overset{.}{M}} = 1 × 10-10 Msolar yr-1. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolutionary status of nova-like variables.

  6. Nova-like Cataclysmic Variables in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Long, Knox S.; Howell, Steve B.; Wachter, Stefanie; Brinkworth, Carolyn S.; Knigge, Christian; Drew, J. E.; Szkody, Paula; Kafka, S.; Belle, Kunegunda; Ciardi, David R.; Froning, Cynthia S.; van Belle, Gerard T.; Pretorius, M. L.

    2014-05-01

    Nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of 12 NLs obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at λ >~ 3-5 μm over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present in NLs. Our comparison of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either mechanism for explaining the observations suggests that the situation is rather ambiguous, largely circumstantial, and in need of stricter observational constraints.

  7. Nova-like cataclysmic variables in the infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, D. W.; Long, Knox S.; Howell, Steve B.; Wachter, Stefanie; Brinkworth, Carolyn S.; Knigge, Christian; Drew, J. E.; Szkody, Paula; Kafka, S.; Belle, Kunegunda; Ciardi, David R.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Van Belle, Gerard T.; Pretorius, M. L.

    2014-05-01

    Nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of 12 NLs obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at λ ≳ 3-5 μm over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present in NLs. Our comparison of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either mechanism for explaining the observations suggests that the situation is rather ambiguous, largely circumstantial, and in need of stricter observational constraints.

  8. Ultraviolet studies of nova-like variables with the IUE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    KQ Mon is a new UX UMa-type nova-like variable. Optical spectra taken in 1978 reveal very shallow Balmer absorption lines and He I (wavelength 4471) absorption. There was no evidence of orbital variations but the appearance of the optical spectrum and the presence of low amplitude flickering suggested a strong similarity to CD-42 degrees 14462 (=V3885 Sgr) and other members of the UX UMa class. KQ Mon was observed at low dispersion with the IUE satellite. Six spectra taken with the short wavelength prime (SWP) camera are dominated by strong broad absorption lines due to N V, O I, Si III, Si IV, C IV, He II, N IV, and A1 III. There is little evidence of orbital phase modulation over the time baseline of the observations. Unlike UV observations of other UX UMa-type objects, KQ Mon exhibits no emission lines or P Cygni-type profiles and the velocity displacements appear to be smaller, suggesting the absence of a hot, high velocity wind characterizing other UX UMa stars. The relationship of KQ Mon to other UX UMa disk stars is discussed and a model is suggested to explain their observed properties and the lack of major outbursts.

  9. Spectroscopy of γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.; Kilmartin, P. M.

    2014-02-01

    The musician programme at the University of Canterbury has been successfully identifying pulsation modes in many γ Doradus stars using hundreds of ground-based spectroscopic observations. This paper describes some of the successful mode identifications and emerging patterns of the programme. The hybrid γ Doradus/δ Scuti star HD 49434 remains an enigma, despite the analysis of more than 1700 multi-site high-resolution spectra. A new result for this star is apparently distinct line-profile variations for the γ Doradus and δ Scuti frequencies.

  10. The New 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, N. R.; Barbá, R. H.

    A groundbased, blue-violet spectral classification study of the 30 Doradus stellar content has revealed five spatially and/or temporally distinct components: (1) the central ionizing cluster including R136 (corresponding to the Carina phase of OB cluster evolution with an age of 2-3 Myr); (2) a younger generation in or near the bright nebular filaments west and northeast of R136, containing heavily embedded early-O dwarfs and IR sources, the formation of which was likely triggered by the central cluster (Orion phase, <1 Myr); (3) an older population of late-O and early-B supergiants throughout the central field whose structural relationship, if any, to the younger groups is unclear (Scorpius OB1 phase, 4-6 Myr); (4) a previously known, older still compact cluster 3' northwest of R136, containing A and M supergiants and evidently affecting the nebular dynamics substantially (h and chi Persei phase, 10 Myr); and (5) a newly recognized Sco OB1-phase association surrounding the recently discovered Luminous Blue Variable R143 in the southern part of the Nebula. Evidently, star formation has occurred in discrete events at different epochs in 30 Dor, and there are clear implications for the interpretation of more distant starbursts. This presentation emphasizes the second component above, a new stellar generation currently being formed in 30 Doradus. Groundbased IR images by Rubio et al. and H2 observations by Probst and Rubio show many sources, with detailed relationships to the embedded optical O stars as well as to the nebular microstructures visible in HST/WFPC2 images. Recent observations of these fields with HST/NICMOS reveal an even greater wealth of structural detail, including compact IR multiple systems and clusters, and probable jets associated with two of the embedded early-O systems; one of the latter may also be related to an H2O maser source. These and future IR data will provide new insights into the evolution of starbursts on the scale of 30 Doradus, as

  11. Orbital phase dependent IUE spectra of the nova like binary II Arietis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Sion, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Nine low dispersion IUE spectra of the nova like binary TT Ari over its 3h17m orbital period were obtained. Four short wave spectra and five long wave spectra exhibit marked changes in line strength and continuum shape with orbital phase. The short wave spectra show the presence in absorption of C III, Lyman alpha, SiIII, NV, SiIV, CIV, HeII, AlIII, and NIV. The CIV shows a P Cygni profile on two of the spectra. Implications of these spectra for the nature of nova like variables are discussed.

  12. Radio emission from the nova-like variable AC Cancri and the symbiotic variable AG Draconis

    SciTech Connect

    Torbett, M.V.; Campbell, B.

    1987-07-01

    Radio emission at 6 cm has been detected from the nova-like cataclysmic variable AC Cnc and the symbiotic variable AG Dra. The AC Cnc observation constitutes the first radio detection in this class of objects. The AG Dra source is probably resolved and appears to show asymmetric, extended structure. The radio emission can best be explained by thermal bremsstrahlung. 26 references.

  13. A catalogue of low-resolution IUE spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Dous, Constanze

    1990-01-01

    A catalogue is presented of all the low-resolution IUE spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars that were recorded until the end of 1987. All spectra have been reduced, and are displayed, in a homogeneous way. In addition to details about these data, to the extent available, their position in the outburst light curves is given, physical information about each system, and a comprehensive list of references for published observations in all wavelength ranges.

  14. Optical Variability Analysis of UU Aqr - an Eclipsing Nova-like System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khruzina, T.; Katysheva, N.; Golysheva, P.; Shugarov, S.

    2015-12-01

    By using our photometric observations of nova-like system UU Aqr with unstable light curve during a few nights, we plotted phase-folded light curves and calculated a model of the system. We show that the complicated character of light curves can be explained by the spiral arms in the disk. We decomposed the syntesis photometric curve into separated components as accretion disk, white and red dwarf, hot line.

  15. The Accretion Rates and White Dwarf Components of Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusawa, Trisha; Merritt, J.; Bonaro, M.; Foran, S.; Plumberg, C.; Stewart, H.; Wiley, T.; Ballouz, R.; Sion, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a multi-component synthetic spectral analysis of the archival far ultraviolet spectra of several key nova-like variables including members of the SW Sex, RW Tri, UX UMa and VY Scl subclasses: KR Aur, V795 Her, BP Lyn, V825 Her, HL Aqr, RW Tri and V425 Cas. Accretion rates as well as the flux contribution of the accreting white dwarf are included in our analysis. Except for RW Tri which has a reliable trigonometric parallax, we computed the distances to the nova-like systems using the method of Knigge(2006, MNRAS, 373, 484). For KR Aur, we find that the white dwarf has T_eff = 29,000 +/- 2000K, log g = 8.4 and contributes 18% of the FUV flux while an accretion disk with accretion rate Mdot = 3 x 10-10 Msun/yr at an inclination of 41 degrees, contributes the remainder. Our analysis of seven archival IUE spectra of RW Tri at its parallax distance consistently yields a low mass (0.4 Msun) white dwarf and an average accretion rate, Mdot = 6.3 x 10-9 Msun/yr. We find that an accreting white dwarf rather than accretion disk dominates the far UV spectrum of V425 Cas while HL Aqr's and V825 Her's FUV spectra are dominated by an accretion disk with Mdot = 1 x 10-9 Msun/yr and 3 x 10-9 Msun/yr, respectively. For BP Lyn we find Mdot = 1 x 10-8 Msun/yr and we explore the possiblity that V795 Her is an intermediate polar. We discuss the implications of our results for the evolutionary status of nova-like variables. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-0807892 to Villanova University and by the Delaware Space Grant Consortium

  16. FUSE Observations of the Bright, Eclipsing Nova-like Cataclysmic Variable, UX UMa (FUSE 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Knox; Froning, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    This was a project to study the disk and wind of the eclipsing nova-like variable UX UMa, in order to better define the wind geometry of the system, including the nature of the transition region between the disk photosphere and the supersonic wind. We proposed to use phase resolved spectroscopy of the system, taking advantage of the fact that UX UMa is an eclipsing system, to isolate different regions of the wind and to use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the spectra through the eclipse.

  17. Models for various aspects of dwarf novae and nova-like stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    The first attempts to explain the nature of dwarf novae were based on the assumption of single-star phenomena, in which emission lines were assumed to be caused by circumstellar gas shells. The outburst behavior was tentatively ascribed to the kind of (also not understood) mechanism leading to nova outbursts. The realization that some, and possibly all, dwarf novae and nova-like stars (and novae) are binaries eventually led to models which bore more and more similarities to the modern interpretation on the basis of the Roche model. Not all cataclysmic variables are known binaries. In fact, with respect to the entire number of known objects, the proven binaries are still the minority, but all the brightest variables are in fact known to binaries. Not a single system is known which exhibits the usual characteristics of a cataclysmic variable and at the same time can be declared with certainty to be a single star. Two systems are known, the dwarf nova EY Cyg and the recurrent nova V1017 Sgr, in which, in spite of intensive search, no radial velocity variations have been found; but they still exhibit composite spectra consisting of a bright continuum, an emission spectrum, and a cool absorption spectrum. If the Roche model is correct, it is to be expected that a small percentage of objects is viewed pole-on, so orbital motions do not make themselves felt as Doppler shifts of spectral lines. So even these two systems support the hypothesis that all cataclysmic variables (with the possible exception of symbiotic stars) are binaries. In cataclysmic variables, it seems that the brightness changes observed in dwarf novae and nova-like stars in the optical and the UV are due directly to changes in the accretion disks. The study and understanding of accretion disks in these systems can bear potentially valuable consequences for many other fields in astronomy. The observed spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars comprise a fairly large range: pure emission spectra, pure

  18. Similarities between Stunted Outbursts in Nova-like Cataclysmic Variables and Outbursts in Ordinary Dwarf Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.

    2001-04-01

    Stunted outbursts have been reported in old novae and nova-like cataclysmic variables by Honeycutt, Robertson, and Turner. These 0.4-1 mag outbursts were concluded to be either mass transfer events or disk outbursts similar to dwarf nova eruptions, but seen under unusual conditions. Honeycutt, Robertson, and Turner did not have enough evidence to favor either of these possibilities. This paper uses additional long-term photometry and analysis to argue that the similarities of these stunted outbursts to dwarf nova eruptions are now so numerous that the dwarf nova outburst choice is strongly favored. The similarities discussed here include the range of outburst spacings, the coherence and stability of the outbursts, and the presence of isolated outburst/dip pairs. As part of this discussion we note the presence of unexpectedly stable clocks over 9 years for the repetition interval of dwarf nova outbursts in SY Cnc and of stunted outbursts in FY Per.

  19. GINGA Observations of AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhu, O.; Tsuru, T.; Collier Cameron, A.

    We report GINGA observations of the pre main sequence star AB Doradus (HD 36705), performed during 8 - 12 January, 1990. Some rotational modulation might be present. four X-ray flares were detected. Three of these events were similar to the EINSTEIN HRI-flare (Vilhu and Linsky, 1987), with decay times around 25 min. The last flare had long rise and decay times (100 min), resembling the EXOSAT flares observed by Collier Cameron et.al. (1988). The mean flare spectrum can be fitted by a thermal bremstrahlung with temperature 5.0 keV, or by a power-law model with photon index 2.2. The 3 upper limit of the Iron line equivalent width in the flare spectrum is 1 keV, weaker than predicted by thermal models. This Iron line anomaly was first discussed in the case of UX Ari by Tsuru et. al. (1989). However, normal equivalent widths can be derived from several EXOSAT spectra of active cool stars (Pallavicini and Tagliaferri, 1990). We discuss the possibility that the continuum from non-thermal electrons (producing also the microwave emission) could occasionally lower the apparent equivalent width. The mechanism works for reasonably low magnetic field strengths and electon power-law indexes. However, a large population of non-thermal electrons is needed (comparable to the thermal one). Stronger magnetic fields could explain the radio emission with less electrons, but then the non-thermal X-ray continuum remains small.

  20. Spectral eclipse mapping of the accretion disk in the nova-like variable UX Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, R. G. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Horne, K.; Kuulkers, E.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze narrow-band eclipse light curves of the nova-like cataclysmic variable UX UMa, obtained from low-resolution spectra spanning lambda lambda 3600-9800 A . The light curves for narrow bands in the continuum as well as those for individual spectral lines are treated independently, and are used to construct images of the accretion disk's brightness distribution using the maximum-entropy eclipse-mapping technique. Particular attention is paid to the propagation of statistical uncertainties in the data and to how the analysis may introduce systematic errors in the final result. From the many narrrow band images we have reconstructed the spectra from isolated parts of the accretion disk. These spectra reveal that the inner disk radiates a continuum spectrum which peaks in the near UV and has the hydrogen Balmer lines in absorption (with the exception of H-alpha), whereas the outer disk is much fainter, has a much redder spectrum, and has Balmer emission lines. Our analysis reveals the presence of an uneclipsed component of the total light, whose spectrum is very red and has Balmer lines in emission. This unexpected feature of the eclipse mapping technique offers a new tool for an independent assessment of the secondary star's spectrum in eclipsing cataclysmic variables.

  1. The nova-like variable KQ Mon and the nature of the UX Ursa Majoris stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, E. M.; Guinan, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The KQ Mon is a UX UMa type nova-like variable discovered by Howard Bond. Optical spectra taken by Bond in 1978 reveal very shallow Balmer absorption lines and He I absorption. Bond also did UBV and high speed photometry in 1978 and early 1981. There has been no evidence of orbital variations but the appearance of the optical spectrum and the presence of low amplitude flickering suggested a strong similarity to CD-42-14462 (=V3885 Sgr) and other members of the UX UMa class. Low dispersion observations of KQ Mon were made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. Six spectra taken with the shot wavelength prime camera are dominated by strong broad absorption lines due to N V, O I, Si III, Si IV, C IV, He II, N IV, and Al III. There is little evidence of orbital phase modulation over the time baseline of the observations. Unlike UV observations of other UX UMa type objects, KQ Mon exhibits no emission lines or P Cygni type profiles and the velocity displacements appear to be smaller, suggesting the absence of a hot, high velocity wind characterizing other UX UMa stars. The relationship of KQ Mon to other UX UMa disk stars is discussed and a model is suggested to explain their observed properties and the lack of major outbursts.

  2. Star formation in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, F.; Sirianni, M.; Spezzi, L.; Andersen, M.; Panagia, N.; Mutchler, M.; SOC, WFC3

    2010-01-01

    We report on the preliminary results of our investigation of the properties of star formation in the 30 Doradus region, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study makes use of the panchromatic observations recently obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the HST in a number of broad- and narrow-band filters at visible and near infrared wavelengths (U, B, V, Halpha, I, J, H). The data clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterise and quantify this effect using both young main sequence stars and old red giants, showing that the two populations have different extinction properties, and use this information to derive a statistical reddening correction for each star in the field. We then search for pre-main sequence stars looking for objects with a strong (> 5 sigma) Halpha excess emission and find more than 1000 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the H-R diagram with theoretical pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks reveals that about half of these objects have an age of 3 Myr, compatible with that of the massive stars in the field, whereas the rest have an age of 15 Myr, indicating that more than one episode of star formation has taken place in the recent past in this area. This paper is based on Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this programme.

  3. Spectroscopic mode identification in gamma Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rylvia Pollard, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury has been successfully identifying frequencies and pulsation modes in many gamma Doradus stars using hundreds of precise, high resolution spectroscopic observations. This paper describes some of these frequency and mode identifications and the emerging patterns of the programme.

  4. DISCOVERY OF A NOVA-LIKE CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE IN THE KEPLER MISSION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kurtis A.; De Martino, Domitilla; Silvotti, Roberto; Bruni, Ivan; Dufour, Patrick; Riecken, Thomas S.; Kronberg, Martin; Mukadam, Anjum; Handler, G.

    2010-06-15

    We announce the identification of a new cataclysmic variable (CV) star in the field of the Kepler Mission, KIC J192410.81+445934.9. This system was identified during a search for compact pulsators in the Kepler field. High-speed photometry reveals coherent large-amplitude variability with a period of 2.94 hr. Rapid, large-amplitude quasi-periodic variations are also detected on time scales of {approx}1200 s and {approx}650 s. Time-resolved spectroscopy covering one half photometric period shows shallow, broad Balmer and He I absorption lines with bright emission cores as well as strong He II and Bowen blend emission. Radial velocity variations are also observed in the Balmer and He I emission lines that are consistent with the photometric period. We therefore conclude that KIC J192410.81+445934.9 is a nova-like (NL) variable of the UX UMa class in or near the period gap, and it may belong to the rapidly growing subclass of SW Sex systems. Based on Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and companion star models, we place a lower limit on the distance to the system of {approx}500 pc. Due to limitations of our discovery data, additional observations including spectroscopy and polarimetry are needed to confirm the nature of this object. Such data will enable further understanding of the behavior of NL variables in the critical period range of 3-4 hr, where standard CV evolutionary theory finds major problems. The presence of this system in the Kepler Mission field of view also presents a unique opportunity to obtain a continuous photometric data stream of unparalleled length and precision on a CV system.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Eclipse Observations of the Nova Like Cataclysmic Variable UX Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knigge, Christian; Long, Knox S.; Wade, Richard A.; Baptista, Raymundo; Horne, Keith; Hubeny, Ivan; Rutten, Rene G. M.

    1998-01-01

    We present and analyze Hubble Space Telescope observations of the eclipsing nova-like cataclysmic variable UX UMa obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph. Two eclipses each were observed with the G160L grating (covering the ultraviolet waveband) in 1994 August and with the PRISM (covering the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared) in November of the same year. The system was about 50% brighter in November than in August, which, if due to a change in the accretion rate, indicates a fairly substantial increase in Mass accretion by about 50%. The eclipse light curves are qualitatively consistent with the gradual occultation of an accretion disk with a radially decreasing temperature distribution. The light curves also exhibit asymmetries about mideclipse that are likely due to a bright spot at the disk edge. Bright-spot spectra have been constructed by differencing the mean spectra observed at pre- and posteclipse orbital phases. These difference spectra contain ultraviolet absorption lines and show the Balmer jump in emission. This suggests that part of the bright spot may be optically thin in the continuum and vertically extended enough to veil the inner disk and/or the outflow from UX UMa in some spectral lines. Model disk spectra constructed as ensembles of stellar atmospheres provide poor descriptions of the observed posteclipse spectra, despite the fact that UX UMa's light should be dominated by the disk at this time. Suitably scaled single temperature model stellar atmospheres with T(sub eff) approximately equals 12,500-14,500 K actually provide a better match to both the ultraviolet and optical posteclipse spectra. Evidently, great care must be taken in attempts to derive accretion rates from comparisons of disk models to observations. One way to reconcile disk models with the observed posteclipse spectra is to postulate the presence of a significant amount of optically thin material in the system. Such an optically thin component might be associated with the

  6. The stellar content of 30 Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walborn, N. R.

    1984-01-01

    The components of the supergiant H II region Tarantula are surveyed, noting that 30 Doradus is really only the most active section of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The region contains at least 40 WR stars and numerous non-H II region late spectral type supergiants. Most of the stars are centrally located and presumably feed on the nebulosity. The closeness of the population will require fine spectroscopic scans of all the members to achieve accurate typing. Although the population is mixed, the ionizing radiation emitted by the region is consistent with its classification as part of the H II region. Finally, the brightest objects within Tarantula are suspected of being multiple systems.

  7. A New Stellar Generation in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, Nolan

    1997-07-01

    There is ample evidence for current star formation within the 30 Doradus Nebula, which appears to have been triggered by the massive central cluster {R136}, in and just beyond the curved nebular filaments surrounding it. These filaments appear to be ``star-formation fronts'' moving into the dense dust clouds beyond. The evidence consists of IR continuum and H_2 sources found from the ground, an H_2O maser, early O dwarfs embedded in dense nebular knots, and intricate bright and dark nebular structures in WFPC2 images which are signatures of star- formation activity. We propose to investigate this ``second generation'' in 30 Dor with NICMOS imaging. Sixteen NIC2 fields will be observed in JHK and three in H_2 and BrGamma; they have been strategically selected from the ground-based and WFPC2 information. We shall investigate the extent of this triggered generation and its luminosity function. No observations of these regions are included in current NICMOS programs, which exclusively target the {older} lower main sequence in R136 itself. 30 Doradus is the nearest and hence most highly resolved extragalactic starburst; an understanding of its complex structure and evolution is essential for interpreting the integrated properties of more distant, unresolved starburst regions.

  8. A MASSIVE RUNAWAY STAR FROM 30 DORADUS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C. J.; Walborn, N. R.; Massa, D.; Lennon, D. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Taylor, W. D.; Howarth, I. D.; Sana, H.; Van Loon, J. Th.

    2010-06-01

    We present the first ultraviolet (UV) and multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of 30 Dor 016, a massive O2-type star on the periphery of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The UV data were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Servicing Mission Observatory Verification program after Servicing Mission 4, and reveal no. 016 to have one of the fastest stellar winds known. From analysis of the C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548-51 doublet we find a terminal velocity, v {sub {infinity}} = 3450 {+-} 50 km s{sup -1}. Optical spectroscopy is from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, from which we rule out a massive companion (with 2 days < P < 1 yr) to a confidence of 98%. The radial velocity of no. 016 is offset from the systemic value by -85 km s{sup -1}, suggesting that the star has traveled the 120 pc from the core of 30 Doradus as a runaway, ejected via dynamical interactions.

  9. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE NOVA-LIKE VARIABLE KQ MONOCEROTIS: A NEW SW SEXTANTIS STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Aaron; Sion, Edward M.; Bond, Howard E. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu

    2013-06-01

    New optical spectra obtained with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope and archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of the nova-like variable KQ Mon are discussed. The optical spectra reveal Balmer lines in absorption as well as He I absorption superposed on a blue continuum. The 2011 optical spectrum is similar to the KPNO 2.1 m IIDS spectrum we obtained 33 years earlier except that the Balmer and He I absorption is stronger in 2011. Far-ultraviolet IUE spectra reveal deep absorption lines due to C II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, and He II, but no P Cygni profiles indicative of wind outflow. We present the results of the first synthetic spectral analysis of the IUE archival spectra of KQ Mon with realistic optically thick, steady-state, viscous accretion-disk models with vertical structure and high-gravity photosphere models. We find that the photosphere of the white dwarf (WD) contributes very little FUV flux to the spectrum and is overwhelmed by the accretion light of a steady disk. Disk models corresponding to a WD mass of {approx}0.6 M {sub Sun }, with an accretion rate of order 10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and disk inclinations between 60 Degree-Sign and 75 Degree-Sign , yield distances from the normalization in the range of 144-165 pc. KQ Mon is discussed with respect to other nova-like variables. Its spectroscopic similarity to the FUV spectra of three definite SW Sex stars suggests that it is likely a member of the SW Sex class and lends support to the possibility that the WD is magnetic.

  10. The hot γ Doradus and Maia stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Engelbrecht, C. A.; Joshi, Y. C.; Joshi, S.; Sharma, K.; Semenko, E.; Pandey, G.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Mkrtichian, David; Hema, B. P.; Nemec, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The hot γ Doradus stars have multiple low frequencies characteristic of γ Dor or SPB variables, but are located between the red edge of the SPB and the blue edge of the γ Dor instability strips where all low-frequency modes are stable in current models of these stars. Though δ Sct stars also have low frequencies, there is no sign of high frequencies in hot γ Dor stars. We obtained spectra to refine the locations of some of these stars in the H-R diagram and conclude that these are, indeed, anomalous pulsating stars. The Maia variables have multiple high frequencies characteristic of β Cep and δ Sct stars, but lie between the red edge of the β Cep and the blue edge of the δ Sct instability strips. We compile a list of all Maia candidates and obtain spectra of two of these stars. Again, it seems likely that these are anomalous pulsating stars which are currently not understood.

  11. The hot γ Doradus and Maia stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Engelbrecht, C. A.; Joshi, Y. C.; Joshi, S.; Sharma, K.; Semenko, E.; Pandey, G.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Mkrtichian, David; Hema, B. P.; Nemec, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The hot γ Doradus stars have multiple low frequencies characteristic of γ Dor or SPB variables, but are located between the red edge of the SPB and the blue edge of the γ Dor instability strips where all low-frequency modes are stable in current models of these stars. Though δ Sct stars also have low frequencies, there is no sign of high frequencies in hot γ Dor stars. We obtained spectra to refine the locations of some of these stars in the H-R diagram and conclude that these are, indeed, anomalous pulsating stars. The Maia variables have multiple high frequencies characteristic of β Cep and δ Sct stars, but lie between the red edge of the β Cep and the blue edge of the δ Sct instability strips. We compile a list of all Maia candidates and obtain spectra of two of these stars. Again, it seems likely that these are anomalous pulsating stars which are currently not understood.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope STIS Spectroscopy of the Peculiar Nova-Like Variables BK Lyn, V751 Cygni, and V380 Oph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert; Hollon, Nicholas; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Sion, Edward M.; Godon, Patrick; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Long, Knox

    2009-09-01

    We obtained Hubble STIS spectra of three nova-like variables: V751 Cygni, V380 Oph, and—the only confirmed nova-like variable known to be below the period gap—BK Lyn. In all three systems, the spectra were taken during high optical brightness state, and a luminous accretion disk dominates their far-ultraviolet (FUV) light. We assessed a lower limit of the distances by applying the infrared photometric method of Knigge. Within the limitations imposed by the poorly known system parameters (such as the inclination, white dwarf mass, and the applicability of steady state accretion disks) we obtained satisfactory fits to BK Lyn using optically thick accretion disk models with an accretion rate of \\dot{M}=1× 10-9M_⊙ yr-1 for a white dwarf mass of Mwd = 1.2Msolar and \\dot{M}=1× 10-8M_⊙ yr-1 for Mwd = 0.4Msolar. However, for the VY Scl-type nova-like variable V751 Cygni and for the SW Sex star V380 Oph, we are unable to obtain satisfactory synthetic spectral fits to the high state FUV spectra using optically thick steady state accretion disk models. The lack of FUV spectra information down to the Lyman limit hinders the extraction of information about the accreting white dwarf during the high states of these nova-like systems.

  13. X-ray observations of VY Scl-type nova-like binaries in the high and low state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemko, P.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.

    2014-07-01

    Four VY Scl-type nova-like systems were observed in X-rays both during the low and the high optical states. Having a high (10^{-8} M_{⊙}/year) mass transfer rate these objects could be pre-novae or pre-supernovae. We examined Chandra, ROSAT, Swift and SUZAKU archival observations of BZ Cam, MV Lyr, TT Ari, and V794 Aql. We also plan to use XMM Newton data for further analysis. No SSS was detected in the low state of the any of the systems. The best fit model to the Swift X-ray spectra is a multi-component plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium. The high state TT Ari spectra taken with Chandra ACIS-S and the HETG gratings show a rich emission line spectrum, with prominent lines of in Mg, Si, Ne, and S. The complexity of this spectrum seems to have origin in more than one region, or more than one single physical mechanism. Most of the emission lines are consistent with a cooling flow in an accretion stream, but there is an additional component, possibly due to a wind or accretion onto polar caps in intermediate polar systems, continuing even during the low optical state, while the accretion disk is not fed.

  14. Molecular and Ionized Hydrogen in 30 Doradus. I. Imaging Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first fully calibrated H2 1-0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H2-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H2, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H2 to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H2 emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2-3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <104 cm-3. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H2 emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  15. Hunting for Shooting Stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mink, Selma E.; Lennon, D. J.; Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.; Sohn, S.; van der Marel, R. P.; Walborn, N. R.; Bastian, N.; Bressert, E.; Crowther, P. A.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Sana, H.

    2012-01-01

    We are undertaking an ambitious proper motion survey of massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the unique capabilities of HST. We aim to derive the directions of motion of massive runaway stars, searching in particular for stars which have been ejected from the dense star cluster R136. These stars probe the dynamical processes in the core of the cluster. The core has been suggested as a formation site for very massive stars exceeding the canonical upper limit of the IMF. These are possible progenitors of intermediate-mass black holes. Furthermore, they provide insight about the origin of massive field stars, addressing open questions related to the poorly understood process of massive star formation. Some may originate from disrupted binary systems and bear the imprints of interaction with the original companion. They will end their life far away from their birth location as core collapse supernova or possibly even long gamma-ray bursts. Here we discuss the first epoch of observations, presenting a 16'x13' mosaic of the data, and initial results based on comparisons with archival data. SdM acknowledges the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF-51270.01-A awarded by STScI, operated by AURA for NASA, contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. A Chandra X-ray Study of 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, L. K.; Broos, P. S.; Feigelson, E. D.; Brandl, B. R.; Chu, Y.-H.; Garmire, G. P.; Getman, K. V.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2005-12-01

    We present an X-ray tour of the 30 Doradus star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high-spatial-resolution X-ray images and spatially-resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. R136, the central massive star cluster, is resolved at the arcsecond level into over 100 X-ray sources. Two orders of magnitude of scatter in LX/Lbol is seen among R136 O stars, suggesting that X-ray emission depends critically on the details of wind properties and binarity. Yet the dominant X-ray feature in 30 Doradus remains the intricate network of diffuse emission created by interacting stellar winds and supernovae working together to create vast superbubbles filled with hot plasma. Through X-ray studies of 30 Doradus the complete life cycle of a massive stellar cluster is revealed.

  17. X-Ray Observations of VY Scl-Type Nova-Like Binaries in the High and Low State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemko, P.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Shugarov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Four VY Scl-type nova-like systems were observed in X-rays during both the low- and the high-optical states. We examined Chandra, ROSAT, Swift and Suzaku archival observations of BZ Cam, MV Lyr, TT Ari and V794 Aql. The X-ray flux of BZ Cam is higher during the low state, but there is no supersoft X-ray source (SSS) as hypothesized in previous articles. No SSS was detected in the low state of the any of the other systems, with the X-ray flux decreasing by a factor between 2 and 50. The best fit to the Swift X-ray spectra is obtained with a multicomponent model of plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium. The high-state high-resolution spectra of TT Ari taken with Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) and the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) shows a rich emission line spectrum, with prominent lines of Mg, Si, Ne and S. The complexity of this spectrum seems to have origin in more than one region, or more than one single physical mechanism. While several emission lines are consistent with a cooling flow in an accretion stream, there is at least an additional component. We discuss the origin of this component, which is probably arising in a wind from the system. We also examine the possibility that the VY Scl systems may be intermediate polars, and that while the boundary layer of the accretion disc emits only in the extreme ultraviolet, part of the X-ray flux may be due to magnetically driven accretion.

  18. Rms-flux relation and fast optical variability simulations of the nova-like system MV Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrotka, A.; Mineshige, S.; Ness, J.-U.

    2015-03-01

    The stochastic variability (flickering) of the nova-like system (subclass of cataclysmic variable) MV Lyr yields a complicated power density spectrum with four break frequencies. Scaringi et al. analysed high-cadence Kepler data of MV Lyr, taken almost continuously over 600 d, giving the unique opportunity to study multicomponent Power Density Spectra (PDS) over a wide frequency range. We modelled this variability with our statistical model based on disc angular momentum transport via discrete turbulent bodies with an exponential distribution of the dimension scale. Two different models were used, a full disc (developed from the white dwarf to the outer radius of ˜1010 cm) and a radially thin disc (a ring at a distance of ˜1010 cm from the white dwarf) that imitates an outer disc rim. We succeed in explaining the two lowest observed break frequencies assuming typical values for a disc radius of 0.5 and 0.9 times the primary Roche lobe and an α parameter of 0.1-0.4. The highest observed break frequency was also modelled, but with a rather small accretion disc with a radius of 0.3 times the primary Roche lobe and a high α value of 0.9 consistent with previous findings by Scaringi. Furthermore, the simulated light curves exhibit the typical linear rms-flux proportionality linear relation and the typical log-normal flux distribution. As the turbulent process is generating fluctuations in mass accretion that propagate through the disc, this confirms the general knowledge that the typical rms-flux relation is mainly generated by these fluctuations. In general, a higher rms is generated by a larger amount of superposed flares which is compatible with a higher mass accretion rate expressed by a larger flux.

  19. X-ray observations of VY Scl-type nova-like binaries in the high and low state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemko, P.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Shugarov, S.

    2014-11-01

    Four VY Scl-type nova-like systems were observed in X-rays during both the low- and the high-optical states. We examined Chandra, ROSAT, Swift and Suzaku archival observations of BZ Cam, MV Lyr, TT Ari and V794 Aql. The X-ray flux of BZ Cam is higher during the low state, but there is no supersoft X-ray source (SSS) as hypothesized in previous articles. No SSS was detected in the low state of the any of the other systems, with the X-ray flux decreasing by a factor between 2 and 50. The best fit to the Swift X-ray spectra is obtained with a multicomponent model of plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium. The high-state high-resolution spectra of TT Ari taken with Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) and the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) shows a rich emission line spectrum, with prominent lines of Mg, Si, Ne and S. The complexity of this spectrum seems to have origin in more than one region, or more than one single physical mechanism. While several emission lines are consistent with a cooling flow in an accretion stream, there is at least an additional component. We discuss the origin of this component, which is probably arising in a wind from the system. We also examine the possibility that the VY Scl systems may be intermediate polars, and that while the boundary layer of the accretion disc emits only in the extreme ultraviolet, part of the X-ray flux may be due to magnetically driven accretion.

  20. 30 Doradus: The Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, H.; Brandl, B.; Brandner, W.; Moneti, A.; Hunter, D.

    We have obtained HST/NICMOS H-band images of the central 1'x1' field around the R136 starburst cluster in the 30 Doradus HII region, in an attempt to reveal the presence (or absence) of a low-mass stellar population (M < 1 Mo). We will discuss the fascinating prospect of 30 Dor/R136 being a proto-globular cluster and a template starburst unit. At the time of writing, we are still working to determine which method and photometry package is best suited to our 0.15" NICMOS images, which are characterised by extreme crowding in the cluster center and a peculiar and slightly undersampled NICMOS PSF. The main difficulty with the PSF is identifying the many "dots" that appear outside the Airy ring as PSF features and not as faint stars. Prelimininary analysis suggests that the H-band luminosity function rises at least until H = 20 (2 Mo). We have detected numerous stars with 20.0 < H < 22.5 (the latter corresponding to 0.4 Mo) beyond about 7" from the cluster centre, but we have not yet determined the completeness in that magnitude range, and we are not yet in a position to make a statement about the shape of the H-band luminosity function there. We have combined our infrared data with the optical WFPC2 images of Hunter et al. (1995) to produce a VIH 3-colour image of the central 30" x 30" area. The result clearly shows unexpected patches of extinction, with one patch only about 5" from the cluster core.

  1. DRIVING G-MODE PULSATIONS IN GAMMA DORADUS VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    J. GUZIK; A. KAYE; ET AL

    2000-10-10

    The {gamma} Doradus stars are a newly-discovered class of gravity-mode pulsators which lie just at or beyond the red edge of the {delta} Scuti instability strip. We present the results of calculations which predict pulsation instability of high-order g-modes with periods between 0.4 and 3 days, as observed in these stars. The pulsations are driven by the modulation of radiative flux by convection at the base of a deep envelope convection zone. Pulsation instability is predicted only for models with temperatures at the convection zone base between {approximately}200,000 and {approximately}480,000 K. The estimated shear dissipation due to turbulent viscosity within the convection zone, or in an overshoot region below the convection zone, can be comparable to or even exceed the predicted driving, and is likely to reduce the number of unstable modes, or possibly to quench the instability. Additional refinements in the pulsation modeling are required to determine the outcome. A few Doradus stars have been observed that also pulsate in {delta} Scuti-type p-modes, and at least two others have been identified as chemically peculiar. Since our calculated driving region is relatively deep, Doradus pulsations are not necessarily incompatible with surface abundance peculiarities or with {delta} Scuti p-mode pulsations driven by the H and He-ionization {kappa} effect. Such stars will provide useful observational constraints on the proposed Doradus pulsation mechanism.

  2. Optical, IUE, and ROSAT observations of the eclipsing nova-like variable V347 Puppis (LB 1800)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.; Raymond, John C.; Buckley, David A. H.; Mouchet, Martine; Bonnell, Jerry; Sullivan, Denis J.; Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Bunk, Wolfram H.

    1994-01-01

    Using time-resolved optical spectroscopy and UBVRI and high-speed photometry obtained at Mount Stromlo Observatory, Mount John University Observatory, and the South African Astronomical Observatory; International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) ultraviolet spectroscopy; and Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) survey X-ray fluxes, we present a study of the accretion disk, hot spot, and emission line regions in the bright eclipsing nova-like variable V347 Pup (LB 1800). In the optical and UV, V347 Pup is a strong emission line source with a continuum spectrum which is remarkably red for a high-M cataclysmic variable. Consistent with its high inclination, we interpret the continuum spectrum as the superposition of the spectrum of the cool (T(sub eff) approximately 7000 K) outer edge and the hot (T(sub eff) approximately 100,000 K) inner regions of a self-eclipsed accretion disk. For the assumed parameters, the model matches the level and shape of the observed spectrum for an inclination of approximately 88 and a distance of approximately 300 pc. The prominent hump in the optical and UV light curves just before eclipse manifests the presence of the hot spot where the accretion stream strikes the edge of the disk. The wavelength dependence of the amplitude of the hump is best modeled by a spot having an effective temperature of approximately 25,000 K and an area of approximately 3 x 10(exp 18) sq cm if the spot radiates like a blackbody, or an effective temperatue of approximately 14,000 K and an area of approximately 3 x 10(exp 19) sq cm if it radiates with a stellar spectrum. In either case, the hot spot produces only one-tenth of the predicted luminosity for the assumed mass-transfer rate of 10(exp -8) solar mass/yr. Either the hot spot is 'buried' in the edge of the accretion disk, or a significant fraction of its luminosity is radiated away in lines. The difference in azimuth between the peak of the hump and the dynamically expected location of the hot spot suggests that the

  3. HST Spatially Resolved Spectra of the Accretion Disc and Gas Stream of the Nova-Like Variable UX Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baptista, Raymundo; Horne, Keith; Wade, Richard A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Long, Knox S.; Rutten, Rene G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Time-resolved eclipse spectroscopy of the nova-like variable UX UMa obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS) on 1994 August and November is analysed with eclipse mapping techniques to produce spatially resolved spectra of its accretion disk and gas stream as a function of distance from the disk centre. The inner accretion disk is characterized by a blue continuum filled with absorption bands and lines, which cross over to emission with increasing disk radius, similar to that reported at optical wavelengths. The comparison of spatially resolved spectra at different azimuths reveals a significant asymmetry in the disk emission at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, with the disk side closest to the secondary star showing pronounced absorption by an 'iron curtain' and a Balmer jump in absorption. These results suggest the existence of an absorbing ring of cold gas whose density and/or vertical scale increase with disk radius. The spectrum of the infalling gas stream is noticeably different from the disc spectrum at the same radius suggesting that gas overflows through the impact point at the disk rim and continues along the stream trajectory, producing distinct emission down to 0.1 R(sub LI). The spectrum of the uneclipsed light shows prominent emission lines of Lyalpha, N v lambda1241, SiIV Lambda 1400, C IV Lambda 1550, HeII Lambda 1640, and MgII Lambda 2800, and a UV continuum rising towards longer wavelengths. The Balmer jump appears clearly in emission indicating that the uneclipsed light has an important contribution from optically thin gas. The lines and optically thin continuum emission are most probably emitted in a vertically extended disk chromosphere + wind. The radial temperature profiles of the continuum maps are well described by a steady-state disc model in the inner and intermediate disk regions (R greater than or equal to 0.3R(sub LI) ). There is evidence of an increase in the mass accretion rate from August to November

  4. Spectroscopic survey of γ Doradus stars - I. Comprehensive atmospheric parameters and abundance analysis of γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Niemczura, E.; De Cat, P.; Soydugan, E.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Ostrowski, J.; Telting, J. H.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Suárez, J. C.; Mantegazza, L.; Kilmartin, P.; Pollard, K. R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of known and candidate γ Doradus stars. The high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 52 objects were collected by five different spectrographs. The spectral classification, atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, ξ), vsin i and chemical composition of the stars were derived. The stellar spectral and luminosity classes were found between G0-A7 and IV-V, respectively. The initial values for Teff and log g were determined from the photometric indices and spectral energy distribution. Those parameters were improved by the analysis of hydrogen lines. The final values of Teff, log g and ξ were derived from the iron lines analysis. The Teff values were found between 6000 K and 7900 K, while log g values range from 3.8 to 4.5 dex. Chemical abundances and vsin i values were derived by the spectrum synthesis method. The vsin i values were found between 5 and 240 km s-1. The chemical abundance pattern of γ Doradus stars were compared with the pattern of non-pulsating stars. It turned out that there is no significant difference in abundance patterns between these two groups. Additionally, the relations between the atmospheric parameters and the pulsation quantities were checked. A strong correlation between the vsin i and the pulsation periods of γ Doradus variables was obtained. The accurate positions of the analysed stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram have been shown. Most of our objects are located inside or close to the blue edge of the theoretical instability strip of γ Doradus.

  5. The Orbital Periods and Variability of the Nova-Like BK Lyncis (PG 0917+342) and the Dwarf Nova WW Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, F. A.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Robertson, J. W.; Smith, Robert Connon

    1995-12-01

    Long-term light curves of the cataclysmic variable BK Lyn (PG 0917+342) from the Indiana Automated CCD photometric telescope (``RoboScope'') and the Harvard College Observatory plate archive reveal no dwarf nova outbursts. Two radial velocity studies show its orbital period to be 107.97 +/- 0.07 minutes, confirming that it does have an orbital period shorter than the 2 -- 3-hour orbital period gap for cataclysmic variables. Whether this is a nova-like below the period gap or a dwarf nova with rare outbursts resembling WZ Sge is still unclear, but anomalously high angular momentum loss below the period gap may imply that magnetic stellar-wind braking still works below the period gap---but mass-losing secondary stars there are thought to be fully convective, and therefore should not have magnetic braking. If BK Lyn is a genuine nova-like beneath the period gap, it may provide evidence of magnetic activity occurring in the faintest M dwarfs, here in an interacting binary. A radial velocity study resolves a long-standing aliasing problem and shows that the orbital period of the dwarf nova WW Cet is 0.17578 +/- 0.00013 d (4.22 hours). Its long-term light curves from RoboScope, AAVSO, Harvard archive, and VSS, RASNZ observations are examined. WW Cet does not have the characteristic standstills of the Z Cam stars, but does wander in quiescence by well over one magnitude. This and the orbital period become of interest in the context of recent speculation (Livio M., Pringle J. E., 1994, ApJ, 427, 956) that the low states of the VY Scl stars may be produced by star spots moving over L_1, choking off the mass flow, and that dwarf novae with orbital periods between 3 and 4 hours may be rare because of this.

  6. Interpretation of OAO-2 ultraviolet light curves of beta Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, J. L.; Lillie, C. F.; Hill, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Middle-ultraviolet light curves of beta Doradus, obtained by OAO-2, are presented along with other evidence indicating that the small additional bumps observed on the rising branches of these curves have their origin in shock-wave phenomena in the upper atmosphere of this classical Cepheid. A simple piston-driven spherical hydrodynamic model of the atmosphere is developed to explain the bumps, and the calculations are compared with observations. The model is found to be consistent with the shapes of the light curves as well as with measurements of the H-alpha radial velocities.

  7. The 30 Doradus Nebula: An Imaging Study of Molecular and Ionized Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry; Seaquist, E. R.; Matzner, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present the very first, fully calibrated H2 1--0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were carried out using the NOAO Extremely Wide Field Infrared Imager on the CTIO 4-meter telescope. Together with a Brγ image of 30 Dor taken by NEWFIRM, our images reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. Based on the morphologies of H2 and Brγ, line ratio H2 to Brγ, and Cloudy models, we found that the H2 emission is formed inside the photodissociation regions of 30 Doradus, very close to the surface in association with the ionization front of the HII region. We also suggest that the bright H2-emitting area, which expands from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region viewed face-on, while many clumps and elephant trunk features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are also photodissociation regions viewed edge-on. The characteristic radiation to gas pressure ratio is evaluated at selected regions in 30 Doradus, and we conclude that radiation pressure is not the dominating force at the current phase of 30 Doradus, while the pressurization of stellar winds and the injection of photoevaporative flows are likely the major feedback mechanisms acting to reduce the observed ionization parameter in 30 Doradus.

  8. Proper Motions of Massive Stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We propose an ambitious proper motion survey of massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the unique capabilities of HST. We will derive the directions of motion of massive runaway stars, searching in particular for massive stars which have been ejected from the central very massive cluster R136. These data will be combined with radial velocities from the VLT-FLAMES Survey of the Tarantula Nebula and with atmospheric analyses and stellar evolution models to constrain their origins. We will also search for very young isolated massive stars to test models of single-star formation. This work is highly relevant to star formation, cluster dynamics, the origin of field WR stars and GRBs, the creation of very massive stars by runaway mergers, and the possible formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  9. Differential Rotation and Magnetic Polarity Patterns on AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Semel, M.

    We report new Zeeman-Doppler imaging observations of the rapidly rotating young K0 dwarf AB Doradus, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope in 1996 December. We show simultaneous brightness and magnetic images of the stellar photosphere, reconstructed at three different epochs over the course of a seven-night observing run. Latitude-by-latitude cross-correlation of the resulting images confirms the form and amplitude of the surface differential pattern found in the previous year's observations by Donati & Cameron (1997), with the pole rotating slower than the equator by about one part in 220. We also present dynamic spectra showing the distribution of H alpha-absorbing clouds in the stellar corona at the same epoch.

  10. A new luminous blue variable - R143 in 30 Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Joel WM.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Winge, Claudia; Conti, Peter S.

    1993-01-01

    We have discovered that R143 in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a luminous blue variable (LBV), the first and perhaps the lone LBV in the central cluster of 30 Doradus, and only the sixth known LMC LBV. Photometric and spectroscopic observations over the past 40 yr indicate that during that time R143 moved redward (changing from an F5 to F8 supergiant), then blueward (possibly becoming as early as O9.5), and is now moving back to the red (currently appearing as a late B supergiant). Similarly, the V magnitude of the star has changed by at least 1.4 mag. Images of R143 show very unusual filaments of nebulosity extending from the star to a shell at a distance of 3.5 pc, perhaps due to a similar ejection mechanism that created the spiral jets and shell associated with AG Car, another LBV.

  11. The Music of the Stars : Spectroscopy of Pulsations in gamma Doradus Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsden, Emily

    2013-05-01

    p>The mysteries of the interior structures of stars are being tackled with asteroseismology. The observable parameters of the surface pulsations of stars inform us of the interior characteristics of numerous classes of stars. The main-sequence gamma Doradus stars, just a little hotter than the Sun, offer the potential of determining stellar structure right down to the core. To determine the structural profile of a star, the observed frequencies and a full geometric description must be determined. This is only possible with long-term spectroscopic monitoring and careful analysis of the pulsation signature in spectral lines. This work seeks to identify the pulsational geometry of several gamma Doradus stars and to identify areas of improvement for current observation, analysis and modelling techniques. More than 4500 spectra were gathered on five stars for this purpose. For three stars a successful multi-frequency and mode identification solution was determined and significant progress has been made towards the understanding of a binary system involving a gamma Doradus star. A hybrid gamma Doradus/nbsp;delta Scuti pulsator was also intensely monitored and results from this work raise important questions about the classification of this type of star. Current analysis techniques were found to be fit-for-purpose for pure gamma Doradus stars, but stars with complexities such as hybrid pulsations and/or fast rotation require future development of the current models./p>

  12. On the nature of O Vz stars in 30 Doradus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Garcia, M.; Vlt-Flames Tarantula Survey Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    O Vz stars are defined as those O-type stars displaying He II 4686 absorption line stronger than other He line in the blue spectral region. These stars have been hypothesized on spectroscopic grounds to be O-type stars on or close to the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS), also having weaker winds than normal O V stars. We have tested these hypothesis by performing a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 37 O Vz (plus 49 O V stars used for comparison) discovered by the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud. To this aim, we have used the IACOB grid based tool, a fast, accurate and objective automatic tool to determine the stellar and wind parameters of large samples of O stars in a reasonable amount of time. A first inspection of the resulting physical properties of the O Vz stars in 30 Dor is presented here. The main outcome from our quantitative spectroscopic analysis is that O Vz stars in 30 Dor are not particularly closer to the ZAMS, nor necessarily have weaker winds when compared to normal O V stars in the same region.

  13. On the nature of O Vz stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin-Sanjulian, C.

    2013-06-01

    O Vz stars are defined as those O-type stars displaying HeII 4686 absorption line stronger than other He line in the blue spectral region. These stars have been hypothesized on spectroscopic grounds to be O-type stars on or close to the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS), also having weaker winds than normal O V stars. We have tested these hypothesis by performing a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 37 O Vz (plus 47 O V stars used for comparison) discovered by the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud. To this aim, we have used the IACOB grid based automatic tool, a fast, accurate and objective automatic method to determine the stellar and wind parameters of large samples of O stars in a reasonable amount of time. A first inspection of the resulting physical properties of the O Vz stars in 30 Dor is presented here. The main outcome from our quantitative spectroscopic analysis is that the O Vz phenomenon is a natural consecuence of the combination of stellar parameters and it does not reflect a differencial characteristic in age, gravity, proximity to ZAMS or wind-strength, when compared to O V stars from the same region.

  14. STRUCTURE AND FEEDBACK IN 30 DORADUS. I. OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, E. W.; Baldwin, J. A.; Ferland, G. J.

    2010-11-15

    We have completed a new optical imaging and spectrophotometric survey of a 140 x 80 pc{sup 2} region of 30 Doradus centered on R136, covering key optical diagnostic emission lines including H{alpha}, H{beta}, H{gamma}, [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4363, 4959, 5007, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6584, [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6717, 6731 [S III] {lambda}6312, and in some locations [S III] {lambda}9069. We present maps of fluxes and intensity ratios for these lines, and catalogs of isolated ionizing stars, elephant-trunk pillars, and edge-on ionization fronts. The final science-quality spectroscopic data products are available to the public. Our analysis of the new data finds that, while stellar winds and supernovae undoubtedly produce shocks and are responsible for shaping the nebula, there are no global spectral signatures to indicate that shocks are currently an important source of ionization. We conclude that the considerable region covered by our survey is well described by photoionization from the central cluster where the ionizing continuum is dominated by the most massive O stars. We show that if 30 Dor were viewed at a cosmological distance, its integrated light would be dominated by its extensive regions of lower surface brightness rather than by the bright, eye-catching arcs.

  15. THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND {gamma} DORADUS RESOLVED WITH HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Booth, Mark; Kavelaars, J. J.; Koning, Alice; Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Lawler, Samantha M.; Qi, Chenruo; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Wilner, David J.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the debris disk around {gamma} Doradus, an F1V star, from the Herschel Key Programme DEBRIS (Disc Emission via Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre). The disk is well resolved at 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m, resolved along its major axis at 250 {mu}m, detected but not resolved at 350 {mu}m, and confused with a background source at 500 {mu}m. It is one of our best resolved targets and we find it to have a radially broad dust distribution. The modeling of the resolved images cannot distinguish between two configurations: an arrangement of a warm inner ring at several AU (best fit 4 AU) and a cool outer belt extending from {approx}55 to 400 AU or an arrangement of two cool, narrow rings at {approx}70 AU and {approx}190 AU. This suggests that any configuration between these two is also possible. Both models have a total fractional luminosity of {approx}10{sup -5} and are consistent with the disk being aligned with the stellar equator. The inner edge of either possible configuration suggests that the most likely region to find planets in this system would be within {approx}55 AU of the star. A transient event is not needed to explain the warm dust's fractional luminosity.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE (HST) IMAGERY OF THE 30 DORADUS NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the 30 Doradus Nebula show its remarkable cluster of tightly-packed young stars 160,000 light years from Earth in the large Magellanic cloud galaxy. Panel A is a portion of a image made with the HST Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC). WFPC photographed four adjoining sky regions simultaneously which are assembled in this mosaic. Panel B is an enlargement of the central portion of the HST image which was made in violet light. It shows the compact star cluster R136, which consists of very hot and massive young stars. The star images have bright cores that are only 0.1 arc seconds wide, allowing many more stars to be distinguished than in previous ground-based telescopic photos. Panel C is a photograph of the same region as Panel B, obtained with the Max Planck 2.2 meter telescope at the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The star images are 0.6 arc seconds wide. Panel D shows how computer processing of the HST image in Panel B has sharpened its

  17. Eclipse Binary System BB Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Leroy F.

    2008-05-01

    CCD ground-based photometry of the contact binary system BB Pegasus is presented along with analyses of the light curve. Recent radial velocity data with these obtained light curves were used to compute parameters. These results are compared with published values computed using spectroscopic values. The light curve displays total annular eclipses in the primary. The period is very short, equal to 0.3615015 days. A recent spectroscopic study indicates the existence of a third body. Three times of minimums were gathered for this poster paper and when added to those found in the literature a plotted quadratic ephemeris displays a sine-like variation of the O -- C curve indicating a tertiary component to the system. The light curve of this system shows an asymmetry in which the maximum after primary eclipse is higher than the other maximum, O'Connell effect. Two small cool stellar spots on star number 1 were used to make the parameter model fit the light curve data.

  18. UBV Stellar Photometry of the 30 Doradus region of the LMC with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malumuth, E. M.; Heap, S. R.

    1992-12-01

    The 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud is of great interest because it is the nearest starburst region. As such, it is a vital link to the understanding of other more distant starburst regions. We have obtained new B-band (F439W) images of 30 Doradus with the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. The combination of the one 30 second and four 180 second exposures gives us a clean, high signal-to-noise image on which we resolve over 800 stars in the central region of 30 Doradus. This includes over 200 stars within 3.('') 0 of the center of R136a. Stellar photometry of this image has been done using the PSF fitting method for HST data of Malumuth et al. (1991). This gives us a third color along with previous U and V magnitudes determined from images taken as part of the Science Assessment Program of the HST. These new B-band images should in principle be the best data so far since the U-band and V-band images were obtained prior to the UV flood procedure for the WFPC. There are now over 450 stars with U, B and V magnitudes. We will show the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for 30 Doradus. The luminosity function and the derived mass function will be shown for the stars, both within R136a and outside of R136a. We will show that the stars in R136a have a top heavy mass function compared to the rest of 30 Doradus. Finally, we will use star counts to examine the dynamical structure of 30 Doradus. indent 0.0in Malumuth, E. M., Neill, J. D., Lindler, D. J., and Heap, S. R., 1991, in The First Year of HST Observations, ed. A. L. Kinney and J.C. Blades (Baltimore:Space Telescope Science Institute), p249.

  19. Swift X-ray telescope observations of the nova-like cataclysmic variables MV Lyr, BZ Cam, and V592 Cas

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Şölen; Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M. E-mail: patrick.godon@villanova.edu

    2014-10-10

    We present a total of ∼45 ks (3 × 15 ks) of Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations for three nonmagnetic nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables (CVs; MV Lyr, BZ Cam, V592 Cas) in order to study characteristics of boundary layers (BLs) in CVs. The nonmagnetic NLs are found mostly in a state of high mass accretion rate (≥1 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), and some show occasional low states. Using the XRT data, we find optically thin multiple-temperature cooling flow type emission spectra with X-ray temperatures (kT {sub max}) of 21-50 keV. These hard X-ray-emitting BLs diverge from simple isobaric cooling flows, indicating X-ray temperatures that are of virial values in the disk. In addition, we detect power-law emission components from MV Lyr and BZ Cam and plausibly from V592 Cas, which may be a result of the Compton scattering of the optically thin emission from the fast wind outflows in these systems and/or Compton upscattering of the soft disk photons. The X-ray luminosities of the (multitemperature) thermal plasma emission in the 0.1-50.0 keV range are (0.9-5.0) × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}. The ratio of the X-ray and disk luminosities (calculated from the UV-optical wavelengths) yields an efficiency (L{sub x} /L {sub disk}) ∼ 0.01-0.001. Given this non-radiative ratio for the X-ray-emitting BLs with no significant optically thick blackbody emission in the soft X-rays (consistent with ROSAT observations), together with the high/virial X-ray temperatures, we suggest that high-state NL systems may have optically thin BLs merged with ADAF-like flows and/or X-ray coronae. In addition, we note that the axisymmetric bipolar and/or rotation-dominated fast-wind outflows detected in these three NLs (particularly BZ Cam and V592 Cas) or some other NL may also be explained in the context of ADAF-like BL regions.

  20. Magnetic topology and prominence patterns on AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Collier Cameron, A.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Semel, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report new Zeeman--Doppler imaging observations of the rapidly rotating young K0 dwarf AB Doradus, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope in 1996 December. From such observations, simultaneous brightness and magnetic images of the stellar photosphere of AB Dor were reconstructed at three different epochs. The magnetic topology of AB Dor is found to be very complex, with at least 12 different radial field regions of opposite polarities located all around the star. Significant azimuthal field fluxes are also detected in the form of one negative polarity region close to the equator, a series of positive polarity patches at intermediate latitudes and an almost complete ring of negative polarity encircling the rotational pole at high latitudes. In particular, the azimuthal polarities we reconstruct are in very good agreement with those obtained by Donati & Cameron, confirming that this field component is directly related to the dynamo-generated large-scale toroidal magnetic structure. The triple polarity latitudinal pattern observed for this structure in the upper hemisphere of AB Dor indicates that the degree of the underlying large-scale poloidal structure in an axisymmetric spherical harmonics expansion is equal to or greater than five. It also strengthens the idea that the dynamo processes operating in AB Dor feature a non-solar component distributed throughout the convective zone. From the subtle distortion of successive brightness images, we can also confirm the surface differential rotation first measured on this star by Donati & Cameron in both sense and magnitude, with a pole rotating more slowly than the equator by about one part in 220. Finally, the rotation periods we measure for four prominences (from the recurrence rate of their spectral signatures in Balmer lines) confirm the presumption that such clouds are anchored at intermediate to high latitudes. The intrinsic variability of these prominences is not associated with any abrupt changes in the

  1. The classification of frequencies in the γ Doradus/δ Scuti hybrid star HD 49434

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid stars of the γ Doradus and δ Scuti pulsation types have great potential for asteroseismic analysis to explore their interior structure. To achieve this, mode identifications of pulsational frequencies observed in the stars must be made, a task which is far from simple. In this work we begin the analysis by scrutinizing the frequencies found in the CoRoT photometric satellite measurements and ground-based high-resolution spectroscopy of the hybrid star HD 49434. The results show almost no consistency between the frequencies found using the two techniques and no characteristic period spacings or couplings were identified in either data set. The spectroscopic data additionally show no evidence for any long-term (5 yr) variation in the dominant frequency. The 31 spectroscopic frequencies identified have standard deviation profiles suggesting multiple modes sharing (l, m) in the δ Scuti frequency region and several skewed modes sharing the same (l, m) in the γ Doradus frequency region. In addition, there is a clear frequency in the γ Doradus frequency region that appears to be unrelated to the others. We conclude HD 49434 remains a δ Scuti/γ Doradus candidate hybrid star but more sophisticated models dealing with rotation are sought to obtain a clear picture of the pulsational behaviour of this star.

  2. Energy Feedback via Shocks in Starburst Environments: the Case of 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sherry; Seaquist, Ernie; Matzner, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    We propose to image the entire 30 Doradus nebula in the [FeII] emission line at 1.64 micron with NEWFIRM on the CTIO 4-m telescope. The proposed observation will reveal the spatial distribution of shocks in the region, which serves as a strong complement to the NEWFIRM H_2 and Br(gamma) images we already obtained, and our proposed spectroscopic observations using the NTT. We aim to quantify the fraction of each energy input (shock and radiation) in the 30 Doradus PDR with the H_2/Br(gamma), [FeII]/H_2, and [FeII]/Br(gamma) ratios, and to ultimately better understand subsequent star formation in starburst regions.

  3. Spectroscopic Pulsational Frequency and Mode Determination of the γ Doradus Star HD 189631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davie, M. W.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Brunsden, E.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    We present improvement and confirmation of identified frequencies and pulsation modes for the γ Doradus star HD 189631. This work improves upon previous studies by incorporating a significant number of additional spectra and precise determination of frequencies. Four frequencies were identified for this star: 1.6774 ± 0.0002 d-1, 1.4174 ± 0.0002 d-1, 0.0714 ± 0.0002 d-1, and 1.8228 ± 0.0002 d-1 which were identified with the modes (l,m) = (1, +1), (1, +1), (2, -2), and (1, +1) respectively. These findings are in agreement with the most recent literature. The prevalence of (l,m) = (1, +1) modes in γ Doradus stars is starting to become apparent and we discuss this result.

  4. ALMA RESOLVES 30 DORADUS: SUB-PARSEC MOLECULAR CLOUD STRUCTURE NEAR THE CLOSEST SUPER STAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal; Leroy, Adam; Hunter, Todd; Kepley, Amanda E-mail: cbrogan@nrao.edu; and others

    2013-09-01

    We present Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array observations of 30 Doradus-the highest resolution view of molecular gas in an extragalactic star formation region to date ({approx}0.4 pc Multiplication-Sign 0.6 pc). The 30Dor-10 cloud north of R136 was mapped in {sup 12}CO 2-1, {sup 13}CO 2-1, C{sup 18}O 2-1, 1.3 mm continuum, the H30{alpha} recombination line, and two H{sub 2}CO 3-2 transitions. Most {sup 12}CO emission is associated with small filaments and clumps ({approx}<1 pc, {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at the current resolution). Some clumps are associated with protostars, including ''pillars of creation'' photoablated by intense radiation from R136. Emission from molecular clouds is often analyzed by decomposition into approximately beam-sized clumps. Such clumps in 30 Doradus follow similar trends in size, linewidth, and surface density to Milky Way clumps. The 30 Doradus clumps have somewhat larger linewidths for a given size than predicted by Larson's scaling relation, consistent with pressure confinement. They extend to a higher surface density at a given size and linewidth compared to clouds studied at 10 pc resolution. These trends are also true of clumps in Galactic infrared-dark clouds; higher resolution observations of both environments are required. Consistency of clump masses calculated from dust continuum, CO, and the virial theorem reveals that the CO abundance in 30 Doradus clumps is not significantly different from the Large Magellanic Cloud mean, but the dust abundance may be reduced by {approx}2. There are no strong trends in clump properties with distance from R136; dense clumps are not strongly affected by the external radiation field, but there is a modest trend toward lower dense clump filling fraction deeper in the cloud.

  5. Searching for signatures of stochastic excitation in stellar pulsations: a look at γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, T. M. D.; Suárez, J. C.; Lopes, I.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Amado, P. J.; Garrido, R.; Rodríguez, E.; Costa, V.; Rolland, A.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Sareyan, J.-P.

    2007-03-01

    In stellar oscillations, the temporal variation in the amplitude of a given mode can yield some information about the interior of the star. In what concerns the excitation mechanism, it has been shown that for oscillations that are excited and damped by a physical process in stochastic equilibrium, the ratio of the standard deviation of the amplitude σA over the amplitude mean value μA is of the order of 0.52. This "statistical signature" is a general property of stochastically excited oscillations, so it can be used with any type of star - making it a powerful tool. Although the method is simple, its reliability and robustness have yet to be proven. With the help of simulations, these points are addressed in the present work, and the observational requirements for this method to work are more clearly defined. We show that a number of amplitude measurements of about 102 are required to get a good estimate of σ_A/μ_A. The method is also tested against the complication of having a time series crowded with many modes (unresolvable in short time series), and results show that the theoretical relation of σ_A/μA still holds true. Some of the motivation behind the new tests of the method involves applying it to γ Doradus stars. The open question of what drives oscillations in these stars makes this statistical method very interesting when applied to γ Doradus stars. A test of the method is performed using γ Doradus observations. As expected, the results are inconclusive and demonstrate how ground-based observations of γ Doradus stars hardly fulfill the applicability requirements of the method. We show, however, how a possible scenario of stochastic excitation in these stars could be detected with the COROT space mission. Based on observations obtained at Sierra Nevada Observatory ("Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía", CSIC), Granada, Spain.

  6. A Chandra ACIS Study of 30 Doradus. I. Superbubbles and Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Chu, You-Hua; Garmire, Gordon P.; Pavlov, George G.

    2006-04-01

    We present an X-ray tour of diffuse emission in the 30 Doradus star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high spatial resolution X-ray images and spatially resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The dominant X-ray feature of the 30 Doradus nebula is the intricate network of diffuse emission generated by interacting stellar winds and supernovae working together to create vast superbubbles filled with hot plasma. We construct maps of the region showing variations in plasma temperature (T=3-9 million degrees), absorption [NH=(1-6)×1021 cm-2], and absorption-corrected X-ray surface brightness [SX=(3-126)×1031 ergs s-1 pc-2]. Enhanced images reveal the pulsar wind nebula in the composite supernova remnant N157B, and the Chandra data show spectral evolution from nonthermal synchrotron emission in the N157B core to a thermal plasma in its outer regions. In a companion paper we show that R136, the central massive star cluster, is resolved at the arcsecond level into almost 100 X-ray sources. Through X-ray studies of 30 Doradus the complete life cycle of such a massive stellar cluster can be revealed.

  7. BB creams and their photoprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Couteau, Céline; Paparis, Eva; Coiffard, Laurence J M

    2016-01-01

    BB creams appeared on the market quite recently. These creams, which give a perfect complexion by covering up the skin's blemishes, have a photoprotective effect in the majority of cases. An SPF value ranging from 10 to 45 concerning the products we tested is displayed on the packaging. The 21 commercially-available BB creams were tested to assess their efficacy (determination of the SPF) and their photostability (determination of their efficacy after UV irradiation). It was shown that 70% of the products tested have an SPF determined in vitro by us which matches the SPF displayed on the product. For the remaining 30%, it can be seen that products have SPF values of between 2 and 10 times lower than those indicated on the products. It can also be noted that there is a large disparity in terms of photostability since, under the same experimental conditions, however, some products only lose 5% of their photoprotective efficacy, whereas others lose 60%. PMID:25268183

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Bb of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB A Appendix A to Subpart BB of Part 63 Protection of... to Subpart BB of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB 40 CFR citation Requirement Applies to subpart BB Comment 63.1(a)(1) through (4)...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Bb of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB A Appendix A to Subpart BB of Part 63 Protection of... to Subpart BB of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB 40 CFR citation Requirement Applies to subpart BB Comment 63.1(a)(1) through (4)...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Bb of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB A Appendix A to Subpart BB of Part 63 Protection of... to Subpart BB of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart BB 40 CFR citation Requirement Applies to subpart BB Comment 63.1(a)(1) through (4)...

  11. Turbulent convection and pulsation stability of stars - II. Theoretical instability strip for δ Scuti and γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, D. R.; Deng, L.; Zhang, C.; Wang, K.

    2016-04-01

    By using a non-local and time-dependent convection theory, we have calculated radial and low-degree non-radial oscillations for stellar evolutionary models with M = 1.4-3.0 M⊙. The results of our study predict theoretical instability strips for δ Scuti and γ Doradus stars, which overlap with each other. The strip of γ Doradus is slightly redder in colour than that of δ Scuti. We have paid great attention to the excitation and stabilization mechanisms for these two types of oscillations, and we conclude that radiative κ mechanism plays a major role in the excitation of warm δ Scuti and γ Doradus stars, while the coupling between convection and oscillations is responsible for excitation and stabilization in cool stars. Generally speaking, turbulent pressure is an excitation of oscillations, especially in cool δ Scuti and γ Doradus stars and all cool Cepheid- and Mira-like stars. Turbulent thermal convection, on the other hand, is a damping mechanism against oscillations that actually plays the major role in giving rise to the red edge of the instability strip. Our study shows that oscillations of δ Scuti and γ Doradus stars are both due to the combination of κ mechanism and the coupling between convection and oscillations, and they belong to the same class of variables at the low-luminosity part of the Cepheid instability strip. Within the δ Scuti-γ Doradus instability strip, most of the pulsating variables are very likely hybrids that are excited in both p and g modes.

  12. Frequency analysis and pulsational mode identification of two γ Doradus stars: HD 40745 and HD 189631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisonneuve, F.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.; Mantegazza, L.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Suárez, J. C.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.

    2011-08-01

    Gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. Mode identification will improve the knowledge of these stars considerably and allow an understanding of the issues with current pulsational models. A frequency analysis followed by a mode identification were done based on the high-resolution spectroscopic data of two γ Doradus stars: HD 189631 and HD 40745. Extensive spectroscopic data sets are obtained by three instruments: HARPS, FEROS and HERCULES. We obtained 422 spectra for HD 189631 and 248 spectra for HD 40745. The pulsational frequencies were determined by four methods: analysis of the variation in equivalent width, variation in radial velocity, asymmetry of the line profile and the pixel-by-pixel frequency analysis. The mode identification was done using the recently developed Fourier Parameter Fit method. Without achieving the same degree of confidence for all results, we report the identification of four pulsational modes in HD 189631: (ℓ= 1; m =+1) at f1= 1.67 d-1; (3; -2) at f2= 1.42 d-1; (2; -2) at f3= 0.07 d-1; and (4; +1) at f4= 1.82 d-1; and two modes in HD 40745: (2; -1) at f1= 0.75 d-1 and (3; -3) at f2= 1.09 d-1. This study provides the first pulsational analysis based on spectroscopy of HD 189631 and HD 40745. We discuss the performance of current methods of analysis and outline the difficulties presented by γ Doradus stars. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Mount John University Observatory (HERCULES), and with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Observatories under the Normal Programme 081.D-0610 (HARPS) and the Large Programmes 178.D-0361 (FEROS) and 182.D-0356 (HARPS). Mode identification results were obtained with the software package FAMIAS developed in the framework of the FP6 European Coordination Action HELAS ().

  13. Hematological Characteristics of the BB Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Wright, J R; Yates, A J; Shah, N T; Neff, J C; Covey, D W; Thibert, P

    1983-01-01

    Complete blood counts, differential white blood cell and platelet counts were performed on male and female BB Wistar diabetic rats (BBWd), their nondiabetic siblings (BBWnd) and outbred Wistar rats of the line from which the BB Wistar rats were derived. Most of the observed changes were strain-related (those present in both BBWd and BBWnd but not in control rats) rather than diabetes-related (those in BBWd but neither BBWnd nor control rats) and therefore probably due to the inbreeding process. The BBW strain had significantly lower numbers of white cells and platelets, as well as markedly changed differential white cell counts. Differential counts showed a pattern of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, monocytosis and eosinophilia. It is possible that these white blood cell changes contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection reported for the BBW strain. No significant difference in serum immunoglobulin concentrations was found in any of these three groups of rats. There- fore, hypogammaglobutinemia cannot account for the increased susceptibility to infections, but it is not possible to rule out an abnormality in the distribution of immunoglobulin fractions as an etiological factor. PMID:15311399

  14. New HST/STIS Spectroscopy of Massive Members of R136 in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostroem, Kyra; Walborn, Nolan; Crowther, Paul; Caballero-Nieves, Saida; Lennon, Daniel; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    We display new (in some cases, the first ever) spatially resolved optical and UV spectroscopy of a number of early O-type stars in R136, the massive core cluster of 30 Doradus in the LMC. Some of them are of the earliest spectral types, O2-O3, which accompany the more luminous WN members that are the most massive stars known, near or exceeding 300~M_⊙ initially. These results are relevant to the very top of the IMF and to the structure and formation of starburst clusters. The data are from HST/STIS programs GO 12465/13052 (PI Crowther), in which the long slit was stepped across the inner 4 arcsec (1 parsec) of R136, yielding both optical photospheric and FUV stellar-wind spectra of at least 100 resolved members, many of them for the first time. The optical data were obtained at 4 epochs to support eventual radial-velocity detection of spectroscopic binaries. This program vitally complements the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey of the wider stellar content of 30 Doradus, by adding that of the massive core cluster, which is inaccessible to such observations from the ground. These combined datasets will provide unprecedented information about massive stellar evolution and starbursts.

  15. Spectroscopic pulsational frequency identification and mode determination of γ Doradus star HD 12901

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Using multisite spectroscopic data collected from three sites, the frequencies and pulsational modes of the γ Doradus star HD 12901 were identified. A total of six frequencies in the range 1-2 d-1 were observed, their identifications supported by multiple line-profile measurement techniques and previously published photometry. Five frequencies were of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for mode identification, and all five displayed similar three-bump standard deviation profiles which were fitted well with (l,m) = (1,1) modes. These fits had reduced χ2 values of less than 18. We propose that this star is an excellent candidate to test models of non-radially pulsating γ Doradus stars as a result of the presence of multiple (1,1) modes. This paper includes data taken at the Mount John University Observatory of the University of Canterbury (New Zealand), the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin (Texas, USA) and the European Southern Observatory at La Silla (Chile).

  16. THE TUCANA/HOROLOGIUM, COLUMBA, AB DORADUS, AND ARGUS ASSOCIATIONS: NEW MEMBERS AND DUSTY DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Bessell, M. S. E-mail: rhee@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au

    2011-05-10

    We propose 35 star systems within {approx}70 pc of Earth as newly identified members of nearby young stellar kinematic groups; these identifications include the first A- and late-B-type members of the AB Doradus moving group and field Argus Association. All but one of the 35 systems contain a bright solar- or earlier-type star that should make an excellent target for the next generation of adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on large telescopes. AO imaging has revealed four massive planets in orbit around the {lambda} Boo star HR 8799. Initially, the planets were of uncertain mass due in large part to the uncertain age of the star. We find that HR 8799 is a likely member of the {approx}30 Myr old Columba Association, implying planet masses {approx}6 times that of Jupiter. We consider Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS photometry of stars in the {approx}30 Myr old Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations, the {approx}40 Myr old field Argus Association, and the {approx}70 Myr old AB Doradus moving group. The percentage of stars in these young stellar groups that display excess emission above the stellar photosphere at 24 and 70 {mu}m wavelengths-indicative of the presence of a dusty debris disk-is compared with corresponding percentages for members of 11 open clusters and stellar associations with ages between 8 and 750 Myr, thus elucidating the decay of debris disks with time.

  17. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  18. Semi device independence of the BB84 protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Erik

    2016-05-01

    The BB84 quantum key distribution protocol is semi device independent in the sense that it can be shown to be secure if just one of the users’ devices is restricted to a qubit Hilbert space. Here, we derive an analytic lower bound on the asymptotic secret key rate for the entanglement-based version of BB84 assuming only that one of the users performs unknown qubit POVMs. The result holds against the class of collective attacks and reduces to the well known Shor–Preskill key rate for correlations corresponding to the ideal BB84 correlations mixed with any amount of random noise.

  19. Internal rotation and toroidal part of the magnetic field of AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, K. M.

    2000-06-01

    We solve analytically Chandrasekhar's (1956) MHD equations for the steady parts of internal rotation and toroidal component of the magnetic field of the AB Doradus. By taking observed (Donati and Cameron 1997) surface rotation as the boundary condition and assuming that the base of the convection zone rotates rigidly, we estimate the size of the convective envelope to be 40% of the radius and the rotation velocity at the base to be not less than 1.42 x 10-4 rad/sec. We deduce that the toroidal magnetic field is distributed throughout the convective envelope. By taking the average density of 1.78gm cm-3 and radius 5.95 x 1010 cms (Allen 1972), we obtain a Mega gauss field near base of the convective envelope. We present rotational and toroidal magnetic field profiles in the interior, and conjecture on the time dependent part of the magnetic field.

  20. X-ray rotational modulation and coronal abundances of AB Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Subhajeet; Pandey, J. C.

    We present conclusive evidence for rotational modulation of stellar X-ray emission, observed on the young and rapidly rotating K0 dwarf star AB Doradus (HD 36705). We have analysed the 10.7 years data from XMM-Newton satellite. A flip-flop cycle of nearly 5 years in X-ray band similar to optical band appears to be present. The long term variability is not clear, but it seems to be some variability within this data. Total 82 flares were detected in X-ray band. The decay time τ_{d} was related to rise time τ_{r} as τ_{d} α τ_{r}^{0.507212 ± 0.07004}. There is an indication of change in coronal abundances of low FIP elements (<10 eV) during flares. However the change is well within 2σ level.

  1. Non-radial pulsations in the γ Doradus star HD 195068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankov, S.; Mathias, P.; Chapellier, E.; Le Contel, J.-M.; Sareyan, J.-P.

    2006-07-01

    We present high resolution spectroscopic observations of the γ Doradus star HD 195068. About 230 spectra were collected over 2 years. Time series analysis performed on radial velocity data shows a main peak at 1.61 d-1 , a frequency not yet detected in photometry. The Hipparcos photometric 1.25 d-1 frequency is easily recovered as is 1.30 d-1 while the third photometric frequency, 0.97 d-1 , is only marginally present. The good quality of our data, which includes 196 spectra collected over seven consecutive nights, shows that both the 1.61 d-1 and intermediate 1.27 d-1 (mixture of 1.25 and 1.30 d-1 ) frequencies are present in the line profile variations. Using the Fourier-Doppler Imaging (FDI) method, the variability associated with 1.61 d-1 can be successfully modeled by a non-radial pulsation mode ℓ=5± 1, |m|=4± 1. For the intermediate frequency 1.27 d-1 we deduce ℓ=4± 1, |m|=3± 1. Evidence that the star is not pulsating in the radial mode (ℓ=0) rules out a previous classification as an RR Lyrae type star. We investigate the time variability of FDI power spectra concluding that the observed temporal variability of modes can be explained by a beating phenomenon between closely spaced frequencies of two non-radial modes. The distribution of the oscillation power within the line profile indicates that there is a significant tangential velocity component of oscillations characteristic of high radial order gravity modes which are predicted to be observed in γ Doradus type stars.

  2. Section BB, Section DD, Plan AA, Plan CC, Typical Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B, Section D-D, Plan A-A, Plan C-C, Typical Framing Detail of Upper Stringers, Typical Framing Detail of Lower Stringers - Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River, Orford, Grafton County, NH

  3. The autophagy-related genes BbATG1 and BbATG8 have different functions in differentiation, stress resistance and virulence of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Jing; Chu, Xin-Ling; Xie, Xue-Qin; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy-related proteins play significantly different roles in eukaryotes. In the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, autophagy is associated with fungal growth and development. BbATG1 (a serine/threonine protein kinase) and BbATG8 (a ubiquitin-like protein) have similar roles in autophagy, but different roles in other processes. Disruption mutants of BbATG1 and BbATG8 had impaired conidial germination under starvation stress. The mutant ΔBbATG8 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, while a ΔBbATG1 mutant did not. BbATG1 and BbATG8 showed different roles in spore differentiation. The blastospore yield was reduced by 70% and 92% in ΔBbATG1 and ΔBbATG8 mutants, respectively, and the double mutant had a reduction of 95%. Conidial yield was reduced by approximately 90% and 50% in ΔBbATG1 and ΔBbATG8 mutants, respectively. A double mutant had a reduction similar to ΔBbATG1. Additionally, both BbATG1 and BbATG8 affected the levels of conidial protein BbCP15p required for conidiation. The virulence of each autophagy-deficient mutant was considerably weakened as indicated in topical and intrahemocoel injection assays, and showed a greater reduction in topical infection. However, BbATG1 and BbATG8 had different effects on fungal virulence. Our data indicate that these autophagy-related proteins have different functions in fungal stress response, asexual development and virulence. PMID:27197558

  4. The autophagy-related genes BbATG1 and BbATG8 have different functions in differentiation, stress resistance and virulence of mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Jing; Chu, Xin-Ling; Xie, Xue-Qin; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy-related proteins play significantly different roles in eukaryotes. In the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, autophagy is associated with fungal growth and development. BbATG1 (a serine/threonine protein kinase) and BbATG8 (a ubiquitin-like protein) have similar roles in autophagy, but different roles in other processes. Disruption mutants of BbATG1 and BbATG8 had impaired conidial germination under starvation stress. The mutant ΔBbATG8 exhibited enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, while a ΔBbATG1 mutant did not. BbATG1 and BbATG8 showed different roles in spore differentiation. The blastospore yield was reduced by 70% and 92% in ΔBbATG1 and ΔBbATG8 mutants, respectively, and the double mutant had a reduction of 95%. Conidial yield was reduced by approximately 90% and 50% in ΔBbATG1 and ΔBbATG8 mutants, respectively. A double mutant had a reduction similar to ΔBbATG1. Additionally, both BbATG1 and BbATG8 affected the levels of conidial protein BbCP15p required for conidiation. The virulence of each autophagy-deficient mutant was considerably weakened as indicated in topical and intrahemocoel injection assays, and showed a greater reduction in topical infection. However, BbATG1 and BbATG8 had different effects on fungal virulence. Our data indicate that these autophagy-related proteins have different functions in fungal stress response, asexual development and virulence. PMID:27197558

  5. A multi-wavelength study of 30 Doradus: The Interstellar Medium in a low-metallicity galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poglitsch, Albrecht; Genzel, R.; Herrmann, F.; Krabbe, A.; Madden, S. C.; Geis, Norbert; Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Johannson, L. E. B.

    1995-01-01

    We report maps of the 158 micron (C II) line, the 63 micron and 146 micron (C I) lines, the 2.2 micron Br gamma line, and the 2.6 mm CO (1-0) line toward the 30 Doradus complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The maps of all tracers emphasize the shell-like structure of the 30 Doradus region which is seen edge-on. The fact that the molecular gas as traced by CO (1-0) and the photo dissociated gas as traced by (C II) are co-extensive over tens of parsecs can only be explained by a highly fragmented structure of the interstellar medium which allows UV radiation to penetrate deep into the molecular cloud. Clumpiness is also the key to understanding the extremely high (C II)/CO line intensity ratios.

  6. BB0324 and BB0028 are constituents of the Borrelia burgdorferi β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Similar to Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane (OM) of the pathogenic spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, contains integral OM-spanning proteins (OMPs), as well as membrane-anchored lipoproteins. Although the mechanism of OMP biogenesis is still not well-understood, recent studies have indicated that a heterooligomeric OM protein complex, known as BAM (β-barrel assembly machine) is required for proper assembly of OMPs into the bacterial OM. We previously identified and characterized the essential β-barrel OMP component of this complex in B. burgdorferi, which we determined to be a functional BamA ortholog. Results In the current study, we report on the identification of two additional protein components of the B. burgdorferi BAM complex, which were identified as putative lipoproteins encoded by ORFs BB0324 and BB0028. Biochemical assays with a BamA-depleted B. burgdorferi strain indicate that BB0324 and BB0028 do not readily interact with the BAM complex without the presence of BamA, suggesting that the individual B. burgdorferi BAM components may associate only when forming a functional BAM complex. Cellular localization assays indicate that BB0324 and BB0028 are OM-associated subsurface lipoproteins, and in silico analyses indicate that BB0324 is a putative BamD ortholog. Conclusions The combined data suggest that the BAM complex of B. burgdorferi contains unique protein constituents which differ from those found in other proteobacterial BAM complexes. The novel findings now allow for the B. burgdorferi BAM complex to be further studied as a model system to better our understanding of spirochetal OM biogenesis in general. PMID:22519960

  7. LIKELY MEMBERS OF THE {beta} PICTORIS AND AB DORADUS MOVING GROUPS IN THE NORTH

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Lepine, Sebastien; Simon, Michal E-mail: michal.simon@stonybrook.edu

    2012-10-01

    We present first results from follow-up of targets in the northern hemisphere {beta} Pictoris and AB Doradus moving group candidate list of Schlieder et al. We obtained high-resolution, near-infrared spectra of 27 candidate members to measure their radial velocities and confirm consistent group kinematics. We identify 15 candidates with consistent predicted and measured radial velocities, perform analyses of their six-dimensional (UVWXYZ) Galactic kinematics, and compare to known group member distributions. Based on these analyses, we propose that seven {beta} Pic and eight AB Dor candidates are likely new group members. Four of the likely new {beta} Pic stars are binaries, one a double-lined spectroscopic system. Three of the proposed AB Dor stars are binaries. Counting all binary components, we propose 22 likely members of these young, moving groups. The majority of the proposed members are M2 to M5 dwarfs, the earliest being of type K2. We also present preliminary parameters for the two new spectroscopic binaries identified in the data, the proposed {beta} Pic member and a rejected {beta} Pic candidate. Our candidate selection and follow-up has thus far identified more than 40 low-mass, likely members of these two moving groups. These stars provide a new sample of nearby, young targets for studies of local star formation, disks and exoplanets via direct imaging, and astrophysics in the low-mass regime.

  8. A GRAND VIEW OF THE BIRTH OF 'HEFTY' STARS - 30 DORADUS NEBULA MONTAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This picture, taken in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), represents a sweeping view of the 30 Doradus Nebula. But Hubble's infrared camera - the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) - has probed deeper into smaller regions of this nebula to unveil the stormy birth of massive stars. The montages of images in the upper left and upper right represent this deeper view. Each square in the montages is 15.5 light-years (19 arcseconds) across. The brilliant cluster R136, containing dozens of very massive stars, is at the center of this image. The infrared and visible-light views reveal several dust pillars that point toward R136, some with bright stars at their tips. One of them, at left in the visible-light image, resembles a fist with an extended index finger pointing directly at R136. The energetic radiation and high-speed material emitted by the massive stars in R136 are responsible for shaping the pillars and causing the heads of some of them to collapse, forming new stars. The infrared montage at upper left is enlarged in an accompanying image. Credits for NICMOS montages: NASA/Nolan Walborn (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.) and Rodolfo Barba' (La Plata Observatory, La Plata, Argentina) Credits for WFPC2 image: NASA/John Trauger (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.) and James Westphal (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.)

  9. Characterizing the AB Doradus moving group via high-resolution spectroscopy and kinematic traceback

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kyle; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2014-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 10 proposed F and G members of the nearby, young moving group AB Doradus (ABD). Our sample was obtained using the 2.7 m telescope at the McDonald Observatory with the coude echelle spectrograph, achieving R ∼ 60,000 and signal-to-noise ratio ∼200. We derive spectroscopic T {sub eff}, log(g), [Fe/H], and microturbulance (v{sub t} ) using a bootstrap method of the TGVIT software resulting in typical errors of 33K in T {sub eff}, 0.08 dex in log(g), 0.03 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.13 km s{sup –1} in v{sub t} . Characterization of the ABD sample is performed in three ways: (1) chemical homogeneity, (2) kinematic traceback, and (3) isochrone fitting. We find the average metal abundance is [M/H] = –0.03 ± 0.06 with a traceback age of 125 Myr. Our stars were fit to three different evolutionary models and we found that the best match to our ABD sample is the YREC [M/H] = –0.1 model. In our sample of 10 stars, we identify 1 star that is a probable non-member, 3 enigmatic stars, and 6 stars with confirmed membership. We also present a list of chemically coherent stars from this study and the Barenfeld et al. study.

  10. The Structure of the Nearby Giant Star-Forming Region 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Eric; Baldwin, Jack; Hanson, Margaret; Ferland, Gary; Troland, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The rates of star formation and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study of these processes in the two nearest giant star-forming regions, 30 Doradus and NGC 3603, as an aide in understanding the nature of Giant Extragalactic H II Regions, starbursts, and Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies. We recently completed our observations of NGC 3603. Here we request 2 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain a dense grid of optical long-slit spectra criss- crossing 30 Dor. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3800 different spots in the nebula. We also request 3 nights on SOAR to take K-band long slit spectra covering H^+ Br(gamma) and several H_2 lines across three representative edge-on ionization fronts in 30 Dor. The IR spectra will be taken in locations also covered by the optical spectra, and will tell us about the structure, pressure support and heating mechanisms in the photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) at these points. Either half of this project can stand on its own, but both parts together will permit the PI to complete his PhD thesis.

  11. COOL YOUNG STARS IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE: {beta} PICTORIS AND AB DORADUS MOVING GROUP CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal; Lepine, Sebastien E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2012-04-15

    As part of our continuing effort to identify new, low-mass members of nearby, young moving groups (NYMGs), we present a list of young, low-mass candidates in the northern hemisphere. We used our proven proper-motion selection procedure and ROSAT X-ray and GALEX-UV activity indicators to identify 204 young stars as candidate members of the {beta} Pictoris and AB Doradus NYMGs. Definitive membership assignment of a given candidate will require a measurement of its radial velocity and distance. We present a simple system of indices to characterize the young candidates and help prioritize follow-up observations. New group members identified in this candidate list will be high priority targets for (1) exoplanet direct imaging searches, (2) the study of post-T-Tauri astrophysics, (3) understanding recent local star formation, and (4) the study of local galactic kinematics. Information available now allows us to identify eight likely new members in the list. Two of these, a late-K and an early-M dwarf, we find to be likely members of the {beta} Pic group. The other six stars are likely members of the AB Dor moving group. These include an M dwarf triple system, and three very cool objects that may be young brown dwarfs, making them the lowest-mass, isolated objects proposed in the AB Dor moving group to date.

  12. V421 Pegasi: a detached eclipsing binary with a possible γ Doradus component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdarcan, O.; Çakırlı, Ö.; Akan, C.

    2016-07-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric study of V421 Peg. This eclipsing binary displays lines from both components that are well separated. This allowed us to classify the primary and secondary component as F(1 ± 0.5) V and F(2 ± 0.5) V, respectively. We use our radial velocity measurements together with Hipparcos and ASAS photometry and apply simultaneous analysis, which yields masses and radii of the primary and secondary components as M1 = 1.594 ± 0.029 M⊙, M2 = 1.356 ± 0.029 M⊙ and R1 = 1.584 ± 0.028 R⊙, R2 = 1.328 ± 0.029 R⊙, respectively. Positions of the components in HR diagram suggest that the primary component is a γ Doradus variable candidate. Spectroscopic and photometric properties of the system indicates reddening value of E(B - V) = 0m.021 which puts the system to the distance of 158 ± 4 pc.

  13. Star Clusters and Associations in the 30 Doradus Region: Tracing more than 25 Myr of Massive Star Formation in a Prototypical Starburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, Elena

    2015-08-01

    30 Doradus (a.k.a. Tarantula Nebula) is the closest extragalactic giant HII region. By virtue of its privileged position in the Large Magellanic Cloud 30 Doradus is the only starburst that can be studied down to the sub-solar mass regime.We will discuss the stellar content, the clustering properties, and the temporal and spatial impact of stellar feedback on the lifecycle of stars and clusters in an environment that resembles the extreme conditions found in the starburst knots observed in interacting galaxies in the Local Universe and in the young galaxies at high redshift.

  14. UBV stellar photometry of the 30 Doradus region of the large Magellanic Cloud with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malumuth, Eliot M.; Heap, Sara R.

    1994-01-01

    We report on Planetary Camera observations of the central region of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These images of 30 Doradus are the first `deep' Hubble Space Telescope (HST) exposures that have appropriate photometric calibration. The B band (F439W) image, which shows R136a at the center of the PC6 charge coupled device (CCD) chip, reveals over 200 stars within 3 sec of the center of R13a, and over 800 stars in a 35 sec x 35 sec area. We used Malumuth et al.'s (1991) Point Spread Function (PSF)-fitting method to measure the magnitudes of all stars on the PC6 chip. These new B magnitudes, along with U and V magnitudes from archival PC images, yield a luminosity function, mass density profile, and initial mass function of the 30 Doradus ionizing cluster. The mass distribution is well fit by a King model with a core radius, R(sub c) = 0.96 sec (0.24 pc), a tidal radius, R(sub t) = 110 sec (28 pc), and a total mass, Mass = 16,800 solar mass. Both the luminosity function and initial mass function show evidence for mass segregation, in the sense that the central region has a higher fraction of massive stars than the outer regions. This is the first observational evidence for mass segregation in a very young cluster (age approximately 3 million years). The observations admit the hypothesis that the mass segregation occurred in the process of star formation and/or that the mass segregation is the result of dynamical evolution.

  15. From gas to stars in energetic environments: dense gas clumps in the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Crystal N.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Hughes, Annie; Wong, Tony; Looney, Leslie; Henkel, Christian; Chen, Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Muller, Erik; Pineda, Jorge L.; Seale, Jonathan

    2014-09-20

    We present parsec-scale interferometric maps of HCN(1-0) and HCO{sup +}(1-0) emission from dense gas in the star-forming region 30 Doradus, obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This extreme star-forming region, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is characterized by a very intense ultraviolet ionizing radiation field and sub-solar metallicity, both of which are expected to impact molecular cloud structure. We detect 13 bright, dense clumps within the 30 Doradus-10 giant molecular cloud. Some of the clumps are aligned along a filamentary structure with a characteristic spacing that is consistent with formation via varicose fluid instability. Our analysis shows that the filament is gravitationally unstable and collapsing to form stars. There is a good correlation between HCO{sup +} emission in the filament and signatures of recent star formation activity including H{sub 2}O masers and young stellar objects (YSOs). YSOs seem to continue along the same direction of the filament toward the massive compact star cluster R136 in the southwest. We present detailed comparisons of clump properties (masses, linewidths, and sizes) in 30Dor-10 to those in other star forming regions of the LMC (N159, N113, N105, and N44). Our analysis shows that the 30Dor-10 clumps have similar masses but wider linewidths and similar HCN/HCO{sup +} (1-0) line ratios as clumps detected in other LMC star-forming regions. Our results suggest that the dense molecular gas clumps in the interior of 30Dor-10 are well shielded against the intense ionizing field that is present in the 30 Doradus region.

  16. 32. SECTIONS AA, BB, CC, DD, AND EE WASTE CALCINATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SECTIONS A-A, B-B, C-C, D-D, AND E-E WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT FLOOR LEVELS TO ONE ANOTHER. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106353. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. Controlling Works, Section AA at Bear Trap Dam, Section BB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Controlling Works, Section A-A at Bear Trap Dam, Section B-B at Bear-Trap Dam, Section C-C at Sluice Gate - Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Lockport Controlling Works, Illinois Waterway River Mile 293.2, Lockport, Will County, IL

  19. BB: Half Section; Top of Engine; Valve Gear Detail; CC: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B-B: Half Section; Top of Engine; Valve Gear Detail; C-C: Top of Condenser; D-D: Condenser Interior; Air Pump Piston; Air Pump Lever; Water Pump - Steamboat COLUMBUS, Submerged south-southeast of Point Lookout, Scotland, St. Mary's County, MD

  20. A milestone toward understanding PDR properties in the extreme environment of LMC-30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevance, M.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Godard, B.; Cormier, D.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.; Indebetouw, R.; Le Bourlot, J.; Lee, M.-Y.; Le Petit, F.; Pellegrini, E.; Roueff, E.; Wu, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. More complete knowledge of galaxy evolution requires understanding the process of star formation and the interaction between the interstellar radiation field and interstellar medium (ISM) in galactic environments traversing a wide range of physical parameter space. We focus on the impact of massive star formation on the surrounding low metallicity ISM in 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). A low metal abundance, which can characterizes some galaxies of the early Universe, results in less ultraviolet (UV) shielding for the formation of the molecular gas necessary for star formation to proceed. The half-solar metallicity gas in this region is strongly irradiated by the super star cluster R136, making it an ideal laboratory to study the structure of the ISM in an extreme environment. Aims: Our goal is to construct a comprehensive, self-consistent picture of the density, radiation field, and ISM structure in the most active star-forming region in the LMC, 30 Doradus. Our spatially resolved study investigates the gas heating and cooling mechanisms, particularly in the photodissociation regions (PDR) where the chemistry and thermal balance are regulated by far-UV photons (6 eV < hν < 13.6 eV). Methods: We present Herschel observations of far-infrared (FIR) fine-structure lines obtained with PACS and SPIRE/FTS. We combined atomic fine-structure lines from Herschel and Spitzer observations with ground-based CO data to provide diagnostics on the properties and structure of the gas by modeling it with the Meudon PDR code. For each tracer we estimate the possible contamination from the ionized gas to isolate the PDR component. We derive the spatial distribution of the radiation field, the pressure, the size, and the filling factor of the photodissociated gas and molecular clouds. Results: We find a range of pressure of ~105-1.7 × 106 cm-3 K and a range of incident radiation field GUV~102-2.5 × 104 through PDR modeling. Assuming a plane

  1. β Pictoris and AB Doradus Moving Groups: Likely New Low-mass Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Lépine, Sébastien; Simon, Michal

    2010-07-01

    We present results from our continuing program to identify new, low-mass, members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) using a proper motion selection algorithm and various observational techniques. We have three goals: (1) to provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, (2) to complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs down to ~0.1 M sun, and thus (3) provide a well-characterized sample of nearby (median distances at least twice as close as the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions), young (8-50 Myr) stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity. Our program proceeds as follows: we apply the selection algorithm to a proper motion catalog where initial selection cuts of candidate members are based on the mean motion of known NYMG members and the proper motions and photometric distances of the candidates. NYMG membership is investigated further using possible signs of youth, including Hα emission and X-ray flux, and then verified through radial velocity measurements. We identify TYC 1766-1431-1 (M3), TYC 1208-468-1 and 2 (K3), TYC 7558-655-1 (K5), and PM I04439+3723W and E (M3) as likely members of the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) and TYC 1741-2117-1N and S (K7), TYC 1752-63-1 (K7), TYC 523-573-1 (K7), and TYC 4943-192-1 (M0) as likely members of the AB Doradus moving group (ABDMG). We also rule out the membership of several BPMG and ABDMG candidates. To date our program has identified 16 new NYMG members of spectral type K3 or later.

  2. {beta} PICTORIS AND AB DORADUS MOVING GROUPS: LIKELY NEW LOW-MASS MEMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal; Lepine, Sebastien E-mail: michal.simon@stonybrook.ed

    2010-07-15

    We present results from our continuing program to identify new, low-mass, members of the nearby young moving groups (NYMGs) using a proper motion selection algorithm and various observational techniques. We have three goals: (1) to provide high priority targets for exoplanet searches by direct imaging, (2) to complete the census of the membership in the NYMGs down to {approx}0.1 M{sub sun}, and thus (3) provide a well-characterized sample of nearby (median distances at least twice as close as the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions), young (8-50 Myr) stars for detailed study of their physical properties and multiplicity. Our program proceeds as follows: we apply the selection algorithm to a proper motion catalog where initial selection cuts of candidate members are based on the mean motion of known NYMG members and the proper motions and photometric distances of the candidates. NYMG membership is investigated further using possible signs of youth, including H{alpha} emission and X-ray flux, and then verified through radial velocity measurements. We identify TYC 1766-1431-1 (M3), TYC 1208-468-1 and 2 (K3), TYC 7558-655-1 (K5), and PM I04439+3723W and E (M3) as likely members of the {beta} Pictoris moving group (BPMG) and TYC 1741-2117-1N and S (K7), TYC 1752-63-1 (K7), TYC 523-573-1 (K7), and TYC 4943-192-1 (M0) as likely members of the AB Doradus moving group (ABDMG). We also rule out the membership of several BPMG and ABDMG candidates. To date our program has identified 16 new NYMG members of spectral type K3 or later.

  3. The Violent Interstellar Medium in the Giant HII Region 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.-H.; Grebel, E. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Smith, R. C.; Yang, H.

    1996-08-01

    The giant HII region 30 Doradus shows prominent filaments of ionized gas, bright diffuse X-ray emission, and violent internal gas motions. These features indicate the prevalence of interstellar shocks produced by fast stellar winds and supernova blasts. 30 Dor contains two clusters: the populous young cluster R 136 and the older cluster Hodge 301. The R 136 cluster, being only 3-4 million years old, should still have all its massive stars. Its most massive stars would be interacting with the ambient interstellar medium via copious stellar winds. The Hodge 301 cluster, being nearly 20 million years old, has lost its most massive stars. The remaining stars are not powerful sources of stellar winds, so the cluster has been interacting with the ambient medium mostly through occasional supernova blasts. The interstellar gas around these two clusters offers a unique opportunity for us to study a wind-dominated interaction and a supernova-dominated interaction in a giant HII region. We have obtained proprietary and archival HST WFPC2 images, ROSAT X-ray observations, and high-resolution echelle spectra of 30 Dor in the vicinity of R 136 as well as Hodge 301. These data are used to map the distribution of high velocity gas and to determine the origin of interstellar shocks. We show that the kinematic signatures of wind-dominated shocks and supernova remnant shocks are distinctly different. The most violent motion in 30 Dor is associated with the older cluster Hodge 301. Clearly, star formation in 30 Dor is not coeval; while the younger cluster is responsible for the ionization of the interstellar gas, the older cluster is responsible for the violent interstellar motion. If 30 Dor represents a miniature but typical starburst situation, these results must be taken into account when studying distant, unresolved starburst phenomena.

  4. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. II. The Star-formation History of the Starburst Region NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cignoni, M.; Sabbi, E.; van der Marel, R. P.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; Aloisi, A.; de Marchi, G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Smith, L. J.; Zeidler, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation (SF) of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of 30 Doradus, the starburst region NGC 2070. We recovered the SF history by comparing deep optical and near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main-sequence to post-main-sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the SF using intermediate- and low-mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC 2070 experienced prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the SF in the region (1) exceeded the average LMC rate ≈ 20 Myr ago, (2) accelerated dramatically ≈ 7 Myr ago, and (3) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass function down to 0.5 {M}⊙ . The average internal reddening E(B-V) is found to be between 0.3 and 0.4 mag. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. WHAT DRIVES THE EXPANSION OF GIANT H II REGIONS?: A STUDY OF STELLAR FEEDBACK IN 30 DORADUS

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Laura A.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bolatto, Alberto D.

    2011-04-20

    Observations show that star formation is an inefficient and slow process. This result can be attributed to the injection of energy and momentum by stars that prevents free-fall collapse of molecular clouds. The mechanism of this stellar feedback is debated theoretically; possible sources of pressure include the classical warm H II gas, the hot gas generated by shock heating from stellar winds and supernovae, direct radiation of stars, and the dust-processed radiation field trapped inside the H II shell. In this paper, we measure observationally the pressures associated with each component listed above across the giant H II region 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We exploit high-resolution, multi-wavelength images (radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray) to map these pressures as a function of position. We find that radiation pressure dominates within 75 pc of the central star cluster, R136, while the H II gas pressure dominates at larger radii. By contrast, the dust-processed radiation pressure and hot gas pressure are generally weak and not dynamically important, although the hot gas pressure may have played a more significant role at early times. Based on the low X-ray gas pressures, we demonstrate that the hot gas is only partially confined and must be leaking out the H II shell. Additionally, we consider the implications of a dominant radiation pressure on the early dynamics of 30 Doradus.

  6. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system.

  7. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  8. Randomness determines practical security of BB84 quantum key distribution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Qian, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Unconditional security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol has been proved by exploiting the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics, but the practical quantum key distribution system maybe hacked by considering the imperfect state preparation and measurement respectively. Until now, different attacking schemes have been proposed by utilizing imperfect devices, but the general security analysis model against all of the practical attacking schemes has not been proposed. Here, we demonstrate that the general practical attacking schemes can be divided into the Trojan horse attack, strong randomness attack and weak randomness attack respectively. We prove security of BB84 protocol under randomness attacking models, and these results can be applied to guarantee the security of the practical quantum key distribution system. PMID:26552359

  9. BB0238, a Presumed Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing Protein, Is Required during Borrelia burgdorferi Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Groshong, Ashley M.; Fortune, Danielle E.; Moore, Brendan P.; Spencer, Horace J.; Skinner, Robert A.; Bellamy, William T.

    2014-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, occupies both a tick vector and mammalian host in nature. Considering the unique enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi, it is not surprising that a large proportion of its genome is composed of hypothetical proteins not found in other bacterial pathogens. bb0238 encodes a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a structural motif responsible for mediating protein-protein interactions. To evaluate the role of bb0238 during mammalian infection, a bb0238-deficient mutant was constructed. The bb0238 mutant was attenuated in mice infected via needle inoculation, and complementation of bb0238 expression restored infectivity to wild-type levels. bb0238 expression does not change in response to varying culture conditions, and thus, it appears to be constitutively expressed under in vitro conditions. bb0238 is expressed in murine tissues during infection, though there was no significant change in expression levels among different tissue types. Localization studies indicate that BB0238 is associated with the inner membrane of the spirochete and is therefore unlikely to promote interaction with host ligands during infection. B. burgdorferi clones containing point mutations in conserved residues of the putative TPR motif of BB0238 demonstrated attenuation in mice that was comparable to that in the bb0238 deletion mutant, suggesting that BB0238 may contain a functional TPR domain. PMID:25069985

  10. BB0238, a presumed tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein, is required during Borrelia burgdorferi mammalian infection.

    PubMed

    Groshong, Ashley M; Fortune, Danielle E; Moore, Brendan P; Spencer, Horace J; Skinner, Robert A; Bellamy, William T; Blevins, Jon S

    2014-10-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, occupies both a tick vector and mammalian host in nature. Considering the unique enzootic life cycle of B. burgdorferi, it is not surprising that a large proportion of its genome is composed of hypothetical proteins not found in other bacterial pathogens. bb0238 encodes a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a structural motif responsible for mediating protein-protein interactions. To evaluate the role of bb0238 during mammalian infection, a bb0238-deficient mutant was constructed. The bb0238 mutant was attenuated in mice infected via needle inoculation, and complementation of bb0238 expression restored infectivity to wild-type levels. bb0238 expression does not change in response to varying culture conditions, and thus, it appears to be constitutively expressed under in vitro conditions. bb0238 is expressed in murine tissues during infection, though there was no significant change in expression levels among different tissue types. Localization studies indicate that BB0238 is associated with the inner membrane of the spirochete and is therefore unlikely to promote interaction with host ligands during infection. B. burgdorferi clones containing point mutations in conserved residues of the putative TPR motif of BB0238 demonstrated attenuation in mice that was comparable to that in the bb0238 deletion mutant, suggesting that BB0238 may contain a functional TPR domain. PMID:25069985

  11. Observed rotational properties of the O-type stars in 30 Doradus: single stars and binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernan Ramirez Agudelo, Oscar; Sana, Hugues; de Koter, Alex; Tramper, Frank; de Mink, Selma; Vlt-Flames Tarantula Survey

    2015-01-01

    The initial distribution of the spin rates of massive stars is a fingerprint of their formation process. The stellar spin rate is also one of the main properties that control the evolution and ultimate fate of these objects.Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT/FLAMES Tarantula Survey we established the projected rotational velocities, vsini, of a sample of ~330 O-type objects located in the 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The sample is composed by ~200 spectroscopic single stars and ~110 stars in binary systems (~110 primaries and ~30 secondaries). The vsini values are derived from the most commonly used methods, i.e. full-width at half-maximum, Fourier transform, and line profile fitting, applied to a set of spectral lines.The most distinctive feature of the vsini distributions of the presumed-single stars, primaries, and secondaries in 30 Dor is a low-velocity peak at around 100 km/s. Stellar winds are not expected to have spun-down the bulk of the stars significantly since their arrival on the main sequence and therefore the peak of presumed-single stars is likely to represent the outcome of the formation process. Whereas the spin distribution of presumed-single stars shows a well developed tail of stars rotating more rapidly than 300 km/s, primaries and secondaries do not feature such a high-velocity tail. The tail of the presumed-single star distribution is attributed for the most part -- and could potentially be completely due -- to spun-up binary products that appear as single stars or that have merged. This would be consistent with the lack of such post-interaction products in the binary sample, that is expected to be dominated by pre-interaction systems. The peak in this distribution is broader and is shifted toward somewhat higher spin rates compared to the distribution of spectroscopic-single stars. Systems displaying large radial velocity variations, typical for short period

  12. Modulatory effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on defecation in elderly patients receiving enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Junko; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Shirahata, Akira; Baba, Mieko; Abe, Akie; Ogawa, Koichi; Shimoda, Taeko

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the health management of elderly patients receiving enteral feeding. METHODS: Two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were performed with long-term inpatients receiving enteral tube feeding at Kitakyushu Hospital Group, Fukuoka, Japan. BB536 was administered as BB536-L and BB536-H powders that contained approximately 2.5 × 1010 and 5 × 1010 cfu of BB536, respectively. In the first trial, 83 patients (age range: 67-101 years) were randomized into 2 groups that received placebo (placebo group) or BB536-H (BB536 group) powders. In the second trial, 123 patients (age range: 65-102 years) were randomized into 3 groups, and each group received placebo (placebo group), BB536-L (BB536-L group), or BB536-H (BB536-H group) powders. Each patient received the study medication for 16 wk after 1 wk of pre-observation. Fecal samples were collected from each patient prior to and after the intervention during Trial 2. Clinical observations included body temperature, occurrence of infection, frequency of defecation, and fecal microbiota. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in the frequency of defecation for either treatment in Trial 1. However, a significant change was noted in the BB536-L group (P = 0.0439) in Trial 2 but not in the placebo or BB536-H groups. Subgroup analyses based on the frequency of defecation for each patient during the pre-observation period for both trials revealed significant increases in bowel movements in patients with a low frequency of defecation and significant decreases in the bowel movements of patients with a high frequency of defecation during the intervention period in the BB536 groups. The combination of Trials 1 and 2 data revealed a modulatory effect of BB536 ingestion on the changes in bowel movements. Significantly increased bowel movements were observed in patients in the low frequency subgroup with significant intergroup differences (P < 0

  13. BB0744 Affects Tissue Tropism and Spatial Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Wager, Beau; Shaw, Dana K; Groshong, Ashley M; Blevins, Jon S; Skare, Jon T

    2015-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, produces a variety of proteins that promote survival and colonization in both the Ixodes species vector and various mammalian hosts. We initially identified BB0744 (also known as p83/100) by screening for B. burgdorferi strain B31 proteins that bind to α1β1 integrin and hypothesized that, given the presence of a signal peptide, BB0744 may be a surface-exposed protein. In contrast to this expectation, localization studies suggested that BB0744 resides in the periplasm. Despite its subsurface location, we were interested in testing whether BB0744 is required for borrelial pathogenesis. To this end, a bb0744 deletion was isolated in a B. burgdorferi strain B31 infectious background, complemented, and queried for the role of BB0744 following experimental infection. A combination of bioluminescent imaging, cultivation of infected tissues, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi bacteria were attenuated in the ability to colonize heart tissue, as well as skin locations distal to the site of infection. Furthermore, qPCR indicated a significantly reduced spirochetal load in distal skin and joint tissue infected with Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi. Complementation with bb0744 restored infectivity, indicating that the defect seen in Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi was due to the loss of BB0744. Taken together, these results suggest that BB0744 is necessary for tissue tropism, particularly in heart tissue, alters the ability of B. burgdorferi to disseminate efficiently, or both. Additional studies are warranted to address the mechanism employed by BB0744 that alters the pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi. PMID:26150534

  14. BB0744 Affects Tissue Tropism and Spatial Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Beau; Shaw, Dana K.; Groshong, Ashley M.; Blevins, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, produces a variety of proteins that promote survival and colonization in both the Ixodes species vector and various mammalian hosts. We initially identified BB0744 (also known as p83/100) by screening for B. burgdorferi strain B31 proteins that bind to α1β1 integrin and hypothesized that, given the presence of a signal peptide, BB0744 may be a surface-exposed protein. In contrast to this expectation, localization studies suggested that BB0744 resides in the periplasm. Despite its subsurface location, we were interested in testing whether BB0744 is required for borrelial pathogenesis. To this end, a bb0744 deletion was isolated in a B. burgdorferi strain B31 infectious background, complemented, and queried for the role of BB0744 following experimental infection. A combination of bioluminescent imaging, cultivation of infected tissues, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi bacteria were attenuated in the ability to colonize heart tissue, as well as skin locations distal to the site of infection. Furthermore, qPCR indicated a significantly reduced spirochetal load in distal skin and joint tissue infected with Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi. Complementation with bb0744 restored infectivity, indicating that the defect seen in Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi was due to the loss of BB0744. Taken together, these results suggest that BB0744 is necessary for tissue tropism, particularly in heart tissue, alters the ability of B. burgdorferi to disseminate efficiently, or both. Additional studies are warranted to address the mechanism employed by BB0744 that alters the pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi. PMID:26150534

  15. The Tarantula -- Revealed by X-rays (T-ReX): A Definitive Chandra Investigation of 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, Leisa

    2013-09-01

    30 Doradus is the most important star-forming complex in the Local Group, offering a microscope on starburst astrophysics. At its heart is R136, the most massive resolved stellar cluster, containing the most massive stars known. Across 30 Dor's 250-pc extent, stellar winds and supernovae have carved its ISM into an amazing display of arcs, pillars, and bubbles. So far, Chandra has devoted only 114 ks to this iconic target, limiting our studies just to the most massive stars and large-scale diffuse phenomena. This deep observation will finally exploit Chandra's fine spatial resolution to study ISM interfaces on 1--10 pc scales, the full complement of massive stars, and the brightest pre-main sequence stars that trace 25 Myrs of star formation in this incomparable nearby starburst.

  16. KIC 10080943: a binary star with two γ Doradus/δ Scuti hybrid pulsators. Analysis of the g modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, M. A.; Bedding, T. R.; Murphy, S. J.; Schmid, V. S.; Aerts, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Ouazzani, R.-M.; Kurtz, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    We use 4 yr of Kepler photometry to study the non-eclipsing spectroscopic binary KIC 10080943. We find both components to be γ Doradus/δ Scuti hybrids, which pulsate in both p and g modes. We present an analysis of the g modes, which is complicated by the fact that the two sets of ℓ = 1 modes partially overlap in the frequency spectrum. Nevertheless, it is possible to disentangle them by identifying rotationally split doublets from one component and triplets from the other. The identification is helped by the presence of additive combination frequencies in the spectrum that involve the doublets but not the triplets. The rotational splittings of the multiplets imply core rotation periods of about 11 and 7 d in the two stars. One of the stars also shows evidence of ℓ = 2 modes.

  17. Elemental abundances of low-mass stars in nearby young associations: AB Doradus, Carina Near and Ursa Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazzo, K.; D'Orazi, V.; Desidera, S.; Covino, E.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zusi, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present stellar parameters and abundances of 11 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) of 13 F6-K2 main-sequence stars in the young groups AB Doradus, Carina Near and Ursa Major. The exoplanet-host star ι Horologii is also analysed. The three young associations have lithium abundance consistent with their age. All other elements show solar abundances. The three groups are characterized by a small scatter in all abundances, with mean [Fe/H] values of 0.10 (σ = 0.03), 0.08 (σ = 0.05) and 0.01 (σ = 0.03) dex for AB Doradus, Carina Near and Ursa Major, respectively. The distribution of elemental abundances appears congruent with the chemical pattern of the Galactic thin disc in the solar vicinity, as found for other young groups. This means that the metallicity distribution of nearby young stars, targets of direct-imaging planet-search surveys, is different from that of old, field solar-type stars, i.e. the typical targets of radial velocity surveys. The young planet-host star ι Horologii shows a lithium abundance lower than that found for the young association members. It is found to have a slightly super-solar iron abundance ([Fe/H] = 0.16 ± 0.09), while all [X/Fe] ratios are similar to the solar values. Its elemental abundances are close to those of the Hyades cluster derived from the literature, which seems to reinforce the idea of a possible common origin with the primordial cluster. Based on observations performed with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes [programme IDs: 70.D-0081(A), 082.A-9007(A), 083.A-9011(B), 084.A-9011(B)].

  18. A GRAND VIEW OF THE BIRTH OF 'HEFTY' STARS - 30 DORADUS NEBULA DETAILS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are two views of a highly active region of star birth located northeast of the central cluster, R136, in 30 Doradus. The orientation and scale are identical for both views. The top panel is a composite of images in two colors taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's visible-light camera, the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The bottom panel is a composite of pictures taken through three infrared filters with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). In both cases the colors of the displays were chosen to correlate with the nebula's and stars' true colors. Seven very young objects are identified with numbered arrows in the infrared image. Number 1 is a newborn, compact cluster dominated by a triple system of 'hefty' stars. It has formed within the head of a massive dust pillar pointing toward R136. The energetic outflows from R136 have shaped the pillar and triggered the collapse of clouds within its summit to form the new stars. The radiation and outflows from these new stars have in turn blown off the top of the pillar, so they can be seen in the visible-light as well as the infrared image. Numbers 2 and 3 also pinpoint newborn stars or stellar systems inside an adjacent, bright-rimmed pillar, likewise oriented toward R136. These objects are still immersed within their natal dust and can be seen only as very faint, red points in the visible-light image. They are, however, among the brightest objects in the infrared image, since dust does not block infrared light as much as visible light. Thus, numbers 2 and 3 and number 1 correspond respectively to two successive stages in the birth of massive stars. Number 4 is a very red star that has just formed within one of several very compact dust clouds nearby. Number 5 is another very young triple-star system with a surrounding cluster of fainter stars. They also can be seen in the visible-light picture. Most remarkable are the glowing patches numbered 6 and 7, which astronomers

  19. Multifrequency observations of AB Doradus. X-ray flaring and rotational modulation of a young star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhu, O.; Tsuru, T.; Collier Cameron, A.; Budding, E.; Banks, T.; Slee, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.

    1993-11-01

    X-ray observations of AB Doradus, performed by the Large Area Counter (LAC) instrument of the GINGA satellite on January 1990, are reported. The observations covered 5 rotations of the star (2.6 days) during which 4 flares were detected. When added to the previously observed EINSTEIN and EXOSAT flares, a total of 7 X-ray flares in AB Dor have been observed so far. The flares seem to cluster around rotational phases 0.1-0.25 and 0.6-0.75 although the statistics are poor. The mean flare energies were around (1-3) x 1034 erg with peak luminosities (4-6) x 1030 ergs/s. The flaring loops were compact (ne = 1012/cu cm) and extended (1-2) x 1010 cm above the surface. Flare masses (1018 g) and frequencies (two per day) are similar to prominence-like cloud formations discovered previously in the star. The flare spectra can be best-fitted either by thermal Bremstrahlung with kT = 3-6 keV or with a power-law, with photon index gamma = 2.2-2.6. During the strongest flare peaks AB Dor is a 10 mCrab source with a Crab-like spectrum. The 3 sigma upper limit for the 6.7 keV iron line during the flares is somewhat smaller than predicted by thin plasma models. We discuss the possibility of lowering the equivalent width by an extra non-thermal continuum due to mildly relativistic electrons. Simultaneous 8.4 GHz observations during flare No. 1 gave only a marginal detection, constraining the magnetic field strength to less than 50 Gauss if the total X-ray continuum is non-thermal in origin. The sensitivity was not good enough to detect any clear modulation in the X-ray light curve, folded over the 0.514 d rotation period. Simultaneous 8.4 GHz observations were performed with the 64 m antenna of the Australia Telescope National Facility at Parkes and reveal a clear variability with two maxima at phases 0.0 (spot A) and 0.5 (spot B). Nearly simultaneous optical photometry can be modeled by a cool extended photospheric spot at the phase 0.0 (spot A). Simultaneous H-alpha photometry

  20. Aptamer-based portable biosensor for platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) with personal glucose meter readout.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhonghui; Zhou, Jin; Weng, Wen; Zheng, Ou; Lin, Zhenyu; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan

    2014-05-15

    A novel portable biosensor for sensitive and selective detection of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) had been developed based on the specific recognition between aptamer and protein using a personal glucose meter (PGM) as readout. In the presence of PDGF-BB, the primary aptamer of PDGF-BB which is bound to the surface of streptavidin magnespheres paramagnetic particles (SA-PMPs) reacts quantitatively with invertase-functionalized secondary aptamer of PDGF-BB to form a stable complex, resulting in the attachment of invertase on the SA-PMPs. Subsequently, the invertase catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to produce a large amount of glucose and quantitative readout by the PGM. The enhanced signal of the PGM has a relationship with the concentration of PDGF-BB in the range of 1.0 × 10(-14) M~3.16 × 10(-12) M, and the detection limit is 2.9 fM. The proposed portable biosensor had been successfully applied to assay the PDGF-BB in saliva samples. PMID:24434497

  1. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    PubMed

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-01-01

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:27545214

  2. Immunologic and genetic studies of diabetes in the BB rat.

    PubMed

    Parfrey, N A; Prud'homme, G J; Colle, E; Fuks, A; Seemayer, T A; Guttmann, R D; Ono, S J

    1989-01-01

    The spontaneous development of diabetes in the Bio-Breeding (BB) rat is an excellent model of human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Disease expression is dependent on several genetically determined abnormalities, including specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. At least one MHC class II locus of the U haplotype is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for disease expression. The immune system of BB rats is markedly abnormal. There is a striking reduction in the number and function of mature cytotoxic/suppressor T cells, a poor proliferative response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte culture, poor interleukin-2 production, and a reduced ability to reject skin allografts. While these immune system abnormalities are closely related to the development of diabetes, the immune recognition and effector mechanisms resulting in islet cell destruction are still poorly understood. The hypothesis that MHC class II induction on pancreatic beta cells serves to target these lymphokines, natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, etc.) have been implicated in islet cell killing. The incidence of IDDM is reduced by immunosuppressive therapy in both rats and humans, further supporting the role of immune mechanisms in this disease. PMID:2651002

  3. BB and pellet guns--toys or deadly weapons?

    PubMed

    Harris, W; Luterman, A; Curreri, P W

    1983-07-01

    BB and pellet weapons are not included in gun control laws and are often sold as children's toys. Injuries caused by these weapons have been considered trivial unless they involve vulnerable surface organs such as the eye. The purpose of this study was to review the management of six cases of pellet or BB gun injuries that required abdominal exploration at the University of South Alabama Medical Center from January 1980 through June 1982. Five of the six patients had significant internal injuries including perforations of the stomach, jejunum, liver, and pancreas. The ballistics of pneumatic weapons are reviewed. The muzzle velocities of many of these weapons necessitate that wounds caused by these weapons be handled with the same principles as for any small-caliber, low-velocity (less than 1,200 feet/second) weapons. Public education programs are urgently needed to educate parents as to the potential danger involved in purchasing these weapons for unsupervised use as toys by children. PMID:6876209

  4. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVI. The optical and NIR extinction laws in 30 Doradus and the photometric determination of the effective temperatures of OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Evans, C. J.; Barbá, R. H.; Gräfener, G.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Crowther, P. A.; García, M.; Herrero, A.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; van Loon, J. Th.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The commonly used extinction laws of Cardelli et al. (1989, ApJ, 345, 245) have limitations that, among other issues, hamper the determination of the effective temperatures of O and early B stars from optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry. Aims: We aim to develop a new family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus, check their general applicability within that region and elsewhere, and apply them to test the feasibility of using optical and NIR photometry to determine the effective temperature of OB stars. Methods: We use spectroscopy and NIR photometry from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey and optical photometry from HST/WFC3 of 30 Doradus and we analyze them with the software code CHORIZOS using different assumptions, such as the family of extinction laws. Results: We derive a new family of optical and NIR extinction laws for 30 Doradus and confirm its applicability to extinguished Galactic O-type systems. We conclude that by using the new extinction laws it is possible to measure the effective temperatures of OB stars with moderate uncertainties and only a small bias, at least up to E(4405-5495) ~ 1.5 mag. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. The CoRoT star ID 100866999: a hybrid γ Doradus-δ Scuti star in an eclipsing binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapellier, E.; Mathias, P.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The presence of g- and p-modes allows testing stellar models from the core to the envelope. Moreover, binarity in an eclipsing system constrains the physical parameters of the pulsating star. Aims: CoRot ID 100866999 is a relatively large-amplitude hybrid γ Doradus-δ Scuti star with two clearly distinct frequency domains. The large number of detected frequencies allows a detailed study of the interaction between them. In addition, we can derive the fundamental parameters of both components from the study of the eclipsing light curve. Methods: After removing the eclipsing phases, we analyzed the data with the Period04 package up to a signal-to-noise ratio S/N = 4. The light curve was then prewhitened with these oscillation frequencies to derive the fundamental parameters of the two components. Results: The eclipsing light curve analysis results in a (1.8+1.1) M⊙ system, both components being main sequence stars. We detect 124 frequencies related to luminosity variations of the primary. They are present in two well-separated domains: 89 frequencies in the interval [0.30;3.64] d-1 and 35 in the interval [14.57; 33.96] d-1. There are 22 γ Doradus frequencies separated by a constant period interval ΔP = 0.03493 d. These frequencies correspond to a series of g-modes of degree ℓ = 1 with successive radial orders k. We identify 21 linear combinations between the first nine γ Doradus frequencies. The δ Scuti domain is dominated by a large-amplitude frequency F = 16.9803 d-1. The eight first γ Doradus frequencies fi are present with much lower amplitude in the δ Scuti domain as F ± fi. These interactions between g- and p-modes confirm the phenomenon we detected in another CoRoT star. The amplitude and the phase of the main frequency F shows a double-wave modulation along the orbital phase, giving rise to series of combination frequencies. Such combination frequencies are also detected, with lower amplitude, for the first γ Doradus modes. The Co

  6. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB-mediated glycosaminoglycan synthesis is transduced through Akt.

    PubMed

    Cartel, Nicholas J; Wang, Jinxia; Post, Martin

    2002-04-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) signal-transduction pathway mediates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis in fetal lung fibroblasts. In the present study we further investigated the signal-transduction pathway(s) that results in PDGF-BB-induced GAG synthesis. Over-expression of a soluble PDGF beta-receptor as well as a mutated form of the beta-receptor, unable to bind PI-3K, diminished GAG synthesis in fetal lung fibroblasts subsequent to PDGF-BB stimulation. The PI-3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked PDGF-BB-induced Akt activity as well as significantly diminishing PDGF-BB-mediated GAG synthesis. Expression of dominant-negative PI-3K also abrogated Akt activity and GAG synthesis. Furthermore, expression of dominant-negative Akt abrogated endogenous Akt activity, Rab3D phosphorylation and GAG synthesis, whereas expression of constitutively activated Akt stimulated Rab3D phosphorylation and GAG synthesis in the absence of PDGF-BB. Over-expression of wild-type PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10) inhibited Akt activity and concomitantly attenuated GAG synthesis in fibroblasts stimulated with PDGF-BB. These data suggest that Akt is an integral protein involved in PDGF-BB-mediated GAG regulation in fetal lung fibroblasts. PMID:11903042

  7. Safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular PDGF-BB in Parkinson’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Gesine; Zachrisson, Olof; Varrone, Andrea; Almqvist, Per; Jerling, Markus; Lind, Göran; Rehncrona, Stig; Linderoth, Bengt; Bjartmarz, Hjalmar; Shafer, Lisa L.; Coffey, Robert; Svensson, Mikael; Mercer, Katarina Jansson; Forsberg, Anton; Halldin, Christer; Svenningsson, Per; Widner, Håkan; Frisén, Jonas; Pålhagen, Sven; Haegerstrand, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB) reduces Parkinsonian symptoms and increases dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in several animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Effects of rhPDGF-BB are the result of proliferation of ventricular wall progenitor cells and reversed by blocking mitosis. Based on these restorative effects, we assessed the safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) rhPDGF-BB administration in individuals with PD. METHODS. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/IIa study at two clinical centers in Sweden. Twelve patients with moderate PD received rhPDGF-BB via an implanted drug infusion pump and an investigational i.c.v. catheter. Patients were assigned to a dose cohort (0.2, 1.5, or 5 μg rhPDGF-BB per day) and then randomized to active treatment or placebo (3:1) for a 12-day treatment period. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability of i.c.v.-delivered rhPDGF-BB. Secondary outcome assessments included several clinical rating scales and changes in DAT binding. The follow-up period was 85 days. RESULTS. All patients completed the study. There were no unresolved adverse events. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients; however, these were unrelated to rhPDGF-BB administration. Secondary outcome parameters did not show dose-dependent changes in clinical rating scales, but there was a positive effect on DAT binding in the right putamen. CONCLUSION. At all doses tested, i.c.v. administration of rhPDGF-BB was well tolerated. Results support further clinical development of rhPDGF-BB for patients with PD. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00866502. FUNDING. Newron Sweden AB (former NeuroNova AB) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA). PMID:25689258

  8. Relating turbulent pressure and macroturbulence across the HR diagram with a possible link to γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassitelli, L.; Fossati, L.; Langer, N.; Miglio, A.; Istrate, A. G.; Sanyal, D.

    2015-12-01

    A significant fraction of the envelope of low- and intermediate-mass stars is unstable to convection, leading to sub-surface turbulent motion. Here, we consider and include the effects of turbulence pressure in our stellar evolution calculations. In search of an observational signature, we compare the fractional contribution of turbulent pressure to the observed macroturbulent velocities in stars at different evolutionary stages. We find a strong correlation between the two quantities, similar to what was previously found for massive OB stars. We therefore argue that turbulent pressure fluctuations of finite amplitude may excite high-order, high-angular degree stellar oscillations, which manifest themselves at the surface an additional broadening of the spectral lines, i.e., macroturbulence, across most of the HR diagram. When considering the locations in the HR diagram where we expect high-order oscillations to be excited by stochastic turbulent pressure fluctuations, we find a close match with the observational γ Doradus instability strip, which indeed contains high-order, non-radial pulsators. We suggest that turbulent pressure fluctuations on a percentual level may contribute to the γ Dor phenomenon, calling for more detailed theoretical modeling in this direction. Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Spectroscopic confirmation of M-dwarf candidate members of the Beta Pictoris and AB Doradus Moving Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binks, A. S.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Optical spectroscopic observations are reported for 24 and 23, nearby, proper-motion-selected M-dwarf candidate members of the Beta Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups (BPMG and ABDMG). Using kinematic criteria, the presence of both Hα emission and high X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity, and position in absolute colour-magnitude diagrams, 10 and 6 of these candidates are confirmed as likely members of the BPMG and ABDMG, respectively. Equivalent widths or upper limits for the Li I 6708 Å line are reported and the lithium depletion boundary (LDB) age of the BPMG is revisited. Whilst non-magnetic evolutionary models still yield an estimated age of 21 ± 4 Myr, models that incorporate magnetic inhibition of convection imply an older age of 24 ± 4 Myr. A similar systematic increase would be inferred if the stars were 25 per cent covered by dark magnetic starspots. Since young, convective M-dwarfs are magnetically active and do have starspots, we suggest that the original LDB age estimate is a lower limit. The LDB age of the ABDMG is still poorly constrained - non-magnetic evolutionary models suggest an age in the range 35-150 Myr, which could be significantly tightened by new measurements for existing candidate members.

  10. Fast spectroscopic variations on rapidly-rotating, cool dwarfs. 3: Masses of circumstellar absorbing clouds on AB Doradus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. Collier; Duncan, D. K.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.; Kuntz, K. D.; Penston, M. V.; Robinson, R. D.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    New time-resolved H alpha, Ca II H and K and Mg II h and k spectra of the rapidly-rotating K0 dwarf star AB Doradus (= HD 36705). The transient absorption features seen in the H alpha line are also present in the Ca II and Mg II resonance lines. New techniques are developed for measuring the average strength of the line absorption along lines of sight intersecting the cloud. These techniques also give a measure of the projected cloud area. The strength of the resonance line absorption provides useful new constraints on the column densities, projected surface areas, temperatures and internal turbulent velocity dispersions of the circumstellar clouds producing the absorption features. At any given time the star appears to be surrounded by at least 6 to 10 clouds with masses in the range 2 to 6 x 10(exp 17) g. The clouds appear to have turbulent internal velocity dispersions of order 3 to 20 km/s, comparable with the random velocities of discrete filamentary structures in solar quiescent prominences. Night-to-night changes in the amount of Ca II resonance line absorption can be explained by changes in the amplitude of turbulent motions in the clouds. The corresponding changes in the total energy of the internal motions are of order 10(exp 29) erg per cloud. Changes of this magnitude could easily be activated by the frequent energetic (approximately 10(exp 34) erg) x ray flares seen on this star.

  11. NR4A1 promotes PDGF-BB-induced cell colony formation in soft agar.

    PubMed

    Eger, Glenda; Papadopoulos, Natalia; Lennartsson, Johan; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The fibroblast mitogen platelet-derived growth factor -BB (PDGF-BB) induces a transient expression of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (also named Nur77, TR3 or NGFIB). The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathways through which NR4A1 is induced by PDGF-BB and its functional role. We demonstrate that in PDGF-BB stimulated NIH3T3 cells, the MEK1/2 inhibitor CI-1040 strongly represses NR4A1 expression, whereas Erk5 downregulation delays the expression, but does not block it. Moreover, we report that treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 suppresses NR4A1 mRNA and protein expression. The majority of NR4A1 in NIH3T3 was found to be localized in the cytoplasm and only a fraction was translocated to the nucleus after continued PDGF-BB treatment. Silencing NR4A1 slightly increased the proliferation rate of NIH3T3 cells; however, it did not affect the chemotactic or survival abilities conferred by PDGF-BB. Moreover, overexpression of NR4A1 promoted anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells and the glioblastoma cell lines U-105MG and U-251MG. Thus, whereas NR4A1, induced by PDGF-BB, suppresses cell growth on a solid surface, it increases anchorage-independent growth. PMID:25269081

  12. NR4A1 Promotes PDGF-BB-Induced Cell Colony Formation in Soft Agar

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Glenda; Papadopoulos, Natalia; Lennartsson, Johan; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The fibroblast mitogen platelet-derived growth factor -BB (PDGF-BB) induces a transient expression of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (also named Nur77, TR3 or NGFIB). The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathways through which NR4A1 is induced by PDGF-BB and its functional role. We demonstrate that in PDGF-BB stimulated NIH3T3 cells, the MEK1/2 inhibitor CI-1040 strongly represses NR4A1 expression, whereas Erk5 downregulation delays the expression, but does not block it. Moreover, we report that treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 suppresses NR4A1 mRNA and protein expression. The majority of NR4A1 in NIH3T3 was found to be localized in the cytoplasm and only a fraction was translocated to the nucleus after continued PDGF-BB treatment. Silencing NR4A1 slightly increased the proliferation rate of NIH3T3 cells; however, it did not affect the chemotactic or survival abilities conferred by PDGF-BB. Moreover, overexpression of NR4A1 promoted anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells and the glioblastoma cell lines U-105MG and U-251MG. Thus, whereas NR4A1, induced by PDGF-BB, suppresses cell growth on a solid surface, it increases anchorage-independent growth. PMID:25269081

  13. Measurement of the ratio Γbb/Γhad using event shape variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xie, D.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-09-01

    The branching fraction of Z --> bb relative to all hadronic decays of the Z has been measured using event shape variables to preferentially select Z --> bb events. The method chosen applies a combination of shape discriminators and the selection of high transverse momentum leptons to event hemispheres. From a sample of 440 000 hadronic Z decays collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP, the ration Γbb/Γhad = 0.228+/-0.005(stat.)+/-0.005(syst.) is measured. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76ER00881.

  14. First results from the faint object camera - High-resolution observations of the central object R136 in the 30 Doradus nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigelt, G.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.; Crane, P.; Deharveng, J. M.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.; Kamperman, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    R136 is the luminous central object of the giant H II region 30 Doradus in the LMC. The first high-resolution observations of R136 with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope are reported. The physical nature of the brightest component R136a has been a matter of some controversy over the last few years. The UV images obtained show that R136a is a very compact star cluster consisting of more than eight stars within 0.7 arcsec diameter. From these high-resolution images a mass upper limit can be derived for the most luminous stars observed in R136.

  15. BB0323 function is essential for Borrelia burgdorferi virulence and persistence through tick-rodent transmission cycle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyue; Yang, Xiuli; Kumar, Manish; Pal, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi bb0323 encodes an immunogenic protein in mammalian hosts including humans. An analysis of bb0323 expression in vivo showed variable transcription throughout the spirochete infection cycle, with elevated expression during tick-mouse transmission. Deletion of bb0323 in infectious B. burgdorferi did not affect microbial survival in vitro, despite significant alterations in growth kinetics and cell morphology. bb0323 mutants were unable to infect either mice or ticks, and were quickly eliminated from immunocompetent and immunodeficient hosts and the vector, within the first few days of inoculation. Chromosomal complementation of the mutant with native bb0323 and phenotypic analysis in vivo indicated the significant restoration of spirochete virulence and persistence throughout the mouse-tick infection cycle. BB0323 may serve an indispensable physiological function that is more pronounced during microbial persistence and transitions between the host and the vector in vivo. Strategies to interfere with BB0323 function may interrupt the infectious cycle of spirochetes. PMID:19754308

  16. Instrumentation to measure the backscattering coefficient bb for arbitrary phase functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubrich, David; Musser, Joe; Fry, Edward S.

    2011-07-01

    A single detector instrument concept that collects scattered light over the full range of backscattering angles is described. Its light collection aperture is designed so as to introduce a sin θ factor into the collection probability. Hence, the instrument is exactly a bb meter; it directly measures bb, not a proxy for it. For an infinitesimal aperture to the detector, the instrument would give bb exactly; for a finite aperture (e.g., 1.26cm2), it would typically give bb to an accuracy of a few tenths of 1%. The instrumentation itself is as simple as that of the well-known fixed-angle meters---it projects a beam of light into the medium and collects backscattered light with a single detector; the differences are the position of the detector and the shape/orientation of the entrance aperture to the detector.

  17. 76 FR 13615 - B&B Manufacturing Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY B&B Manufacturing Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental...

  18. Hypothetical Protein BB0569 Is Essential for Chemotaxis of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jun; Charon, Nyles W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has five putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). In this report, we provide evidence that a hypothetical protein, BB0569, is essential for the chemotaxis of B. burgdorferi. While BB0569 lacks significant homology to the canonical MCPs, it contains a conserved domain (spanning residues 110 to 170) that is often evident in membrane-bound MCPs such as Tar and Tsr of Escherichia coli. Unlike Tar and Tsr, BB0569 lacks transmembrane regions and recognizable HAMP and methylation domains and is similar to TlpC, a cytoplasmic chemoreceptor of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. An isogenic mutant of BB0569 constantly runs in one direction and fails to respond to attractants, indicating that BB0569 is essential for chemotaxis. Immunofluorescence, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, and cryo-electron tomography analyses demonstrate that BB0569 localizes at the cell poles and is required for chemoreceptor clustering at the cell poles. Protein cross-linking studies reveal that BB0569 forms large protein complexes with MCP3, indicative of its interactions with other MCPs. Interestingly, analysis of B. burgdorferi mcp mutants shows that inactivation of either mcp2 or mcp3 reduces the level of BB0569 substantially and that such a reduction is caused by protein turnover. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the domain composition and function of BB0569 are similar in some respects to those of TlpC but that these proteins are different in their cellular locations, further highlighting that the chemotaxis of B. burgdorferi is unique and different from the Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica paradigm. IMPORTANCE Spirochete chemotaxis differs substantially from the Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica paradigm, and the basis for controlling the rotation of the bundles of periplasmic flagella at each end of the cell is unknown. In recent years, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Magnetotactic Bacteria, Magnetospirillum moscoviense BB-1 and Magnetospirillum marisnigri SP-1.

    PubMed

    Koziaeva, Veronika V; Dziuba, Marina V; Ivanov, Timophey M; Kuznetsov, Boris B; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Grouzdev, Denis S

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of two recently isolated magnetotactic species, Magnetospirillum moscoviense BB-1 and Magnetospirillum marisnigri SP-1. The genome of M. moscoviense BB-1 has 4,164,497 bp, 65.2% G+C content, and comprises 207 contigs. The genome of M. marisnigri SP-1 consists of 131 contigs and has a length of 4,619,819 bp and 64.7% G+C content. PMID:27516508

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Magnetotactic Bacteria, Magnetospirillum moscoviense BB-1 and Magnetospirillum marisnigri SP-1

    PubMed Central

    Koziaeva, Veronika V.; Dziuba, Marina V.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Kuznetsov, Boris B.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of two recently isolated magnetotactic species, Magnetospirillum moscoviense BB-1 and Magnetospirillum marisnigri SP-1. The genome of M. moscoviense BB-1 has 4,164,497 bp, 65.2% G+C content, and comprises 207 contigs. The genome of M. marisnigri SP-1 consists of 131 contigs and has a length of 4,619,819 bp and 64.7% G+C content. PMID:27516508

  1. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XIII: On the nature of O Vz stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Walborn, N. R.; Puls, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Evans, C. J.; Brott, I.; de Koter, A.; Garcia, M.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2014-04-01

    Context. O Vz stars, a subclass of O-type dwarfs characterized by having He ii λ4686 stronger in absorption than any other helium line in their blue-violet spectra, have been suggested to be on or near the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). If their youth were confirmed, they would be key objects with which to advance our knowledge of the physical properties of massive stars in the early stages of their lives. Aims: We test the hypothesis of O Vz stars being at a different (younger) evolutionary stage than are normal O-type dwarfs. Methods: We have performed the first comprehensive quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a statistically meaningful sample of O Vz and O V stars in the same star-forming region, exploiting the large number of O Vz stars identified by the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We obtained the stellar and wind parameters of 38 O Vz stars (and a control sample of 46 O V stars) using the FASTWIND stellar atmosphere code and the IACOB-GBAT, a grid-based tool developed for automated quantitative analysis of optical spectra of O stars. In the framework of a differential study, we compared the physical and evolutionary properties of both samples, locating the stars in the log g vs. log Teff, log Q vs. log Teff, and log L/L⊙ vs. log Teff diagrams. We also investigated the predictions of the FASTWIND code regarding the O Vz phenomenon. Results: We find a differential distribution of objects in terms of effective temperature, with O Vz stars dominant at intermediate values. The O Vz stars in 30 Doradus tend to be younger (i.e., closer to the ZAMS) and less luminous, and they have weaker winds than the O V stars, but we also find examples with ages of 2-4 Myr and with luminosities and winds that are similar to those of normal O dwarfs. Moreover, the O Vz stars do not appear to have higher gravities than the O V stars. In addition to effective temperature and wind strength, our FASTWIND predictions

  2. 30 Doradus - Relating Young Stars Imaged by Spitzer and Hubble to the CO Molecular Gas Observed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret; Indebetouw, Remy; Sabbi, Elena; De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    The majority of star have masses less than 8 solar mass and form in clumps that are less than 1 pc in size. The sub-parsec scales in which star formation takes place makes it difficult to resolve the effects star formation and the surrounding dense gas have on each other. The Magellanic Clouds are more active in forming high mass stars as compared to the Milky Way. The SAGE and Heritage surveys combined with the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project provide us the opportunity to study high-mass (>15 solar masses) and low-mass (<1 solar mass) star formation. ALMA observations cover a 60 pc x 30 pc region of CO gas slightly north of the R136 cluster in 30 Doradus. We find 16 young stellar objects and about a 100 pre-main-sequence stars within the ALMA footprint. We define young stellar objects to be very early stage stars that are about 10,000 years old and whose SEDs peak in the infrared, and we use pre-main-sequence-stars to refer to slightly older stars that can be seen in the optical. I will use dendrograms to analyze both the high- and low-mass star properties with respect to the CO gas structure observed with ALMA. Preliminary results show that not all massive young stellar objects are associated with CO gas, higher mass clumps tend to form higher mass stars and are more likely to have multiple young stars, and lower mass clumps tend to not be gravitationally bound however the larger clouds are bound. Looking at the interplay between dense molecular gas and the newly forming stars in a stellar nursery will shed light on how these stars formed: monolithic collapse or competitive accretion.

  3. HYBRID {gamma} DORADUS-{delta} SCUTI PULSATORS: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS OF THE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Grigahcene, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Houdek, G.; Balona, L.; Catanzaro, G.; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Guzik, J. A.; Kurtz, D. W.; Marconi, M.; Ripepi, V.; Moya, A.; Suarez, J.-C.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Brown, T. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gilliland, R. L.; Jenkins, J. M.

    2010-04-20

    Observations of the pulsations of stars can be used to infer their interior structure and test theoretical models. The main-sequence {gamma} Doradus (Dor) and {delta} Scuti (Sct) stars with masses 1.2-2.5 M {sub sun} are particularly useful for these studies. The {gamma} Dor stars pulsate in high-order g-modes with periods of order 1 day, driven by convective blocking at the base of their envelope convection zone. The {delta} Sct stars pulsate in low-order g- and p-modes with periods of order 2 hr, driven by the {kappa} mechanism operating in the He II ionization zone. Theory predicts an overlap region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between instability regions, where 'hybrid' stars pulsating in both types of modes should exist. The two types of modes with properties governed by different portions of the stellar interior provide complementary model constraints. Among the known {gamma} Dor and {delta} Sct stars, only four have been confirmed as hybrids. Now, analysis of combined Quarter 0 and Quarter 1 Kepler data for hundreds of variable stars shows that the frequency spectra are so rich that there are practically no pure {delta} Sct or {gamma} Dor pulsators, i.e., essentially all of the stars show frequencies in both the {delta} Sct and the {gamma} Dor frequency range. A new observational classification scheme is proposed that takes into account the amplitude as well as the frequency and is applied to categorize 234 stars as {delta} Sct, {gamma} Dor, {delta} Sct/{gamma} Dor or {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct hybrids.

  4. HST Astrometry in the 30 Doradus Region: Measuring Proper Motions of Individual Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, Imants; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Lennon, Daniel J.; Anderson, Jay; Bellini, Andrea; Sabbi, Elena; Sana, Hugues; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2015-09-01

    We present measurements of positions and relative proper motions in the 30 Doradus region of the LMC. We detail the construction of a single-epoch astrometric reference frame, based on specially designed observations obtained with the two main imaging instruments Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel and Wide Field Camera 3/UVIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Internal comparisons indicate a sub milliarcsecond (mas) precision in the positions and the presence of semi-periodic systematics with a mean amplitude of ˜0.8 mas. We combined these observations with numerous archival images taken with Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and spanning 17 years. The precision of the resulting proper motions for well-measured stars around the massive cluster Radcliffe 136 (R136) can be as good as ˜20 μas yr-1, although the true accuracy of proper motions is generally lower due to the residual systematic errors. The observed proper-motion dispersion for our highest-quality measurements is ˜0.1 mas yr-1. Our catalog of positions and proper motions contains 86,590 stars down to V ˜ 25 and over a total area of ˜70 square arcmin. We examined the proper motions of 105 relatively bright stars and identified a total of six candidate runaway stars. We are able to tentatively confirm the runaway status of star VFTS 285, consistent with the findings from line of sight velocities, and to show that this star has likely been ejected from R136. This study demonstrates that with HST it is now possible to reliably measure proper motions of individual stars in the nearest dwarf galaxies such as the LMC.

  5. Combined delivery of PDGF-BB and BMP-6 for enhanced osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Demirtaş, T Tolga; Göz, Eda; Karakeçili, Ayşe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2016-01-01

    Natural microenvironment during bone tissue regeneration involves integration of multiple biological growth factors which regulate mitogenic activities and differentiation to induce bone repair. Among them platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and bone morphogenic protein-6 (BMP-6) are known to play a prominent role. The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of combined delivery of PDGF-BB and BMP-6 on proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. PDGF-BB and BMP-6 were loaded in gelatin and poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) particles, respectively. The carrier particles were then loaded into 3D chitosan matrix fabricated by freeze drying. The fast release of PDGF-BB during 7 days was accompanied by slower and prolonged release of BMP-6. The premising release of mitogenic factor PDGF-BB resulted in an increased MC3T3-E1 cell population seeded on chitosan scaffolds. Osteogenic markers of RunX2, Col 1, OPN were higher on chitosan scaffolds loaded with growth factors either individually or in combination. However, OCN expression and bone mineral formation were prominent on chitosan scaffolds incorporating PDGF-BB and BMP-6 as a combination. PMID:26676858

  6. Reversal of impaired wound healing in irradiated rats by platelet-derived growth factor-BB

    SciTech Connect

    Mustoe, T.A.; Purdy, J.; Gramates, P.; Deuel, T.F.; Thomason, A.; Pierce, G.F. )

    1989-10-01

    This study examined the potential influence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimers (PDGF-BB) on surgical incisions in irradiated animals with depressed wound healing. Rats were irradiated with either 800 rads total body or 2,500 rads surface irradiation. Parallel dorsal skin incisions were made 2 days later, and PDGF-BB was applied topically a single time to one of two incisions. In total body-irradiated rats, bone marrow-derived elements were severely depressed, wound macrophages were virtually eliminated, and PDGF-BB treatment was ineffective. However, in surface-irradiated rats, PDGF-BB treatment recruited macrophages into wounds and partially reversed impaired healing on day 7 (p less than 0.005) and day 12 (p less than 0.001). PDGF-BB-treated wounds were 50 percent stronger than the paired control wounds. The results suggest PDGF requires bone marrow-derived cells, likely wound macrophages, for activity and that it may be useful as a topical agent in postirradiation surgical incisions.

  7. THE H{alpha} VARIATIONS OF THE LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE P CYGNI: DISCRETE ABSORPTION COMPONENTS AND THE SHORT S DORADUS-PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, N. D.; Gies, D. R.; Morrison, N. D.; Markova, N.; Hesselbach, E. N.; Percy, J. R. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: nmarkova@astro.bas.bg E-mail: jpercy@utm.utoronto.ca

    2011-04-15

    P Cygni is a prototype of the luminous blue variables (or S Doradus variables), and the star displays photometric and emission line variability on a timescale of years (known as the 'short S Doradus-phase' variations). Here we present new high-resolution H{alpha} spectroscopy of P Cyg that we combine with earlier spectra and concurrent V-band photometry to document the emission and continuum flux variations over a 24 year time span. We show that the emission and continuum fluxes vary in concert on timescales of 1.6 years and longer, but differ on shorter timescales. The H{alpha} profile shape also varies on the photometric timescales, and we describe the observed co-variations of the emission peak and absorption trough properties. We argue that the episodes of photometric and emission brightening are caused by increases in the size of the emission region that are related to variations in wind mass-loss rate and outflow speed. We find evidence of blueward accelerating, discrete absorption components (DACs) in the absorption trough of the H{alpha} profile, and these features have slower accelerations and longer durations than those observed in other lines. The DAC strengths also appear to vary on the photometric timescales, and we suggest that the propagation of the DAC-related wind structures is closely related to changes in the overall wind mass-loss rate and velocity.

  8. Effect of bifidobacterium Bb12 with or without Streptococcus thermophilus supplemented formula on nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Nopchinda, Supujchara; Varavithya, Wandee; Phuapradit, Pornpimol; Sangchai, Rawiwan; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chantraruksa, Vinita; Haschke, Ferdinand

    2002-11-01

    Acute diarrhea is a common cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Probiotic supplemented infant formula is one of the effective methods for prevention of rotavirus diarrhea. Other benefits of the probiotics supplemented formula were evaluated by monitoring the growth of the children. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done in 148 children aged 6-36 months. They were divided into 3 groups: the Bb12 group, 51 children received infant formula with Bifidobacteria Bb12 supplement; the Bb12+ST group, 54 children received infant formula with Bb12 and Streptococcus thermophilus supplement; and the control group, 43 children received infant formula without supplement. The mean weight Z-score according to WHO reference standard of the Bbl2 group was -1.8 +/- 0.12, the Bb12+ST group was -1.4 +/- 0.11 and the control group was -1.8 +/- 0.13 at entry. The mean weight Z-score of children after 6 month showed that the children in the Bbl2+ST group had the highest increase in weight which was increased from -1.4 +/- 0.11 to -0.9 +/- 0.12 compared to the Z-score of the Bb12 group which had increased from -1.8 +/- 0.12 to -1.2 +/- 0.13 and in the control group from -1.8 +/- 0.13 to -1.7 +/- 0.25. In terms of the mean height Z-score, the Bb12 group was -2.7 +/- 0.14 to -1.7 +/- 0.16 which was higher than the Bb12+ST group (- 2.2 +/- 0.13 to -1.7 +/- 0.13) but was not different from the control group. However, the mean weight/height Z-score of the Bbl2+ST group had approached the reference standard (Bb12 group -0.1 +/- 0.11 to -0.1 +/- 0.13, Bb12+ST group -0.1 +/- 0.10 to 0.3 +/- 0.17, control group -0.4 +/- 0.12 to -0.1 +/- 0.16). Data showed that children who received the probiotics supplement formula had better growth during the 6 month period. PMID:12549799

  9. 4-1BB ligand signaling to T cells limits T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Eun, So-Young; Lee, Seung-Woo; Xu, Yanfei; Croft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) and its receptor, 4-1BB, are both induced on T cells after activation, but little is known about the role of 4-1BBL. In this study we show that 4-1BBL can transmit signals that limit T cell effector activity under tolerogenic conditions. Cross-linking 4-1BBL inhibited IL-2 production in vitro, primarily with suboptimal TCR stimulation. Furthermore, naive 4-1BBL-deficient OT-II transgenic T cells displayed a greater conversion to effector T cells in vivo when responding to soluble OVA peptide in wild-type hosts, whereas development of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells was not altered. A greater number of effector T cells also differentiated from naive wild-type OT-II T cells when transferred into 4-1BB-deficient hosts, suggesting that APC-derived 4-1BB is likely to trigger 4-1BBL. Indeed, effector T cells that could not express 4-1BBL accumulated in larger numbers in vitro when stimulated with 4-1BB-expressing mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells. 4-1BBL was expressed on T cells when Ag presentation was limiting, and 4-1BBL was aberrantly expressed at very high levels on T cells that could not express 4-1BB. Trans-ligation, Ab capture, and endocytosis experiments additionally showed that T cell-intrinsic 4-1BB regulated internalization of membrane 4-1BBL, implying that the strong induction of 4-1BB on T cells may counteract the suppressive function of 4-1BBL by limiting its availability. These data suggest that 4-1BBL expressed on T cells can restrain effector T cell development, creating a more favorable regulatory T cell to effector cell balance under tolerogenic conditions, and this may be particularly active in mucosal barrier tissues where 4-1BB-expressing regulatory dendritic cells present Ag. PMID:25404362

  10. Structure of BbKI, a disulfide-free plasma kallikrein inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongwen; Hansen, Daiane; Shabalin, Ivan G; Gustchina, Alla; Vieira, Debora F; de Brito, Marlon V; Araújo, Ana Paula U; Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    A serine protease inhibitor from Bauhinia bauhinioides (BbKI) belongs to the Kunitz family of plant inhibitors, which are common in plant seeds. BbKI does not contain any disulfides, unlike most other members of this family. It is a potent inhibitor of plasma kallikrein, in addition to other serine proteases, and thus exhibits antithrombotic activity. A high-resolution crystal structure of recombinantly expressed BbKI was determined (at 1.4 Å resolution) and was compared with the structures of other members of the family. Modeling of a complex of BbKI with plasma kallikrein indicates that changes in the local structure of the reactive loop that includes the specificity-determining Arg64 are necessary in order to explain the tight binding. An R64A mutant of BbKI was found to be a weaker inhibitor of plasma kallikrein, but was much more potent against plasmin, suggesting that this mutant may be useful for preventing the breakup of fibrin and maintaining clot stability, thus preventing excessive bleeding. PMID:26249699

  11. A precise measurement of ΓZ-->bb/ΓZ-->hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau, Lan, Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-09-01

    A measurement of the partial width ratio Γbb/Γhad using a method which tags the Z --> bb decays through the lif etime of the produced heavy hadrons is presented. This method relies on the tracking precision afforded by a double-sided silicon vertex detector. The tag algorithm makes a probabilistic interpretation of three-dimensional track impact parameters, using the data to measure the resolution. By tagging the two b hadrons separately, both Γbb/Γhad and the tag efficiency can be determined from the data. For a 26% efficiency of tagging a single b hadron within the vertex detector solid angle coverage, a purity of 96% is achieved. A value of Γbb/Γhad = 0.2192+/-0.0026(stat.)+/-0.0016(Γcc/ Γhad) is found. Combining this result with other recent ALEPH Γbb/Γhad measurements gives a 95% confidence upper limit on the Standard Model top mass of Mt < 228 GeV. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76ER00881.

  12. Dihydroflavonol BB-1, an extract of natural plant Blumea balsamifera, abrogates TRAIL resistance in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yamada, Yasuaki; Komiyama, Kanki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Masami; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Koyano, Takashi; Kam, Toh-Seok; Murata, Ken; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Masuda, Masato; Takasu, Nobuyuki; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2006-01-15

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in many transformed cells but not in normal cells and, hence, has emerged as a novel anticancer agent. Previously, we showed that although most adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells express the TRAIL death receptor DR4 (TRAIL-R1) or DR5 (TRAIL-R2), they are resistant to TRAIL. Thus, in this study, we tried to find natural products that can overcome TRAIL resistance. Among more than 150 materials screened, a dihydroflavonol that was extracted from Blumea balsamifera (BB-1) exhibited the most striking synergism with TRAIL. Treatment of the TRAIL-resistant ATLL cell line KOB, with a combination of BB-1 and TRAIL, resulted in apparent apoptosis that was not observed on treatment with either agent alone. Furthermore, pretreatment with BB-1 followed by TRAIL further augmented the synergism. BB-1 increased the level of TRAIL-R2 promoter activity and surface protein expression in a p53-independent manner. TRAIL-R2 siRNA inhibited the synergism, indicating that sensitization was caused by the increase of TRAIL-R2 expression. More interestingly, similar effects were observed in other leukemia cell lines by exactly the same mechanisms. These results suggest that combined treatment with BB-1 and TRAIL may be a new strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:16195335

  13. Testis-Specific Bb8 Is Essential in the Development of Spermatid Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Vedelek, Viktor; Laurinyecz, Barbara; Kovács, Attila L.; Juhász, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles of developing spermatids in Drosophila, which undergo dramatic changes in size and shape after meiotic division, where mitochondria localized in the cytoplasm, migrate near the nucleus, aggregate, fuse and create the Nebenkern. During spermatid elongation the two similar mitochondrial derivatives of the Nebenkern start to elongate parallel to the axoneme. One of the elongated mitochondrial derivatives starts to lose volume and becomes the minor mitochondrial derivative, while the other one accumulates paracrystalline and becomes the major mitochondrial derivative. Proteins and intracellular environment that are responsible for cyst elongation and paracrystalline formation in the major mitochondrial derivative need to be identified. In this work we investigate the function of the testis specific big bubble 8 (bb8) gene during spermatogenesis. We show that a Minos element insertion in bb8 gene, a predicted glutamate dehydrogenase, causes recessive male sterility. We demonstrate bb8 mRNA enrichment in spermatids and the mitochondrial localisation of Bb8 protein during spermatogenesis. We report that megamitochondria develop in the homozygous mutant testes, in elongating spermatids. Ultrastructural analysis of the cross section of elongated spermatids shows enlarged mitochondria and the production of paracrystalline in both major and minor mitochondrial derivatives. Our results suggest that the Bb8 protein and presumably glutamate metabolism has a crucial role in the normal development and establishment of the identity of the mitochondrial derivatives during spermatid elongation. PMID:27529784

  14. Late intervention with the small molecule BB3 mitigates postischemic kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Prakash; Duan, Bin; Jiang, Kai; Li, Jingsong; Paka, Latha; Yamin, Michael A; Friedman, Scott L; Weir, Matthew R; Goldberg, Itzhak D

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion-mediated acute kidney injury can necessitate renal replacement therapy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We have identified BB3, a small molecule, which when first administered at 24 h after renal ischemia in rats, improved survival, augmented urine output, and reduced the increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Compared with control kidneys, the kidneys of BB3-treated animals exhibited reduced levels of kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and reduced tubular apoptosis and acute tubular necrosis but enhanced tubular regeneration. Consistent with its hepatocyte growth factor-like mode of action, BB3 treatment promoted phosphorylation of renal cMet and Akt and upregulated renal expression of the survival protein Bcl-2. These data suggest that the kidney is amenable to pharmacotherapy even 24 h after ischemia-reperfusion and that activation of the hepatocyte growth factor signaling pathway with the small molecule BB3 confers interventional benefits late into ischemia-reperfusion injury. These data formed, in part, the basis for the use of BB3 in a clinical trial in kidney recipients presenting with delayed graft function. PMID:27252491

  15. MOST light-curve analysis of the γ Doradus pulsator HR 8799, showing resonances and amplitude variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sódor, Á.; Chené, A.-N.; De Cat, P.; Bognár, Zs.; Wright, D. J.; Marois, C.; Walker, G. A. H.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Rowe, J. F.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The central star of the HR 8799 system is a γ Doradus-type pulsator. The system harbours four planetary-mass companions detected by direct imaging, and is a good solar system analogue. The masses of the companions are not accurately known because the estimation depends greatly on the age of the system, which is also not known with sufficient accuracy. Asteroseismic studies of the star might help to better constrain the age of HR 8799. We organized an extensive photometric and multi-site spectroscopic observing campaign to study the pulsations of the central star. Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the pulsation properties of HR 8799 in detail via the ultra-precise 47 d nearly continuous photometry obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations in STars (MOST) space telescope, and to find as many independent pulsation modes as possible, which is the prerequisite for an asteroseismic age determination. Methods: We carried out Fourier analysis of the wide-band photometric time series. Results: We find that resonance and sudden amplitude changes characterize the pulsation of HR 8799. The dominant frequency is always at f1 = 1.978 d-1.Many multiples of one-ninth of the dominant frequency appear in the Fourier spectrum of the MOST data: n/9 f1, where n = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,13,14,17,18}. Our analysis also reveals that many of these peaks show strong amplitude decrease and phase variations even on the 47 d time scale. The dependencies between the pulsation frequencies of HR 8799 make the planned subsequent asteroseismic analysis rather difficult. We point out some resemblance between the light curve of HR 8799 and the modulated pulsation light curves of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  16. Effect of repeated oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on apomorphine-induced rearing behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Shuzo; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric illness. Disruption of the dopaminergic system has been suggested to be the pathogenic cause of this disease. The effect of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 (BB536) on schizophrenic behavior was investigated in an animal model. Daily administration of BB536 (10(9) CFU/mouse, p.o. for 2 weeks) was found to reduce rearing behavior augmented by the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine and to decrease the resting level of plasma corticosterone and the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan. These results suggest the potential of BB536 for supplemental treatment of the symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:27508116

  17. Gene Silencing of 4-1BB by RNA Interference Inhibits Acute Rejection in Rats with Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yang; Hu, Shuqun; Song, Qingwei; Yu, Shengcai; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yin, Jun; Qin, Lei; Qian, Haixin

    2013-01-01

    The 4-1BB signal pathway plays a key role in organ transplantation tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference (RNAi) on the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. The recombination vector of lentivirus that contains shRNA targeting the 4-1BB gene (LV-sh4-1BB) was constructed. The liver transplantation was performed using the two-cuff technique. Brown-Norway (BN) recipient rats were infected by the recombinant LVs. The results showed that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNAi downregulated the 4-1BB gene expression of the splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the splenic lymphocytes isolated from the rats with liver transplantation. LV-sh4-1BB decreased the plasma levels of liver injury markers including AST, ALT, and BIL and also decreased the level of plasma IL-2 and IFN-γ in recipient rats with liver transplantation. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting 4-1BB gene prolonged the survival time of recipient and alleviated the injury of liver morphology in recipient rats with liver transplantation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference inhibits the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. PMID:23484089

  18. Evaluation of Borrelia burgdorferi BbHtrA Protease as a Vaccine Candidate for Lyme Borreliosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, Amy J.; Russell, Theresa M.; Dolan, Marc C.; Williams, Martin; Hojgaard, Andrias; Weiner, Zachary P.; Johnson, Barbara J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi synthesizes an HtrA protease (BbHtrA) which is a surface-exposed, conserved protein within Lyme disease spirochetes with activity toward CheX and BmpD of Borrelia spp, as well as aggrecan, fibronectin and proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues of vertebrates. An antibody response against BbHtrA is observed in Lyme disease patients and in experimentally infected laboratory mice and rabbits. Given the surface location of BbHtrA on B. burgdorferi and its ability to elicit an antibody response in infected hosts, we explored recombinant BbHtrA as a potential vaccine candidate in a mouse model of tick-transmitted Lyme disease. We immunized mice with two forms of BbHtrA: the proteolytically active native form and BbHtrA ablated of activity by a serine to alanine mutation at amino acid 226 (BbHtrAS226A). Although inoculation with either BbHtrA or BbHtrAS226A produced high-titer antibody responses in C3H/HeJ mice, neither antigen was successful in protecting mice from B. burgdorferi challenge. These results indicate that the search for novel vaccine candidates against Lyme borreliosis remains a challenge. PMID:26076465

  19. 4-1BB Agonists: Multi-Potent Potentiators of Tumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bartkowiak, Todd; Curran, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a rapidly expanding field of oncology aimed at targeting, not the tumor itself, but the immune system combating the cancerous lesion. Of the many approaches currently under study to boost anti-tumor immune responses; modulation of immune co-receptors on lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment has thus far proven to be the most effective. Antibody blockade of the T cell co-inhibitory receptor cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) has become the first FDA approved immune checkpoint blockade; however, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes express a diverse array of additional stimulatory and inhibitory co-receptors, which can be targeted to boost tumor immunity. Among these, the co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB (CD137/TNFSF9) possesses an unequaled capacity for both activation and pro-inflammatory polarization of anti-tumor lymphocytes. While functional studies of 4-1BB have focused on its prominent role in augmenting cytotoxic CD8 T cells, 4-1BB can also modulate the activity of CD4 T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. 4-1BB’s expression on both T cells and antigen presenting cells, coupled with its capacity to promote survival, expansion, and enhanced effector function of activated T cells, has made it an alluring target for tumor immunotherapy. In contrast to immune checkpoint blocking antibodies, 4-1BB agonists can both potentiate anti-tumor and anti-viral immunity, while at the same time ameliorating autoimmune disease. Despite this, 4-1BB agonists can trigger high grade liver inflammation which has slowed their clinical development. In this review, we discuss how the underlying immunobiology of 4-1BB activation suggests the potential for therapeutically synergistic combination strategies in which immune adverse events can be minimized. PMID:26106583

  20. Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol

    PubMed

    Shor; Preskill

    2000-07-10

    We prove that the 1984 protocol of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) for quantum key distribution is secure. We first give a key distribution protocol based on entanglement purification, which can be proven secure using methods from Lo and Chau's proof of security for a similar protocol. We then show that the security of this protocol implies the security of BB84. The entanglement purification based protocol uses Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, and properties of these codes are used to remove the use of quantum computation from the Lo-Chau protocol. PMID:10991303

  1. Simple Proof of Security of the BB84 Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, Peter W.; Preskill, John

    2000-07-10

    We prove that the 1984 protocol of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) for quantum key distribution is secure. We first give a key distribution protocol based on entanglement purification, which can be proven secure using methods from Lo and Chau's proof of security for a similar protocol. We then show that the security of this protocol implies the security of BB84. The entanglement purification based protocol uses Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes, and properties of these codes are used to remove the use of quantum computation from the Lo-Chau protocol. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  2. Spectra and decay rates of bb¯ meson using Gaussian wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Ajay Kumar; Devlani, Nayneshkumar; Kher, Virendrasinh H.

    2015-05-01

    Using the Gaussian wave function mass spectra and decay rates of bb¯ meson are investigated in the framework of phenomenological quark anti-quark potential (coulomb plus power) model consisting of relativistic corrections to the kinetic energy term. The spin-spin, spin-orbit and tensor interactions are employed to obtain the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The decay constants (fP/V) are computed using the wave function at the origin. The di-gamma and di-leptonic decays of the bb¯ meson are investigated using Van-Rayan Weisskopf formula as well as in the NRQCD formalism.

  3. Molecular basis for high affinity and selectivity of peptide antagonist, Bantag-1, for the orphan BB3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Taichi; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Iordanskaia, Tatiana; Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Jensen, R T

    2016-09-01

    Bombesin-receptor-subtype-3 (BB3 receptor) is a G-protein-coupled-orphan-receptor classified in the mammalian Bombesin-family because of high homology to gastrin-releasing peptide (BB2 receptor)/neuromedin-B receptors (BB1 receptor). There is increased interest in BB3 receptor because studies primarily from knockout-mice suggest it plays roles in energy/glucose metabolism, insulin-secretion, as well as motility and tumor-growth. Investigations into its roles in physiological/pathophysiological processes are limited because of lack of selective ligands. Recently, a selective, peptide-antagonist, Bantag-1, was described. However, because BB3 receptor has low-affinity for all natural, Bn-related peptides, little is known of the molecular basis of its high-affinity/selectivity. This was systematically investigated in this study for Bantag-1 using a chimeric-approach making both Bantag-1 loss-/gain-of-affinity-chimeras, by exchanging extracellular (EC) domains of BB3/BB2 receptor, and using site-directed-mutagenesis. Receptors were transiently expressed and affinities determined by binding studies. Bantag-1 had >5000-fold selectivity for BB3 receptor over BB2/BB1 receptors and substitution of the first EC-domain (EC1) in loss-/gain-of affinity-chimeras greatly affected affinity. Mutagenesis of each amino acid difference in EC1 between BB3 receptor/BB2 receptor showed replacement of His(107) in BB3 receptor by Lys(107) (H107K-BB3 receptor-mutant) from BB2 receptor, decreased affinity 60-fold, and three replacements [H107K, E11D, G112R] decreased affinity 500-fold. Mutagenesis in EC1's surrounding transmembrane-regions (TMs) demonstrated TM2 differences were not important, but R127Q in TM3 alone decreased affinity 400-fold. Additional mutants in EC1/TM3 explored the molecular basis for these changes demonstrated in EC1, particularly important is the presence of aromatic-interactions by His(107), rather than hydrogen-bonding or charge-charge interactions, for determining

  4. Dissecting 30 Doradus: Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the starburst cluster NGC2070 from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cignoni, Michele

    2015-08-01

    I will present new results on the star formation history of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). Here the focus is on the starburst cluster NGC2070. The star formation history is derived by comparing the deepest ever optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence (PMS) to post-main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. I will discuss the detailed star formation history, initial mass function and reddening distribution and how these relate to previous studies of this starburst region.

  5. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. III. Photometric Catalog and Resulting Constraints on the Progression of Star Formation in the 30 Doradus Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Zaritsky, D.; De Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Smith, L. J.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Evans, C. J.; Arab, H.; Boyer, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Zeidler, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (˜0.5 M⊙) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color-magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. Interaction of Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb 12) and Salmonella typhimurium in continuous-flow chemostatic culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) was adapted to and maintained in a continuous-flow chemostat culture. We evaluated the growth characteristics and interactive effects of Bb12 and a porcine-derived Salmonella typhimurium (St) when cultivated singly...

  7. The Plant-Derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) Attenuates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Martins-Olivera, Bruno Tadeu; Almeida-Reis, Rafael; Theodoro-Júnior, Osmar Aparecido; Oliva, Leandro Vilela; Neto Dos Santos Nunes, Natalia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Vilela de Brito, Marlon; Prado, Carla Máximo; Leick, Edna Aparecida; Martins, Mílton de Arruda; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Righetti, Renato Fraga; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elastase mediates important oxidative actions during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, few resources for the inhibition of elastase have been investigated. Our study evaluated the ability of the recombinant plant derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) to modulate elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice were given intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group) and were treated intraperitoneally with rBbKI (ELA-rBbKI and SAL-rBbKI groups). At day 28, the following analyses were performed: (I) lung mechanics, (II) exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), (III) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and (IV) lung immunohistochemical staining. Results. In addition to decreasing mechanical alterations and alveolar septum disruption, rBbKI reduced the number of cells in the BALF and decreased the cellular expression of TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, eNOS, and iNOS in airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. rBbKI decreased the volume proportion of 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in the airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. A reduction in the number of MUC-5-positive cells in the airway walls was also observed. Conclusion. rBbKI reduced elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. rBbKI may be a potential pharmacological tool for COPD treatment. PMID:27528793

  8. Interaction of Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) and Salmonella typhimurium in continuous-flow chemostatic culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) was adapted to and maintained in a continuous-flow chemostat culture. We evaluated the growth characteristics and in interactive effects of Bb12 and a porcine-derived Salmonella typhimurium (St) when cultivated si...

  9. The Plant-Derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) Attenuates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Olivera, Bruno Tadeu; Theodoro-Júnior, Osmar Aparecido; Oliva, Leandro Vilela; Neto dos Santos Nunes, Natalia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Vilela de Brito, Marlon; Prado, Carla Máximo; Leick, Edna Aparecida; Martins, Mílton de Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elastase mediates important oxidative actions during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, few resources for the inhibition of elastase have been investigated. Our study evaluated the ability of the recombinant plant derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) to modulate elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice were given intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group) and were treated intraperitoneally with rBbKI (ELA-rBbKI and SAL-rBbKI groups). At day 28, the following analyses were performed: (I) lung mechanics, (II) exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), (III) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and (IV) lung immunohistochemical staining. Results. In addition to decreasing mechanical alterations and alveolar septum disruption, rBbKI reduced the number of cells in the BALF and decreased the cellular expression of TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, eNOS, and iNOS in airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. rBbKI decreased the volume proportion of 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in the airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. A reduction in the number of MUC-5-positive cells in the airway walls was also observed. Conclusion. rBbKI reduced elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. rBbKI may be a potential pharmacological tool for COPD treatment. PMID:27528793

  10. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XI. A census of the hot luminous stars and their feedback in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, E. I.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C. J.; McEvoy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Köhler, K.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.; van Loon, J. Th.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Context. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey has an extensive view of the copious number of massive stars in the 30 Doradus (30 Dor) star forming region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. These stars play a crucial role in our understanding of the stellar feedback in more distant, unresolved star forming regions. Aims: The first comprehensive census of hot luminous stars in 30 Dor is compiled within a 10 arcmin (150 pc) radius of its central cluster, R136. We investigate the stellar content and spectroscopic completeness of the early type stars. Estimates were made for both the integrated ionising luminosity and stellar wind luminosity. These values were used to re-assess the star formation rate (SFR) of the region and determine the ionising photon escape fraction. Methods: Stars were selected photometrically and combined with the latest spectral classifications. Spectral types were estimated for stars lacking spectroscopy and corrections were made for binary systems, where possible. Stellar calibrations were applied to obtain their physical parameters and wind properties. Their integrated properties were then compared to global observations from ultraviolet (UV) to far-infrared (FIR) imaging as well as the population synthesis code, Starburst99. Results: Our census identified 1145 candidate hot luminous stars within 150 pc of R136 of which >700 were considered to be genuine early type stars and contribute to feedback. We assess the survey to be spectroscopically complete to 85% in the outer regions (>5 pc) but only 35% complete in the region of the R136 cluster, giving a total of 500 hot luminous stars in the census which had spectroscopy. Only 31 were found to be Wolf-Rayet (W-R) or Of/WN stars, but their contribution to the integrated ionising luminosity and wind luminosity was ~40% and ~50%, respectively. Similarly, stars with Minit > 100 M⊙ (mostly H-rich WN stars) also showed high contributions to the global feedback, ~25% in both cases. Such massive stars are not

  11. Study of the inner dust envelope and stellar photosphere of the AGB star R Doradus using SPHERE/ZIMPOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouri, T.; Maercker, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Kervella, P.; de Koter, A.; Ginski, C.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; O'Gorman, E.; Schmid, H.-M.; Lombaert, R.; Lagadec, E.

    2016-06-01

    Context. On the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) low- and intermediate-mass stars eject a large fraction of their envelope, but the mechanism driving these outflows is still poorly understood. For oxygen-rich AGB stars, the wind is thought to be driven by radiation pressure caused by scattering of radiation off dust grains. Aims: We study the photosphere, the warm molecular layer, and the inner wind of the close-by oxygen-rich AGB star R Doradus. We focus on investigating the spatial distribution of the dust grains that scatter light and whether these grains can be responsible for driving the outflow of this star. Methods: We use high-angular-resolution images obtained with SPHERE/ZIMPOL to study R Dor and its inner envelope in a novel way. We present observations in filters V, cntHα, and cnt820 and investigate the surface brightness distribution of the star and of the polarised light produced in the inner envelope. Thanks to second-epoch observations in cntHα, we are able to see variability on the stellar photosphere. We study the polarised-light data using a continuum-radiative-transfer code that accounts for direction-dependent scattering of photons off dust grains. Results: We find that in the first epoch the surface brightness of R Dor is asymmetric in V and cntHα, the filters where molecular opacity is stronger, while in cnt820 the surface brightness is closer to being axisymmetric. The second-epoch observations in cntHα show that the morphology of R Dor has changed completely in a timespan of 48 days to a more axisymmetric and compact configuration. This variable morphology is probably linked to changes in the opacity provided by TiO molecules in the extended atmosphere. The observations show polarised light coming from a region around the central star. The inner radius of the region from where polarised light is seen varies only by a small amount with azimuth. The value of the polarised intensity, however, varies by between a factor of 2.3 and 3.7 with

  12. A role for platelet-derived growth factor-BB in rat postpneumonectomy compensatory lung growth.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shizeng; Hannam, Vicky; Belcastro, Rosetta; Cartel, Nicholas; Cabacungan, Judy; Wang, Jinxia; Diambomba, Yenge; Johnstone, Leslie; Post, Martin; Tanswell, A Keith

    2002-07-01

    Unilateral pneumonectomy leads to compensatory growth in the residual lung, the mediators of which are largely unknown. We hypothesized, based on its other known roles in lung cell growth, that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB would be an essential mediator of postpneumonectomy compensatory lung growth. Left-sided pneumonectomies were performed on 21-d-old rats, for comparison with sham-operated or unoperated control animals. Body weights were not different between groups. Right lung weights and DNA content were significantly increased (p < 0.05), compared with controls, by 10 d after pneumonectomy. The rate of DNA synthesis was maximal on d 5 postpneumonectomy. Total right lung PDGF-B mRNA and PDGF-BB protein increased after pneumonectomy, but were apparently tightly regulated, relative to total right lung beta-actin mRNA and protein content, respectively. However, PDGF-BB expression after pneumonectomy was apparently not purely constitutive, in that daily i.p. injections of a truncated soluble PDGF beta-receptor both reduced activation of the native PDGF beta-receptor, and attenuated increased lung DNA synthesis on d 3 after pneumonectomy. These findings are consistent with a critical role for PDGF-BB in postpneumonectomy lung growth. PMID:12084843

  13. Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation.

  14. High temperature blackbody BB2000/40 for calibration of radiation thermometers and thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Ogarev, S. A.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Samoylov, M. L.; Puzanov, A. V.

    2013-09-11

    The cavity-type high temperature blackbody (HTBB) models of BB3200/3500 series are the most spread among metrological institutes worldwide as sources for radiometry and radiation thermometry, due to their ultra high working temperatures, high emissivity and stability. The materials of radiating cavities are graphite, pyrolytic graphite (PG) and their combination. The paper describes BB2000/40 blackbody with graphite-tube cavity that was developed for calibration of radiation thermometers at SCEI (Singapore). The peculiarity of BB2000/40 is a possibility to use it, besides calibration of pyrometers, as an instrument for thermocouples calibration. Operating within the temperature range from 900 °C to 2000 °C, the blackbody has a wide cavity opening of 40 mm. Emissivity of the cavity, with PG heater rings replaced partly by graphite elements, was estimated as 0.998 ± 0.0015 in the spectral range from 350 nm to 2000 nm. The uniformity along the cavity axis, accounting for 10 °C, was measured using a B-type thermocouple at 1500 °C. The BB2000/40, if necessary, can be easily modified, by replacing the graphite radiator with a set of PG rings, to be able to reach temperatures as high as 3200 °C. The HTBB utilizes an optical feedback system which allows temperature stabilization within 0.1 °C. This rear-view feedback allows the whole HTBB aperture to be used for measurements.

  15. A case of a BB-gun pellet injury to the ethmoid sinus in a child.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Shapiro, Nina L

    2004-03-01

    Injuries caused by BB and pellet guns remain common among children. These guns fire low-velocity missiles that can cause considerable harm when fired at close range. Most injuries occur in adolescents as a result of accidental or careless shooting. Such injuries to head and neck sites are common, second only to injuries to the extremities. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl who was accidentally shot by a BB gun. The BB pierced the skin of her right cheek, traversed the right maxillary sinus walls, and lodged at the junction of the right ethmoid sinus and septum. Preoperative radiology combined with endoscopic surgery techniques and instrumentation allowed us to precisely locate and remove the steel ball from the paranasal sinus while the patient was under general anesthesia. We review the scope of maxillofacial injuries caused by BB and pellet guns, and we discuss their presentation, diagnosis, and management. Although these guns are easily bought and sold as toys, they are weapons capable of causing significant injury. PMID:15086012

  16. Two very similar late-type contact systems - BX and BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K.-C.; Zhai, D.; Zhang, Y.

    1985-03-01

    V and B observations of BX and BB Pegasi secured at Beijing Observatory were analyzed with the Wilson and Devinney method. An extensive search for reliable photometric mass ratios was performed. Both systems were found to be in contact with small degrees of overcontact, 10 percent and 12 percent, for BX and BB Peg, respectively. Their mass ratios were, respectively, 2.80 and 2.81. The eclipse at primary minimum was found to be total for both systems. They have the characteristics of W-type W UMa systems. The computed light curves fit the observations very well for BX Peg. The light curves of BB Peg are very complex: there is large asymmetry in the maxima, and significant discrepancy in the differential eclipse depths (Min I and Min II) between the V and B curves. As a result of these complications, the computed light curves do not fit the observations well. Adopted photometric parameters for BX Peg are similar to those obtained by Kaluzny, who used the Rucinski method. It is believed that adopted photometric parameters for BB Peg are more reliable than those obtained by Cerruti-Sola et al.

  17. Measurement Properties of the Smartphone-Based B-B Score in Current Shoulder Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Duc, Cyntia; Gleeson, Nigel; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M.; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline—six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients. PMID:26506355

  18. The salt-sensitive structure and zinc inhibition of Borrelia burgdorferi protease BbHtrA.

    PubMed

    Russell, Theresa M; Tang, Xiaoling; Goldstein, Jason M; Bagarozzi, Dennis; Johnson, Barbara J B

    2016-02-01

    HtrA serine proteases are highly conserved and essential ATP-independent proteases with chaperone activity. Bacteria express a variable number of HtrA homologues that contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of bacterial pathogens. Lyme disease spirochetes possess a single HtrA protease homologue, Borrelia burgdorferi HtrA (BbHtrA). Previous studies established that, like the human orthologue HtrA1, BbHtrA is proteolytically active against numerous extracellular proteins in vitro. In this study, we utilized size exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) to demonstrate BbHtrA oligomeric structures that were substrate independent and salt sensitive. Examination of the influence of transition metals on the activity of BbHtrA revealed that this protease is inhibited by Zn(2+) > Cu(2+) > Mn(2+). Extending this analysis to two other HtrA proteases, E. coli DegP and HtrA1, revealed that all three HtrA proteases were reversibly inhibited by ZnCl2 at all micro molar concentrations examined. Commercial inhibitors for HtrA proteases are not available and physiologic HtrA inhibitors are unknown. Our observation of conserved zinc inhibition of HtrA proteases will facilitate structural and functional studies of additional members of this important class of proteases. PMID:26480895

  19. Kapton wire arc track testing: Per test procedure KWATT BB01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of Kapton wire arc tracking tests performed at NASA-Johnson in 1990 using test procedure KWATT BB01. The tests were performed to gather data for use in assessing the safety of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wiring which is predominantly Kapton insulated.

  20. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yderstraede, K B; Starklint, H; Steinbruchel, D; Jørgensen, T W; Gotfredsen, C F

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes. The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet transplantation, 5 out of 6 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 20.5 days when no insulin was given post-transplantation. Four out of 5 animals became hyperglycaemic after a median of 23 days when supportive insulin therapy was administered after the transplantation. The results indicate that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding. PMID:8401812

  1. Measurement properties of the smartphone-based B-B Score in current shoulder pathologies.

    PubMed

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Duc, Cyntia; Gleeson, Nigel; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline-six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients. PMID:26506355

  2. Basic FGF and PDGF-BB synergistically stimulate hyaluronan and IL-6 production by orbital fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Virakul, Sita; Heutz, Judith W; Dalm, Virgil A S H; Peeters, Robin P; Paridaens, Dion; van den Bosch, Willem A; Hirankarn, Nattiya; van Hagen, P Martin; Dik, Willem A

    2016-09-15

    Orbital fibroblast activation is a central pathologic feature of Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been proposed to contribute to GO, but their effects on orbital fibroblasts are largely unknown. We found that bFGF stimulated proliferation and hyaluronan production, but not IL-6 production by orbital fibroblasts, while VEGF hardly affected orbital fibroblast activity. Remarkably, co-stimulation of orbital fibroblasts with bFGF and PDGF-BB synergistically enhanced IL-6 and hyaluronan production and displayed an additive effect on proliferation compared to either bFGF or PDGF-BB stimulation. Nintedanib, a FGF- and PDGF-receptor targeting drug, more efficiently blocked bFGF + PDGF-BB-induced IL-6 and hyaluronan production than dasatinib that only targets PDGF-receptor. In conclusion, bFGF may contribute to orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling in GO, especially through synergistic interaction with PDGF-BB. Multi-target therapy directed at the bFGF and PDGF pathways may potentially be of interest for the treatment of GO. PMID:27267669

  3. Section BB East Elevation Existing Condition in 2009 and Pre2004 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B East Elevation Existing Condition in 2009 and Pre-2004 Fire, Cast-Iron End Thrust Block, Cast-Iron Thrust Block, Cast-Iron Lateral Shoe - Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #148.81, Formerly spanning Moose Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad, Gorham, Coos County, NH

  4. SN 2009bb: A Peculiar Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignata, Giuliano; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Soderberg, Alicia; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Anderson, J. P.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Folatelli, Gastón; Förster, Francisco; González, Sergio; Hamuy, Mario; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Maza, José; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Levesque, Emily M.; Rest, Armin; Crain, J. Adam; Foster, Andrew C.; Haislip, Joshua B.; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Nysewander, Melissa C.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2011-02-01

    Ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb are presented, following the flux evolution from -10 to +285 days past B-band maximum. Thanks to the very early discovery, it is possible to place tight constraints on the SN explosion epoch. The expansion velocities measured from near maximum spectra are found to be only slightly smaller than those measured from spectra of the prototype broad-lined SN 1998bw associated with GRB 980425. Fitting an analytical model to the pseudobolometric light curve of SN 2009bb suggests that 4.1 ± 1.9 M sun of material was ejected with 0.22 ± 0.06 M sun of it being 56Ni. The resulting kinetic energy is 1.8 ± 0.7 × 1052 erg. This, together with an absolute peak magnitude of M B = -18.36 ± 0.44, places SN 2009bb on the energetic and luminous end of the broad-lined Type Ic (SN Ic) sequence. Detection of helium in the early time optical spectra accompanied with strong radio emission and high metallicity of its environment makes SN 2009bb a peculiar object. Similar to the case for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we find that the bulk explosion parameters of SN 2009bb cannot account for the copious energy coupled to relativistic ejecta, and conclude that another energy reservoir (a central engine) is required to power the radio emission. Nevertheless, the analysis of the SN 2009bb nebular spectrum suggests that the failed GRB detection is not imputable to a large angle between the line-of-sight and the GRB beamed radiation. Therefore, if a GRB was produced during the SN 2009bb explosion, it was below the threshold of the current generation of γ-ray instruments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Programs GS-2009A-Q-17 and GS-2009A-Q-43).

  5. Association of the vitamin D receptor genotype BB with low bone density in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Obermayer-Pietsch, B M; Frühauf, G E; Chararas, K; Mikhail-Reinisch, S; Renner, W; Berghold, A; Kenner, L; Lackner, C

    2000-10-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is modulated by genetic and environmental factors or certain diseases. In several conditions such as low calcium intake, an influence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms on BMD has been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of Bsm I and Fok I polymorphisms of the VDR gene and BMD in patients with hyperthyroidism, a disease that often results in low BMD. Bsm I and Fok I genotypes were determined in 76 postmenopausal hyperthyroid patients and 62 healthy postmenopausal women as controls. Patients and controls were matched for age, time since menopause, and lifestyle factors and were free of estrogen medication. BMD evaluation included axial dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (PQCT). Low BMD was defined as -2.5 STD below the young adult mean value. Biochemical parameters investigated were thyroid hormones, osteocalcin, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D3 as well as routine laboratory data. Low BMD was found in 61% of hyperthyroid patients and in only 23% of euthyroid controls. In the group of hyperthyroid patients with low bone density, the BB genotype (VDR Bsm I polymorphisms) was significantly more frequent (39%) than in controls (13%; p = 0.003) and hyperthyroid patients with normal BMD (6%; p = 0.013). The odds ratio (OR) for low BMD in patients with BB genotype was 5.7 (95% CI, 1.7-19.1; p < 0.005) as compared with the Bb and bb genotypes and 5.5 (95% CI, 2.3-13.2; p < 0.0001) for hyperthyroidism alone. The cumulative risk for low BMD in patients with hyperthyroidism and BB genotype was 31.4 (95% CI, 3.9-256; p < 0.0003). VDR Fok I genotypes showed no significant relationship with BMD or other general or bone-specific parameters. Thus, hyperthyroidism and the genetic background of a BB genotype may promote synergistically the development of low BMD in hyperthyroid patients. Screening for the BB genotype in these patients therefore could help to identify those with

  6. Identification and Functional Characterization of Glycosylation of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mengmeng; Yu, Changming; Fang, Ting; Fu, Ling; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Ren, Jun; Xu, Junjie; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used system for heterologous protein expression. However, post-translational modifications, especially glycosylation, usually impede pharmaceutical application of recombinant proteins because of unexpected alterations in protein structure and function. The aim of this study was to identify glycosylation sites on recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) secreted by P. pastoris, and investigate possible effects of O-linked glycans on PDGF-BB functional activity. PDGF-BB secreted by P. pastoris is very heterogeneous and contains multiple isoforms. We demonstrated that PDGF-BB was O-glycosylated during the secretion process and detected putative O-glycosylation sites using glycosylation staining and immunoblotting. By site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution LC/MS analysis, we, for the first time, identified two threonine residues at the C-terminus as the major O-glycosylation sites on rhPDGF-BB produced in P. pastoris. Although O-glycosylation resulted in heterogeneous protein expression, the removal of glycosylation sites did not affect rhPDGF-BB mitogenic activity. In addition, the unglycosylated PDGF-BBΔGly mutant exhibited the immunogenicity comparable to that of the wild-type form. Furthermore, antiserum against PDGF-BBΔGly also recognized glycosylated PDGF-BB, indicating that protein immunogenicity was unaltered by glycosylation. These findings elucidate the effect of glycosylation on PDGF-BB structure and biological activity, and can potentially contribute to the design and production of homogeneously expressed unglycosylated or human-type glycosylated PDGF-BB in P. pastoris for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26701617

  7. Therapeutic angiogenesis due to balanced single-vector delivery of VEGF and PDGF-BB

    PubMed Central

    Banfi, Andrea; von Degenfeld, Georges; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Reginato, Silvia; Merchant, Milton J.; McDonald, Donald M.; Blau, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis by delivery of vascular growth factors is an attractive strategy for treating debilitating occlusive vascular diseases, yet clinical trials have thus far failed to show efficacy. As a result, limb amputation remains a common outcome for muscle ischemia due to severe atherosclerotic disease, with an overall incidence of 100 per million people in the United States per year. A challenge has been that the angiogenic master regulator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces dysfunctional vessels, if expressed outside of a narrow dosage window. We tested the hypothesis that codelivery of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), which recruits pericytes, could induce normal angiogenesis in skeletal muscle irrespective of VEGF levels. Coexpression of VEGF and PDGF-BB encoded by separate vectors in different cells or in the same cells only partially corrected aberrant angiogenesis. In marked contrast, coexpression of both factors in every cell at a fixed relative level via a single bicistronic vector led to robust, uniformly normal angiogenesis, even when VEGF expression was high and heterogeneous. Notably, in an ischemic hindlimb model, single-vector expression led to efficient growth of collateral arteries, revascularization, increased blood flow, and reduced tissue damage. Furthermore, these results were confirmed in a clinically applicable gene therapy approach by adenoviral-mediated delivery of the bicistronic vector. We conclude that coordinated expression of VEGF and PDGF-BB via a single vector constitutes a novel strategy for harnessing the potency of VEGF to induce safe and efficacious angiogenesis.—Banfi, A., von Degenfeld, G., Gianni-Barrera, R., Reginato, S., Merchant, M. J., McDonald, D. M., Blau, H. M. Therapeutic angiogenesis due to balanced single-vector delivery of VEGF and PDGF-BB. PMID:22391130

  8. Creatine-kinase-BB after severe head-injury as an index of prognosis in relation to nature of trauma and patients age.

    PubMed

    Niedeggen, A; Adelt, D; Berndt, R; Hopf, T

    1989-01-01

    Creatine-Kinase-BB (CK-BB) is a brain specific enzyme, with a prognostic value for the patient's outcome after head-injury. We have investigated 76 brain injured patients and attempted to show a correlation of the concentrations of CK-BB and the Glasgow-Outcome-Scale (GOS). Patients with a CK-BB concentration of more than 50 ng/ml died. Patients, who had a CK-BB concentration less than 25 ng/ml showed only minimal neurological deficits. Intracerebral contusions and acute subdural haematomas showed the highest CK-BB concentration, indicating a high degree of braintissue-damage. CK-BB seems to have no correlation with the age of patients. Normalisation of elevated CK-BB levels do not correlate with recovery from neurological deficit. PMID:2618815

  9. 40 CFR 174.518 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein... Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as...

  10. 40 CFR 174.518 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein... Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as...

  11. 40 CFR 174.518 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein... Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as...

  12. 40 CFR 174.518 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein... Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as...

  13. PDGF-BB secreted by preosteoclasts induces CD31hiEmcnhi vessel subtype in coupling osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Cui, Zhuang; Wang, Long; Xia, Zhuying; Hu, Yin; Xian, Lingling; Li, Changjun; Xie, Liang; Crane, Janet; Wan, Mei; Zhen, Gehua; Bian, Qin; Yu, Bin; Chang, Weizhong; Qiu, Tao; Pickarski, Maureen; Duong, Le Thi; Windle, Jolene J.; Luo, Xianghang; Liao, Eryuan; Cao, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis during bone modeling and remodeling is coupled with angiogenesis. A recent study shows that the specific vessel subtype, strongly positive for CD31 and Endomucin (CD31hiEmcnhi), couples angiogenesis and osteogenesis. We found that preosteoclasts secrete platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), inducing CD31hiEmcnhi vessels during bone modeling and remodeling. Mice with depletion of PDGF-BB in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive (TRAP+) cell lineage (Pdgfb–/–) show significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone mass, serum and bone marrow PDGF-BB concentrations, and CD31hiEmcnhi vessels compared to wild-type mice. In the ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic mouse model, concentrations of serum and bone marrow PDGF-BB and CD31hiEmcnhi vessels are significantly decreased. Inhibition of cathepsin K (CTSK) increases preosteoclast numbers, resulting in higher levels of PDGF-BB to stimulate CD31hiEmcnhi vessels and bone formation in OVX mice. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase PDGF-BB secretion from preosteoclasts offer a novel therapeutic target for osteoporosis to promote angiogenesis for bone formation. PMID:25282358

  14. Greenhouse-Selected Resistance to Cry3Bb1-Producing Corn in Three Western Corn Rootworm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meihls, Lisa N.; Higdon, Matthew L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Hibbard, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  15. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    PubMed

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  16. Inhibitory mechanism of tranilast in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation, due to blockade of PDGF-BB-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinji; Matsuda, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ikeda, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Hisakuni; Umemura, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported that tranilast, an anti-allergic drug, prevented the experimental intimal thickening in the rat and mouse femoral arteries and its effect may be exerted through the inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, its inhibitory mechanism has yet to be understood. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of tranilast on platelet-derived growth factor BB-homodimer (PDGF-BB) mediated signal transduction pathways in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). Growth responses to PDGF-BB were measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation or cell counting. Activation of DNA synthesis and augmentation of cell proliferation stimulated by PDGF-BB in quiescent cultures of CASMCs were inhibited by tranilast in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of lysates from CASMCs with an anti-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase antibody revealed that tranilast (10–300 μM) inhibited MAP kinase activation by PDGF-BB in a concentration-dependent manner. Tranilast also reduced PDGF-BB-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of a 180 kDa band, corresponding in mass to the PDGF β-receptor, as shown by immunoblots using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Receptor-binding study with [125I]-PDGF-BB on CASMCs showed that tranilast (10–1000 μM) inhibited the specific binding of PDGF-BB to cell surface receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis revealed that pretreatment with 300 μM tranilast decreased the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) from 27.6 to 18.0 fmol 106 cells−1 without affecting binding affinity (Kd≈0.15 nM), indicating a non-competitive inhibition of the receptor binding. These results suggest that the suppression of human CASMC growth by tranilast might be at least partly due to blockade of PDGF-BB-receptor binding. PMID:10807667

  17. Classification of robust heteroclinic cycles for vector fields in {\\protect\\bb R}^3 with symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawker, David; Ashwin, Peter

    2005-09-01

    We consider a classification of robust heteroclinic cycles in the positive octant of {\\bb R}^3 under the action of the symmetry group {{\\bb Z}_2}^3 . We introduce a coding system to represent different classes up to a topological equivalence, and produce a characterization of all types of robust heteroclinic cycle that can arise in this situation. These cycles may or may not contain the origin within the cycle. We proceed to find a connection between our problem and meandric numbers. We find a direct correlation between the number of classes of robust heteroclinic cycle that do not include the origin and the 'Mercedes-Benz' sequence of integers characterizing meanders through a 'Y-shaped' configuration. We investigate upper and lower bounds for the number of classes possible for robust cycles between n equilibria, one of which may be the origin.

  18. Development of a BB-2590/U rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzkow, Marc

    PolyStor has teamed with Hawker Eternacell (US) to develop a BB-2590/U rechargeable lithium-ion battery under contract with the US Army CECOM (Ft. Monmouth, NJ, USA). The concept involves using commercially available ICR-18650 cylindrical lithium-ion cells. The individual cells have a high specific energy of 135 Wh kg -1 and an energy density of 335 Wh dm -3. Electronic circuitry was developed to provide pack protection, charge equalization and battery management (fuel gauging). PolyStor's rechargeable BB-2590/U battery provides 4.5 Ah at 28 V nominal or 9.0 Ah at 14 V nominal, translating into 108 Wh kg -1 and 150 Wh dm -3. The key developments are discussed in this paper.

  19. Ball Bearing (BB) Guns, Ease of Purchase and Potential for Significant Injury

    PubMed Central

    Grocock, C; McCarthy, R; Williams, DJ

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ball bearing guns are used in the UK for war games, but they have the potential to cause severe injury if used incorrectly. MATERIALS AND METHODS A search was made for availability of these weapons, the ease of purchase and the potential for tissue damage. RESULTS These weapons are widely available on the Internet and are easy to purchase with no security checks. Once fully charged, an electric BB gun is capable of penetrating a cadaveric animal model at distances up to 5 m (1 m = 25 mm penetration, 3 m = 20 mm penetration, 5 m = 15 mm penetration). CONCLUSIONS BB guns are not toys and have a significant potential to cause injury. PMID:16834864

  20. Key rate for calibration robust entanglement based BB84 quantum key distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gittsovich, O.; Moroder, T.

    2014-12-04

    We apply the approach of verifying entanglement, which is based on the sole knowledge of the dimension of the underlying physical system to the entanglement based version of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol. We show that the familiar one-way key rate formula holds already if one assumes the assumption that one of the parties is measuring a qubit and no further assumptions about the measurement are needed.

  1. Robust nanoplasmonic substrates for aptamer macroarrays with single-step detection of PDGF-BB.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Yang, Rui Xiang; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Wei; Miao, Zhao Yi; Hu, Yue; Chen, Jun; Yu, Sheng; Wang, Juan; Xu, Chen Yang

    2016-11-15

    An aptamer macroarray on a robust nanoplasmonic substrate with fluorescence enhancement is developed for a single-step sensitive detection of human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a predominant cancer biomarker in cancer angiogenesis. A hybrid Au-nanoparticles-poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as nanoplasmonic substrate is prepared via the in-situ reduction of AuCl4(-) ions in PDMS matrixes onto 96 or 384 well plates. In the absence of target molecules, unfolded PDGF-BB aptamer conjugated with dye TAMRA is electrostatically bound to a positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated Au nanocomposites film surface, and the fluorescence enhancement effects can be optimized by varying the distance between TAMRA and the Au nanocomposites film, which is easily adjusted by varying the thickness of the biocompatible poly-(acrylic acid) (PAA/PLL) multilayers, and thus metal-enhanced fluorescence of dye TAMRA conjugated with the aptamer is generated up to 15.2-fold. The interaction of the aptamer to its target induces the reversible conformation change of the aptamer, and consequently, the electrostatic potential is overcome by binding force. As a result, the target-binding interaction of the aptamer causes the irreversible detachment of the aptamer from the nanostructured Au film surface to decrease fluorescence of TAMRA. The aptamer macroarray provides not only the appropriate sensitivity for clinical diagnostics with a wide range of linear detection from 10pg/mL to 10μg/mL, high specificity for PDGF-BB against VEGF-165, VEGF-121, NaCl and IgG, and temporal biological stability, but also a single-step detection. We envision that the efficient and robust aptamer macroarray can be extended to the detection of other biomarkers. PMID:27208474

  2. Implications of final L3 measurement of {sigma}{sub tot}({gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb)

    SciTech Connect

    Chyla, Jiri

    2006-02-01

    The excess of data on the total cross section of bb production in {gamma}{gamma} collisions over QCD predictions, observed by L3, OPAL and DELPHI Collaborations at LEP2, has so far defied explanation. The recent final analysis of L3 data has brought important new information concerning the dependence of the observed excess on the {gamma}{gamma} collisions energy W{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}. The implications of this dependence are discussed.

  3. "13 BB star" - broadband seismic array at the edge of East European Craton in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Suchcicki, Jerzy; Arant, Tadeusz

    2014-05-01

    "13 BB star" is a dense array of 13 Reftek 151-120 broadband seismometers located in unpopulated forests in northern Poland - just on the edge of East European Craton. The shape of array was designed as a "star" with one central station and 12 station located on two circles (radius of about 30 and 60 km) around it. This geometry allows us to study seismic waves (in particular surface waves) incoming from all azimuths. Our "13 BB star" array stations are self powered (solar panels and batteries), equipped with local storage system and on-line transmission of seismic and auxiliary data using 2G and 3G cellular network. We also developed on-line application for monitoring array status (transmission, connections, power, temperature, etc.) and on-line data visualization. Main advantages of our array are: 1) 120s broadband seismometers recording with 100Hz sampling, 2) density of array - distances between neighboring stations does not exceed 30 km, 3) station placement in underground wells, 4) stations located in forests far (usually 2-3 km) from industries, roads, villages and other human activity. "13 BB star" started operating in July 2013 and since that time recorded several local, regional, and teleseismic events proving good array functionality. The scientific aim of the "13 BB star" project is development of a quantitative model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere-structure in the marginal zone of the East European Craton in northern Poland. New acquired data will be analyzed using integrated seismic methods, which will yield images of lithosphere-asthenosphere system hitherto unknown for this area. The knowledge of detailed structure of the cratonic lithosphere-asthenosphere system is crucial for the better understanding of the regional, as well as global mantle dynamics and evolution of the Earth's interior. This work was supported by NCN-grant DEC 2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  4. Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; Kim, Seong H

    2016-01-14

    A broadband sum frequency generation (BB-SFG) spectrometer with multimodal (MM) capabilities was constructed, which could be routinely reconfigured for tabletop experiments in reflection, transmission, and total internal reflection (TIR) geometries, as well as microscopic imaging. The system was constructed using a Ti:sapphire amplifier (800 nm, pulse width = 85 fs, repetition rate = 2 kHz), an optical parameter amplification (OPA) system for production of broadband IR pulses tunable between 1000 and 4000 cm(-1), and two Fabry-Pérot etalons arranged in series for production of narrowband 800 nm pulses. The key feature allowing the MM operation was the nearly collinear alignment of the visible (fixed, 800 nm) and infrared (tunable, 1000-4000 cm(-1)) pulses which were spatially separated. Physical insights discussed in this paper include the comparison of spectral bandwidth produced with 40 and 85 fs pump beams, the improvement of spectral resolution using etalons, the SFG probe volume in bulk analysis, the normalization of SFG signals, the stitching of multiple spectral segments, and the operation in different modes for air/liquid and adsorbate/solid interfaces, bulk samples, as well as spectral imaging combined with principle component analysis (PCA). The SFG spectral features obtained with the MM-BB-SFG system were compared with those obtained with picosecond-scanning-SFG system and high-resolution BB-SFG system (HR-BB-SFG) for dimethyl sulfoxide, α-pinene, and various samples containing cellulose (purified commercial products, Cladophora cell wall, cotton and flax fibers, and onion epidermis cell wall). PMID:26718642

  5. Abrogation of apoptosis through PDGF-BB-induced sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Cartel, Nicholas J; Post, Martin

    2005-02-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis/secretion in fetal lung fibroblasts is dependent on sequential activation of the PDGF beta-receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the serine/threonine kinase Akt-1,2, and the GTPase Rab3D. Because the Akt pathway has been implicated in cell survival mechanisms, we investigated whether the pathway regulating GAG synthesis/secretion was antiapoptotic. PDGF-BB treatment protected fetal lung fibroblasts against serum starvation-induced apoptosis, whereas wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, abrogated this protective effect. Transfection of constitutively active Akt into fetal lung fibroblasts also safeguarded the cells from apoptosis induced by serum starvation. To determine whether the antiapoptotic response was due, at least in part, to GAGs, we treated lung fibroblasts with beta-D-xyloside as well as with topically applied GAGs, specifically those produced by fetal lung fibroblasts. beta-D-xyloside increased GAG synthesis/secretion and diminished apoptosis. Application of sulfated GAGs, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate, but not nonsulfated hyaluronan, also resulted in diminished apoptosis. Moreover, topically applied sulfated GAGs increased Bcl-associated death promoter phosphorylation and diminished caspase-3 and -7 cleavage, indicating an antiapototic response. These data are compatible with the PDGF-BB-GAG signaling pathway regulating programmed fibroblast death in the fetal lung. PMID:15466249

  6. Depressed glucose utilization in lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uhal, B.D.; Moxley, M.A.; Longmore, W.J.

    1986-03-05

    Lungs of BB wistar spontaneously diabetic rats were perfused with (/sup 14/C(U))glucose in modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 1.5 hours. Lungs from non-diabetic BB Wistar rats were perfused simultaneously and served as controls. The perfusions were terminated by rapid freezing of the tissue in liquid N/sub 2/ followed by separation of surfactant and residual lung fractions. The rates of glucose incorporation into surfactant DSPC, PG, and PE were decreased 4.7, 2.4 and 2.5-fold, respectively, in lungs of spontaneously diabetic rats when expressed as final product specific activities. The rate of glucose incorporation into residual PC was also reduced by 2.3-fold. Expressed as moles incorporated per gram wet weight of lung, incorporations into surfactant DSPC, PG and residual PC were also reduced by 4.1, 6.3 and 3.8-fold respectively. These data; (1) agree with previous studies of the lungs of streptozotocin and alloxan-diabetic rats; (2) show that the depressed glucose utilization for lipid synthesis observed previously is not due to streptozotocin or alloxan toxicity; (3) suggest that the BB Wistar rat will provide a useful model for the study of the effects of insulin-dependent diabetes on lung metabolism.

  7. Osteoclasts Control Osteoblast Chemotaxis via PDGF-BB/PDGF Receptor Beta Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Maria Arantzazu; Gallois, Anne; Riedl, Thilo; Jurdic, Pierre; Hoflack, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background Bone remodeling relies on the tightly regulated interplay between bone forming osteoblasts and bone digesting osteoclasts. Several studies have now described the molecular mechanisms by which osteoblasts control osteoclastogenesis and bone degradation. It is currently unclear whether osteoclasts can influence bone rebuilding. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vitro cell systems, we show here that mature osteoclasts, but not their precursors, secrete chemotactic factors recognized by both mature osteoblasts and their precursors. Several growth factors whose expression is upregulated during osteoclastogenesis were identified by DNA microarrays as candidates mediating osteoblast chemotaxis. Our subsequent functional analyses demonstrate that mature osteoclasts, whose platelet-derived growth factor bb (PDGF-bb) expression is reduced by siRNAs, exhibit a reduced capability of attracting osteoblasts. Conversely, osteoblasts whose platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β) expression is reduced by siRNAs exhibit a lower capability of responding to chemotactic factors secreted by osteoclasts. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that, in vitro mature osteoclasts control osteoblast chemotaxis via PDGF-bb/PDGFR-β signaling. This may provide one key mechanism by which osteoclasts control bone formation in vivo. PMID:18953417

  8. Immune Regulation and Control of Regulatory T cells by OX40 and 4-1BB

    PubMed Central

    So, Takanori; Lee, Seung-Woo; Croft, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The TNFR family members OX40 (CD134) and 4-1BB (CD137) have been found to play major roles as costimulatory receptors for both CD4 and CD8 T cells. In particular, in many situations, they can control proliferation, survival, and cytokine production, and hence are thought to dictate accumulation of protective T cells during anti-viral and anti-tumor responses and pathogenic T cells during autoimmune reactions. As opposed to simply controlling the activity of naïve, effector, and memory T cells, recent data have suggested that both molecules are also instrumental in controlling the generation and activity of so-called regulatory or suppressor T cells (Treg), perhaps in both positive and negative manners. Part of the action on Treg might function to further promote protective or pathogenic T cells, but alternate activities of OX40 and 4-1BB on Treg are also being described that suggest there might be control by these molecules at multiple levels that will alter the biological outcome when these receptors are ligated. This review specifically focuses on recent studies of regulatory T cells, and regulatory or suppressive activity, that are modulated by OX40 or 4-1BB. PMID:18508403

  9. Inclusive b and bb¯ production with quasi-multi-Regge kinematics at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniehl, B. A.; Saleev, V. A.; Shipilova, A. V.

    2010-05-01

    We consider b-jet hadroproduction in the quasi-multi-Regge-kinematics approach based on the hypothesis of gluon and quark Reggeization in t-channel exchanges at high energies. The preliminary data on inclusive b-jet and bb¯-dijet production taken by the CDF Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron are well described without adjusting parameters. We find the main contribution to inclusive b-jet production to be the scattering of a Reggeized gluon and a Reggeized b quark to a b quark, which is described by the effective Reggeon-Reggeon-quark vertex. The main contribution to bb¯-pair production arises from the scattering of two Reggeized gluons to a bb¯ pair, which is described by the effective Reggeon-Reggeon-quark-quark vertex. Our analysis is based on the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription for unintegrated gluon and quark distribution functions using as input the Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne collinear parton distribution functions of the proton.

  10. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-α, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFRβ is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways. PMID:25857968

  11. Thwarting the Photon Number Splitting Attack with Entanglement Enhanced BB84 Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris; Sabottke, Carl; Yurtsever, Ulvi; Lamas, Antia; Dowling, Jonathan; Anisimov, Petr

    2012-02-01

    We develop an improvement to the weak laser pulse BB84 scheme for quantum key distribution, which utilizes entanglement to improve the security of the scheme and enhance its resilience to the photon number splitting attack. This protocol relies on the non-commutation of photon phase and number to detect an eavesdropper performing quantum non-demolition measurement on number. The potential advantages and disadvantages of this scheme are compared to the coherent decoy state solution. Most entanglement based quantum key distribution schemes rely on violations of Bell's inequalities to ensure security. However, this is not the strategy that our entanglement enhanced (EE) BB84 employs here. Instead, we detect Eve by introducing an entangled quantum state into the system that is sensitive to Eve's QND measurements. This allows for a recovery of an approximately linear dependence on transmittivity for the key rate. EE BB84 shares this advantage with coherent decoy state protocols as well as schemes that utilize strong phase reference pulses to eliminate Eve's ability to send Bob vacuum signals.

  12. Assessment of fitness costs in Cry3Bb1 resistant and susceptible western corn rootworm (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) laboratory colonies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maize production in the United States is dominated by plants genetically modified with transgenes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Varieties of Bt maize expressing Cry3Bb endotoxins that specifically target corn rootworms (genus Diabrotica) have proven highly efficacious. Howeve...

  13. Tissue repair processes in healing chronic pressure ulcers treated with recombinant platelet-derived growth factor BB.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Allman, R. M.; Goode, P. S.; Serdar, C. M.; Morris, B.; Mustoe, T. A.; Vande Berg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the observed vulnerary effects of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rP-DGF-BB) in man have not been elucidated. In a double-blinded trial, patients having chronic pressure ulcers were treated topically with either rPDGF-BB or placebo for 28 days. To explore how rPDGF-BB may induce chronic wounds to heal, biopsies were taken from the ulcers of a cohort of 20 patients from the trial and evaluated in a blinded fashion by light microscopy for 1), fibroblast content, 2) neovessel formation, and 3), collagen deposition. Electron microscopy also was used to assess fibroblast activation and collagen deposition. Before initiation of therapy most wounds had few fibroblasts and most of those present were not activated. When mean scores for the total active treatment phase (days 8, 15, and 29) for rPDGF-BB-treated ulcers were compared with the scores for placebo-treated ulcers, fibroblast content was significantly higher for the rPDGF-BB-treated ulcers (P = 0.03, Kruskal-Wallis test). More significant differences in fibroblast and neovessel content were observed when six nonhealing wounds were eliminated from the analysis (three placebo, three treatment). Thus, in all healing wounds, rPDGF-BB therapy significantly increased fibroblast (P = 0.0007) and neovessel (P = 0.02) content. These results were correlated with increased collagen fibrillogenesis by fibroblasts from healing rPDGF-BB-treated wounds, as assessed by intracellular procollagen type I immunostaining, and by electron microscopy, and were concordant with clinical measurements (eg, area of ulcer opening and ulcer volume) which showed greater healing in rPDGF-BB-treated wounds. These results suggest induction of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation is one mechanism by which rPDGF-BB can accelerate wound healing and that rPDGF-BB can augment healing responses within a majority of, but not all, nonhealing chronic pressure ulcers in man. Images

  14. Iptakalim inhibits PDGF-BB-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenrui; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zailiang; Yan, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Weiping Wang, Hong

    2015-08-15

    Chronic airway diseases are characterized by airway remodeling which is attributed partly to the proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels have been identified in ASMCs. Mount evidence has suggested that K{sub ATP} channel openers can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and alleviate airway remodeling. Opening K{sup +} channels triggers K{sup +} efflux, which leading to membrane hyperpolarization, preventing Ca{sup 2+}entry through closing voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is the most important regulator of muscle contraction, cell proliferation and migration. K{sup +} efflux decreases Ca{sup 2+} influx, which consequently influences ASMCs proliferation and migration. As a K{sub ATP} channel opener, iptakalim (Ipt) has been reported to restrain the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) involved in vascular remodeling, while little is known about its impact on ASMCs. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Ipt on human ASMCs and the mechanisms underlying. Results obtained from cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation showed that Ipt significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation. ASMCs migration induced by PDGF-BB was also suppressed by Ipt in transwell migration and scratch assay. Besides, the phosphorylation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) were as well alleviated by Ipt administration. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of Ipt on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration in human ASMCs was blocked by glibenclamide (Gli), a selective K{sub ATP} channel antagonist. These findings provide a strong evidence to support that Ipt

  15. 1993/03 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03). Methodology Report. NCES 2006-166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Cominole, Melissa B.; Wheeless, Sara; Dudley, Kristin; Franklin, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the B&B:93/03 study. Students who earned a bachelor's degree in 1992-93 were first interviewed in 1993 and then subsequently in 1994 and 1997. This is the final follow-up interview of the B&B:93 cohort, 10 years following completion of the bachelor's degree. The…

  16. PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) is independent of PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cartel, N J; Liu, J; Wang, J; Post, M

    2001-10-01

    Herein, we investigated the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a key component of downstream signaling events, which is activated subsequent to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation. Specifically, p42(MAPK) activity peaked 60 min after addition of PDGF-BB, declined thereafter, and was determined not to be a direct or necessary component of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. PDGF-BB also activated MAPK kinase 2 (MAPKK2) but had no effect on MAPKK1 and Raf-1 activity. Chemical inhibition of Janus kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src kinase, or tyrosine phosphorylation inhibition of the PDGF beta-receptor (PDGFR-beta) did not abrogate PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation or its threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. A dominant negative cytoplasmic receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility variant 4 (RHAMMv4), a regulator of MAPKK-MAPK interaction and activation, did not inhibit PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation nor did a construct expressing PDGFR-beta with cytoplasmic tyrosines mutated to phenylalanine. However, overexpression of a dominant negative PDGFR-beta lacking the cytoplasmic signaling domain abrogated p42(MAPK) activity. These results suggest that PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) requires the PDGFR-beta but is independent of its tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:11557582

  17. Thrombin-linked aptamer assay for detection of platelet derived growth factor BB on magnetic beads in a sandwich format.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limin; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Here we describe a thrombin-linked aptamer assay (TLAA) for protein by using thrombin as an enzyme label, harnessing enzyme activity of thrombin and aptamer affinity binding. TLAA converts detection of specific target proteins to the detection of thrombin by using a DNA sequence that consists of two aptamers with the first aptamer binding to the specific target protein and the second aptamer binding to thrombin. Through the affinity binding, the thrombin enzyme is labeled on the protein target, and thrombin catalyzes the hydrolysis of small peptide substrate into product, generating signals for quantification. As a proof of principle, we show a sandwich TLAA for platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) by using anti-PDGF-BB antibody coated on magnetic beads and an oligonucleotide containing the aptamer for PDGF-BB and the aptamer for thrombin. The binding of PDGF-BB to both the antibody and the aptamer results in labeling the complex with thrombin. We achieved detection of PDGF-BB at 16 pM. This TLAA contributes a new application of thrombin and its aptamer in bioanalysis, and shows potentials in assay developments. PMID:27343590

  18. Identification and functional analysis of a novel mitochondria-localized 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, BbTPx-2, from Babesia bovis.

    PubMed

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Asada, Masahito; Hakimi, Hassan; Hayashi, Kei; Yamagishi, Junya; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine-based peroxidases, known as peroxiredoxins (Prx) or thioredoxin peroxidases (TPx), are important antioxidant enzymes that prevent oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we identified a novel mitochondrial 2-Cys Prx, BbTPx-2, from a bovine Babesia parasite, B. bovis. BbTPx-2 complementary DNA (cDNA) encodes a polypeptide of 254 amino acid residues. This protein has a mitochondrial targeting peptide at the N-terminus and two conserved cysteine residues of the typical 2-Cys Prx. By using a thiol mixed-function oxidation assay, the antioxidant activity of recombinant BbTPx-2 was revealed, and its antioxidant activity was comparable to that of a cytosolic 2-Cys Prx from B. bovis, BbTPx-1. Notably, we confirmed that BbTPx-2 was expressed in the mitochondrion of B. bovis merozoites. Taken together, the results suggest that the mitochondrial BbTPx-2 is an antioxidative enzyme for scavenging ROS in B. bovis. PMID:27095567

  19. Structural and functional analysis of BB0689 from Borrelia burgdorferi, a member of the bacterial CAP superfamily.

    PubMed

    Brangulis, Kalvis; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Petrovskis, Ivars; Akopjana, Inara; Kazaks, Andris; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-12-01

    Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease and is transmitted from infected Ixodes ticks to a mammalian host after a tick bite. The outer surface protein BB0689 from B. burgdorferi is up-regulated when the tick feeds, which indicates a potential role for BB0689 in Lyme disease pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of BB0689, which revealed that the protein belongs to the CAP superfamily. Though the CAP domain is widespread in all three cellular domains of life, thus far the CAP domain has been studied only in eukaryotes, in which it is usually linked to certain other domains to form a multi-domain protein and is associated with the mammalian reproductive tract, the plant response to pathogens, venom allergens from insects and reptiles, and the growth of human brain tumors. Though the exact function of the isolated CAP domain remains ambiguous, several functions, including the binding of cholesterol, lipids and heparan sulfate, have been recently attributed to different CAP domain proteins. In this study, the bacterial CAP domain structure was analyzed and compared with the previously solved crystal structures of representative CAPs, and the function of BB0689 was examined. To determine the potential function of BB0689 and ascertain whether the functions that have been attributed to the CAP domain proteins are conserved, the binding of previously reported CAP domain interaction partners was analyzed, and the results suggested that BB0689 has a unique function that is yet to be discovered. PMID:26407658

  20. Inheritance and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Ingber, David A; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage pest insects. One of the primary pests targeted by Bt corn in the United States is western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Cry3Bb1 corn for management of western corn rootworm was commercialized in 2003, and beginning in 2009, populations of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn were found in Iowa. Here we quantify the magnitude, inheritance, and fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in two strains (Hopkinton and Cresco) derived from field populations that evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. For Hopkinton, we found evidence for complete resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn and nonrecessive inheritance. Additionally, no fitness costs of Cry3Bb1 resistance were detected for Hopkinton. For Cresco, resistance was incomplete and recessive, and we detected fitness costs affecting developmental rate, survival to adulthood, and fecundity. These results suggest that variation may exist among field populations in both the inheritance and accompanying fitness costs of resistance. To the extent that field populations exhibit nonrecessive inheritance and a lack of fitness cost, this will favor more rapid evolution of resistance than would be expected when resistance is functionally recessive and is accompanied by fitness costs. PMID:26453731

  1. Broad Balmer Wings in BA Hyper/Supergiants Distorted by Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Five Examples in the 30 Doradus Region from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Evans, Christopher J.; Taylor, William D.; Sabbi, Elena; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús; Sota, Alfredo; Dufton, Philip L.; McEvoy, Catherine M.; Clark, J. Simon; Markova, Nevena; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.

  2. Widely Extended [O III] 88μm Line Emission around the 30 Doradus Region Revealed with AKARI FIS-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Mitsunobu; Takahashi, Ai; Yasuda, Akiko; Kiriyama, Yuichi; Mori, Tatsuya; Mouri, Akio; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Okada, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Murakami, Noriko

    2011-08-01

    We present a distribution map of the far-infrared [O II] 88 μm line emission around the 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region in the Large Magellanic Cloud obtained with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the Far-Infrared Surveyor on board AKARI. The map reveals that the [O III] emission is widely distributed by more than 10' around the super star cluster R 136, implying that the 30 Dor region is affluent with interstellar radiation field that is hard enough to ionize O2+. The observed [O III] line intensities are as high as (1-2) × 10-6 W m-2 sr-1 on the peripheral regions 4'-5' away from the center of 30 Dor, which requires gas densities of 60-100 cm-3. However, the observed size of the distribution of the [O III] emission is too large to be explained by massive stars in the 30 Dor region enshrouded by clouds with a constant gas density of 102 cm-3. Therefore, the surrounding structure is likely to be highly clumpy. We also find a global correlation between the [O III] and the far-infrared continuum emission, suggesting that the gas and dust are well mixed in the highly ionized region where the dust survives in clumpy dense clouds shielded from energetic photons.

  3. Kepler observations of A-F pre-main-sequence stars in Upper Scorpius: discovery of six new δ Scuti and one γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepi, V.; Balona, L.; Catanzaro, G.; Marconi, M.; Palla, F.; Giarrusso, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present light curves and periodograms for 27 stars in the young Upper Scorpius association (age = 11 ± 1 Myr) obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. This association is only the second stellar grouping to host several pulsating pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars which have been observed from space. From an analysis of the periodograms, we identify six δ Scuti variables and one γ Doradus star. These are most likely PMS stars or else very close to the zero-age main sequence. Four of the δ Scuti variables were observed in short-cadence mode, which allows us to resolve the entire frequency spectrum. For these four stars, we are able to infer some qualitative information concerning their ages. For the remaining two δ Scuti stars, only long-cadence data are available, which means that some of the frequencies are likely to be aliases. One of the stars appears to be a rotational variable in a hierarchical triple system. This is a particularly important object, as it allows the possibility of an accurate mass determination when radial velocity observations become available. We also report on new high-resolution echelle spectra obtained for some of the stars of our sample.

  4. Anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies attenuate concanavalin A-induced immune-mediated liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Guangtao; Wu, Sensen; Zhang, Yuanchao

    2016-01-01

    Effective therapies for the treatment of immune-mediated liver disease are currently lacking. As a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, 4-1BB has a key role in T-cell activation and has been implicated in the development of autoimmune disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic or preventive function of an anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a mouse model of concanavalin (Con) A-induced immune-mediated liver injury. A mouse model of immune-mediated liver injury was established by tail vein injection of Con A (20 mg/kg). 4-1BB mAb (100 µg), with or without methylprednisolone (MEP; 3 mg/kg), was intraperitoneally injected into the tail vein 2 h prior to or 2 h following Con A injection. Con A induced marked hepatocyte necrosis, significantly reduced CD 4+/CD25+ T-cell levels, and increased the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), in addition to the percentage of 4-1BB+ T-cells, compared with the control (all P<0.05). The administration of 4-1BB mAb prior to or following Con A injection was able to attenuate Con A-induced liver tissue damage and significantly reduce serum AST and ALT levels (P<0.05). A combination of MEP and 4-1BB mAb further reduced serum AST and ALT levels, compared with either treatment alone. In addition, administration of 4-1BB mAb and MEP alone or in combination significantly increased CD4+/CD25+ T-cell levels, compared with the control (P<0.05). These results suggested that 4-1BB mAb was able to attenuate liver injury and preserve liver function in a mouse model of Con A-induced immune-mediated liver injury by promoting the expansion of CD4+/CD25+ T-cells. Furthermore, a combination of 4-1BB mAb with MEP was associated with greater beneficial effects than either treatment alone. The clinical significance of 4-1BB mAb in immune-mediated liver disease remains to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:27588047

  5. [Studies on the iodide metabolism and the expression of thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase mRNA in the thyroid of BB/W rats].

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, N

    1991-10-20

    BioBreeding/Worcester (BB/W) rats develop insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) spontaneously. Our previous studies have shown that BB/W (Saitama-Tokyo colony) rats develop LT at about 10 weeks of age. Their serum TSH values increase as LT extends, although their serum thyroid hormone levels remain normal. This indicates that BB/W rats suffer from subclinical hypothyroidism. To investigate whether BB/W rats have a defect in iodide metabolism, the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) in BB/W rats was examined. Thyroidal RAIU at 3hr in both 8 and 16 week-old BB/W rats was significantly higher than that in age-matched normal Wistar rats. On the other hand, BB/W rats had significantly lower 48hr thyroidal RAIU than normal Wistar rats. This suggests that BB/W rats appear to have some defects in iodide metabolism, especially in iodide organification even before the development of LT. The expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) mRNA in BB/W and Wistar rats was then examined using the Northern blot analysis. The expression of both TPO and Tg mRNA was greatly decreased in BB/W rats compared with that in Wistar rats despite the high serum TSH levels in BB/W rats. This indicates that BB/W rats may have pretranslational defects in TPO and Tg synthesis, resulting in the impaired thyroid hormone synthesis. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that BB/W rats appear to have a defect(s) in iodide metabolism possibly due to some abnormalities in TPO and Tg synthesis. PMID:1752338

  6. Forming B-B Bonds by the Controlled Reduction of a Tetraaryl-diborane(6).

    PubMed

    Kaese, Thomas; Hübner, Alexander; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2016-05-18

    Dimeric aryl(hydro)boranes can provide suitable platforms for the synthesis of boron-containing graphene flakes through reductive B-B coupling. Two-electron reduction of 1,2:1,2-bis(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-biphenylylene)diborane(6) (4) with LiNaph/THF establishes a B-B σ bond but can be accompanied by substituent redistribution. In the singly rearranged product, Li2[6], only one 1,2-phenyl shift has occurred. The doubly ring-contracted product, Li2[7], consists of two 9H-9-borafluorenyl moieties that are linked via their boron atoms. When the amount of LiNaph/THF is increased to 4 equiv, Li2[6] is subsequently observed as the dominant species. Addition of 11 equiv of LiNaph/THF results in over-reduction with hydride elimination to afford the doubly boron-doped dibenzo[g,p]chrysene Li2[1]. In contrast, excess KC8 reduces 4 to the corresponding dihydro-dibenzo[g,p]chrysene, K2[5], with a trans-HB-BH core. Hydride abstraction from K2[5] with 1 equiv of 4 leads to K[8], in which the central B-B bond is bridged by a single hydrogen atom. K[8] is also obtained upon treatment of 4 with 1 equiv of KC8. All products have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. PMID:27111640

  7. OpaR Controls a Network of Downstream Transcription Factors in Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22OP

    PubMed Central

    Kernell Burke, Alison; Guthrie, Leah T. C.; Modise, Thero; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V.; McCarter, Linda L.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an emerging world-wide human pathogen that is associated with food-borne gastroenteritis when raw or undercooked seafood is consumed. Expression of virulence factors in this organism is modulated by the phenomenon known as quorum sensing, which permits differential gene regulation at low versus high cell density. The master regulator of quorum sensing in V. parahaemolyticus is OpaR. OpaR not only controls virulence factor gene expression, but also the colony and cellular morphology associated with growth on a surface and biofilm formation. Whole transcriptome Next Generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) was utilized to determine the OpaR regulon by comparing strains BB22OP (opaR+, LM5312) and BB22TR (∆opaR1, LM5674). This work, using the published V. parahaemolyticus BB22OP genome sequence, confirms and expands upon a previous microarray analysis for these two strains that used an Affymetrix GeneChip designed from the closely related V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 genome sequence. Overall there was excellent correlation between the microarray and RNA-Seq data. Eleven transcription factors under OpaR control were identified by both methods and further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Nine of these transcription factors were demonstrated to be direct OpaR targets via in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified hexahistidine-tagged OpaR. Identification of the direct and indirect targets of OpaR, including small RNAs, will enable the construction of a network map of regulatory interactions important for the switch between the nonpathogenic and pathogenic states. PMID:25901572

  8. Key Rate Available from Mismatched Measurements in the BB84 Protocol and the Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Watanabe, Shun

    We consider the mismatched measurements in the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol, in which measuring bases are different from transmitting bases. We give a lower bound on the amount of a secret key that can be extracted from the mismatched measurements. Our lower bound shows that we can extract a secret key from the mismatched measurements with certain quantum channels, such as the channel over which the Hadamard matrix is applied to each qubit with high probability. Moreover, the entropic uncertainty principle implies that one cannot extract the secret key from both matched measurements and mismatched ones simultaneously, when we use the standard information reconciliation and privacy amplification procedure.

  9. BbMP-1, a new metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops brazili snake venom with in vitro antiplasmodial properties.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Anderson M; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Medeiros, Patrícia S M; Maltarollo, Vinícius G; Honorio, Kathia M; Oliveira, Eliandre; Albericio, Fernando; da Silva, Saulo L; Aguiar, Anna Caroline C; Krettli, Antoniana U; Fernandes, Carla F C; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the biochemical and functional characterization of a new metalloproteinase named BbMP-1, isolated from Bothrops brazili venom. BbMP-1 was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE, presented molecular mass of 22,933Da and pI 6.4. The primary structure was partially elucidated with high identity with others metalloproteinases from Viperidae venoms. The enzymatic activity on azocasein was evaluated in different experimental conditions (pH, temperature). A significant reduction in enzyme activity after exposure to chelators of divalent cations (EDTA), reducing agents (DTT), pH less than 5.0 or temperatures higher than 45 °C was observed. BbMP-1 showed activity on fibrinogen degrading Aα chain quickly and to a lesser extent the Bβ chain. Also demostrated to be weakly hemorrhagic, presenting however, significant myotoxic and edematogenic activity. The in vitro activity of BbMP-1 against Plasmodium falciparum showed an IC50 of 3.2 ± 2.0 μg/mL. This study may help to understand the pathophysiological effects induced by this group of toxin and their participation in the symptoms observed in cases of snake envenomation. Moreover, this result is representative for this group of proteins and shows the biotechnological potential of BbMP-1 by the demonstration of its antiplasmodial activity. PMID:26363289

  10. Passive Seismic Experiment "13 BB Star" in the Margin of the East European Craton, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, M.; Grad, M.; Wilde-Piórko, M.; Suchcicki, J.; Arant, T.

    2014-12-01

    Passive experiment "13 BB star" is dedicated to study deep structure of the Earth's interior in the marginal zone of the East European Craton in northern Poland. The seismic network consists of 13 broadband stations on the area of c. 120 km in diameter. The network is located in the area well recognized from the point of view velocities of sedimentary cover and crustal structure. Good records obtained since summer 2013, and expected during next 1.5 years long recording campaign, should yield images of detailed structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), „410", "?520", and „660" km discontinuities, as well as mantle-core boundary and inner core. The LAB is investigated recently very effectively, mostly using seismic methods because their deep penetration and relatively good resolution. The nature of LAB is still debated, particularly under "cold" Precambrian shields and platforms. We show examples of local and teleseismic records, array transfer function of "13 BB star" network and preliminary noise analysis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC- 2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  11. Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.

    2011-06-01

    The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_⊙/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

  12. BB0172, a Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Membrane Protein That Binds Integrin α3β1

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Elaine; Tamborero, Silvia; Mingarro, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Upon infection, some B. burgdorferi genes are upregulated, including members of the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) protein family, which facilitate B. burgdorferi adherence to extracellular matrix components of the host. Comparative genome analysis has revealed a new family of B. burgdorferi proteins containing the von Willebrand factor A (vWFA) domain. In the present study, we characterized the expression and membrane association of the vWFA domain-containing protein BB0172 by using in vitro transcription/translation systems in the presence of microsomal membranes and with detergent phase separation assays. Our results showed evidence of BB0172 localization in the outer membrane, the orientation of the vWFA domain to the extracellular environment, and its function as a metal ion-dependent integrin-binding protein. This is the first report of a borrelial adhesin with a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif that is similar to those observed in eukaryotic integrins and has a similar function. PMID:23687274

  13. Inclusive b-jet and bb¯-dijet production at the LHC via Reggeized gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleev, V. A.; Shipilova, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    We study inclusive b-jet and bb¯-dijet production at the CERN LHC invoking the hypothesis of gluon Reggeization in t-channel exchanges at high energy. The b-jet cross section includes contributions from open b-quark production and from b-quark production via gluon-to-bottom-pair fragmentation. The transverse-momentum distributions of inclusive b-jet production measured with the ATLAS detector at the CERN LHC in different rapidity ranges are calculated both within multi-Regge kinematics and quasi-multi-Regge kinematics. The bb¯-dijet cross section is calculated within quasi-multi-Regge kinematics as a function of the dijet invariant mass Mjj, the azimuthal angle between the two jets Δϕ, and the angular variable χ. At the numerical calculation, we adopt the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin and Blümlein prescriptions to derive unintegrated gluon distribution function of the proton from its collinear counterpart for which we use the Martin-Roberts-Stirling-Thorne set. We find good agreement with measurements by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC at the hadronic c.m. energy of S=7TeV.

  14. New insights into the structure of An tracts and B'-B' bends in DNA.

    PubMed

    Chuprina, V P; Fedoroff OYu; Reid, B R

    1991-01-15

    Energy calculations suggest that the currently available NOE distance constraints for An tracts in DNA are incapable of distinguishing between structures with a narrowed minor groove arising from a large propeller twist with a small inclination or from a small propeller twist with a large negative inclination. Furthermore, analysis of published data, together with energy estimations, strongly argue against bifurcated hydrogen bonding between A and T residues being the cause of the anomalous structural properties of An tracts. A conformational analysis of the B'-B' junction has been performed in which a single variable base pair has been inserted between two regions of B' structure. We have calculated low-energy structures for AnGAn,AnCAn,AnTAn,AnCTn, and TnCAn duplexes, where the An and Tn tracts were fixed in the anomalous B' conformation. Upon optimization, all these structures were found to contain a pronounced roll-like bending into the major groove at the site of the insertion. The important factors in the formation of these B'-B' bends are the destruction of the B' conformation and the concomitant widening of the minor groove at the junction region in order to reduce minor groove interstrand base clashes and improve interstrand stacking energy. If the B' conformation has strong negative inclination, the improved intrastrand stacking energy also contributes to the bending. In calculations of duplexes with An and Tn tracts in the B conformation instead of B', the bending disappears. PMID:1988043

  15. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy. PMID:7699389

  16. BB0172, a Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane protein that binds integrin α3β1.

    PubMed

    Wood, Elaine; Tamborero, Silvia; Mingarro, Ismael; Esteve-Gassent, Maria D

    2013-08-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Upon infection, some B. burgdorferi genes are upregulated, including members of the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) protein family, which facilitate B. burgdorferi adherence to extracellular matrix components of the host. Comparative genome analysis has revealed a new family of B. burgdorferi proteins containing the von Willebrand factor A (vWFA) domain. In the present study, we characterized the expression and membrane association of the vWFA domain-containing protein BB0172 by using in vitro transcription/translation systems in the presence of microsomal membranes and with detergent phase separation assays. Our results showed evidence of BB0172 localization in the outer membrane, the orientation of the vWFA domain to the extracellular environment, and its function as a metal ion-dependent integrin-binding protein. This is the first report of a borrelial adhesin with a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif that is similar to those observed in eukaryotic integrins and has a similar function. PMID:23687274

  17. Evodiamine Attenuates PDGF-BB-Induced Migration of Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through Activating PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xie; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Mei; Liang, Tingming; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    The uncontrolled migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima is a critical process in the development of atherosclerosis. Evodiamine, an indole alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicine evodia, has been shown to inhibit tumor cell invasion and protect the cardiovascular system, but its effects on VSMCs remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of evodiamine on the platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMC migration using wound healing and transwell assays, and assessed its role in decreasing the protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases and cell adhesion molecules. More importantly, we found that evodiamine activated the expression and nuclear translocation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Inhibition of PPARγ activity by using its antagonist T0070907 and its specific siRNA oligonucleotides significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of evodiamine on VSMC migration. Taken together, our results indicate a promising anti-atherogenic effect of evodiamine through attenuation of VSMC migration by activating PPARγ. PMID:26703570

  18. Yukawa corrections to {gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb in the topcolor assisted technicolor models

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jinshu; Lu Gongru

    2008-08-01

    We study the Yukawa corrections to the {gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb cross section in the topcolor assisted technicolor models at the photon-photon colliders. We find that, for the favorable parameters, the relative corrections from pseudo-Goldstone bosons give out a 3.2%{approx}5.9% decrement of the cross section from the tree level when {radical}(s)=500 GeV, the contributions from new extended technicolor gauge bosons Z* and colored gauge bosons B are negligibly small, and the relative correction arising from new color-singlet heavy gauge boson Z{sup '} is less than -3.2%. Therefore, the total relative corrections are significantly larger than the corresponding corrections in the standard model, the general two Higgs doublet model, and the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Since these corrections are obvious for the International Linear Colliders, the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb is really interesting in testing the standard model and searching for the signs of technicolor.

  19. VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE I b/c SUPERNOVA 2009bb

    SciTech Connect

    Bietenholz, M. F.; Soderberg, A. M.; Bartel, N.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Horiuchi, S.; Phillips, C. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Wieringa, M. H.; Chugai, N. N.

    2010-12-10

    We report on VLBI as well as Very Large Array radio observations of the Type I b/c supernova 2009bb. The high radio luminosity of this supernova seems to require relativistic outflow, implying that the early radio emission was 'engine-driven', that is, driven by collimated outflow from a compact object, even though no gamma-ray emission was seen. The radio light curve shows a general decline, with a 'bump' near t = 52 d, seen most prominently at 5 GHz. The light-curve bump could be either engine-driven or it might represent the turn-on of the normal radio emission from a supernova, driven by interaction with the circumstellar material rather than by the engine. We undertook VLBI observations to resolve SN 2009bb's relativistic outflow. Our observations constrain the angular outer radius at an age of 85 d to be <0.64 mas, corresponding to <4 x 10{sup 17} cm and an average apparent expansion speed of <1.74 c. This result is consistent with the moderately relativistic ejecta speeds implied by the radio luminosity and spectrum.

  20. A study of droplet impact on static films using the BB-LIF technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, D. B.; Cherdantsev, A. V.; Mitchell, A.; McCarthy, I. N.; Hewakandamby, B. N.; Simmons, K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of single droplet impacts on films of different heights taken using the brightness-based laser-induced fluorescence technique (BB-LIF). The dynamics of drop impingement such as the shape of the cavity and residual film thickness are investigated and analysed with a time resolution of 0.1 ms and spatial resolution of 70 μm. Additionally, a variation of the BB-LIF technique is used to investigate the change in profile of the droplet liquid during the inertial self-similar regime. The results of the analysis show that present models predicting initial development of the cavity show good agreement. Suggested amendments for some of the constants for cavity width and residual film thickness are proposed based on the film thickness that fit better with published data. The development of the profile of the droplet liquid demonstrates that for thin liquid films, the droplet liquid behaviour with strong similarity to droplet impacts on dry solid surfaces. It is noted that for some of the measured parameters, the use of the film height as the length scale gives a better fit.

  1. Irradiated lymphocytes do not adoptively transfer diabetes or prevent spontaneous disease in the BB/W rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mordes, J.P.; Handler, E.S.; Like, A.A.; Nakano, K.; Rossini, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    Diabetes in the BB/W rat is autoimmune in origin, and lymphocytes from acutely diabetic animals activated by concanavalin A (con A) induce the disease in adoptive recipients. We report that irradiation of these cells prevents adoptive transfer of diabetes. Through 60 days of age, diabetes occurred in none of 47 BB/W rats given irradiated con A cells, but in 21 of 36 (58%) given nonirradiated cells. Between 60 and 130 days of age, however, spontaneous diabetes occurred in 18 of 34 untreated control rats (53%) and 16 of 32 rats (50%) given two injections of irradiated con A activated spleen cells. We conclude that irradiation prevents adoptive transfer of BB/W rat diabetes and that irradiated con A activated lymphocytes from acutely diabetic rats do not protect against spontaneous disease in susceptible recipients.

  2. (BB)-Carboryne Complex of Ruthenium: Synthesis by Double B–H Activation at a Single Metal Center

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first example of a transition metal (BB)-carboryne complex containing two boron atoms of the icosahedral cage connected to a single exohedral metal center (POBBOP)Ru(CO)2 (POBBOP = 1,7-OP(i-Pr)2-2,6-dehydro-m-carborane) was synthesized by double B–H activation within the strained m-carboranyl pincer framework. Theoretical calculations revealed that the unique three-membered (BB)>Ru metalacycle is formed by two bent B–Ru σ-bonds with the concomitant increase of the bond order between the two metalated boron atoms. The reactivity of the highly strained electron-rich (BB)-carboryne fragment with small molecules was probed by reactions with electrophiles. The carboryne–carboranyl transformations reported herein represent a new mode of cooperative metal–ligand reactivity of boron-based complexes. PMID:27526855

  3. (BB)-Carboryne Complex of Ruthenium: Synthesis by Double B-H Activation at a Single Metal Center.

    PubMed

    Eleazer, Bennett J; Smith, Mark D; Popov, Alexey A; Peryshkov, Dmitry V

    2016-08-24

    The first example of a transition metal (BB)-carboryne complex containing two boron atoms of the icosahedral cage connected to a single exohedral metal center (POBBOP)Ru(CO)2 (POBBOP = 1,7-OP(i-Pr)2-2,6-dehydro-m-carborane) was synthesized by double B-H activation within the strained m-carboranyl pincer framework. Theoretical calculations revealed that the unique three-membered (BB)>Ru metalacycle is formed by two bent B-Ru σ-bonds with the concomitant increase of the bond order between the two metalated boron atoms. The reactivity of the highly strained electron-rich (BB)-carboryne fragment with small molecules was probed by reactions with electrophiles. The carboryne-carboranyl transformations reported herein represent a new mode of cooperative metal-ligand reactivity of boron-based complexes. PMID:27526855

  4. Technicolor corrections to bb{yields}W{sup {+-}{pi}}{sub t}{sup {+-}}at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jinshu; Pan, Qunna; Song, Taiping; Lu, Gongru

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we calculate the technicolor correction to the production of a charged top pion in association with a W boson via bb annihilation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider in the context of the topcolor assisted technicolor model. We find that the cross section of pp{yields}bb{yields}W{sup {+-}{pi}}{sub t}{sup {+-}}at the tree level can reach a few hundred femtobarns for reasonable ranges of the parameters, roughly corresponding to the result of the process pp{yields}bb{yields}W{sup {+-}H{+-}}in the minimal supersymmetric standard model; the relative corrections arising from the one-loop diagrams are about a few percent to two dozen percent, and they will increase the cross section at the tree level. As a comparison, we also discuss the size of the hadron cross section via the other subprocess gg{yields}W{sup {+-}{pi}}{sub t}{sup {+-}.}

  5. A first-look atmospheric modeling study of the young directly imaged planet-mass companion, ROXS 42Bb

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Daemgen, Sebastian; Burrows, Adam

    2014-06-01

    We present and analyze JK{sub s}L' photometry and our previously published H-band photometry and K-band spectroscopy for ROXs 42Bb, an object Currie et al. first reported as a young directly imaged planet-mass companion. ROXs 42Bb exhibits IR colors redder than field L dwarfs but consistent with other planet-mass companions. From the H{sub 2}O-2 spectral index, we estimate a spectral type of L0 ± 1; weak detections/non-detections of the CO bandheads, Na I, and Ca I support evidence for a young, low surface gravity object primarily derived from the H{sub 2}(K) index. ROXs 42Bb's photometry/K-band spectrum are inconsistent with limiting cases of dust-free atmospheres (COND) and marginally inconsistent with the AMES/DUSTY models and the BT-SETTL models. However, ROXS 42Bb data are simultaneously fit by atmosphere models incorporating several micron-sized dust grains entrained in thick clouds, although further modifications are needed to better reproduce the K-band spectral shape. ROXs 42Bb's best-estimated temperature is T {sub eff} ∼ 1950-2000 K, near the low end of the empirically derived range in Currie et al. For an age of ∼1-3 Myr and considering the lifetime of the protostar phase, ROXs 42Bb's luminosity of log(L/L {sub ☉}) ∼ –3.07 ± 0.07 implies a mass of 9{sub −3}{sup +3} M{sub J} , making it one of the lightest planetary-mass objects yet imaged.

  6. Brain-type creatine kinase BB-CK interacts with the Golgi Matrix Protein GM130 in early prophase.

    PubMed

    Bürklen, Tanja S; Hirschy, Alain; Wallimann, Theo

    2007-03-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes are essential for storing, buffering and intracellular transport of "energy-rich" phosphate compounds in tissues with fluctuating high energy demand such as muscle, brain and other tissues and cells where CK is expressed. In brain and many non-muscle cells, ubiquitous cytosolic "brain-type" BB-CK and ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK) act as components of a phosphocreatine shuttle to maintain cellular energy pools and distribute energy flux. To date, still relatively little is known about direct coupling of functional dimeric BB-CK with other partner proteins or enzymes that are important for cell function. Using a global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen with monomeric B-CK as bait and a representative brain cDNA library to search for interaction partners of B-CK with proteins of the brain, we repeatedly identified the cis-Golgi Matrix protein (GM130) as recurrent interacting partner of B-CK. Since HeLa cells also express both BB-CK and GM130, we subsequently used this cellular model system to verify and characterize the BB-CK-GM130 complex by GST-pulldown experiments, as well as by in vivo co-localization studies with confocal microscopy. Using dividing HeLa cells, we report here for the first time that GM130 and BB-CK co-localize specifically in a transient fashion during early prophase of mitosis, when GM130 plays an important role in Golgi fragmentation that starts also at early prophase. These data may shed new light on BB-CK function for energy provision for Golgi-fragmentation that is initiated by cell signalling cascades in the early phases of mitosis. PMID:17036164

  7. A First-look Atmospheric Modeling Study of the Young Directly Imaged Planet-mass Companion, ROXs 42Bb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Daemgen, Sebastian

    2014-06-01

    We present and analyze JKsL' photometry and our previously published H-band photometry and K-band spectroscopy for ROXs 42Bb, an object Currie et al. first reported as a young directly imaged planet-mass companion. ROXs 42Bb exhibits IR colors redder than field L dwarfs but consistent with other planet-mass companions. From the H2O-2 spectral index, we estimate a spectral type of L0 ± 1; weak detections/non-detections of the CO bandheads, Na I, and Ca I support evidence for a young, low surface gravity object primarily derived from the H2(K) index. ROXs 42Bb's photometry/K-band spectrum are inconsistent with limiting cases of dust-free atmospheres (COND) and marginally inconsistent with the AMES/DUSTY models and the BT-SETTL models. However, ROXS 42Bb data are simultaneously fit by atmosphere models incorporating several micron-sized dust grains entrained in thick clouds, although further modifications are needed to better reproduce the K-band spectral shape. ROXs 42Bb's best-estimated temperature is T eff ~ 1950-2000 K, near the low end of the empirically derived range in Currie et al. For an age of ~1-3 Myr and considering the lifetime of the protostar phase, ROXs 42Bb's luminosity of log(L/L ⊙) ~ -3.07 ± 0.07 implies a mass of 9^{+3}_{-3} MJ , making it one of the lightest planetary-mass objects yet imaged.

  8. T cell dysfunction in the diabetes-prone BB rat. A role for thymic migrants that are not T cell precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiou, H.M.; Lagarde, A.C.; Bellgrau, D.

    1988-01-01

    Diabetes-prone BB (BB-DP) rats express several T cell dysfunctions which include poor proliferative and cytotoxic responses to alloantigen. The goal of this study was to determine the origin of these T cell dysfunctions. When BB-DP rats were thymectomized, T cell depleted, and transplanted with neonatal thymus tissue from diabetes-resistant and otherwise normal DA/BB F1 rats, the early restoration of T cell function proceeded normally on a cell-for-cell basis; i.e., peripheral T cells functioned like those from the thymus donor. Because the thymus in these experiments was subjected to gamma irradiation before transplantation and there was no evidence of F1 chimerism in the transplanted BB-DP rats, it appeared that the BB-DP T cell precursors could mature into normally functioning T cells if the maturation process occurred in a normal thymus. If the F1 thymus tissue was treated with dGua before transplantation, the T cells of these animals functioned poorly like those from untreated BB-DP rats. dGua poisons bone marrow-derived cells, including gamma radiation-resistant cells of the macrophage/dendritic cell lineages, while sparing the thymic epithelium. Therefore, the reversal of the T cell dysfunction depends on the presence in the F1 thymus of gamma radiation-resistant, dGua-sensitive F1 cells. Conversely, thymectomized and T cell-depleted F1 rats expressed T cell dysfunction when transplanted with gamma-irradiated BB thymus grafts. T cell responses were normal in animals transplanted with dGua-treated BB thymus grafts. With increasing time after thymus transplantation, T cells from all animals gradually expressed the functional phenotype of the bone marrow donor. Taken together these results suggest that BB-DP bone marrow-derived cells that are not T cell precursors influence the maturation environment in the thymus of otherwise normal BB-DP T cell precursors.

  9. Isospectral drums in {\\bb R}^2 , involution graphs and Euclidean TI-domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thas, Koen

    2007-06-01

    The widely investigated question 'Can one hear the shape of a drum?' which Kac posed in his published lecture (Kac 1966 Am. Math. Mon. 73 1-23) was eventually answered negatively in Gordon et al (1992 Invent. Math. 110 1-22) by construction of isospectral pairs in {\\bb R}^2 . Up to present, all known planar counter examples are constructed by a certain tiling method, and in this communication, we call such examples isospectral Euclidean TI-domains. From counter examples of this type, one can construct a pair of (finite) involution graphs. In this communication, we address the question as to how the isospectrality of the domains for the Laplacian influences the cospectrality of the involution graphs.

  10. Using t→bb¯c to search for new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiers, Ken; Knighton, Tal; London, David; Russell, Matthew; Szynkman, Alejandro; Webster, Kari

    2011-10-01

    We consider new-physics (NP) contributions to the decay t→bb¯c. We parametrize the NP couplings by an effective Lagrangian consisting of 10 Lorentz structures. We show that the presence of NP can be detected through the measurement of the partial width. A partial identification of the NP can be achieved through the measurements of a forward-backward-like asymmetry, a top-quark-spin-dependent asymmetry, the partial-rate asymmetry, and a triple-product asymmetry. These observables, which vanish in the standard model, can all take values in the 10%-20% range in the presence of NP. Since |VtbVcb|≃|VtsVcs|, most of our results also hold, with small changes, for t→ss¯c.

  11. On the optimality of individual entangling-probe attacks against BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbauts, I. M.; Bettelli, S.; Hã¼bel, H.; Peev, M.

    2008-02-01

    Some MIT researchers [Phys. Rev. A 75, 042327 (2007)] have recently claimed that their implementation of the Slutsky-Brandt attack [Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998); Phys. Rev. A 71, 042312 (2005)] to the BB84 quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocol puts the security of this protocol “to the test” by simulating “the most powerful individual-photon attack” [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012315 (2006)]. A related unfortunate news feature by a scientific journal [G. Brumfiel, Quantum cryptography is hacked, News @ Nature (april 2007); Nature 447, 372 (2007)] has spurred some concern in the QKD community and among the general public by misinterpreting the implications of this work. The present article proves the existence of a stronger individual attack on QKD protocols with encrypted error correction, for which tight bounds are shown, and clarifies why the claims of the news feature incorrectly suggest a contradiction with the established “old-style” theory of BB84 individual attacks. The full implementation of a quantum cryptographic protocol includes a reconciliation and a privacy-amplification stage, whose choice alters in general both the maximum extractable secret and the optimal eavesdropping attack. The authors of [Phys. Rev. A 75, 042327 (2007)] are concerned only with the error-free part of the so-called sifted string, and do not consider faulty bits, which, in the version of their protocol, are discarded. When using the provably superior reconciliation approach of encrypted error correction (instead of error discard), the Slutsky-Brandt attack is no more optimal and does not “threaten” the security bound derived by Lütkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999)]. It is shown that the method of Slutsky and collaborators [Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998)] can be adapted to reconciliation with error correction, and that the optimal entangling probe can be explicitly found. Moreover, this attack fills Lütkenhaus bound, proving that it is tight (a fact which was not

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand, a member of the TNF family

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Jung-Sue; Kim, Dong-Uk; Ahn, Byungchan; Kwon, Byoung Se; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand fused with glutathione-S-transferase was expressed in Escherichia coli (Origami) and purified by using affinity and ion-exchange column chromatographic methods. Crystals of the 4-1BB ligand were obtained at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The 4-1BB ligand, a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family, is an important co-stimulatory molecule that plays a key role in the clonal expansion and survival of CD8+ T cells. Signalling through binding of the 4-1BB ligand and 4-1BB has been reported to enhance CD8+ T-cell expansion and protect activated CD8+ T cells from death. The 4-1BB ligand is an integral protein expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells. The extracellular domain of the 4-1BB ligand fused with glutathione-S-transferase was expressed in Escherichia coli (Origami) and purified by using affinity and ion-exchange column chromatographic methods. Crystals of the 4-1BB ligand were obtained at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from these crystals to 2.8 Å resolution and the crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 114.6, b = 73.8, c = 118.50 Å, β = 115.5°.

  13. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB has neurorestorative effects and modulates the pericyte response in a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Padel, Thomas; Özen, Ilknur; Boix, Jordi; Barbariga, Marco; Gaceb, Abderahim; Roth, Michaela; Paul, Gesine

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease where the degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway leads to specific motor deficits. There is an unmet medical need for regenerative treatments that stop or reverse disease progression. Several growth factors have been investigated in clinical trials to restore the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway damaged in PD. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a molecule that recruits pericytes to stabilize microvessels, was recently investigated in a phase-1 clinical trial, showing a dose-dependent increase in dopamine transporter binding in the putamen of PD patients. Interestingly, evidence is accumulating that PD is paralleled by microvascular changes, however, whether PDGF-BB modifies pericytes in PD is not known. Using a pericyte reporter mouse strain, we investigate the functional and restorative effect of PDGF-BB in a partial 6-hydroxydopamine medial forebrain bundle lesion mouse model of PD, and whether this restorative effect is accompanied by changes in pericyte features. We demonstrate that a 2-week treatment with PDGF-BB leads to behavioural recovery using several behavioural tests, and partially restores the nigrostriatal pathway. Interestingly, we find that pericytes are activated in the striatum of PD lesioned mice and that these changes are reversed by PDGF-BB treatment. The modulation of brain pericytes may contribute to the PDGF-BB-induced neurorestorative effects, PDGF-BB allowing for vascular stabilization in PD. Pericytes might be a new cell target of interest for future regenerative therapies. PMID:27288154

  14. 76 FR 55720 - BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that BB&T Capital...

  15. 2008/09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). Full-Scale Methodology Report. NCES 2014-041

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Janson, Natasha; Siegel, Peter; Bennett, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the methodological procedures and evaluations of the 2008/09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). RTI, with the assistance of MPR, conducted B&B:08/09 for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the U.S. Department of Education. Chapter 1 describes the background, legislative…

  16. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Restores HIV Tat-Mediated Impairment of Neurogenesis: Role of GSK-3β/β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jie; Yang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) increased the cell proliferation of primary rat neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). However, whether PDGF-BB regulates neurogenesis in HIV-associated neurological disorder (HAND) remains largely unknown. In this study we demonstrated that pre-treatment of NPCs with PDGF-BB restored Tat-mediated impairment of cell proliferation via activation of p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Moreover, treatment with PDGF-BB induced inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), evidenced by its phosphorylation at Ser9, this effect was significantly inhibited by the p38 and JNK inhibitors. Level of nuclear β-catenin, the primary substrate of GSK-3β, was also concomitantly increased following PDGF-BB treatment, suggesting that PDGF-BB stimulates NPC proliferation via acting on GSK-3β to promote nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. This was further validated by gain and loss of function studies using cells transfected with either the wild type or mutant GSK-3β constructs. Together these data underpin the role of GSK-3β/β-catenin as a novel target that regulates NPC proliferation mediated by PDGF-BB with implications for therapeutic intervention for reversal of impaired neurogenesis inflicted by Tat. PMID:24248537

  17. Bt-maize event MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1 does not cause harm to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; Kiss, József; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    This review paper explores whether the cultivation of the genetically modified Bt-maize transformation event MON 88017, expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein against corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), causes adverse effects to non-target organisms (NTOs) and the ecological and anthropocentric functions they provide. Available data do not reveal adverse effects of Cry3Bb1 on various NTOs that are representative of potentially exposed taxonomic and functional groups, confirming that the insecticidal activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein is limited to species belonging to the coleopteran family of Chrysomelidae. The potential risk to non-target chrysomelid larvae ingesting maize MON 88017 pollen deposited on host plants is minimal, as their abundance in maize fields and the likelihood of encountering harmful amounts of pollen in and around maize MON 88017 fields are low. Non-target adult chrysomelids, which may occasionally feed on maize MON 88017 plants, are not expected to be affected due to the low activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein on adults. Impacts on NTOs caused by potential unintended changes in maize MON 88017 are not expected to occur, as no differences in composition, phenotypic characteristics and plant-NTO interactions were observed between maize MON 88017 and its near-isogenic line. PMID:22576225

  18. 2008-09 Baccalaureate and beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09). First Look. NCES 2011-236

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Green, Caitlin; Henke, Robin; Lew, Terry; Woo, Jennie; Shepherd, Bryan; Siegel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the 2008-09 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/09), which describes the enrollment and employment experiences, 1 year after they graduated, of a national sample of college graduates who completed a bachelor's degree in the 2007-08 academic year. The tables in this report provide a sampling…

  19. Characterization of the chemotactic and mitogenic response of SMCs to PDGF-BB and FGF-2 in fibrin hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Ucuzian, Areck A.; Brewster, Luke P.; East, Andrea T.; Pang, Yongang; Gassman, Andrew A.; Greisler, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    The delivery of growth factors to cellularize biocompatible scaffolds like fibrin is a commonly used strategy in tissue engineering. We characterized SMC proliferation and chemotaxis in response to PDGF-BB and FGF-2, alone and in combination, in 2-D culture and in 3-D fibrin hydrogels. While both growth factors induced an equipotent mitogenic response in 2-D culture, only FGF-2 was significantly mitogenic for SMCs in 3-D culture. Only PDGF-BB was significantly chemotactic in a modified Boyden chamber assay. In a 3-D assay of matrix invasion, both growth factors induced an invasive response into the fibrin hydrogel in both proliferating and non-proliferating, mitomycin C (MMC) treated cells. The invasive response was less attenuated by the inhibition of proliferation in PDGF-BB stimulated cells compared with FGF-2 stimulated cells. We conclude that SMCs cultured in fibrin hydrogels have a more robust chemotactic response to PDGF-BB compared with FGF-2, and that the response to FGF-2 is more dependent on cell proliferation. Delivery of both growth factors together potentiates the chemotactic, but not mitogenic response to either growth factor alone. PMID:20730936

  20. Finished Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Strain 03BB87, a Clinical Isolate with B. anthracis Virulence Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen W.; Shea, April A.; Miner, Haven L.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Chain, Patrick S.G.

    2015-01-15

    Bacillus cereus strain 03BB87, a blood culture isolate, originated in a 56-year-old male muller operator with a fatal case of pneumonia in 2003. Here we present the finished genome sequence of that pathogen, including a 5.46-Mb chromosome and two plasmids (209 and 52 Kb, respectively).

  1. Bioactive, Elastic, and Biodegradable Emulsion Electrospun DegraPol Tube Delivering PDGF-BB for Tendon Rupture Repair.

    PubMed

    Evrova, Olivera; Houska, Joanna; Welti, Manfred; Bonavoglia, Eliana; Calcagni, Maurizio; Giovanoli, Pietro; Vogel, Viola; Buschmann, Johanna

    2016-07-01

    Healing of tendon ruptures represents a major challenge in musculoskeletal injuries and combinations of biomaterials with biological factors are suggested as viable option for improved healing. The standard approach of repair by conventional suture leads to incomplete healing or rerupture. Here, a new elastic type of DegraPol® (DP), a polyester urethane, is explored as a delivery device for platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to promote tendon healing. Using emulsion electrospinning as an easy method for incorporation of biomolecules within polymers, DegraPol® supports loading and release of PDGF-BB. Morphological, mechanical and delivery device properties of the bioactive DP scaffolds, as well as differences arising due to different electrospinning parameters are studied. Emulsion electrospun DP scaffolds result in thinner fibers than pure DP scaffolds and experience decreased strain at break [%], but high enough for successful surgeon handling. PDGF-BB is released in a sustained manner from emulsion electrospun DP, but not completely, with still large amount of it being inside the polymeric fibers after 30 d. In vitro studies show that the bioactive scaffolds promote tenocyte proliferation in serum free and serum(+) conditions, demonstrating the potential of this surgeon-friendly bioactive delivery device to be used for tendon repair. PMID:27071839

  2. Isolation of transcripts from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte responsive to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry3Bb1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crystal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used as a method of insect pest management for several decades. In recent years, a transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin has been successfully used for protection against corn rootworm larvae (Genus...

  3. Selection for Cry3Bb1 resistance in a genetically diverse population of nondiapausing Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five short-diapause laboratory lines of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) were selected for resistance to MON863, a variety of corn genetically modified with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgene that expresses the Cry3Bb1 endotoxin. Three of the selecte...

  4. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt c...

  5. Isolation of transcripts from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte responsive to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry3Bb1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used as a method of insect pest management for several decades. In recent years, a transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin has been successfully used for protection against corn rootworm larvae (Genus Diabrotica). ...

  6. A switch in costimulation from CD28 to 4-1BB during primary versus secondary CD8 T cell response to influenza in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Edward M; Dawicki, Wojciech; Sedgmen, Bradley; Bramson, Jonathan L; Lynch, David H; Watts, Tania H

    2004-01-15

    4-1BBL(-/-) mice exhibit normal primary CD8 T cell responses to influenza virus, but show decreased CD8 T cell numbers late in the primary response as well as decreased secondary responses. In contrast, CD28(-/-) mice are defective in initial CD8 T cell expansion. Using agonistic anti-4-1BB Ab to replace the CD28 or 4-1BB signal, we examined the timing of the required signals for CD28 vs 4-1BB costimulation. A single dose of agonistic anti-4-1BB Ab added only during priming restores the secondary CD8 T cell response in CD28(-/-) mice. Once the T cell numbers in the primary response reach a minimum threshold, a full secondary response is achieved even in the absence of CD28. In contrast, anti-4-1BB added during priming fails to correct the defective secondary response in 4-1BBL(-/-) mice, whereas addition of anti-4-1BB during challenge fully restores this response. Thus, there is a switch in costimulatory requirement from CD28 to 4-1BB during primary vs recall responses. Adoptive transfer studies show that T cells primed in 4-1BBL(-/-) or wild-type mice are equally capable of re-expansion when rechallenged in wild-type mice. These studies rule out a model in which signals delivered through 4-1BB during priming program the T cells to give a full recall response and suggest that 4-1BB-4-1BBL interactions take place at later stages in the immune response. The results indicate that anti-4-1BB or 4-1BBL therapy will be most effective during the boost phase of a prime-boost vaccination strategy. PMID:14707071

  7. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway. PMID:25970691

  8. Identification of B- and T-Cell Epitopes of BB, a Carrier Protein Derived from the G Protein of Streptococcus Strain G148

    PubMed Central

    Goetsch, Liliane; Haeuw, Jean Francois; Champion, Thierry; Lacheny, Christine; N’Guyen, Thien; Beck, Alain; Corvaia, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Most conventional vaccines consist of killed organisms or purified antigenic proteins. Such molecules are generally poorly immunogenic and need to be coupled to carrier proteins. We have identified a new carrier molecule, BB, derived from the G protein of Streptococcus strain G148. We show that BB is able to induce strong antibody responses when conjugated to peptides or polysaccharides. In order to localize T and B cell epitopes in BB and match them with the albumin-binding region of the molecule, we immunized mice with BB, performed B and T pepscan analyses, and compared the results with pepscan done with sera and cells from humans. Our results indicate that BB has two distinct T helper epitopes, seven linear B-cell epitopes, and one conformational B-cell epitope in BALB/c mice. Four linear B-cell epitopes were identified from human sera, three of which overlapped mouse B-cell epitopes. Finally, three human T-cell epitopes were detected on the BB protein. One of these T-cell epitopes is common to BALB/c mice and humans and was localized in the region that contains the albumin-binding site. These data are of interest for the optimization of new carrier molecules derived from BB. PMID:12522050

  9. BadR (BB0693) controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Borrelia burgdorferi via recognizing TAAAATAT motifs.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a central role during Bb's adaptation to ticks and mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that RpoS is not expressed during the early stages of spirochetal growth or when Bb resides in ticks during the intermolt phase, but the molecular details of these events remain unknown. In the current study, biomagnetic bead separation of rpoS promoter-binding proteins, coupled with genetic inactivation, was employed to identify BadR (BB0693) as a negative regulator that controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Bb. When badR was inactivated, the expression of rpoS and bosR was induced only during the early stages of bacterial growth, but not during the stationary growth phase. Recombinant BadR bound to the promoter DNA of rpoS and the regulatory region upstream of bosR via AT-rich TAAAATAT motifs. Mutations in this motif markedly inhibited or abolished rBadR binding. These results suggest that BadR directly influences the expression of both rpoS and bosR in Bb. This newly recognized role for BadR to fine-tune the activation of the RpoN-RpoS pathway at strategic times in Bb's life cycle potentially represents another layer of gene control over σ(54)-dependent gene regulation. PMID:26331438

  10. TRPM7 channel regulates PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via PI3K and ERK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ling Zhan, Shuxiang; Huang, Cheng; Cheng, Xi; Lv, Xiongwen; Si, Hongfang; Li, Jun

    2013-11-01

    TRPM7, a non-selective cation channel of the TRP channel superfamily, is implicated in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cell proliferation. Recently, TRPM7 has been reported in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, we investigated the contribution role of TRPM7 in activated HSC-T6 cell (a rat hepatic stellate cell line) proliferation. TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot in rat model of liver fibrosis in vivo and PDGF-BB-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Both mRNA and protein of TRPM7 were dramatically increased in CCl{sub 4}-treated rat livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with PDGF-BB resulted in a time-dependent increase of TRPM7 mRNA and protein. However, PDGF-BB-induced HSC-T6 cell proliferation was inhibited by non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7, and this was accompanied by downregulation of cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1, PCNA and CDK4. Blockade of TRPM7 channels also attenuated PDGF-BB induced expression of myofibroblast markers as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, associated with cell proliferation, decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TRPM7 channels contribute to perpetuated fibroblast activation and proliferation of PDGF-BB induced HSC-T6 cells via the activation of ERK and PI3K pathways. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 mRNA and protein in the fibrotic livers from CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. • Increasing expression of TRPM7 mRNA and protein during HSC activation. • Blockade of TRPM7 inhibited the PDGF-BB induced proliferation of HSC-T6 cells. • Blockade of TRPM7 decreased α-SMA and Col1α1 expressions in activated HSC-T6 cells. • TRPM7 up-regulation contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.

  11. BB0844, an RpoS-Regulated Protein, Is Dispensable for Borrelia burgdorferi Infectivity and Maintenance in the Mouse-Tick Infectious Cycle▿

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Sukalyani; Terekhova, Darya; Iyer, Radha; Pappas, Christopher J.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Radolf, Justin D.; Schwartz, Ira

    2011-01-01

    The genome of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is comprised of a large linear chromosome and numerous smaller linear and circular plasmids. B. burgdorferi exhibits substantial genomic variation, and previous studies revealed genotype-specific variation at the right chromosomal telomere. A correlation has also been established between genotype and invasiveness. The correlation between chromosome length and genotype and between genotype and invasiveness suggested that a gene(s) at the right chromosome telomere may be required for virulence. Of particular interest was bb0844, an RpoS-regulated gene at the right telomere, the expression of which is induced when the spirochete undergoes adaptation to the mammalian host. The structure of the right chromosomal telomere was examined in 53 B. burgdorferi clinical isolates of various genotypes. Four distinct patterns were observed for bb0844: (i) chromosomal localization, (ii) plasmid localization, (iii) presence on both chromosome and plasmid, and (iv) complete absence. These patterns correlated with the B. burgdorferi genotype. On the basis of available sequence data, we propose a mechanism for the genomic rearrangements that accounts for the variability in bb0844 genomic localization. To further explore the role of BB0844 in the spirochete life cycle, a bb0844 deletion mutant was constructed by allelic exchange, and the viability of wild-type and bb0844 deletion mutants was examined in an experimental mouse-tick infection model. The bb0844 mutant was fully infectious in C3H/HeJ mice by either needle inoculation or tick transmission with B. burgdorferi-infected Ixodes scapularis larvae. Naïve larval ticks acquired both wild-type and mutant spirochetes with equal efficiency from B. burgdorferi-infected mice. The results demonstrate that BB0844 is not required for spirochete viability, pathogenicity, or maintenance in the tick vector or the mammalian host. At present, a defined role for BB0844 in B

  12. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study

    PubMed Central

    Merenstein, Daniel J; Tan, Tina P; Molokin, Aleksey; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Roberts, Robert F; Shara, Nawar M; Mete, Mihriye; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient doses, provide health benefits on the host. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires phase I safety studies for probiotics when the intended use of the product is as a drug. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of adults who were prescribed a 10-day course of antibiotics for a respiratory infection. Secondary aims were to assess the ability of BB-12 to affect the expression of whole blood immune markers associated with cell activation and inflammatory response. A phase I, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted in compliance with FDA guidelines for an Investigational New Drug (IND). Forty participants were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12 -supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 d. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, assessed by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 165 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no differences between the control and BB-12 groups. When compared to the control group, B lactis fecal levels were modestly higher in the BB-12-supplemented group. In a small subset of patients, changes in whole blood expression of genes associated with regulation and activation of immune cells were detected in the BB-12-supplemented group. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well tolerated when consumed by healthy adults concurrently taking antibiotics. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential immunomodulatory effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in a variety of disease states. PMID:25569274

  13. Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Lelkes, P. I.; Hillard, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many humans with IDDM eventually lose the capacity to secrete epinephrine from their adrenal medullae. The mechanism for this pathological change is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality is attributable to neuropathic changes in the greater splanchnic nerves or in the chromaffin cells that they innervate. To study this hypothesis, we isolated rat adrenal glands, perfused them ex vivo, and measured the epinephrine content of the perfusate under various conditions of stimulation. We used transmural electrical stimulation (20-80 V, at 10 Hz) to induce epinephrine secretion indirectly by selectively activating residual splanchnic nerve terminals within the isolated glands. Under these conditions, epinephrine secretion was severely attenuated in glands from female BB-Wistar rats with diabetes of 4 mo duration compared with their age-matched, nondiabetic controls. These perfused diabetic adrenal medullae also demonstrated decreased catecholamine release in response to direct chromaffin cell depolarization with 20 mM K+, evidence that a functional alteration exists within the chromaffin cells themselves. Nonetheless, total catecholamine content of adrenal medullae from these diabetic rats was not significantly different from controls, indicating that the secretory defect was not simply attributable to a difference in the amount of catecholamines stored and available for release. Herein, we also provide histological evidence of degenerative changes within the cholinergic nerve terminals that innervate these glands.

  14. Communication system technology for demonstration of BB84 quantum key distribution in optical aircraft downlinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Florian; Nauerth, Sebastian; Fuchs, Christian; Horwath, Joachim; Rau, Markus; Weinfurter, Harald

    2012-10-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), either fiber based or free-space, allows for provably secure key distribution solely based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Feasibility of QKD systems in aircraft-ground links was demonstrated with a successful key exchange. Experiment flights were undertaken during night time at the site of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. The aircraft was a Dornier 228 equipped with a laser communication terminal, originally designed for optical data downlinks with intensity modulation and direct detection. The counter terminal on ground was an optical ground station with a 40 cm Cassegrain type receiver telescope. Alice and Bob, as the transmitter and receiver systems usually are called in QKD, were integrated in the flight and ground terminals, respectively. A second laser source with 1550 nm wavelength was used to transmit a 100 MHz signal for synchronization of the two partners. The so called BB84 protocol, here implemented with faint polarization encoded pulses at 850nm wavelength, was applied as key generation scheme. Within two flights, measurements of the QKD and communication channel could be obtained with link distance of 20 km. After link acquisition, the tracking systems in the aircraft and on ground were able to keep lock of the narrow QKD beam. Emphasis of this paper is put on presentation of the link technology, i.e. link design and modifications of the communication terminals. First analysis of link attenuation, performance of the QKD system and scintillation of the sync signal is also addressed.

  15. Holographic recording diffraction gratings in BB640 photographic emulsions with femtosecond pulses in infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fimia, Antonio; Acebal, Pablo; Blaya, Salvador; Carretero, Luis; Madrigal, Roque F.; Murciano, Angel; Neftalí, Jose

    2011-06-01

    Silver halide materials have occupied an important place in the recording of images. The reason is mainly given by the high sensitivity of the recording medium, thus permitting the use of minimal levels light and hence easing the stability problems of apparatus and the need for high powered laser equipment. When the film is exposed in a holographic process a latent image of a diffraction grating is formed. The developing solution reduces exposed silver halide grains to silver at a higher rate than the unexposed grains. Among the commercial emulsions, recently good results have been reported in BB-640 photographic emulsions, since in this work we present the experimental results related to the response of this emulsion to the interference of pulsed Gaussian beams. For this, diffraction gratings were recorded by the interference of pulsed Gaussian beams with 120 fs of width, 76 MHz of frequency repetition and central wavelength of 790 nm, where the transmittance of this emulsion is higher than 99%. As a result, diffraction efficiencies up to 30% were obtained with low sensitivities due to the low absorption and grain size (18 - 20nm). The thickness of the photographic emulsions and the bleached process has been analyzed and the sensitivity has been optimized with D8 developer.

  16. Spectral radiance characterization and realization based on high temperature blackbody BB3500M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Cai-hong; Wu, Zhi-feng; Wang, Yan-fei

    2015-11-01

    New primary standard apparatus of spectral radiance was setup at National Institute of Metrology (NIM) based on high temperature blackbody BB3500M in 2011. Wavelength range was extended to 220 nm - 2550 nm. The measurement uncertainty of temperature was 0.64 K (k=1) at 2980K traceable to the Ag, Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed point blackbodies, and checked by a WC-C fixed point blackbody. Good consistency was obtained by using two different imaging optics with varied solid angle and different object distances, the relative deviation is less than +/-0.4 % at all wavelengths. A set of characteristic experiments were designed and analyzed in this paper, such as alignment error and the influence of the different shape and size of the water-cooled precise aperture, the polarization effects etc. NIM participated spectral radiance international comparison APMP.PR-S6 by using this new developed apparatus in 2014 with measurement uncertainty (k=1) 0.95% at 250nm, 0.50% at 400nm, 0.41% at 800nm, and 0.80% at 2500nm respectively.

  17. Evidence that BosR (BB0647) Is a Positive Autoregulator in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi survives in nature through a complex tick-mammalian life cycle. During its transit between ticks and mammalian hosts, B. burgdorferi must dramatically alter its outer surface profile in order to interact with and adapt to these two diverse niches. It has been established that the regulator BosR (BB0647) in B. burgdorferi plays important roles in modulating borrelial host adaptation. However, to date, how bosR expression itself is controlled in B. burgdorferi remains largely unknown. Previously, it has been shown that DNA sequences upstream of BosR harbor multiple sites for the binding of recombinant BosR, suggesting that BosR may influence its own expression in B. burgdorferi However, direct experimental evidence supporting this putative autoregulation of BosR has been lacking. Here, we investigated the expression of bosR throughout the tick-mammal life cycle of B. burgdorferi via quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses. Our data indicated that bosR is expressed not only during mouse infection, but also during the tick acquisition, intermolt, and transmission phases. Further investigation revealed that bosR expression in B. burgdorferi is influenced by environmental stimuli, such as temperature shift and pH change. By employing luciferase reporter assays, we also identified two promoters potentially driving bosR transcription. Our study offers strong support for the long-postulated function of BosR as an autoregulator in B. burgdorferi. PMID:27324485

  18. [Production and properties of chitinase from Beauveria bassiana Bb174 in solid state fermentation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Cai, Jingmin; Wu, Ke; Jin, Shengxian; Pan, Renrui; Fan, Meizhen

    2004-05-01

    This paper studied the chitinase production of Beauveria bassiana Bb174 under solid state fermentation condition. The optimal medium consisted of wheat bran and silkworm chrysalis at the ratio of 4:1, supplemented with 1 g peptone L(-1) as nitrogen source and some other mineral nutrients. The enzyme activity reached 126 units per gram dry medium after cultured for 2 days at 28 degrees C and natural pH by inoculated 3 ml spore suspension into this medium. The optimal temperature and pH for chintinase production were 40 degrees C and 5.0, respectively. The temperature to lose 50% activity of the enzyme was 48 degrees C after incubated at 30-70 degrees C for 1 h. The enzyme was stable at 30-40 degrees C and pH 4-6, and the Km and Vmax values were 0.52 mg x ml(-1) and 0.7 deltaE680 x h(-1), respectively. PMID:15320411

  19. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D.; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-04-02

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections.

  20. Functional expression of CD137 (4-1BB) on T helper follicular cells

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Carlos; Echeveste, Jose I; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Solorzano, Jose L; Perez-Gracia, Jose L; Idoate, Miguel A; Lopez-Picazo, Jose M; Sanchez-Paulete, Alfonso R; Labiano, Sara; Rouzaut, Ana; Oñate, Carmen; Aznar, Angela; Lozano, Maria D; Melero, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    CD137 (4-1BB) is a surface protein initially discovered to mark activated T lymphocytes. However, its broader expression pattern also encompasses activated NK cells, B cells and myeloid cells, including mature dendritic cells. In this study, we have immunostained for CD137 on paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues including tonsils, lymph nodes, ectopic tertiary lymphoid tissue in Hashimoto thyroiditis and cancer. Surprisingly, immunostaining mainly decorated intrafollicular lymphocytes in the tissues analyzed, with only scattered staining in interfollicular areas. Moreover, pathologic lymphoid follicles in follicular lymphoma and tertiary lymphoid tissue associated with non-small cell lung cancer showed a similar pattern of immunostaining. Multispectral fluorescence cytometry demonstrated that CD137 expression was restricted to CD4+ CXCR5+ follicular T helper lymphocytes (TFH cells) in tonsils and lymph nodes. Short-term culture of lymph node cell suspensions in the presence of either an agonistic anti-CD137 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or CD137-ligand stimulated the functional upregulation of TFH cells in 3 out of 6 cases, as indicated by CD40L surface expression and cytokine production. As a consequence, immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies targeting CD137 (such as urelumab and PF-05082566) should be expected to primarily act on this lymphocyte subset, thus modifying ongoing humoral immune responses in patients with autoimmune disease and cancer. PMID:26587331

  1. Detection of a large sample of γ Doradus stars from Kepler space photometry and high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Yakushechkin, A.; Debosscher, J.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Pápics, P. I.; de Vries, B. L.; Lombaert, R.; Hrudkova, M.; Frémat, Y.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The launches of the MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler missions opened up a new era in asteroseismology, the study of stellar interiors via interpretation of pulsation patterns observed at the surfaces of large groups of stars. These space missions deliver a huge amount of high-quality photometric data suitable to study numerous pulsating stars. Aims: Our ultimate goal is a detection and analysis of an extended sample of γ Dor-type pulsating stars with the aim to search for observational evidence of non-uniform period spacings and rotational splittings of gravity modes in main-sequence stars typically twice as massive as the Sun. This kind of diagnostic can be used to deduce the internal rotation law and to estimate the amount of rotational mixing in the near core regions. Methods: We applied an automated supervised photometric classification method to select a sample of 69 Gamma Doradus (γ Dor) candidate stars. We used an advanced method to extract the Kepler light curves from the pixel data information using custom masks. For 36 of the stars, we obtained high-resolution spectroscopy with the HERMES spectrograph installed at the Mercator telescope. The spectroscopic data are analysed to determine the fundamental parameters like Teff, log g, vsini, and [M/H]. Results: We find that all stars for which spectroscopic estimates of Teff and log g are available fall into the region of the HR diagram, where the γ Dor and δ Sct instability strips overlap. The stars cluster in a 700 K window in effective temperature; log g measurements suggest luminosity class IV-V, i.e. sub-giant or main-sequence stars. From the Kepler photometry, we identify 45 γ Dor-type pulsators, 14 γ Dor/δ Sct hybrids, and 10 stars, which are classified as "possibly γ Dor/δ Sct hybrid pulsators". We find a clear correlation between the spectroscopically derived vsini and the frequencies of independent pulsation modes. Conclusions: We have shown that our photometric classification based on the

  2. Search for the standard model Higgs Boson in the pp[over]-->ZH-->nunu[over]bb[over] channel.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J-L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; Cruz-Burelo, E De La; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lager, S; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Bihan, A-C Le; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'dell, V; O'neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, K; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Kooten, R Van; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J-R; Toerne, E Von; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2006-10-20

    We report a search for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson based on data collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 260 pb(-1). We study events with missing transverse energy and two acoplanar b jets, which provide sensitivity to the ZH production cross section in the nunu[over]bb[over] channel, and to WH production when the lepton from the W-->lnu decay is undetected. The data are consistent with the SM background expectation, and we set 95% C.L. upper limits on sigma(pp[over]-->ZH/WH)xB(H-->bb[over]) from 3.4/8.3 to 2.5/6.3 pb, for Higgs-boson masses between 105 and 135 GeV. PMID:17155384

  3. Pelargonidin attenuates PDGF-BB-induced aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by direct inhibition of focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Son, Joe Eun; Jeong, Hyein; Kim, Heejoo; Kim, Yeong A; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won

    2014-05-15

    Pelargonidin is a natural red pigment found in fruits and vegetables, and has been reported to exhibit various effects potentially beneficial for human health. However, the possible preventive effects of pelargonidin toward atherosclerosis and mechanisms involved have not been investigated to date. Here, we compared the effects of pelargonidin and its glucoside-conjugated form, pelargonidin-3-glucoside (P3G), on proliferation and migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Pelargonidin, but not P3G, exhibited strong inhibitory effects against PDGF-BB-induced HASMC proliferation and migration, while suppressing PDGF-BB-induced ex vivo rat aortic ring sprouting. Immunoblot analysis revealed that pelargonidin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as F-actin reduction, whereas Src, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt phosphorylation status were not altered. We also observed that the anti-proliferative and migratory effects of both pelargonidin and P3G corresponded with the extent of FAK inhibition. Both in vitro and ex vivo pull-down assays revealed that pelargonidin binds directly with FAK in an adenosine triphosphate-competitive manner, suggesting that FAK could be a molecular target of pelargonidin. Interestingly, pelargonidin did not exhibit inhibitory effects on the proliferation, migration or FAK phosphorylation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Taken together, our results suggest that pelargonidin exhibits potential preventive effects toward atherosclerosis through the attenuation of HASMC proliferation and migration, as well as aortic sprouting via the direct inhibition of FAK activity. PMID:24582770

  4. Dual delivery of chlorhexidine and platelet-derived growth factor-BB for enhanced wound healing and infection control.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Gehan; Brey, Eric M

    2013-02-01

    Wound treatment can require molecules that both enhance healing and control infection. As in many biomedical applications, the options for therapeutic molecules may include both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. The goal of this study was to investigate a polymer system for drug delivery that simultaneously delivers platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, a hydrophilic protein known to promote wound healing, and chlorhexidine (CHX), a hydrophobic antimicrobial agent for infection treatment. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared using different polymer formulations in a double emulsion process. CHX encapsulation efficiency was 19.6±0.8% and 28.9±1.5% for PLGA 50:50 and 85:15, respectively. The presence of CHX significantly increased PDGF-BB encapsulation efficiency relative to PDGF-BB alone. Both molecules could be released for up to 50 days and exhibited bioactivity for greater than 3 (PLGA 85:15) or 8 (PLGA 50:50) weeks using in vitro bacteria and cellular assays. An infected wound model was used to evaluate the system in vivo. Wounds treated with the dual delivery system showed decreased levels of infection and increased healing. Vascular analysis of wound tissues also showed higher levels of mature vasculature with the delivery of PDGF-BB. In conclusion, we have evaluated a drug delivery system for simultaneous delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules and have shown that this system can improve healing and reduce bacteria levels in an infected wound model. This system could be applied to other therapeutic applications where sustained delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules is required. PMID:23063555

  5. A luminol electrochemiluminescence aptasensor based on glucose oxidase modified gold nanoparticles for measurement of platelet-derived growth factor BB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun-Tao; Shi, Gui-Fang; Huang, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yan-Ming; Ren, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A sandwich-type luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) is fabricated. For this proposed ECL aptasensor, a multilayered AuNPs-electrochemically reduced graphene (AuNPs-EG) nanocomposite film was formed on the GCE surface as the base of the aptasensor through a co-electrodeposition method. The AuNPs-EG composites possess high conductivity to promote the electron transfer at the electrode interface and good biocompatibility and large surface area to capture large amounts of primary aptamer (Apt1), thus amplifying the detection response. Moreover, glucose oxidase (GOD) functionalized AuNPs labeled secondary aptamer (GOD-Apt2-AuNPs) was designed as the signal probe for the sandwiched aptasensor. Enhanced sensitivity was obtained by in situ generation of H2O2 from reaction between GOD and glucose and the excellent catalytic behavior of AuNPs to the ECL of the luminol-H2O2 system. Under the optimal conditions, the as-prepared ECL aptasensor exhibited excellent analytical property for the detection of PDGF-BB in the range from 1.0×10(-13) to 5.0×10(-10) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.7×10(-14) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The application of the present protocol was demonstrated by analyzing PDGF-BB in human serum and human urine samples with the recoveries from 85.0% to 110%. PMID:25476280

  6. Targeted Therapies in Liver Fibrosis: Combining the Best Parts of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB and Interferon Gamma

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Fransien; Olinga, Peter; Poelstra, Klaas; Beljaars, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines, growth factors, and other locally produced mediators play key roles in the regulation of disease progression. During liver fibrosis, these mediators orchestrate the balance between pro- and antifibrotic activities as exerted by the hepatic cells. Two important players in this respect are the profibrotic mediator platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and the antifibrotic cytokine interferon gamma (IFNγ). PDGF-BB, produced by many resident and infiltrating cells, causes extensive proliferation, migration, and contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and myofibroblasts. These cells are the extracellular matrix-producing hepatic cells and they highly express the PDGFβ receptor. On the other hand, IFNγ is produced by natural killer cells in fibrotic livers and is endowed with proinflammatory, antiviral, and antifibrotic activities. This cytokine attracted much attention as a possible therapeutic compound in fibrosis. However, clinical trials yielded disappointing results because of low efficacy and adverse effects, most likely related to the dual role of IFNγ in fibrosis. In our studies, we targeted the antifibrotic IFNγ to the liver myofibroblasts. For that, we altered the cell binding properties of IFNγ, by delivery of the IFNγ-nuclear localization sequence to the highly expressed PDGFβ receptor using a PDGFβ receptor recognizing peptide, thereby creating a construct referred to as “Fibroferon” (i.e., fibroblast-targeted interferon γ). In recent years, we demonstrated that HSC-specific delivery of IFNγ increased its antifibrotic potency and improved its general safety profile in vivo, making Fibroferon highly suitable for the treatment of (fibrotic) diseases associated with elevated PDGFβ receptor expression. The present review summarizes the knowledge on these two key mediators, PDGF-BB and IFNγ, and outlines how we used this knowledge to create the cell-specific antifibrotic compound Fibroferon containing parts of both of these

  7. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C.; Aita, V.; Navia, B. A.; Dry, K.; Segal, M.; Devoto, M.; Bruns, G.; Wright, A. F.; Ott, J.; Sieving, P. A.; Swaroop, A.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was thought to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending approximately 3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located approximately 40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected mate shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. PMID:8659520

  8. 75 FR 28786 - Notice of Availability for Donation as a Museum/Memorial, the Battleship ex-IOWA (BB 61)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...The Department of the Navy (DON) hereby gives notice of the re-opening of availability for donation as a museum/memorial the battleship ex-IOWA (BB 61), located at the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benecia, CA. The previous notice of availability for ex-IOWA was published in the Federal Register Vol. 71, No. 60, dated March 29, 2006. This current notice is intended for organizations who have not......

  9. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C.

    1996-07-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was though to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending {approximately}3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located {approximately}40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected male shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. G6b-B inhibits constitutive and agonist-induced signaling by glycoprotein VI and CLEC-2.

    PubMed

    Mori, Jun; Pearce, Andrew C; Spalton, Jennifer C; Grygielska, Beata; Eble, Johannes A; Tomlinson, Michael G; Senis, Yotis A; Watson, Steve P

    2008-12-19

    Platelets play an essential role in wound healing by forming thrombi that plug holes in the walls of damaged blood vessels. To achieve this, platelets express a diverse array of cell surface receptors and signaling proteins that induce rapid platelet activation. In this study we show that two platelet glycoprotein receptors that signal via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or an ITAM-like domain, namely the collagen receptor complex glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-FcR gamma-chain and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), respectively, support constitutive (i.e. agonist-independent) signaling in a cell line model using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay that can detect low level activation of phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma). Constitutive and agonist signaling by both receptors is dependent on Src and Syk family kinases, and is inhibited by G6b-B, a platelet immunoglobulin receptor that has two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in its cytosolic tail. Mutation of the conserved tyrosines in the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs prevents the inhibitory action of G6b-B. Interestingly, the inhibitory activity of G6b-B is independent of the Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain containing tyrosine phosphatases, SHP1 and SHP2, and the inositol 5'-phosphatase, SHIP. Constitutive signaling via Src and Syk tyrosine kinases is observed in platelets and is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of GPVI-FcR gamma-chain and CLEC-2. We speculate that inhibition of constitutive signaling through Src and Syk tyrosine kinases by G6b-B may help to prevent unwanted platelet activation. PMID:18955485

  11. Vibrational spectral signatures of crystalline cellulose using high resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Lu, Zhou; Velarde, Luis; Fu, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wang, Hong-Fei; Yang, Bin

    2015-03-03

    Both the C–H and O–H region spectra of crystalline cellulose were studied using the sub-wavenumber high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) for the first time. The resolution of HR-BB-SFG-VS is about 10-times better than conventional scanning SFG-VS and has the capability of measuring the intrinsic spectral lineshape and revealing many more spectral details. With HR-BB-SFG-VS, we found that in cellulose samples from different sources, including Avicel and cellulose crystals isolated from algae Valonia (Iα) and tunicates (Iβ), the spectral signatures in the O–H region were unique for the two allomorphs, i.e. Iα and Iβ, while the spectral signatures in the C–H regions varied in all samples examined. Even though the origin of the different spectral signatures of the crystalline cellulose in the O–H and C–H vibrational frequency regions are yet to be correlated to the structure of cellulose, these results lead to new spectroscopic methods and opportunities to classify and to understand the basic crystalline structures, as well as variations in polymorphism of the crystalline cellulose.

  12. Vibrational spectral signatures of crystalline cellulose using high resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Libing; Lu, Zhou; Velarde, Luis; Fu, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wang, Hong-Fei; Yang, Bin

    2015-03-03

    Both the C–H and O–H region spectra of crystalline cellulose were studied using the sub-wavenumber high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) for the first time. The resolution of HR-BB-SFG-VS is about 10-times better than conventional scanning SFG-VS and has the capability of measuring the intrinsic spectral lineshape and revealing many more spectral details. With HR-BB-SFG-VS, we found that in cellulose samples from different sources, including Avicel and cellulose crystals isolated from algae Valonia (Iα) and tunicates (Iβ), the spectral signatures in the O–H region were unique for the two allomorphs, i.e. Iα and Iβ, while the spectral signaturesmore » in the C–H regions varied in all samples examined. Even though the origin of the different spectral signatures of the crystalline cellulose in the O–H and C–H vibrational frequency regions are yet to be correlated to the structure of cellulose, these results lead to new spectroscopic methods and opportunities to classify and to understand the basic crystalline structures, as well as variations in polymorphism of the crystalline cellulose.« less

  13. Hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-VLLC integrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chieh; Chu, Chien-An; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Chun-Yu; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-12-14

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system for cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integrations is proposed and demonstrated. For down-link transmission, the light is intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal and optically promoted from 25 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal to 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 20 Gbps/100 GHz MMW data signals based on fiber-wired and fiber-wireless integrations. Good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m RF wireless transport. For up-link transmission, the light is successfully intensity-remodulated with 5-Gbps BB data stream based on fiber-VLLC integration. Good BER performance is achieved over a 40-km SMF and a 10-m free-space VLLC transport. Such a hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative, it gives the benefits of a communication link for broader bandwidth and higher transmission rate. PMID:26698972

  14. Optimized QKD BB84 protocol using quantum dense coding and CNOT gates: feasibility based on probabilistic optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueddana, Amor; Attia, Moez; Chatta, Rihab

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we simulate a fiber-based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol (QKDP) BB84 working at the telecoms wavelength 1550 nm with taking into consideration an optimized attack strategy. We consider in our work a quantum channel composed by probabilistic Single Photon Source (SPS), single mode optical Fiber and quantum detector with high efficiency. We show the advantages of using the Quantum Dots (QD) embedded in micro-cavity compared to the Heralded Single Photon Sources (HSPS). Second, we show that Eve is always getting some information depending on the mean photon number per pulse of the used SPS and therefore, we propose an optimized version of the QKDP BB84 based on Quantum Dense Coding (QDC) that could be implemented by quantum CNOT gates. We evaluate the success probability of implementing the optimized QKDP BB84 when using nowadays probabilistic quantum optical devices for circuit realization. We use for our modeling an abstract probabilistic model of a CNOT gate based on linear optical components and having a success probability of sqrt (4/27), we take into consideration the best SPSs realizations, namely the QD and the HSPS, generating a single photon per pulse with a success probability of 0.73 and 0.37, respectively. We show that the protocol is totally secure against attacks but could be correctly implemented only with a success probability of few percent.

  15. Vibrational Spectral Signatures of Crystalline Cellulose Using High Resolution Broadband Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Lu, Zhou; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Fu, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Ding, Shi-You; Ragauskas, Art J.; Wang, Hongfei; Yang, Bin

    2015-03-03

    Here we reported the first sub-wavenumber high-resolution broadband sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS) study on both the C-H and O-H region spectra of crystalline cellulose. HR-BB-SFG-VS has about 10 times better resolution than the conventional scanning SFG-VS and is known to be able to measure the intrinsic spectral lineshape and to resolve much more spectral details. With HR-BB-SFG-VS, we found that in cellulose from different sources, including Avicel and cellulose crystals isolated from algae Valonia (Iα) and tunicates (Iβ), the spectral signatures in the OH regions were unique for different allomorphs, i.e. Iα and Iβ, while the spectral signatures in the C-H regions varied in all samples examined. Even though the origin of the different behaviors of the crystalline cellulose in the O-H and C-H vibrational frequency regions is yet to be correlated to the structure of cellulose, these results provided new spectroscopic methods and opportunities to classify and understand the basic crystalline structure, as well as variations, in polymorphism of the crystalline cellulose structure.

  16. Mice Lacking the ITIM-Containing Receptor G6b-B Exhibit Macrothrombocytopenia and Aberrant Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Jun; Bem, Danai; Finney, Brenda; Heising, Silke; Gissen, Paul; White, James G.; Berndt, Michael C.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Douglas, Michael R.; Campbell, Robert D.; Watson, Steve P.; Senis, Yotis A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are highly reactive cell fragments that adhere to exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) and prevent excessive blood loss by forming clots. Paradoxically, megakaryocytes, which produce platelets in the bone marrow, remain relatively refractory to the ECM-rich environment of the bone marrow despite having the same repertoire of receptors as platelets. These include the ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif)–containing collagen receptor complex, which consists of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and the Fc receptor γ-chain, and the ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based inhibition motif)–containing receptor G6b-B. We showed that mice lacking G6b-B exhibited macrothrombocytopenia (reduced platelet numbers and the presence of enlarged platelets) and a susceptibility to bleeding as a result of aberrant platelet production and function. Platelet numbers were markedly reduced in G6b-B–deficient mice compared to those in wild-type mice because of increased platelet turnover. Furthermore, megakaryocytes in G6b-B–deficient mice showed enhanced metalloproteinase production, which led to increased shedding of cell-surface receptors, including GPVI and GPIba. In addition, G6b-B–deficient megakaryocytes exhibited reduced integrin-mediated functions and defective formation of proplatelets, the long filamentous projections from which platelets bud off. Together, these findings establish G6b-B as a major inhibitory receptor regulating megakaryocyte activation, function, and platelet production. PMID:23112346

  17. BB0347, from the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, Is Surface Exposed and Interacts with the CS1 Heparin-Binding Domain of Human Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Gaultney, Robert A.; Gonzalez, Tammy; Floden, Angela M.; Brissette, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process. PMID:24086600

  18. STAR FORMATION IN 30 DORADUS

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi, Guido; Spezzi, Loredana; Sirianni, Marco; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Panagia, Nino; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard; Beccari, Giacomo; Balick, Bruce; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Marcella Carollo, C.; Disney, Michael J.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2011-09-20

    Using observations obtained with the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the central regions of 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterize and quantify this effect using young massive main-sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for most objects in the field. We then search for pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (>4{sigma}) H{alpha} excess emission and find about 1150 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one-third of these objects are younger than {approx}4 Myr, compatible with the age of the massive stars in the central ionizing cluster R 136, whereas the rest have ages up to {approx}30 Myr, with a median age of {approx}12 Myr. This indicates that star formation has proceeded over an extended period of time, although we cannot discriminate between an extended episode and a series of short and frequent bursts that are not resolved in time. While the younger PMS population preferentially occupies the central regions of the cluster, older PMS objects are more uniformly distributed across the field and are remarkably few at the very center of the cluster. We attribute this latter effect to photo-evaporation of the older circumstellar disks caused by the massive ionizing members of R 136.

  19. Star Formation in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, Francesco; Panagia, Nino; Beccari, Giacomo; Spezzi, Loredana; Sirianni, Marco; Andersen, Morten; Mutchler, Max; Balick, Bruce; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C. Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I.; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Young, Erick T.

    2011-09-01

    Using observations obtained with the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the central regions of 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterize and quantify this effect using young massive main-sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for most objects in the field. We then search for pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (>4σ) Hα excess emission and find about 1150 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one-third of these objects are younger than ~4 Myr, compatible with the age of the massive stars in the central ionizing cluster R 136, whereas the rest have ages up to ~30 Myr, with a median age of ~12 Myr. This indicates that star formation has proceeded over an extended period of time, although we cannot discriminate between an extended episode and a series of short and frequent bursts that are not resolved in time. While the younger PMS population preferentially occupies the central regions of the cluster, older PMS objects are more uniformly distributed across the field and are remarkably few at the very center of the cluster. We attribute this latter effect to photo-evaporation of the older circumstellar disks caused by the massive ionizing members of R 136. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) based label-free aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor-BB and its logic gate application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangfeng; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-15

    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is often overexpressed in human malignant tumors as an indicator for tumor angiogenesis. Here by the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DNA-Ag fluorescent nanoclusters (NCs) and G-quadruplex/hemin complexes, we present a sensitive label-free fluorescent sensor for PDGF-BB. In the presence of PDGF-BB, the specific conjugation with its aptamer induced the conformational change of the duplex-like DNA sequence, releasing the G-quadruplex sequence part. Then in the presence of hemin and K(+), the horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) was formed. With the electron transfer between the DNA-Ag NCs to the hemin Fe (III) center of HRP-DNAzyme, the PET occurred with a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the DNA-Ag NCs. The detection performance such as selectivity, linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and the quenching capability of HRP-DNAzyme were estimated. The detection range for PDGF-BB is from 5×10(-13) to 1×10(-8) M and the detection limit is 1×10(-13) M. The experimental results confirmed that the novel fluorescent aptasensor possessed a good sensitivity and high selectivity for PDGF-BB. In addition, the developed probe is nontoxic, label-free only involving one-step hybridization without sophisticated fabrication process. Furthermore, based on this quenching mode occurred by PDGF-BB and hemin, using PDGF-BB and hemin as inputs and the fluorescence signal as an output, a logic gate has been fabricated. PMID:25150781

  1. Suppressive effect of formononetin on platelet-derived growth factor-BB-stimulated proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Suixin; Cai, Ying; Xie, Kangling; Zhang, Wenliang; Dong, Lei; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Fan; Dun, Yaoshan; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Formononetin, a phytoestrogen extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus, has been widely used in Chinese tradition medicine due to its protective effects against certain symptoms of cancer, hypertension, inflammation, hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. However, the effect of formononetin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism, remains largely unclear. In the present study, treatment with formononetin significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of human VSMCs. Investigation into the underlying molecular mechanism revealed that the administration of formononetin suppressed PDGF-BB-stimulated switch of VSMCs to a proliferative phenotype. Furthermore, treatment with formononetin inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced upregulation of cell cycle-related proteins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2) and MMP9. In addition, the that administration of formononetin inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT induced by PDGF-BB in VSMCs. The present results suggest that formononetin has a suppressive effect on PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs proliferation and migration, which may occur partly via the inhibition of AKT signaling pathway. Therefore, formononetin may be useful for the treatment of intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis and restenosis. PMID:27588108

  2. Porous membrane with reverse gradients of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 for tendon-to-bone repair: in vitro evaluation on adipose-derived stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Min, Hyun Ki; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, Jong Min; Im, Gun Il; Lee, Jin Ho

    2014-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 membrane with reverse gradients of dual platelet-derived growth factor-β (PDGF-BB) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) concentrations was fabricated using a diffusion method to investigate the effect of reverse gradients of dual growth factor concentrations on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) differentiations, such as tenogenesis and osteogenesis. The PDGF-BB and BMP-2 were continuously released from the membrane for up to 35 days, with reversely increasing/decreasing growth factors along the membrane length. Human ASCs were seeded on the membrane with reverse PDGF-BB and BMP-2 gradients. The cells were confluent after 1 week of culture, regardless of growth factor types or concentrations on the membrane. Gene expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction), Western blot and immunohistological analyses after 1 and 2 weeks of ASC culture showed that the membrane sections with higher PDGF-BB and lower BMP-2 concentrations provided a better environment for ASC tenogenesis, while the membrane sections with higher BMP-2 and lower PDGF-BB concentrations were better for promoting osteogenesis. The results suggest that the membrane with reverse gradients of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 may be promising for tendon-to-bone repair, as most essential biological processes are mediated by gradients of biological molecules in the body. PMID:24370639

  3. Sustained functional improvement by hepatocyte growth factor-like small molecule BB3 after focal cerebral ischemia in rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, Rafael E; Izutsu, Miwa; Sasaki, Toshihiro; Sheng, Huaxin; Zheng, Yi; Sadeghian, Homa; Qin, Tao; von Bornstadt, Daniel; Herisson, Fanny; Duan, Bin; Li, Jing-Song; Jiang, Kai; Pearlstein, Molly; Pearlstein, Robert D; Smith, David E; Goldberg, Itzhak D; Ayata, Cenk; Warner, David S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), efficacious in preclinical models of acute central nervous system injury, is burdened by administration of full-length proteins. A multiinstitutional consortium investigated the efficacy of BB3, a small molecule with HGF-like activity that crosses the blood–brain barrier in rodent focal ischemic stroke using Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) and Good Laboratory Practice guidelines. In rats, BB3, begun 6 hours after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) reperfusion, or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) onset, and continued for 14 days consistently improved long-term neurologic function independent of sex, age, or laboratory. BB3 had little effect on cerebral infarct size and no effect on blood pressure. BB3 increased HGF receptor c-Met phosphorylation and synaptophysin expression in penumbral tissue consistent with a neurorestorative mechanism from HGF-like activity. In mouse tMCAO, BB3 starting 10 minutes after reperfusion and continued for 14 days improved neurologic function that persisted for 8 weeks in some, but not all measures. Study in animals with comorbidities and those exposed to common stroke drugs are the next steps to complete preclinical assessment. These data, generated in independent, masked, and rigorously controlled settings, are the first to suggest that the HGF pathway can potentially be harnessed by BB3 for neurologic benefit after ischemic stroke. PMID:25712497

  4. Histologic and Histomorphometric Comparison of Bone Regeneration Between Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB in Experimental Groups.

    PubMed

    Guven, Gokhan; Gultekin, B Alper; Guven, Gamze Senol; Guzel, Elif; Furat, Selenay; Ersanli, Selim

    2016-05-01

    Efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) delivered via absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) on bone formation was evaluated in guinea pig tibias. Three-millimeter-circular bone tibia defects were created in 24 guinea pigs assigned randomly to 4 groups according to the following defect filling materials: ACS only, rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, or empty. New bone formation was evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically at 15 (early healing) and 45 days (late healing). Mean new bone per total defect area ratio was 0.73, 0.57, 0.43, and 0.42 in rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, ACS only, and empty groups at early healing, respectively. During early healing, significantly more new bone formation was observed in rhBMP-2+ACS and rhPDGF-BB+ACS groups than in the control groups. New bone formation was significantly higher with rhBMP-2+ACS than with rhPDGF-BB+ACS. Mean new bone per total defect area ratio was 0.81, 0.86, 0.74, and 0.75 in the rhBMP-2+ACS, rhPDGF-BB+ACS, ACS only, and empty groups at late healing, respectively. During late healing, new bone formation was significantly higher in the rhPDGF-BB+ACS group relative to both control groups, but the results did not differ significantly from those in the rhBMP-2+ACS group. New bone formation in the rhBMP-2+ACS group did not change significantly between the healing periods. In the rhPDGF-BB+ACS group, however, new bone formation was significantly higher in the late healing period. Both growth factors accelerated new bone formation in the early healing period. Although rhBMP-2 was more effective in the early healing period, the effects of rhPDGF-BB were longer lasting. PMID:27092911

  5. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  6. Independent Action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 Protein in Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Steven L.; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Uffman, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  7. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor BB, erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F R L; Steinborn, R; Grausgruber, H; Wolfesberger, B; Walter, I

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) on neoplastic cells has led to concerns about the safety of treating anaemic cancer patients with EPO. In addition to its endocrine function, the receptor may play a role in tumour progression through an autocrine mechanism. In this study, the expression of EPO, EPO-R and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was analysed in five feline and 13 canine osteosarcomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPO expression was positive in all tumours by IHC, but EPO mRNA was only detected in 38% of the canine and 40% of the feline samples. EPO-R was expressed in all samples by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and IHC. EPO-R mRNA was expressed at higher levels in all feline tumours, tumour cell lines, and kidney when compared to canine tissues. PDGF-BB expression was variable by IHC, but mRNA was detected in all samples. To assess the functionality of the EPO-R on tumour cells, the proliferation of canine and feline osteosarcoma cell lines was evaluated after EPO administration using an alamarBlue assay and Ki67 immunostaining. All primary cell lines responded to EPO treatment in at least one of the performed assays, but the effect on proliferation was very low indicating only a weak responsiveness of EPO-R. In conclusion, since EPO and its receptor are expressed by canine and feline osteosarcomas, an autocrine or paracrine tumour progression mechanism cannot be excluded, although in vitro data suggest a minimal role of EPO-R in osteosarcoma cell proliferation. PMID:26189892

  8. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor BB, erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, F.R.L.; Steinborn, R.; Grausgruber, H.; Wolfesberger, B.; Walter, I.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of expression of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) on neoplastic cells has led to concerns about the safety of treating anaemic cancer patients with EPO. In addition to its endocrine function, the receptor may play a role in tumour progression through an autocrine mechanism. In this study, the expression of EPO, EPO-R and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was analysed in five feline and 13 canine osteosarcomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). EPO expression was positive in all tumours by IHC, but EPO mRNA was only detected in 38% of the canine and 40% of the feline samples. EPO-R was expressed in all samples by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and IHC. EPO-R mRNA was expressed at higher levels in all feline tumours, tumour cell lines, and kidney when compared to canine tissues. PDGF-BB expression was variable by IHC, but mRNA was detected in all samples. To assess the functionality of the EPO-R on tumour cells, the proliferation of canine and feline osteosarcoma cell lines was evaluated after EPO administration using an alamarBlue assay and Ki67 immunostaining. All primary cell lines responded to EPO treatment in at least one of the performed assays, but the effect on proliferation was very low indicating only a weak responsiveness of EPO-R. In conclusion, since EPO and its receptor are expressed by canine and feline osteosarcomas, an autocrine or paracrine tumour progression mechanism cannot be excluded, although in vitro data suggest a minimal role of EPO-R in osteosarcoma cell proliferation. PMID:26189892

  9. Piperine inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Pa; Lee, Kwan; Park, Won-Hwan; Kim, Hyuck; Hong, Heeok

    2015-02-01

    The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in blood vessels are important in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Piperine, a major component of black pepper, has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the antiatherosclerotic effects of piperine have not been investigated. In this study, the effects of piperine on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs were investigated. The antiproliferative effects of piperine were determined using MTT assays, cell counting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blots. Our results showed that piperine significantly attenuated the proliferation of VSMCs by increasing the expression of p27(kip1), regulating the mRNA expression of cell cycle enzymes (cyclin D, cyclin E, and PCNA), and decreasing the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in a noncytotoxic concentration-dependent manner (30-100 μM). Moreover, we examined the effects of piperine on the migration of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs, as determined by the Boyden chamber assay, H2DCFDA staining, and western blots. Our results showed that 100 μM piperine decreased cell migration, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our results suggest that piperine inhibits PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and the migration of VSMCs by inducing cell cycle arrest and suppressing MAPK phosphorylation and ROS. These findings suggest that piperine may be beneficial for the treatment of vascular-related disorders and diseases. PMID:25384161

  10. DASCH DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLE NOVA-LIKE OUTBURST IN A PECULIAR SYMBIOTIC BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Sumin; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Moe, Maxwell; Kurucz, Robert L.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Servillat, Mathieu; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2012-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of a peculiar variable (designated DASCH J075731.1+201735 or J0757) discovered from our DASCH project using the digitized Harvard College Observatory archival photographic plates. It brightened by about 1.5 mag in B within a year starting in 1942, and then slowly faded back to its pre-outburst brightness from 1943 to 1950s. The mean brightness level was stable before and after the outburst, and ellipsoidal variations with a period of P = 119.18 {+-} 0.07 days are seen, suggesting that the star is tidally distorted. Radial-velocity measurements indicate that the orbit is nearly circular (e = 0.02 {+-} 0.01) with a spectroscopic period that is the same as the photometric period. The binary consists of a 1.1 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Sun} M0III star, and a 0.6 {+-} 0.2 M{sub Sun} companion, very likely a white dwarf (WD). Unlike other symbiotic binaries, there is no sign of emission lines or a stellar wind in the spectra. With an outburst timescale of {approx}10 years and estimated B-band peak luminosity M{sub B} {approx} 0.7, J0757 is different from any other known classic or symbiotic novae. The most probable explanation of the outburst is hydrogen shell burning on the WD, although an accretion-powered flare cannot be ruled out.

  11. THE RED NOVA-LIKE VARIABLE IN M31-A BLUE CANDIDATE IN QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Prialnik, Dina; Yaron, Ofer; Kovetz, Attay

    2010-12-10

    M31-RV was an extraordinarily luminous ({approx}10{sup 6} L{sub sun}) eruptive variable, displaying very cool temperatures (roughly 1000 K) as it faded. While this object's peak luminosity matched or exceeded those of the brightest known classical novae, its red colors and cool spectra were very different from those of classical novae. The photometric behavior of M31-RV (and several other very red novae, i.e., luminous eruptive red variables) has led to several models of this apparently new class of astrophysical object. We list these models, which predict very red eruptions and very red remnants decades after the eruptions. One of the most detailed models is that of 'mergebursts'. Mergebursts are (hypothetical) mergers of close binary stars, predicted to rival or exceed the brightest classical novae in luminosity, but to be much cooler and redder than classical novae, and to become slowly hotter and bluer as they age. This prediction suggests two stringent and definitive tests of the mergeburst hypothesis. First, there should always be a cool red remnant, and NOT a hot blue remnant at the site of such an outburst. Second, the inflated envelope of a mergeburst event should be slowly contracting; hence, it must display a slowly rising effective temperature. We have searched the location of M31-RV in multiple observatory archives. Our search revealed a luminous, UV-bright object within 0.''4 (1.5{sigma} of the astrometric position) of M31-RV in archival WFPC2 images taken 10 years after the outburst. Recent Hubble imagery, 20 years after the outburst, determines that this object is still hot and fading; it remains much too hot to be a mergeburst. Furthermore, the effective temperature of this object is declining, contrary to the prediction for mergebursts. If we have correctly identified M31-RV's remnant, it cannot be a mergeburst-but its behavior is consistent with theoretical nova models which erupt on a low-mass white dwarf. Future Hubble UV and visible images could determine if the M31-RV analogs (in M85 and in M99) are also much more blue than mergeburst theory predicts, and if they, too, are cooling in contradiction to mergeburst theory.

  12. PET imaging to non-invasively study immune activation leading to antitumor responses with a 4-1BB agonistic antibody

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) may allow the non-invasive study of the pharmacodynamic effects of agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to 4-1BB (CD137). 4-1BB is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family expressed on activated T cells and other immune cells, and activating 4-1BB antibodies are being tested for the treatment of patients with advanced cancers. Methods We studied the antitumor activity of 4-1BB mAb therapy using [18 F]-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) microPET scanning in a mouse model of colon cancer. Results of microPET imaging were correlated with morphological changes in tumors, draining lymph nodes as well as cell subset uptake of the metabolic PET tracer in vitro. Results The administration of 4-1BB mAb to Balb/c mice induced reproducible CT26 tumor regressions and improved survival; complete tumor shrinkage was achieved in the majority of mice. There was markedly increased [18 F]FDG signal at the tumor site and draining lymph nodes. In a metabolic probe in vitro uptake assay, there was an 8-fold increase in uptake of [3H]DDG in leukocytes extracted from tumors and draining lymph nodes of mice treated with 4-1BB mAb compared to untreated mice, supporting the in vivo PET data. Conclusion Increased uptake of [18 F]FDG by PET scans visualizes 4-1BB agonistic antibody-induced antitumor immune responses and can be used as a pharmacodynamic readout to guide the development of this class of antibodies in the clinic. PMID:24829750

  13. Combined Stimulation of IL-2 and 4-1BB Receptors Augments the Antitumor Activity of E7 DNA Vaccines by Increasing Ag-Specific CTL Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha; Kwon, Byungsuk; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer. Here, we investigate whether concurrent therapy using HPV E7 DNA vaccines (pE7) plus IL-2 vs. IL-15 cDNA and anti-4-1BB Abs might augment antitumor activity against established tumors. IL-2 cDNA was slightly better than IL-15 cDNA as a pE7 adjuvant. Co-delivery of pE7+IL-2 cDNA increased tumor cure rates from 7% to 27%, whereas co-delivery of pE7+IL-2 cDNA with anti-4-1BB Abs increased tumor cure rates from 27% to 67% and elicited long-term memory responses. This increased activity was concomitant with increased induction of Ag-specific CTL activity and IFN-γ responses, but not with Ag-specific IgG production. Moreover, the combined stimulation of IL-2 and 4-1BB receptors with rIL-2 and anti-4-1BB Abs resulted in enhanced production of IFN-γ from Ag-specific CD8+ T cells. However, this effect was abolished by treatment with anti-IL-2 Abs and 4-1BB-Fc, suggesting that the observed effect was IL-2- and anti-4-1BB Ab-specific. A similar result was also obtained for Ag-specific CTL activity. Thus, these studies demonstrate that combined stimulation through the IL-2 and 4-1BB receptors augments the Ag-specific CD8+ CTL responses induced by pE7, increasing tumor cure rates and long-term antitumor immune memory. These findings may have implications for the design of DNA-based therapeutic vaccines against cancer. PMID:24391824

  14. scn1bb, a zebrafish ortholog of SCN1B expressed in excitable and non-excitable cells, affects motor neuron axon morphology and touch sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fein, Amanda J.; Wright, Melissa A.; Slat, Emily A.; Ribera, Angeles B.; Isom, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels initiate and propagate action potentials in excitable cells. Mammalian Na+ channels are composed of one pore-forming α subunit and two β subunits. SCN1B encodes the Na+ channel β1 subunit that modulates channel gating and voltage-dependence, regulates channel cell surface expression, and functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM). We recently identified scn1ba, a zebrafish ortholog of SCN1B. Here we report that zebrafish express a second β1-like paralog, scn1bb. In contrast to the restricted expression of scn1ba mRNA in excitable cells, we detected scn1bb transcripts and protein in several ectodermal derivatives including neurons, glia, the lateral line, peripheral sensory structures, and tissues derived from other germ layers such as the pronephros. As expected for β1 subunits, elimination of Scn1bb protein in vivo by morpholino knock-down reduced Na+ current amplitudes in Rohon-Beard neurons of zebrafish embryos, consistent with effects observed in heterologous systems. Further, after Scn1bb knock-down, zebrafish embryos displayed defects in Rohon-Beard mediated touch sensitivity, demonstrating the significance of Scn1bb modulation of Na+ current to organismal behavior. In addition to effects associated with Na+ current modulation, Scn1bb knockdown produced phenotypes consistent with CAM functions. In particular, morpholino knock-down led to abnormal development of ventrally-projecting spinal neuron axons, defasciculation of the olfactory nerve, and increased hair cell number in the inner ear. We propose that, in addition to modulation of electrical excitability, Scn1bb plays critical developmental roles by functioning as a CAM in the zebrafish embryonic nervous system. PMID:19020043

  15. Combined stimulation of IL-2 and 4-1BB receptors augments the antitumor activity of E7 DNA vaccines by increasing Ag-specific CTL responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha; Kwon, Byungsuk; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer. Here, we investigate whether concurrent therapy using HPV E7 DNA vaccines (pE7) plus IL-2 vs. IL-15 cDNA and anti-4-1BB Abs might augment antitumor activity against established tumors. IL-2 cDNA was slightly better than IL-15 cDNA as a pE7 adjuvant. Co-delivery of pE7+IL-2 cDNA increased tumor cure rates from 7% to 27%, whereas co-delivery of pE7+IL-2 cDNA with anti-4-1BB Abs increased tumor cure rates from 27% to 67% and elicited long-term memory responses. This increased activity was concomitant with increased induction of Ag-specific CTL activity and IFN-γ responses, but not with Ag-specific IgG production. Moreover, the combined stimulation of IL-2 and 4-1BB receptors with rIL-2 and anti-4-1BB Abs resulted in enhanced production of IFN-γ from Ag-specific CD8+ T cells. However, this effect was abolished by treatment with anti-IL-2 Abs and 4-1BB-Fc, suggesting that the observed effect was IL-2- and anti-4-1BB Ab-specific. A similar result was also obtained for Ag-specific CTL activity. Thus, these studies demonstrate that combined stimulation through the IL-2 and 4-1BB receptors augments the Ag-specific CD8+ CTL responses induced by pE7, increasing tumor cure rates and long-term antitumor immune memory. These findings may have implications for the design of DNA-based therapeutic vaccines against cancer. PMID:24391824

  16. Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Corrections to W{sup +}W{sup -}bb Production at Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Kallweit, S.; Pozzorini, S.

    2011-02-04

    Top-antitop quark pairs belong to the most abundantly produced and precisely measurable heavy-particle signatures at hadron colliders and allow for crucial tests of the standard model and new physics searches. Here we report on the calculation of the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to hadronic W{sup +}W{sup -}bb production, which provides a complete NLO description of the production of top-antitop pairs and their subsequent decay into W bosons and bottom quarks, including interferences, off-shell effects, and nonresonant backgrounds. Numerical predictions for the Tevatron and the LHC are presented.

  17. Differentiation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells Is Regulated by PDGF-BB and Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Clifford; Yuan, Yifan; Courtman, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key regulators of vascular disease and circulating smooth muscle progenitor cells may play important roles in vascular repair or remodelling. We developed enhanced protocols to derive smooth muscle progenitors from murine bone marrow and tested whether factors that are increased in atherosclerotic plaques, namely platelet-derived growth factor—BB (PDGF-BB) and monomeric collagen, can influence the smooth muscle specific differentiation, proliferation, and survival of mouse bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. During a 21 day period of culture, bone marrow cells underwent a marked increase in expression of the SMC markers α-SMA (1.93 ± 0.15 vs. 0.0008 ± 0.0003 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d), SM22-α (1.50 ± 0.27 vs. 0.005 ± 0.001 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d) and SM-MHC (0.017 ± 0.004 vs. 0.001 ± 0.001 (ng/ng GAPDH) at 0 d). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation experiments showed that in early culture, the smooth muscle progenitor subpopulation could be identified by high proliferative rates prior to the expression of smooth muscle specific markers. Culture of fresh bone marrow or smooth muscle progenitor cells with PDGF-BB suppressed the expression of α-SMA and SM22-α, in a rapidly reversible manner requiring PDGF receptor kinase activity. Progenitors cultured on polymerized collagen gels demonstrated expression of SMC markers, rates of proliferation and apoptosis similar to that of cells on tissue culture plastic; in contrast, cells grown on monomeric collagen gels displayed lower SMC marker expression, lower growth rates (319 ± 36 vs. 635 ± 97 cells/mm2), and increased apoptosis (5.3 ± 1.6% vs. 1.0 ± 0.5% (Annexin 5 staining)). Our data shows that the differentiation and survival of smooth muscle progenitors are critically affected by PDGF-BB and as well as the substrate collagen structure. PMID:27258003

  18. Mating Success, Longevity, and Fertility of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) in Relation to Body Size and Cry3Bb1-Resistant and Cry3Bb1-Susceptible Genotypes.

    PubMed

    French, Bryan Wade; Hammack, Leslie; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem. The development of effective resistance management programs is often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This study examined the reproductive behavior and biology of western corn rootworm beetles of known body size from lines resistant and susceptible to the Cry3Bb1 protein toxin expressed in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. In crosses between, and within, the resistant and susceptible genotypes, no differences occurred in mating frequency, copulation duration, courtship duration, or fertility; however, females mated with resistant males showed reduced longevity. Body size did not vary with genotype. Larger males and females were not more likely to mate than smaller males and females, but larger females laid more eggs. Moderately strong, positive correlation occurred between the body sizes of successfully mated males and females; however, weak correlation also existed for pairs that did not mate. Our study provided only limited evidence for fitness costs associated with the Cry3Bb1-resistant genotype that might reduce the persistence in populations of the resistant genotype but provided additional evidence for size-based, assortative mating, which could favor the persistence of resistant genotypes affecting body size. PMID:26569315

  19. Mating Success, Longevity, and Fertility of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) in Relation to Body Size and Cry3Bb1-Resistant and Cry3Bb1-Susceptible Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    French, Bryan Wade; Hammack, Leslie; Tallamy, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    Insect resistance to population control methodologies is a widespread problem. The development of effective resistance management programs is often dependent on detailed knowledge regarding the biology of individual species and changes in that biology associated with resistance evolution. This study examined the reproductive behavior and biology of western corn rootworm beetles of known body size from lines resistant and susceptible to the Cry3Bb1 protein toxin expressed in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. In crosses between, and within, the resistant and susceptible genotypes, no differences occurred in mating frequency, copulation duration, courtship duration, or fertility; however, females mated with resistant males showed reduced longevity. Body size did not vary with genotype. Larger males and females were not more likely to mate than smaller males and females, but larger females laid more eggs. Moderately strong, positive correlation occurred between the body sizes of successfully mated males and females; however, weak correlation also existed for pairs that did not mate. Our study provided only limited evidence for fitness costs associated with the Cry3Bb1-resistant genotype that might reduce the persistence in populations of the resistant genotype but provided additional evidence for size-based, assortative mating, which could favor the persistence of resistant genotypes affecting body size. PMID:26569315

  20. Administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in early childhood: a post-trial effect on caries occurrence at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Taipale, T; Pienihäkkinen, K; Alanen, P; Jokela, J; Söderling, E

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bifidobacteria are widely used in the prevention of childhood diseases. These bacteria are also associated with caries occurrence. The present secondary analysis in a low-caries population evaluated the effect of early administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on caries occurrence and identified markers of dental decay in early childhood. In the original randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT00638677, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), infants (n = 106) received BB-12, xylitol or sorbitol tablets from the age of 1-2 months to 2 years with a slow-release pacifier or a spoon (daily dose of BB-12 10(10) colony-forming units, polyol 200-600 mg). The present data were collected using clinical examinations and questionnaires at the age of 4 years. The occurrence of dental caries was assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Oral hygiene status and mutans streptococci (MS) levels were also determined. No differences were detected between the study groups in the occurrence of enamel caries (p = 0.268) or obvious dentinal caries (p = 0.201). The occurrence of caries was associated with daily consumption of sweet drinks (p = 0.028), visible plaque observed (p = 0.002) and MS detected in the dental plaque (p = 0.002). Administration of BB-12 in infancy does not seem to increase or decrease the occurrence of caries by 4 years of age in a low-caries population. PMID:23571819

  1. Carbon catabolite repressor gene BbCre1 influences carbon source uptake but does not have a big impact on virulence in Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kai; Luo, Zhibing; Jiang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Yonghong; Pei, Yan

    2011-03-01

    A gene (BbCre1, GenBank accession number EF108309) encoding a carbon catabolite repressor (CreA) with two Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger regions and a nuclear localization signal was cloned from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Overexpression and antisense strategies were used to investigate the biological functions of this gene. Compared with the wild type, the conidial yield and colony growth of BbCre1-overexpression transformants were significantly decreased on the plates with xylose or ethanol as the sole carbon source. With glucose as the sole carbon source, a significant difference was observed in the activity of Pr1A-like protease among BbCre1-overexpression transformants, antisense-BbCre1 transformants and the wild type. However, bioassays showed that knockdown or overexpression of BbCre1 did not have a significant impact on the virulence of B. bassiana to aphids. These results imply that the fungus remains virulent, even when simpler, less expensive nutrients are available, i.e. glucose. PMID:21130770

  2. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide CPS-2 protects human mesangial cells from PDGF-BB-induced proliferation through the PDGF/ERK and TGF-β1/Smad pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Huan; Jiang, Huixing; Luo, Chen; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2014-02-15

    CPS-2, a Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide, has been demonstrated to have significant therapeutic activity against chronic renal failure. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, we found that CPS-2 could inhibit PDGF-BB-induced human mesangial cells (HMCs) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CPS-2 notably suppressed the expression of α-SMA, PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFRβ), TGF-β1, and Smad 3 in PDGF-BB-treated HMCs. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-stimulated ERK activation was significantly inhibited by CPS-2, and this inhibitory effect was synergistically potentiated by U0126. CPS-2 could prevent the PDGFRβ promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB, and return expression of PDGFRβ, TGF-β1, and TGFβRI to normal levels while cells were under PDGFRβ and ERK silencing conditions and transfected with DN-ERK. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CPS-2 reduces PDGF-BB-induced cell proliferation through the PDGF/ERK and TGF-β1/Smad pathways, and it may have bi-directional regulatory effects on the PDGF/ERK cellular signaling pathway. PMID:24309234

  3. Identification and characterization of an insect toxin protein, Bb70p, from the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, using Galleria mellonella as a model system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Lihua, Guo; Xu, Jianchu; Holmes, Keith A; Dewen, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    An insect-toxic protein, Bb70p, was purified from Beauveria bassiana 70 using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Bb70p has a high affinity for anion exchangers and 2D electrophoresis results revealed a single spot with a molecular weight of 35.5 kDa and an iso-electric point of ∼4.5. Bb70p remains active from 4 to 60°C, within a pH range of 4-10, but is more active in slightly acidic pH. A pure protein, Bb70p does not have any carbohydrate side chains. The protein caused high mortality by intra-haemocelic injection into Galleria mellonella with LD50 of 334.4 μg/g body weight and activates the phenol oxidase cascade. With a partial amino acid sequence comparison using the NCBI database, we showed no homology to known toxin proteins of entomopathogenic fungi. Thus, Bb70p appears to be an insect toxin protein, demonstrating novelty. Identification of this insect-toxic protein presents potential to enhance the virulence of B. bassiana through genetic manipulation. PMID:26592942

  4. Lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced retinal pigment epithelial cell migration by suppression of PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chi-Ming; Fang, Jia-You; Lin, Hsin-Huang; Yang, Chi-Yea; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2009-10-09

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play a dominant role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is the leading cause of failure in retinal reattachment surgery. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exhibits chemotaxis and proliferation effects on RPE cells in PVR. In this study, the inhibitory effect of lycopene on PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration is examined. In electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and Transwell migration assays, significant suppression of PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration by lycopene is observed. Cell viability assays show no cytotoxicity of lycopene on RPE cells. Lycopene shows no effect on ARPE19 cell adhesion and is found to inhibit PDGF-BB-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the underlying signaling pathways of PI3K, Akt, ERK and p38 activation. However, PDGF-BB and lycopene show no effects on JNK activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced ARPE19 cell migration through inhibition of PI3K/Akt, ERK and p38 activation.

  5. Forsythoside A Inhibits BVDV Replication via TRAF2-Dependent CD28-4-1BB Signaling in Bovine PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Song, Quan-Jiang; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Cai, Dong-Jie; Zhang, Wang; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), is an important pathogen of cattle and other wild animals throughout the world. BVDV infection typically leads to an impaired immune response in cattle. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Forsythoside A (FTA) on BVDV infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that Forsythoside A could not only promote proliferation of PBMCs and T cells activation but also inhibit the replication of BVDV as well as apoptosis induced by BVDV. FTA treatment could counteract the BVDV-induced overproduction of IFN-γ to maintain the immune homeostasis in bovine PBMCs. At same time, FTA can enhance the secretion of IL-2. What's more, BVDV promotes the expression of CD28, 4-1BB and TRAF-2, which can be modulated by FTA. Our data suggest that FTA protects PBMCs from BVDV infection possibly via TRAF2-dependent CD28-4-1BB signaling, which may activate PBMCs in response to BVDV infection. Therefore, this aids in the development of an effective adjuvant for vaccines against BVDV and other specific FTA-based therapies for preventing BVDV infection. PMID:27617959

  6. PDGF-BB Promotes Type I IFN-Dependent Vascular Alterations and Monocyte Recruitment in a Model of Dermal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, John S; Fang, Terry C; Reynolds, Taylor L; Sofia, Daniel J; Hamann, Stefan; Burkly, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that can result in extensive tissue damage in the skin and, in advanced cases, internal organs. Vasculopathy, aberrant immune activation, and tissue fibrosis are three hallmarks of the disease that have been identified, with vasculopathy and aberrant immunity being amongst the earliest events. However, a mechanistic link between these processes has not been established. Here, we have identified a novel role of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGFRβ activation in combination with dermal injury induced by bleomycin as a driver of early, aberrant expression of interferon stimulatory genes (ISGs) and inflammatory monocyte infiltration. Activation of PDGFRβ in combination with bleomycin-induced dermal injury resulted in increased dermal thickness, vascular density, monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and exacerbation of tissue injury. Many of these features were dependent on IFNAR-signaling, and an increase in the number of interferon-beta (IFN-β) producing monocytes cells was found in the skin lesions. Taken together, these results identify a novel link between PDGFRβ activation, and Type I IFN-driven vascular maintenance and monocyte/macrophage cell recruitment, and provide a potential explanation linking key features of SSc that were previously thought to be unrelated. PMID:27618690

  7. B{sup '}s with direct decays: Tevatron and LHC discovery prospects in the bb+Ee{sub T} channel

    SciTech Connect

    Alwall, Johan; Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason; Su Shufang

    2011-10-01

    We explore the discovery prospects for B{sup '}B{sup '} pair production followed by direct decays B{sup '}{yields}bX, where B{sup '} is a new quark and X is a long-lived neutral particle. We develop optimized cuts in the (m{sub B}{sup '},m{sub X}) plane and show that the 7 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 1(10) fb{sup -1} may exclude masses up to m{sub B}{sup '}{approx}620(800) GeV, completely covering the mass range allowed for new quarks that get mass from electroweak symmetry breaking. This analysis is applicable to other models with bbEe{sub T} signals, including supersymmetric models with bottom squarks decaying directly to neutralinos, and models with exotic quarks decaying directly to GeV-scale dark matter. To accommodate these and other interpretations, we also present model-independent results for the bbEe{sub T} cross section required for exclusion and discovery.

  8. 4-1BB costimulation ameliorates T cell exhaustion induced by tonic signaling of chimeric antigen receptors.

    PubMed

    Long, Adrienne H; Haso, Waleed M; Shern, Jack F; Wanhainen, Kelsey M; Murgai, Meera; Ingaramo, Maria; Smith, Jillian P; Walker, Alec J; Kohler, M Eric; Venkateshwara, Vikas R; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Patterson, George H; Fry, Terry J; Orentas, Rimas J; Mackall, Crystal L

    2015-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 have mediated dramatic antitumor responses in hematologic malignancies, but tumor regression has rarely occurred using CARs targeting other antigens. It remains unknown whether the impressive effects of CD19 CARs relate to greater susceptibility of hematologic malignancies to CAR therapies, or superior functionality of the CD19 CAR itself. We show that tonic CAR CD3-ζ phosphorylation, triggered by antigen-independent clustering of CAR single-chain variable fragments, can induce early exhaustion of CAR T cells that limits antitumor efficacy. Such activation is present to varying degrees in all CARs studied, except the highly effective CD19 CAR. We further determine that CD28 costimulation augments, whereas 4-1BB costimulation reduces, exhaustion induced by persistent CAR signaling. Our results provide biological explanations for the antitumor effects of CD19 CARs and for the observations that CD19 CAR T cells incorporating the 4-1BB costimulatory domain are more persistent than those incorporating CD28 in clinical trials. PMID:25939063

  9. Dual-primer self-generation SERS signal amplification assay for PDGF-BB using label-free aptamer.

    PubMed

    Ye, SuJuan; Zhai, XiaoMo; Wu, YanYing; Kuang, ShaoPing

    2016-05-15

    Highly sensitive detection of proteins, especially those associated with cancers, is essential to biomedical research as well as clinical diagnosis. In this work, a simple and novel one-two-three signal amplification surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method for the detection of protein is fabricated by using label-free aptamer and dual-primer self-generation. Platelet-derived growth factor B-chain (PDGF-BB) is selected as the model protein. The one-two-three cascade DNA amplification means one target-aptamer binding event, two hairpin DNA switches and three DNA amplification reactions. This strategy possesses some remarkable features compared to conventional signal amplification methods: (i) A smart probe including a label-free aptamer is fabricated, for suitable hybridization without hindering the affinity of the aptamer toward its target. (ii) Using the unique structure switch of the aptamer and cooperator, a one-two-three working mode is developed to amplify the SERS signal. The amplification efficiency is enhanced. Given the unique and attractive characteristics, a simple and universal strategy is designed to accomplish ultrasensitive detection of proteins. The detection limit of PDGF-BB via SERS detection is 0.42 pM, with the linear range from 1.0×10(-12)M to 10(-8)M. It is potentially universal because the aptamer can be easily designed for biomolecules whose aptamers undergo similar conformational changes. PMID:26703991

  10. Involvement of miR-9/MCPIP1 axis in PDGF-BB-mediated neurogenesis in neuronal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, L; Chao, J; Kook, Y H; Gao, Y; Yao, H; Buch, S J

    2013-01-01

    Highly conserved microRNA-9 (miR-9) has a critical role in various cellular processes including neurogenesis. However, its regulation by neurotropins that are known to mediate neurogenesis remains poorly defined. In this study, we identify platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-mediated upregulation of miR-9, which in turn downregulates its target gene monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), as a key player in modulating proliferation, neuronal differentiation as well as migration of neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). Results indicate that miR-9-mediated NPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation involves signaling via the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathways, and that NPC migration involves CREB but not the NF-κB signaling. These findings thus suggest that miR-9-mediated downregulation of MCPIP1 acts as a molecular switch regulation of neurogenesis. PMID:24336080

  11. SARM modulates MyD88-mediated TLR activation through BB-loop dependent TIR-TIR interactions.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Emil; Ding, Jeak Ling; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and initiate an innate immune response by recruiting intracellular adaptor proteins via heterotypic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain interactions. Of the five TIR domain-containing adaptor proteins identified, Sterile α- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) is functionally unique; suppressing immune signalling instead of promoting it. Here we demonstrate that the recombinantly expressed and purified SARM TIR domain interacts with both the major human TLR adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. A single glycine residue located in the BB-loop of the SARM TIR domain, G601, was identified as essential for interaction. A short peptide derived from this motif was also found to interact with MyD88 in vitro. SARM expression in HEK293 cells was found to significantly suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and TNF-α, an effect lost in the G601A mutant. The same result was observed with cytokine activation initiated by MyD88 expression and stimulation of TLR2 with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), suggesting that SARM is capable of suppressing both TRIF- and MyD88- dependent TLR signalling. Our findings indicate that SARM acts on a broader set of target proteins than previously thought, and that the BB-loop motif is functionally important, giving further insight into the endogenous mechanisms used to suppress inflammation in immune cells. PMID:26592460

  12. Glioma-Derived Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Recruits Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells via Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-α and Remodels Cancer Stroma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; Yamamoto, Seiji; Ishii, Yoko; Sang, Yang; Hamashima, Takeru; Van De, Nguyen; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Inoue, Ran; Mori, Hisashi; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2016-05-01

    Glioma is an aggressive and incurable disease, and is frequently accompanied by augmented platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling. Overexpression of PDGF-B ligand characterizes a specific subclass of glioblastoma multiforme, but the significance of the ligand remains to be elucidated. For this end, we implanted a glioma-cell line transfected with PDGF-BB-overexpressing vector (GL261-PDGF-BB) or control vector (GL261-vector) into wild-type mouse brain, and examined the effect of glioma-derived PDGF on the tumor microenvironment. The volume of GL261-PDGF-BB rapidly increased compared with GL261-vector. Recruitment of many PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-α and Olig2-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells and frequent hemorrhages were observed in GL261-PDGF-BB but not in GL261-vector. We then implanted GL261-PDGF-BB into the mouse brain with and without Pdgfra gene inactivation, corresponding to PDGFRα-knockout (KO) and Flox mice, respectively. The recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells was largely suppressed in PDGFRα-KO than in Flox, whereas the volume of GL261-PDGF-BB was comparable between the two genotypes. Frequent hemorrhage and increased IgG-leakage were associated with aberrant vascular structures within the area where many recruited oligodendrocyte precursor cells accumulated in Flox. In contrast, these vascular phenotypes were largely normalized in PDGFRα-KO. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 in recruited oligodendrocyte precursor cells and decreased claudin-5 in vasculature may underlie the vascular abnormality. Glioma-derived PDGF-B signal induces cancer stroma characteristically seen in high-grade glioma, and should be therapeutically targeted to improve cancer microenvironment. PMID:26945107

  13. tt-bar and W associated Standard Model Higgs search in H{yields}bb-bar, WW(*) final states at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.

    2008-11-23

    The observation with the ATLAS detector at LHC of a Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with tt-bar or W bosons, and decaying into WW(*) and bb-bar final states is reported. In the associated production with top pair, events with Higgs decays to bb-bar and WW(*) are analyzed, characterized by the presence of b jets and two or three leptons; In the associated production with W boson, events with three leptons in the final state are analyzed. These studies are based on the analysis of Monte Carlo signal and background, simulated in details through the experimental apparatus.

  14. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Shin-il; Yoo, Kyu-dong; Lee, Mi-Yea; Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Shin, Hwa-Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  15. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human astrocytes: implications for HIV-associated neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, a known cerebrovascular permeant; subsequently, the present study was aimed at exploring the regulation of MCP-1 by PDGF-BB in astrocytes with implications in HAND. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that exposure of human astrocytes to HIV-1 LAI elevated PDGF-B and MCP-1 levels. Furthermore, treating astrocytes with the human recombinant PDGF-BB protein significantly increased the production and release of MCP-1 at both the RNA and protein levels. MCP-1 induction was regulated by activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways and the downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated increased binding of NFκB to the human MCP-1 promoter following PDGF-BB exposure. Conditioned media from PDGF-BB-treated astrocytes increased monocyte transmigration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), an effect that was blocked by STI-571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) blocker). PDGF-BB-mediated release of MCP-1 was critical for increased permeability in an in vitro BBB model as evidenced by blocking antibody assays. Since MCP-1 is linked to disease severity, understanding its modulation by PDGF-BB could aid in understanding the proinflammatory responses in HAND. These results suggest that astrocyte activation by PDGF-BB

  16. Homolytic Cleavage of a B-B Bond by the Cooperative Catalysis of Two Lewis Bases: Computational Design and Experimental Verification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Honglin; Zhao, Jiyang; Li, Wei; Cao, Jia; Zhu, Chengjian; Li, Shuhua

    2016-05-10

    Density functional theory (DFT) investigations revealed that 4-cyanopyridine was capable of homolytically cleaving the B-B σ bond of diborane via the cooperative coordination to the two boron atoms of the diborane to generate pyridine boryl radicals. Our experimental verification provides supportive evidence for this new B-B activation mode. With this novel activation strategy, we have experimentally realized the catalytic reduction of azo-compounds to hydrazine derivatives, deoxygenation of sulfoxides to sulfides, and reduction of quinones with B2 (pin)2 at mild conditions. PMID:27061603

  17. Combined search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying to bb using the D0 run II data set.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Augsten, K; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Buszello, C P; Camacho-Pérez, E; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Caughron, S; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; Devaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; García-Guerra, G A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jayasinghe, A; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kiselevich, I; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nunnemann, T; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Verkheev, A Y; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Wang, R-J; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, S; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J M; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2012-09-21

    We present the results of the combination of searches for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson and decaying into bb using the data sample collected with the D0 detector in pp collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We derive 95% C.L. upper limits on the Higgs boson cross section relative to the standard model prediction in the mass range 100 GeV ≤ M(H) ≤ 150 GeV, and we exclude Higgs bosons with masses smaller than 102 GeV at the 95% C.L. In the mass range 120 GeV ≤ M(H) ≤145 GeV, the data exhibit an excess above the background prediction with a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations, consistent with the expectation in the presence of a standard model Higgs boson. PMID:23005938

  18. Combined search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying to a bb pair using the full CDF data set.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M E; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D T; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-09-14

    We combine the results of searches for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson based on the full CDF Run II data set obtained from sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.45  fb(-1). The searches are conducted for Higgs bosons that are produced in association with a W or Z boson, have masses in the range 90-150  GeV/c(2), and decay into bb pairs. An excess of data is present that is inconsistent with the background prediction at the level of 2.5 standard deviations (the most significant local excess is 2.7 standard deviations). PMID:23005613

  19. Two-loop radiative corrections of electroweak mixing angle and branching fraction for Z going to bb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Cheng

    In this thesis I develop a numerical technique which is based on the Mellin-Barnes representation to calculate two-loop Feynman integrals. The resulting complex integrals of high dimensions are being applied with some treatments, such as the variable transform, reduction formulas, etc, to improve the convergence of the integrals. The approach is adopted to compute the two-loop radiative corrections of the electroweak mixing angle, sin theta W, and the hadronic branching ratio Rb for the process Z → bb¯. I focus on contributions with an internal fermion sub-loop using the on-shell renormalization scheme. The results will help to derive improved constraints on the Higgs particle.

  20. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in soil water extracts using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and its implication for microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A Mark; Wang, Haizhen; Xu, Jianming; Leddy, Menu; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E

    2012-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of low molecular weight organic carbon in soil water extract. Calibration of the assay was achieved by measuring the luminescence intensity of starved V. harveyi BB721 cells in the late exponential phase with a concentration range from 0 to 800 µg l(-1) glucose (equivalent to 0-16.0 mg glucose C kg(-1) soil) with the detection limit of 10 µg l(-1) equivalent to 0.20 mg glucose C kg(-1) soil. Results showed that bioluminescence was proportional to the concentration of glucose added to soil. The luminescence intensity of the cells was highly pH dependent and the optimal pH was about 7.0. The average AOC concentration in 32 soils tested was 2.9±2.2 mg glucose C kg(-1). Our data showed that AOC levels in soil water extracts were significantly correlated (P<0.05) with microbial biomass determined as microbial biomass carbon, indicating that the AOC concentrations determined by the method developed might be a good indicator of soil microbial biomass. Our findings provide a new approach that may be used to determine AOC in environmental samples using a non-growth bioluminescence based assay. Understanding the levels of AOC in soil water extract provides new insights into our ability to estimate the most available carbon pool to bacteria in soil that may be easily assimilated into cells for many metabolic processes and suggest possible the links between AOC, microbial regrowth potential, and microbial biomass in soils. PMID:22679477

  1. Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC) in Soil Water Extracts Using Vibrio harveyi BB721 and Its Implication for Microbial Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Leddy, Menu; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is commonly used to measure the growth potential of microorganisms in water, but has not yet been investigated for measuring microbial growth potential in soils. In this study, a simple, rapid, and non-growth based assay to determine AOC in soil was developed using a naturally occurring luminous strain Vibrio harveyi BB721 to determine the fraction of low molecular weight organic carbon in soil water extract. Calibration of the assay was achieved by measuring the luminescence intensity of starved V. harveyi BB721 cells in the late exponential phase with a concentration range from 0 to 800 µg l−1 glucose (equivalent to 0–16.0 mg glucose C kg−1 soil) with the detection limit of 10 µg l−1 equivalent to 0.20 mg glucose C kg−1 soil. Results showed that bioluminescence was proportional to the concentration of glucose added to soil. The luminescence intensity of the cells was highly pH dependent and the optimal pH was about 7.0. The average AOC concentration in 32 soils tested was 2.9±2.2 mg glucose C kg−1. Our data showed that AOC levels in soil water extracts were significantly correlated (P<0.05) with microbial biomass determined as microbial biomass carbon, indicating that the AOC concentrations determined by the method developed might be a good indicator of soil microbial biomass. Our findings provide a new approach that may be used to determine AOC in environmental samples using a non-growth bioluminescence based assay. Understanding the levels of AOC in soil water extract provides new insights into our ability to estimate the most available carbon pool to bacteria in soil that may be easily assimilated into cells for many metabolic processes and suggest possible the links between AOC, microbial regrowth potential, and microbial biomass in soils. PMID:22679477

  2. In vitro evaluation of gastrointestinal survival of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698 alone and combined with galactooligosaccharides, milk and/or Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Rafael C R; Aynaou, Azz-Eddine; Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; De Martinis, Elaine C P; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Venema, Koen; Saad, Susana M I; Smidt, Hauke

    2011-09-15

    Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698 were previously demonstrated in piglets. Here, its potential as a human probiotic was studied in vitro, using the TIM-1 system, which is fully validated to simulate the human upper gastrointestinal tract. To evaluate the effect of the food matrix composition on the survival of L. amylovorus DSM 16698 in TIM-1, the microorganism was inoculated alone or with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS), partially skimmed milk (PSM) and/or commercial probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). Samples were collected from TIM-1 for six hours, at one-hour intervals and L. amylovorus populations were enumerated on MRS agar plates with confirmation of identity of selected isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. The cumulative survival for L. amylovorus alone (control) was 30% at the end of the experiment (t=6h). Co-administration of L. amylovorus with GOS, PSM and/or Bb-12 increased its survival in comparison with the control significantly from the 4th hour after ingestion onwards (P<0.05). Furthermore, by the use of High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography, both L. amylovorus and Bb-12 were observed to promptly degrade GOS compounds in samples collected from TIM-1, as assessed at t=2h. Hence, food matrix composition interfered with survival and growth of L. amylovorus during passage through TIM-1, providing leads towards optimization of probiotic properties in vivo. PMID:21741105

  3. 40 CFR 174.518 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.518 Section 174.518 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances...

  4. Selection for Resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Protein in a Genetically Diverse Population of Non-diapausing Western Corn Rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is an economically important pest of maize in North America. In 2003, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency approved the commercial use of Monsanto’s Bt maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein, which is toxic to pest Diabrotica beetles. How...

  5. Prevention of autoimmune recurrence and rejection by adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene transfer to the pancreatic graft in BB rat.

    PubMed

    Uchikoshi, F; Yang, Z D; Rostami, S; Yokoi, Y; Capocci, P; Barker, C F; Naji, A

    1999-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes is the result of a selective destruction of pancreatic islets by autoreactive T-cells. Therefore, in the context of islet or pancreas transplantation, newly transplanted beta-cells are threatened by both recurrent autoimmune and alloimmune responses in recipients with type 1 diabetes. In the present study, using spontaneously diabetic BB rats, we demonstrate that whereas isolated islets are susceptible to autoimmune recurrence and rejection, pancreaticoduodenal grafts are resistant to these biological processes. This resistance is mediated by lymphohematopoietic cells transplanted with the graft, since inactivation of these passenger cells by irradiation uniformly rendered the pancreaticoduodenal grafts susceptible to recurrent autoimmunity. We further studied the impact of local immunomodulation on autoimmune recurrence and rejection by ex vivo adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene transfer to pancreaticoduodenal grafts. Syngeneic DR-BB pancreaticoduodenal grafts transduced with AdmCTLA4Ig were rescued from recurrent autoimmunity. In fully histoincompatible LEW-->BB transplants, in which rejection and recurrence should be able to act synergistically, AdmCTLA4Ig transduced LEW-pancreaticoduodenal allografts enjoyed markedly prolonged survival in diabetic BB recipients. In situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that transferred CTLA4Ig gene was strongly expressed in both endocrine and exocrine tissues on day 3. These results indicate the potential utility of local CD28-B7 costimulatory blockade for prevention of alloimmune and autoimmune destruction of pancreatic grafts in type 1 diabetic hosts. PMID:10078573

  6. 1993/03 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series. NCES 2004-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, J.; Cominole, M.; Carwile, S.; Franklin, J.; Carley-Baxter, L.; and Wheeless, S.

    2004-01-01

    The 1993/03 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03), sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education, followed a cohort of students who earned bachelor's degrees during the 1992?93 academic year. These students were first interviewed in 1993, as part of the 1993 National Postsecondary…

  7. Targeting the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β Interface with Destruxin A5 to Selectively Block PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ Signaling and Attenuate Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingqi; Wu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Aihua; Wang, Shiyu; Hu, Chunhui; Chen, Wei; Shen, Yan; Tan, Renxiang; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling plays very crucial roles in the process of many diseases such as liver fibrosis. However, drug candidates with selective affinities for PDGF-B/PDGFR-β remain deficient. Here, we identified a natural cyclopeptide termed destruxin A5 that effectively inhibits PDGF-BB-induced PDGFR-β signaling. Interestingly and importantly, the inhibitory mechanism is distinct from the mechanism of tyrosine kinase inhibitors because destruxin A5 does not have the ability to bind to the ATP-binding pocket of PDGFR-β. Using Biacore T200 technology, thermal shift technology, microscale thermophoresis technology and computational analysis, we confirmed that destruxin A5 selectively targets the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β interaction interface to block this signaling. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of destruxin A5 on PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling was verified using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models, in which the extent of liver fibrosis was effectively alleviated by destruxin A5. In summary, destruxin A5 may represent an efficacious and more selective inhibitor of PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling. PMID:27322468

  8. Long-term safety and stability of angiogenesis induced by balanced single-vector co-expression of PDGF-BB and VEGF164 in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Burger, Maximilian; Wolff, Thomas; Heberer, Michael; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Gürke, Lorenz; Mujagic, Edin; Banfi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis by growth factor delivery is an attractive treatment strategy for ischemic diseases, yet clinical efficacy has been elusive. The angiogenic master regulator VEGF-A can induce aberrant angiogenesis if expressed above a threshold level. Since VEGF remains localized in the matrix around expressing cells, homogeneous dose distribution in target tissues is required, which is challenging. We found that co-expression of the pericyte-recruiting factor PDGF-BB at a fixed ratio with VEGF from a single bicistronic vector ensured normal angiogenesis despite heterogeneous high VEGF levels. Taking advantage of a highly controlled gene delivery platform, based on monoclonal populations of transduced myoblasts, in which every cell stably produces the same amount of each factor, here we rigorously investigated a) the dose-dependent effects, and b) the long-term safety and stability of VEGF and PDGF-BB co-expression in skeletal muscle. PDGF-BB co-expression did not affect the normal angiogenesis by low and medium VEGF doses, but specifically prevented vascular tumors by high VEGF, yielding instead normal and mature capillary networks, accompanied by robust arteriole formation. Induced angiogenesis persisted unchanged up to 4 months, while no tumors appeared. Therefore, PDGF-BB co-expression is an attractive strategy to improve safety and efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis by VEGF gene delivery. PMID:26882992

  9. Non Target Effect of Cry1 Ab and Cry Ab x Cry3 Bb1 Bt Transgenic Maize on Orius Insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-target effects of Cry1Ab x CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 x CP4 EPSPS Bt transgenic new maize hybrids on insidious flower bugs [Orius insidiosus (Say)] was studied in Nebraska (Mead, C lay Center, and Concord) during 2007 and 2008. The Bt effect was compared to CP4 EPSPS maize (isoline), convent...

  10. The extracellular glycoprotein SPARC interacts with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and -BB and inhibits the binding of PDGF to its receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Raines, E.W.; Lane, T.F.; Iruela-Arispe, M.L.; Ross, R.; Sage, E.H. )

    1992-02-15

    Interactions among growth factors, cells, and extracellular matrix are critical to the regulation of directed cell migration and proliferation associated with development wound healing, and pathologic processes. Here the authors report the association of PDGF-AB and -BB, but not PDGF-AA, with the extracellular glycoprotein SPARC. Complexes of SPARC and {sup 125}I-labeled PDGF-BB or -AB were specifically immunoprecipitated by anti-SPARC immunoglobulins. {sup 125}I-PDGF-BB and -AB also bound specifically to SPARC that was immobilized on microtiter wells or bound to nitrocellulose after transfer from SDS/polyacrylamide gels. The binding of PDGF-BB to SPARC was pH-dependent; significant binding was detectable only above pH 6.6. Enhanced expression of both PDGF-B chain and SPARC was seen in advanced lesions of atherosclerosis. They suggest that the coordinate expression of SPARC and PDGF-B-containing dimers following vascular injury may regulate the activity of specific dimeric forms of PDGF in vivo.

  11. Bone resorption analysis of platelet-derived growth factor type BB application on collagen for bone grafts secured by titanium mesh over a pig jaw defect model

    PubMed Central

    Herford, Alan Scott; Cicciù, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the addition of the platelet derived growth factor type BB (PDGF-BB) to a collagen matrix applied on a titanium mesh would favor healing and resorption onto the grafted bone. A histologic and radiographic study of two different groups (test and control) was performed. Designs: A surgical procedure was performed on 8 pigs to obtain 16 bilateral mandibular alveolar defects. All the defects were then reconstructed with a mixture of autogenous bovine bone using titanium mesh positioning. Two groups, with a total of 16 defects were created: The first to study collagen sponge and PDGF-BB and the second to control collagen only. The collagen matrix was positioned directly over the mesh and soft tissue was closed without tensions onto both groups without attempting to obtain primary closure. Possible exposure of the titanium mesh as well as the height and volume of the new bone was recorded. Results: New bone formation averaged about 6.68 mm in the test group studied; the control group had less regenerated bone at 4.62 mm. Conclusion: PDGF-BB addition to the collagen matrix induced a strong increase in hard and soft tissue healing and favored bone formation, reducing bone resorption even if the mesh was exposed. PMID:23833493

  12. A versatile nanomachine for the sensitive detection of platelet-derived growth factor-BB utilizing a G-quadruplex-selective iridium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Mao, Zhifeng; Kang, Tian-Shu; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2016-11-15

    The novel iridium(III) complex 1 was found to be highly selective for G-quadruplex DNA, and was employed for the development of a versatile nanomachine. In the nanomachine, the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) oligonucleotide ON1 hybridizes with the hairpin DNA oligonucleotide ON2, leading to the formation of a 5'-recessed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) structure and the simultaneous release of a G-rich DNA sequence, which folds into a G-quadruplex motif that is recognized by complex 1. Upon the addition of Exo III, the dsDNA substrate is digested leading to the liberation of ON1 ssDNA, which enters a new cycle of the nanomachine. This nanomachine was successfully used to detect PDGF-BB by combination with a simple pre-procedure module, and exhibited a linear response between luminescence intensity and PDGF-BB concentration in the range of 10 to 300pM (R(2)=0.992), with a limit of detection for PDGF-BB of 10pM. This assay was highly selective for PDGF-BB over other proteins, and exhibited potential use in biological sample analysis. Moreover, the versatility of the nanomachine was demonstrated by adapting the nanomachine for the detection of thrombin by simply changing the pre-procedure module. PMID:27183280

  13. Selection for Cry3Bb1 resistance in a genetically diverse population of non-diapausing western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five short-diapause laboratory lines of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) were selected for resistance to MON863, a variety of corn genetically modified with the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgene that expresses the Cry3Bb1 d-endotoxin. Three of the selected lines were develo...

  14. 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12). Data File Documentation. NCES 2015-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Shepherd, Bryan; Siegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This publication describes the methods and procedures used in the 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12). These graduates, who completed the requirements for a bachelor's degree during the 2007-08 academic year, were first interviewed as part of the 2008 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08), and then…

  15. Genetically modified human placenta‑derived mesenchymal stem cells with FGF‑2 and PDGF‑BB enhance neovascularization in a model of hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Su, Chao; Chen, Xiancheng; Zhang, Dongmei; Wan, Yang; Ye, Tinghong; Shen, Guobo; Wang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huashan; Yang, Li; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-10-01

    Ischemic diseases represent a challenging worldwide health burden. The current study investigated the therapeutic potential of genetically modified human placenta‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB) genes in hindlimb ischemia. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from human term placenta were transfected ex vivo with adenoviral bicistronic vectors carrying the FGF2 and PDGF‑BB genes (Ad‑F‑P). Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced by excision of the right femoral artery in New Zealand White rabbits. Ad‑F‑P genetically modified hPDMSCs, Ad‑null (control vector)‑modified hPDMSCs, unmodified hPDMSCs or media were intramuscularly implanted into the ischemic limbs 7 days subsequent to the induction of ischemia. Four weeks after cell therapy, angiographic analysis revealed significantly increased collateral vessel formation in the Ad‑F‑P‑hPDMSC group compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed markedly increased capillary and arteriole density in the Ad‑F‑P‑hPDMSC group. The xenografted hPDMSCs survived in the ischemic tissue for at least 4 weeks subsequent to cell therapy. The current study demonstrated that the combination of hPDMSC therapy with FGF2 and PDGF‑BB gene therapy effectively induced collateral vessel formation and angiogenesis, suggesting a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26239842

  16. Genetically modified human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells with FGF-2 and PDGF-BB enhance neovascularization in a model of hindlimb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    YIN, TAO; HE, SISI; SU, CHAO; CHEN, XIANCHENG; ZHANG, DONGMEI; WAN, YANG; YE, TINGHONG; SHEN, GUOBO; WANG, YONGSHENG; SHI, HUASHAN; YANG, LI; WEI, YUQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic diseases represent a challenging worldwide health burden. The current study investigated the therapeutic potential of genetically modified human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) genes in hindlimb ischemia. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from human term placenta were transfected ex vivo with adenoviral bicistronic vectors carrying the FGF2 and PDGF-BB genes (Ad-F-P). Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced by excision of the right femoral artery in New Zealand White rabbits. Ad-F-P genetically modified hPDMSCs, Ad-null (control vector)-modified hPDMSCs, unmodified hPDMSCs or media were intramuscularly implanted into the ischemic limbs 7 days subsequent to the induction of ischemia. Four weeks after cell therapy, angiographic analysis revealed significantly increased collateral vessel formation in the Ad-F-P-hPDMSC group compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed markedly increased capillary and arteriole density in the Ad-F-P-hPDMSC group. The xenografted hPDMSCs survived in the ischemic tissue for at least 4 weeks subsequent to cell therapy. The current study demonstrated that the combination of hPDMSC therapy with FGF2 and PDGF-BB gene therapy effectively induced collateral vessel formation and angiogenesis, suggesting a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26239842

  17. 78 FR 13742 - BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). BB&T Capital Partners Mezzanine Fund II, L.P. proposes to provide debt financing... the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, as amended (``the Act''), in connection with the financing... will be used to recapitalize the company. The financing is brought within the purview of Sec....

  18. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample…

  19. RNA sequencing analysis identifies the metabolic and developmental genes regulated by BbSNF1 during conidiation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    He, Pu-Hong; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Chu, Xin-Ling; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Conidiation promotes fungal dispersal and survival in the environment, and is a determinant for the biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana. The SNF1/AMPK protein kinases function as an important regulator of fungal development and energy metabolism, and play a crucial role in conidiation of the filamentous fungi. In previous study, it has been established that the B. bassiana homolog (BbSNF1) controls conidial production. This study showed that the ΔBbSNF1 mutants displayed a delayed development of mycelia and conidia, but the conidiophore morphogenesis was not significantly changed in the mutants. Ablation of BbSNF1 significantly changed the metabolic homeostasis of intracellular amino acids during conidiation, and caused a notable reduction in the contents of seven amino acids (i.e., arginine, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, lysine, leucine, and glutamic acid). All above amino acids could recover conidiation of the mutants in different extents (ranging from 43.3 to 300 %). Transcriptomic analysis revealed many putative target genes regulated by BbSNF1 and associated with conidial development, and these genes were primarily involved in metabolism, cell rescue, and transport. Particularly, four categories related to the amino acid degradation were over-represented in the up-regulated genes, and three categories related to the amino acid biosynthesis were over-represented in the down-regulated genes. Moreover, the ΔBbSNF1 mutants displayed reduced expression level of the upstream and central regulators of conidiation, as well as the other regulator and cytoskeleton genes. Our data indicate that SNF1 kinase contributes to B. bassiana conidiation by regulating the metabolism and the central regulators of conidiation. PMID:25417093

  20. Ellagic acid inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and prevents atheroma formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rani, Uma P; Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Ganugula, Raghu; Avaneesh, T; Kumar, Uday P; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-11-01

    Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds have beneficial health effects. In the present study, we determined the ability of ellagic acid (EA) to prevent platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation of primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We also determined the ability of EA to prevent atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Proliferation of cells was measured via Alamar Blue assay and through propidium iodide-based cell cycle analysis in flow cytometer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex red methods. Expression of proliferation markers and activation of kinases were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Cotreatment of primary cultures of RASMCs with 25 μmol/L of EA significantly reduced PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml)-induced proliferation by blocking S-phase entry. EA effectively blocked PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β) tyrosine phosphorylation, generation of intracellular ROS and downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. It also blocked PDGF-BB-induced expression of cyclin D1. Computational molecular docking of EA with the PDGFR-β-PDGF-BB complex revealed two putative inhibitor binding sites which showed similar binding energies with the known PDGFR-β inhibitor AG1295. In diabetic rats, supplementation of diet with 2% EA significantly blocked diabetes-induced medial thickness, and lipid and collagen deposition in the arch of aorta. These were assessed through haematoxylin and eosin, Oil Red O and Masson's trichome staining, respectively. EA treatment also blocked cyclin D1 expression in medial smooth muscle cells in experimental animals. Thus, EA is effective in reducing atherosclerotic process by blocking proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23866995

  1. Protein-templated cobaltous phosphate nanocomposites for the highly sensitive and selective detection of platelet-derived growth factor-BB.

    PubMed

    He, Linghao; Zhang, Shuai; Ji, Hongfei; Wang, Minghua; Peng, Donglai; Yan, Fufeng; Fang, Shaoming; Zhang, Hongzhong; Jia, Chunxiao; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-05-15

    We synthesized novel Co3(PO4)2-based nanocomposites with 3D porous architectures via self-assembly; here, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and aptamer were used as organic phases to produce Co3(PO4)2@BSA and Co3(PO4)2@Apt nanocomposites, respectively. The formation mechanism of Co3(PO4)2-based nanocomposites was described based on characterizations of their physio-chemical performance, and the developed nanocomposites were applied as scaffold materials to construct a novel electrochemical aptasensor and detect platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). The PDGF-BB targeting aptamer must be immobilized onto the Co3(PO4)2@BSA-modified electrode to detect PDGF-BB, whereas Co3(PO4)2@Apt-based aptasensor may be directly used to determine the target protein. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that the developed Co3(PO4)2@BSA- and Co3(PO4)2@Apt-based aptasensors present highly sensitive detection ability toward PDGF-BB. Due to the special nanoflower structure, the Co3(PO4)2@BSA-based aptasensor features a detection limit of 3.7 pg mL(-1); while the limit of detection of the Co3(PO4)2@Apt-based aptasensor is 61.5 pg mL(-1), which is the possible bioactivity loss of the aptamer in Co3(PO4)2@Apt nanocomposite. The two detection limits obtained are still much lower than or comparable with those of previously reported aptasensors. The Co3(PO4)2@BSA- and Co3(PO4)2@Apt-based aptasensors showed high selectivity, stability, and applicability for detecting the desired protein. This finding indicates that the Co3(PO4)2-based nanocomposites could be used as an electrochemical biosensor for various detection procedures in the biomedical field. PMID:26749096

  2. Influence of PDGF-BB on Proliferation and Transition Through the MyoD-myogenin-MEF2A Expression Program During Myogenesis in Mouse C2 Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Rivera, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that PDGF-BB enhances proliferation of C2 myoblasts. This has led us to examine whether the mitogenic influence of PDGF-BB in the C2 model correlates with modulation of specific steps associated with myogenic differentiation. C2 myoblasts transiting through these differentiation specific steps were monitored via immunocytochemistry. We show that the influence of PDGF on enhancing cell proliferation correlates with a delay in the emergence of cells positive for sarcomeric myosin. We further monitored the influence of PDGF-BB on differentiation steps preceding the emergence of myosin+ cells. We demonstrate that mononucleated C2 cells first express MyoD (MyoD+/myogenin− cells) and subsequently, myogenin. Cells negative for both MyoD and myogenin (the phenotype preceding the MyoD+ state) were present at all times in culture and comprised the majority, if not all, of the cells which responded mitogenically to PDGF. Additionally, the frequency of the MyoD+/myogenin+ cell phenotype was reduced in cultures receiving PDGF, suggesting that PDGF can modulate the transition of the cells into the myogenin+ state. We determined that many of the myogenin+ cells subsequently become MEF2A+ and this phenomenon is not influenced by PDGF-BB. FGF-2 also enhanced the proliferation of C2 myoblasts and suppressed the appearance of the myogenin+ cells, but did not influence the subsequent transition into the MEF2A+ state. The study raises the possibility that PDGF-BB and FGF-2 might delay the transition of the C2 cells into the MyoD+/myogenin+ state by depressing a paracrine signal that enhances differentiation. PMID:9401815

  3. The site-directed mutation I(L177)H in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center affects coordination of P(A) and B(B) bacteriochlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, L G; Fufina, T Y; Gabdulkhakov, A G; Leonova, M M; Khatypov, R A; Shuvalov, V A

    2012-08-01

    To explore the influence of the I(L177)H single mutation on the properties of the nearest bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), three reaction centers (RCs) bearing double mutations were constructed in the photosynthetic purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and their properties and pigment content were compared with those of the correspondent single mutant RCs. Each pair of the mutations comprised the amino acid substitution I(L177)H and another mutation altering histidine ligand of BChl P(A) or BChl B(B). Contrary to expectations, the double mutation I(L177)H+H(L173)L does not bring about a heterodimer RC but causes a 46nm blue shift of the long-wavelength P absorbance band. The histidine L177 or a water molecule were suggested as putative ligands for P(A) in the RC I(L177)H+H(L173)L although this would imply a reorientation of the His backbone and additional rearrangements in the primary donor environment or even a repositioning of the BChl dimer. The crystal structure of the mutant I(L177)H reaction center determined to a resolution of 2.9Å shows changes at the interface region between the BChl P(A) and the monomeric BChl B(B). Spectral and pigment analysis provided evidence for β-coordination of the BChl B(B) in the double mutant RC I(L177)H+H(M182)L and for its hexacoordination in the mutant reaction center I(L177)H. Computer modeling suggests involvement of two water molecules in the β-coordination of the BChl B(B). Possible structural consequences of the L177 mutation affecting the coordination of the two BChls P(A) and B(B) are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22365928

  4. 9-cis-retinoic acid improves sensitivity to platelet-derived growth factor-BB via RXRα and SHP-1 in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Wen; Liu, Fen; Tang, Luosheng; Tang, Renhong; Li, Wenjie

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus. But few efficient therapeutic methods have been reported. This study discussed the functions of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) in sensitizing retinal pericytes to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and high glucose-treated bovine retinal pericytes (BRPC), we analyzed the impacts of 9-cis-RA by detecting cell apoptosis via DNA fragmentation assay and detecting related factors through adenovirus or lentivirus infection and western blot. Results showed that in retinas of STZ-induced diabetic mice, 9-cis-RA significantly inhibited expression of SHP-1 (P < 0.01), thus promoting p-AKT and p-ERK1/2, which reflected the improved sensitivity to PDGF-BB. In BRPC, 9-cis-RA also improved sensitivity to PDGF-BB and suppressed cell apoptosis (P < 0.01) via down-regulating SHP-1. Further mechanism analyses showed that the efficient functioning of 9-cis-RA relied on the existence of its receptor, retinoic X receptor α (RXRα), independent of the previous reported protein kinase C delta (PKCδ)/SHP-1 axis. Because 9-cis-RA could not inhibit SHP-1 or improve sensitivity to PDGF-BB when RXRα was knocked down, while it still suppressed SHP-1 after overexpression of PKCδ. Taken together, these results indicated the vital roles of 9-cis-RA in improving sensitivity to PDGF-BB of retinal pericytes in DR, and provided basic evidences of new therapeutic targets like RXRα for further DR treatment. PMID:26310807

  5. In vivo and in vitro evidence of altered nitric oxide metabolism in the spontaneously diabetic, insulin-dependent BB/Edinburgh rat.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, R M; Peet, R S; Wilkie, G S; Rossiter, S P; Smith, W; Baird, J D; Williams, B C

    1997-01-01

    1. Altered vasoreactivity may contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. This study investigated the effect of (a) insulin-related diabetes, and (b) chronic in vivo administration of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on mean arterial pressure and in vitro vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in mesenteric arterial bed preparations from spontaneously diabetic, insulin-dependent and treated BB rats, the best animal model of insulin-dependent mellitus (IDDM) currently available. Four groups of animals from the Edinburgh colony (BB/E) of spontaneous diabetic BB rats were studied: age-matched (mean +/- s.e. mean = 156 +/- 2d) non-diabetic (glycated haemoglobin = 3.8 +/- 0.1%) and insulin-treated diabetic (glycated haemoglobin = 6.2 +/- 0.5%; duration of diabetes = 56 +/- 4 d) groups were either L-NAME treated (oral dose = 27 +/- 1 mg kg-1 d-1; duration of treatment from 30 until 153 days of age) or untreated. Although our diabetic BB/E rats do not achieve overall normoglycaemia, individual adjustment of the daily insulin dose administered to every diabetic rat achieves better glycaemic control than previous groups studying altered vascular reactivity and endothelial dysfunction in this animal model of diabetes. 2. Mean arterial pressure (measured directly via indwelling carotid arterial cannulae) was not significantly different between non-diabetic (116 +/- 3 mmHg; n = 10) and diabetic (122 +/- 2 mmHg; n = 12) BB/E rats. L-NAME treatment significantly (P < 0.001) increased mean arterial pressure in both groups (165 +/- 6 mmHg; n = 9 and 142 +/- 4 mmHg; n = 6 respectively) but the degree of hypertension observed in L-NAME-treated diabetic rats was significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated compared to non-diabetic rats treated with L-NAME. 3. Mesenteric arterial bed preparations were cannulated under anesthesia, excised and intralumenally perfused ex vivo with noradrenaline (0.2-20 micro

  6. The type Ia supernova SNLS-03D3bb from a super-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf star.

    PubMed

    Howell, D Andrew; Sullivan, Mark; Nugent, Peter E; Ellis, Richard S; Conley, Alexander J; Le Borgne, Damien; Carlberg, Raymond G; Guy, Julien; Balam, David; Basa, Stephane; Fouchez, Dominique; Hook, Isobel M; Hsiao, Eric Y; Neill, James D; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathryn M; Pritchet, Christopher J

    2006-09-21

    The accelerating expansion of the Universe, and the need for dark energy, were inferred from observations of type Ia supernovae. There is a consensus that type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions that destroy carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars that have accreted matter from a companion star, although the nature of this companion remains uncertain. These supernovae are thought to be reliable distance indicators because they have a standard amount of fuel and a uniform trigger: they are predicted to explode when the mass of the white dwarf nears the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4 solar masses (M(o)). Here we show that the high-redshift supernova SNLS-03D3bb has an exceptionally high luminosity and low kinetic energy that both imply a super-Chandrasekhar-mass progenitor. Super-Chandrasekhar-mass supernovae should occur preferentially in a young stellar population, so this may provide an explanation for the observed trend that overluminous type Ia supernovae occur only in 'young' environments. As this supernova does not obey the relations that allow type Ia supernovae to be calibrated as standard candles, and as no counterparts have been found at low redshift, future cosmology studies will have to consider possible contamination from such events. PMID:16988705

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi bb0426 encodes a 2′-deoxyribosyltransferase that plays a central role in purine salvage

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kevin A; Jewett, Mollie W; Rosa, Patricia A; Gherardini, Frank C

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is an obligate parasite with a limited genome that severely narrows its metabolic and biosynthetic capabilities. Thus survival of this spirochaete in an arthropod vector and mammalian host requires that it can scavenge amino acids, fatty acids and nucleosides from a blood meal or various host tissues. Additionally, the utilization of ribonucleotides for DNA synthesis is further complicated by the lack of a ribonucleotide reductase for the conversion of nucleoside-5′-diphosphates to deoxynucleosides-5′-diphosphates. The data presented here demonstrate that B. burgdorferi must rely on host-derived sources of purine bases, deoxypurines and deoxypyrimidines for the synthesis of DNA. However, if deoxyguanosine (dGuo) is limited in host tissue, the enzymatic activities of a 2′-deoxyribosyltransferase (DRTase, encoded by bb0426), IMP dehydrogenase (GuaB) and GMP synthase (GuaA) catalyse the multistep conversion of hypoxanthine (Hyp) to dGMP for DNA synthesis. This pathway provides additional biochemical flexibility for B. burgdorferi when it colonizes and infects different host tissues. PMID:19460093

  8. Effect of process variables on particle size and viability of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in genipin-gelatin microspheres.

    PubMed

    Annan, N T; Borza, A; Moreau, D L; Allan-Wojtas, P M; Hansen, L Truelstrup

    2007-03-01

    Gelatin microspheres cross-linked with genipin were developed to encapsulate the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 The effects of different gelatin concentrations (10-19% w/v), bloom strengths (175 and 300), surfactants, stirring rates during emulsion formation and genipin concentrations (0-10 mM) on the microsphere sizes and viability of bacterial cells were investigated. Principal Component Analysis revealed microsphere size distribution differed depending on the presence or absence of surfactants as well as a trend of increasing micropshere size with increasing gelatin concentration and bloom strength. Lower stirring rates resulted in larger microspheres with higher encapsulation yields of bifidobacteria Microsphere size and cell viability were not significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by increasing genipin concentrations up to 10 mM whereas microsphere stability in simulated gastric juice increased with increasing genipin concentration. The encapsulation yields were higher in 175 bloom strength gelatin microspheres than in 300. Cold-stage scanning electron microscopy showed encapsulated bacteria distributed throughout the genipin cross-linked gelatin matrix. PMID:17454426

  9. Biomimetic hybrid porous scaffolds immobilized with platelet derived growth factor-BB promote cellularization and vascularization in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Murali, Ragothaman; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Cheirmadurai, Kalirajan; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy

    2016-02-01

    Development of hybrid scaffolds with synergistic combination of growth factor is a promising approach to promote early in vivo wound repair and tissue regeneration. Here, we show the rapid wound healing in Wistar albino rats using biomimetic collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum based hybrid porous scaffolds covalently immobilized with platelet derived growth factor-BB. The immobilized platelet derived growth factor in the hybrid scaffolds not only enhance the total protein, collagen, hexosamine, and uronic acid contents in the granulation tissue but also provide stronger tissues. The wound closure analysis reveal that the complete epithelialization period is 15.4 ± 0.9 days for collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum-platelet derived growth factor hybrid scaffolds, whereas it is significantly higher for control, collagen, collagen- poly(dialdehyde) guar gum and povidine-iodine treated groups. Further, the histological evaluation shows that the immobilized platelet derived growth factor in the hybrid scaffolds induced a more robust cellular and vascular response in the implanted site. Hence, we demonstrate that the collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum hybrid scaffolds loaded with platelet derived growth factor stimulates chemotactic effects in the implanted site to promote rapid tissue regeneration and wound repair without the assistance of antibacterial agents. PMID:26414915

  10. Effect of Cry3Bb transgenic corn and tefluthrin on the soil microbial community: biomass, activity, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Devare, M H; Jones, C M; Thies, J E

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic Bt corn expressing the Cry3Bb insecticidal protein active against corn rootworm (CRW) (Diabrotica spp.; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released for commercial use in 2003 and is expected to be widely adopted. Yet, the direct and indirect risks to soil microorganisms of growing this CRW-resistant Bt corn versus applying insecticides to control the rootworm have not been assessed under field conditions. The effects of CRW Bt corn and the insecticide tefluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methylbenzyl (Z)-(1RS)-cis-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] on soil microbial biomass, activity (N mineralization potential, short-term nitrification rate, and soil respiration), and bacterial community structure as determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis were assessed over two seasons in a field experiment. Bt corn had no deleterious effects on microbial activity or bacterial community measures compared with the non-transgenic isoline. The T-RFLP analysis indicated that amplifiable bacterial species composition and relative abundance differed substantially between years, but did not differ between rhizosphere and bulk soils. The application of tefluthrin also had no effect on any microbial measure except decreased soil respiration observed in tefluthrin-treated plots compared with Bt and non-transgenic isoline (NoBt) plots in 2002. Our results indicate that the release of CRW Bt corn poses little threat to the ecology of the soil microbial community based on parameters measured in this study. PMID:15224918

  11. A dynamical model of the adaptive immune system: effects of cells promiscuity, antigens and B-B interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Annibale, Alessia

    2015-08-01

    We analyse a minimal model for the primary response in the adaptive immune system comprising three different players: antigens, T and B cells. We assume B-T interactions to be diluted and sampled locally from heterogeneous degree distributions, which mimic B cells receptors' promiscuity. We derive dynamical equations for the order parameters quantifying the B cells activation and study the nature and stability of the stationary solutions using linear stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations.The system's behaviour is studied in different scaling regimes of the number of B cells, dilution in the interactions and number of antigens. Our analysis shows that: (i) B cells activation depends on the number of receptors in such a way that cells with an insufficient number of triggered receptors cannot be activated; (ii) idiotypic (i.e. B-B) interactions enhance parallel activation of multiple clones, improving the system's ability to fight different pathogens in parallel; (iii) the higher the fraction of antigens within the host the harder is for the system to sustain parallel signalling to B cells, crucial for the homeostatic control of cell numbers.

  12. Secure polarization-independent subcarrier quantum key distribution in optical fiber channel using BB84 protocol with a strong reference.

    PubMed

    Gleim, A V; Egorov, V I; Nazarov, Yu V; Smirnov, S V; Chistyakov, V V; Bannik, O I; Anisimov, A A; Kynev, S M; Ivanova, A E; Collins, R J; Kozlov, S A; Buller, G S

    2016-02-01

    A quantum key distribution system based on the subcarrier wave modulation method has been demonstrated which employs the BB84 protocol with a strong reference to generate secure bits at a rate of 16.5 kbit/s with an error of 0.5% over an optical channel of 10 dB loss, and 18 bits/s with an error of 0.75% over 25 dB of channel loss. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the highest channel loss reported for secure quantum key distribution using the subcarrier wave approach. A passive unidirectional scheme has been used to compensate for the polarization dependence of the phase modulators in the receiver module, which resulted in a high visibility of 98.8%. The system is thus fully insensitive to polarization fluctuations and robust to environmental changes, making the approach promising for use in optical telecommunication networks. Further improvements in secure key rate and transmission distance can be achieved by implementing the decoy states protocol or by optimizing the mean photon number used in line with experimental parameters. PMID:26906834

  13. 4-1BB Costimulation Ameliorates T Cell Exhaustion Induced by Tonic Signaling of Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Long, Adrienne H.; Haso, Waleed M.; Shern, Jack F.; Wanhainen, Kelsey M.; Murgai, Meera; Ingaramo, Maria; Smith, Jillian P.; Walker, Alec J.; Kohler, M. Eric; Venkateshwara, Vikas R.; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Patterson, George H.; Fry, Terry J.; Orentas, Rimas J.; Mackall, Crystal L.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 have mediated dramatic anti-tumor responses in hematologic malignancies, but tumor regression has rarely occurred using CARs targeting other antigens. It remains unknown whether the impressive effects of CD19 CARs relate to greater susceptibility of hematologic malignancies to CAR therapies, or superior functionality of the CD19 CAR itself. We discovered that tonic CAR CD3ζ phosphorylation, triggered by antigen-independent clustering of CAR scFvs, can induce early exhaustion of CAR T cells that limits anti-tumor efficacy. Such activation is present to varying degrees in all CARs studied, with the exception of the highly effective CD19 CAR. We further identify that CD28 costimulation augments, while 4-1BB costimulation ameliorates, exhaustion induced by persistent CAR signaling. Our results provide biological explanations for the dramatic anti-tumor effects of CD19 CARs and for the observations that CD19.BBz CAR T cells are more persistent than CD19.28z CAR T cells in clinical trials. PMID:25939063

  14. A novel anti-GD2/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor triggers neuroblastoma cell killing.

    PubMed

    Prapa, Malvina; Caldrer, Sara; Spano, Carlotta; Bestagno, Marco; Golinelli, Giulia; Grisendi, Giulia; Petrachi, Tiziana; Conte, Pierfranco; Horwitz, Edwin M; Campana, Dario; Paolucci, Paolo; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-09-22

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells are a promising therapeutic option for patients with cancer. We developed a new CAR directed against the disialoganglioside GD2, a surface molecule expressed in neuroblastoma and in other neuroectoderm-derived neoplasms. The anti-GD2 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a murine antibody of IgM class was linked, via a human CD8α hinge-transmembrane domain, to the signaling domains of the costimulatory molecules 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3-ζ. The receptor was expressed in T lymphocytes by retroviral transduction and anti-tumor activities were assessed by targeting GD2-positive neuroblastoma cells using in vitro cytotoxicity assays and a xenograft model. Transduced T cells expressed high levels of anti-GD2 CAR and exerted a robust and specific anti-tumor activity in 4- and 48-hour cultures with neuroblastoma cells. Cytotoxicity was associated with the release of pro-apoptotic molecules such as TRAIL and IFN-γ. These results were confirmed in a xenograft model, where anti-GD2 CAR T cells infiltrating tumors and persisting into blood circulation induced massive apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells and completely abrogated tumor growth. This anti-GD2 CAR represents a powerful new tool to redirect T cells against GD2. The preclinical results of this study warrant clinical testing of this approach in neuroblastoma and other GD2-positive malignancies. PMID:26298772

  15. The type Ia supernova SNLS-03D3bb from a super-Chandrasekhar-masswhite dwarf star

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D.Andrew; Sullivan, Mark; Nugent, Peter E.; Ellis,Richard S.; Conley, Alexander J.; Le Borgne, Damien; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Guy, Julien; Balam, David; Basa, Stephane; Fouchez, Dominique; Hook,Isobel M.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett,Kathryn M.; Pritchet, Christopher J.

    2006-02-01

    The acceleration of the expansion of the universe, and theneed for Dark Energy, were inferred from the observations of Type Iasupernovae (SNe Ia) 1;2. There is consensus that SNeIa are thermonuclearexplosions that destroy carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars that accretematter from a companion star3, although the nature of this companionremains uncertain. SNe Ia are thought to be reliable distance indicatorsbecause they have a standard amount of fuel and a uniform trigger theyare predicted to explode when the mass of the white dwarf nears theChandrasekhar mass 4 - 1.4 solar masses. Here we show that the highredshift supernova SNLS-03D3bb has an exceptionally high luminosity andlow kinetic energy that both imply a super-Chandrasekhar mass progenitor.Super-Chandrasekhar mass SNeIa shouldpreferentially occur in a youngstellar population, so this may provide an explanation for the observedtrend that overluminous SNe Ia only occur in young environments5;6. Sincethis supernova does not obey the relations that allow them to becalibrated as standard candles, and since no counterparts have been foundat low redshift, future cosmology studies will have to considercontamination from such events.

  16. Mammea E/BB, An Isoprenylated Dihydroxycoumarin Protonophore that Potently Uncouples Mitochondrial Electron Transport Disrupts Hypoxic Signaling in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Mahdi, Fakhri; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The mammea-type coumarin mammea E/BB (1) was found to inhibit both hypoxia-induced and iron chelator-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation in human breast tumor T47D cells with IC50 values of 0.96 and 0.89 µM, respectively. Compound 1 suppressed the hypoxic induction of secreted VEGF protein (T47D cells) and inhibited cell viability/proliferation in four human tumor cell lines. Compound 1 (at 5 and 20 µM) inhibited human breast tumor MDA-MB-231 cell migration. While the mechanisms that underlay their biological activities have remained unknown, prenylated mammea coumarins have been shown to be cytotoxic to human tumor cells, suppress tumor growth in animal models, and display a wide variety of antimicrobial effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 appears to exert an assemblage of cellular effects by functioning as an anionic protonophore that potently uncouples mitochondrial electron transport and disrupts mitochondrial signaling in human tumor cell lines. PMID:20929261

  17. A novel anti-GD2/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor triggers neuroblastoma cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Prapa, Malvina; Caldrer, Sara; Spano, Carlotta; Bestagno, Marco; Golinelli, Giulia; Grisendi, Giulia; Petrachi, Tiziana; Conte, Pierfranco; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Campana, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells are a promising therapeutic option for patients with cancer. We developed a new CAR directed against the disialoganglioside GD2, a surface molecule expressed in neuroblastoma and in other neuroectoderm-derived neoplasms. The anti-GD2 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a murine antibody of IgM class was linked, via a human CD8α hinge-transmembrane domain, to the signaling domains of the costimulatory molecules 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3-ζ. The receptor was expressed in T lymphocytes by retroviral transduction and anti-tumor activities were assessed by targeting GD2-positive neuroblastoma cells using in vitro cytotoxicity assays and a xenograft model. Transduced T cells expressed high levels of anti-GD2 CAR and exerted a robust and specific anti-tumor activity in 4- and 48-hour cultures with neuroblastoma cells. Cytotoxicity was associated with the release of pro-apoptotic molecules such as TRAIL and IFN-γ. These results were confirmed in a xenograft model, where anti-GD2 CAR T cells infiltrating tumors and persisting into blood circulation induced massive apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells and completely abrogated tumor growth. This anti-GD2 CAR represents a powerful new tool to redirect T cells against GD2. The preclinical results of this study warrant clinical testing of this approach in neuroblastoma and other GD2-positive malignancies. PMID:26298772

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata. PMID:25767903

  19. BoBB, software to assess soil erosion risk - introduction of the tool and its use to evaluate appropriate crops and farming practices on endangered field plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devátý, Jan; Dostál, Tomáš; Hösl, Rosemarie; Strauss, Peter; Novotný, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    BoBB (Bodenerosion, Beratung, Berechnung) is simple software to support instant assessment of soil erosion hazard on agricultural fields. The program is profile-oriented, implementing the RUSLE model with slight changes allowing it to assess and compare different farming practices especially the soil-conservation field management. The input parameters datasets are supplied with necessary data for territory and natural conditions of Upper Austria but are generally usable for Central Europe. The software was developed on Federal Agency for Water Management, Petzenkirchen, Austria in 2011 - 2012. BAW and CTU in Prague are recently cooperating on validation and practical applicability approval of the model. Basic validation was done by comparing the outputs of the BoBB software with outputs of the original RUSLE model calculated by the RUSLE1 (USDA, 1998) and RUSLE2 (USDA, 2005) softwares. Further evaluation was performed to test the possibilities of BoBB to reveal field plots endangered by soil erosion. First, testing areas were selected out of a map of soil erosion risk, which had been calculated for the whole territory of the Czech Republic using a combination of the USLE approach and a GIS approach referring to the best available data set. This map in 10x10 meters resolution is used as basic source for assessment of soil erosion hazard and for necessity of GAEC requirements (Good agricultural practices assessment for agricultural subsidy policy) and is therefore accepted as standard at state level. Characteristic profiles were selected within defined testing areas and soil erosion hazard, determined by the USLE approach and BoBB have then been compared. Second, a comparison of BoBB outputs and database of soil erosion events (http://me.vumop.cz) was carried out. The database is created and maintained by the Czech Institute of Soil Conservation as a unique tool for soil erosion mapping and documentation. It was launched in 2010 and recently contains approximately

  20. The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Hosaka, Kayoko; Zhang, Yin; Cao, Renhai; Iwamoto, Hideki; Yang, Xiaojuan; Nakamura, Masaki; Wang, Jian; Zhuang, Rujie; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Xue, Yuan; Braun, Harald; Beyaert, Rudi; Samani, Nilesh; Nakae, Susumu; Hams, Emily; Dissing, Steen; Fallon, Padraic G.; Langer, Robert; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Signalling molecules and pathways that mediate crosstalk between various tumour cellular compartments in cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. We report a mechanism of the interaction between perivascular cells and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting metastasis through the IL-33–ST2-dependent pathway in xenograft mouse models of cancer. IL-33 is the highest upregulated gene through activation of SOX7 transcription factor in PDGF-BB-stimulated pericytes. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments validate that IL-33 promotes metastasis through recruitment of TAMs. Pharmacological inhibition of the IL-33–ST2 signalling by a soluble ST2 significantly inhibits TAMs and metastasis. Genetic deletion of host IL-33 in mice also blocks PDGF-BB-induced TAM recruitment and metastasis. These findings shed light on the role of tumour stroma in promoting metastasis and have therapeutic implications for cancer therapy. PMID:27150562

  1. The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Hosaka, Kayoko; Zhang, Yin; Cao, Renhai; Iwamoto, Hideki; Yang, Xiaojuan; Nakamura, Masaki; Wang, Jian; Zhuang, Rujie; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Xue, Yuan; Braun, Harald; Beyaert, Rudi; Samani, Nilesh; Nakae, Susumu; Hams, Emily; Dissing, Steen; Fallon, Padraic G; Langer, Robert; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Signalling molecules and pathways that mediate crosstalk between various tumour cellular compartments in cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. We report a mechanism of the interaction between perivascular cells and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting metastasis through the IL-33-ST2-dependent pathway in xenograft mouse models of cancer. IL-33 is the highest upregulated gene through activation of SOX7 transcription factor in PDGF-BB-stimulated pericytes. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments validate that IL-33 promotes metastasis through recruitment of TAMs. Pharmacological inhibition of the IL-33-ST2 signalling by a soluble ST2 significantly inhibits TAMs and metastasis. Genetic deletion of host IL-33 in mice also blocks PDGF-BB-induced TAM recruitment and metastasis. These findings shed light on the role of tumour stroma in promoting metastasis and have therapeutic implications for cancer therapy. PMID:27150562

  2. A coleopteran cadherin fragment synergizes toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry3Aa, Cry3Bb, and Cry8Ca against lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjin; Hua, Gang; Taylor, Milton D; Adang, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus, is a serious cosmopolitan pest of commercial poultry facilities because of its involvement in structural damage to poultry houses, reduction in feed conversion efficiency, and transfer of avian and human pathogens. Cry3Aa, Cry3Bb, and Cry8Ca insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are used to control coleopteran larvae. Cadherins localized in the midgut epithelium function as receptors for Cry toxins in lepidopteran, coleopteran, and dipteran insects. Previously, we demonstrated that the truncated cadherin (DvCad1) from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which consists of the C-terminal cadherin repeats (CR) 8-10 and expressed in Escherichia coli, enhanced Cry3Aa and Cry3Bb toxicity against several coleopteran species. Here we report that the DvCad1-CR8-10 enhances Cry3Aa, Cry3Bb, and Cry8Ca toxicity to lesser mealworm. Previously, by an enzyme linked immunosorbent microplate assay, we demonstrated that the DvCad1-CR8-10 binds activated-Cry3Aa (11.8 nM), -Cry3Bb (1.4nM), and now report that CR8-10 binds activated-Cry8Ca (5.7 nM) toxin. The extent of Cry toxins enhancement by DvCad1-CR8-10, which ranged from 3.30- to 5.93-fold, may have practical application for lesser mealworm control in preventing avian and human pathogen transfer in poultry facilities. PMID:25218400

  3. Unique potential of 4-1BB agonist antibody to promote durable regression of HPV+ tumors when combined with an E6/E7 peptide vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bartkowiak, Todd; Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Galvan, Gloria; Haria, Dhwani; Ai, Midan; Allison, James P.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Curran, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody modulation of T-cell coinhibitory (e.g., CTLA-4) or costimulatory (e.g., 4-1BB) receptors promotes clinical responses to a variety of cancers. Therapeutic cancer vaccination, in contrast, has produced limited clinical benefit and no curative therapies. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of human papilloma virus (HPV) drive the majority of genital cancers, and many oropharyngeal tumors. We discovered 15–19 amino acid peptides from HPV-16 E6/E7 for which induction of T-cell immunity correlates with disease-free survival in patients treated for high-grade cervical neoplasia. We report here that intranasal vaccination with these peptides and the adjuvant alpha-galactosylceramide elicits systemic and mucosal T-cell responses leading to reduced HPV+ TC-1 tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice. We hypothesized that the inability of these T cells to fully reject established tumors resulted from suppression in the tumor microenvironment which could be ameliorated through checkpoint modulation. Combining this E6/E7 peptide vaccine with checkpoint blockade produced only modest benefit; however, coadministration with a 4-1BB agonist antibody promoted durable regression of established genital TC-1 tumors. Relative to other therapies tested, this combination of vaccine and α4-1BB promoted the highest CD8+ versus regulatory FoxP3+ T-cell ratios, elicited 2- to 5-fold higher infiltration by E7-specific CTL, and evoked higher densities of highly cytotoxic TcEO (T cytotoxic Eomesodermin) CD8 (>70-fold) and ThEO (T helper Eomesodermin) CD4 (>17-fold) T cells. These findings have immediate clinical relevance both in terms of the direct clinical utility of the vaccine studied and in illustrating the potential of 4-1BB antibody to convert therapeutic E6/E7 vaccines already in clinical trials into curative therapies. PMID:26351680

  4. Digoxin inhibits PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration through an increase in ILK signaling and attenuates neointima formation following carotid injury.

    PubMed

    Yan, Gaoliang; Wang, Qingjie; Hu, Shengda; Wang, Dong; Qiao, Yong; Ma, Genshan; Tang, Chengchun; Gu, Yuchun

    2015-10-01

    The increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are key events in the development of artery restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Digoxin has long been used in the treatment of heart failure and has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells through multiple pathways. However, the potential role of digoxin in the regulation of VSMC proliferation and migration and its effectiveness in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as restenosis, remains unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate that digoxin-induced growth inhibition is associated with the downregulation of CDK activation and the restoration of p27Kip1 levels in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated VSMCs. In addition, we found that digoxin restored the PDGF‑BB-induced inhibition of integrin linked kinase (ILK) expression and prevented the PDGF‑BB-induced activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. Furthermore, digoxin inhibited adhesion molecule and extracellular matrix relative protein expression. Finally, we found that digoxin significantly inhibited neointima formation, accompanied by a decrease in cell proliferation following vascular injury in rats. These effects of digoxin were shown to be mediated, at least in part, through an increase in ILK/Akt signaling and a decrease in GSK-3β signaling in PDGF‑BB-stimulated VSMCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that digoxin exerts an inhibitory effect on the PDGF‑BB-induced proliferation, migration and phenotypic modulation of VSMCs, and prevents neointima formation in rats. These observations indicate the potential therapeutic application of digoxin in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as restenosis. PMID:26311435

  5. Vertical ridge augmentation using an equine block infused with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB: a histologic study in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Simion, Massimo; Nevins, Myron; Rocchietta, Isabella; Fontana, Filippo; Maschera, Emilio; Schupbach, Peter; Kim, David M

    2009-06-01

    This preclinical study evaluated the efficacy of purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB), combined with a novel equine hydroxyapatite and collagen (eHAC) bone block, in providing vertical bone regeneration in critical-size defects simulating localized mandibular alveolar bone atrophy. In addition, the impact of barrier membrane placement in growth factor-mediated bone regeneration was also studied. Bilateral posterior mandibular defects simulating severe localized bony atrophy were created in 12 adult foxhounds following removal of all four mandibular premolars. Three months later, the defects were grafted as follows: group A: eHAC block alone; group B: eHAC block + collagen membrane; group C: eHAC block + rhPDGF-BB; group D: eHAC block + rhPDGF-BB + membrane. The animals were sacrificed after 5 months and the grafted areas were examined histologically, radiographically, and clinically. Groups A and B (controls) exhibited little to no vertical bone regeneration. Group C demonstrated significant vertical bone regeneration, with dense, well-vascularized bone, high bone-to-implant contact, and accelerated replacement of graft particles with newly formed bone. In group D, with the imposition of a barrier membrane, robust bone regeneration was less evident when compared to group C. As in the first study in this series, the importance of the periosteum as a source of osteoprogenitor cells in growth factor-mediated regenerative procedures is examined. PMID:19537464

  6. A novel combined surgical approach to vertical alveolar ridge augmentation with titanium mesh, resorbable membrane, and rhPDGF-BB: a retrospective consecutive case series.

    PubMed

    Funato, Akiyoshi; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Kitajima, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Moroi, Hidetada

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report the clinical outcomes and histologic findings of vertical ridge augmentation using a combination of titanium mesh, resorbable collagen membrane, and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB). Nineteen patients were included, and autogenous bone and anorganic bovine bone particles were used. The bone graft was mixed with rhPDGF-BB and loaded onto the bony defect up to the level of the adjacent alveolar crest. A pre-adapted titanium mesh was placed over the grafted region and covered with a resorbable collagen membrane, leaving no areas of the grafted region exposed. Seventeen patients exhibited good soft tissue healing. Postoperative flap dehiscence occurred relatively early in the healing period in one patient, whereas the covering collagen membrane was exposed during the later phase of the healing period in another. During reentry surgery for removal of the titanium mesh, three patients with favorable soft and hard tissue healing underwent bone biopsies for histologic evaluation of the augmented tissue just below the titanium mesh. The mean vertical height of augmented bone was 8.6 ± 4.0 mm. This report demonstrates the remarkable efficacy of guided bone regeneration using a combination of titanium mesh, resorbable collagen membrane, and rhPDGF for vertical ridge augmentation, thus expanding the indications for implant therapy and allowing recovery of the three-dimensional esthetic architecture in a severely absorbed alveolar ridge. PMID:23820701

  7. Surgical combined approach for alveolar ridge augmentation with titanium mesh and rhPDGF-BB: a 3-year clinical case series.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Nicola; De Lorenzi, Marco; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report the clinical outcomes and histologic findings of vertical ridge augmentation using a combination of titanium mesh and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB). Two patients were included, and anorganic bovine bone particles were used. The bone graft was mixed with rhPDGF-BB and loaded onto the bony defect up to the level of the adjacent alveolar crest. A preadapted titanium mesh was placed over the grafted region; no areas of the grafted region were exposed. Postoperative healing was without complications. During reentry surgery for removal of the titanium mesh, all implants could be placed according to the prosthetic design. This report demonstrates the remarkable efficacy of guided bone regeneration using a combination of titanium mesh and rhPDGF for vertical ridge augmentation, thus expanding the indications for implant therapy and allowing recovery of the three-dimensional esthetic architecture in a severely resorbed alveolar ridge. PMID:25738343

  8. Horizontal Guided Bone Regeneration in the Esthetic Area with rhPDGF-BB and Anorganic Bovine Bone Graft: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chiantella, Giovanni Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the treatment given to a patient who underwent horizontal ridge augmentation surgery in the maxillary anterior area due to the premature loss of the maxillary central incisors. The complete dehiscence of the buccal plate was detected after elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps. The lesion was overfilled with deproteinized bovine xenograft particles combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB) and covered with a porcine collagen barrier hydrated with the same growth factor. The soft tissues healed with no adverse complications. After 12 months, reentry surgery was carried out to place endosseous implants. Complete bone regeneration with the presence of bone-like tissue was observed. Cross-sectional computed tomography scan images confirmed integration of the bone graft and reconstruction of the lost hard tissue volume. The implants were inserted in an optimal three-dimensional position, thus facilitating esthetic restoration. Two years after insertion of final crowns, cone beam computed tomography scans displayed the stability of regenerated hard tissues around the implants. Controlled clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit of hydrating bovine bone particles and collagen barriers with rhPDGF-BB for predictable bone regeneration of horizontal lesions. PMID:26697562

  9. Radiation-induced senescence in securin-deficient cancer cells promotes cell invasion involving the IL-6/STAT3 and PDGF-BB/PDGFR pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Chu; Yang, Pei-Ming; Chuah, Qiu-Yu; Huang, Yao-Huei; Peng, Chih-Wen; Lee, Yi-Jang; Chiu, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Securin overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in various tumours. We have previously shown that securin depletion promotes radiation-induced senescence and enhances radiosensitivity in human cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the paracrine effects remain unknown. In this study, we showed that radiation induced senescence in securin-deficient human breast cancer cells involving the ATM/Chk2 and p38 pathways. Conditioned medium (CM) from senescent cells promoted the invasion and migration of non-irradiated cancer and endothelial cells. Cytokine assay analysis showed the up-regulation of various senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs). The IL-6/STAT3 signalling loop and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) pathway were important for CM-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, CM promoted angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane though the induction of IL-6/STAT3- and PDGF-BB/PDGFR-dependent endothelial cell invasion. Taken together, our results provide the molecular mechanisms for radiation-induced senescence in securin-deficient human breast cancer cells and for the SASP responses. PMID:23591770

  10. 4-1BB Signaling in Conventional T Cells Drives IL-2 Production That Overcomes CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T Regulatory Cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Barsoumian, Hampartsoum B.

    2016-01-01

    Costimulation with the recombinant SA-4-1BBL agonist of 4-1BB receptor on conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconvs) overcomes the suppression mediated by naturally occurring CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs). The mechanistic basis of this observation has remained largely unknown. Herein we show that Tconvs, but not Tregs, are the direct target of SA-4-1BBL-mediated evasion of Treg suppression. IL-2 produced by Tconvs in response to 4-1BB signaling is both necessary and sufficient for overcoming Treg suppression. Supernatant from Tconvs stimulated with SA-4-1BBL contains high levels of IL-2 and overcomes Treg suppression in ex vivo Tconv:Treg cocultures. Removal of IL-2 from such supernatant restores Treg suppression and repletion of Tconv:Treg cocultures with exogenous recombinant IL-2 overcomes suppression. This study establishes 4-1BB signaling as a key circuit that regulates physical and functional equilibrium between Tregs and Tconvs with important implications for immunotherapy for indications where a fine balance between Tregs and Teffs plays a decisive role. PMID:27049955

  11. Effects of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Supplementation on Intestinal Microbiota of Preterm Infants: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ruchika; Koebnick, Corinna; Schildt, Janko; Schmidt, Sabine; Mueller, Manfred; Possner, Mike; Radke, Michael; Blaut, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit differs from that of term infants. In particular, the colonization of preterm infants by bifidobacteria is delayed. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study was performed on 69 preterm infants to investigate the role of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 supplementation in modifying the gut microbiota. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to study the gut microbiota. Bifidobacterial numbers, determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were significantly higher in the probiotic than in the placebo group (log10 values per g of fecal wet weight: probiotic, 8.18 + 0.54 [standard error of the mean]; placebo, 4.82 + 0.51; P < 0.001). A similar trend for bifidobacterial numbers was also obtained with the culture-dependent method. The infants supplemented with Bb12 also had lower viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae (log10 values of CFU per g of fecal wet weight: probiotic, 7.80 + 0.34; placebo, 9.03 + 0.35; P = 0.015) and Clostridium spp. (probiotic, 4.89 + 0.30; placebo, 5.99 + 0.32; P = 0.014) than the infants in the placebo group. Supplementation of B. lactis Bb12 did not reduce the colonization by antibiotic-resistant organisms in the study population. However, the probiotic supplementation increased the cell counts of bifidobacteria and reduced the cell counts of enterobacteria and clostridia. PMID:16971641

  12. c-IAP ubiquitin protein ligase activity is required for 4-1BB signaling and CD8(+) memory T-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Giardino Torchia, Maria Letizia; Munitic, Ivana; Castro, Ehydel; Herz, Jasmin; McGavern, Dorian B; Ashwell, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (c-IAP) 1 and 2 are widely expressed ubiquitin protein ligases that regulate a variety of cellular functions, including the sensitivity of T cells to costimulation. 4-1BB is a TNF receptor family member that signals via a complex that includes TRAF family members and the c-IAPs to upregulate NF-κB and ERK, and has been implicated in memory T-cell survival. Here, we show that effector and memory T cells from mice expressing a dominant negative E3-inactive c-IAP2 (c-IAP2(H570A)) have impaired signaling downstream of 4-1BB. When infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, unlike mice in which c-IAPs were acutely downregulated by c-IAP antagonists, the primary response of c-IAP2(H570A) mice was normal. However, the number of antigen-specific CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells declined more rapidly and to a greater extent in c-IAP2(H570A) mice than in WT controls. Studies with T-cell adoptive transfer demonstrated that the enhanced decay of memory cells was T-cell intrinsic. Thus, c-IAP E3 activity is required for 4-1BB coreceptor signaling and maintenance of CD8(+) T-cell memory. PMID:26096449

  13. BosR (BB0647) Controls the RpoN-RpoS Regulatory Pathway and Virulence Expression in Borrelia burgdorferi by a Novel DNA-Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Deka, Ranjit K.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, the alternative σ factor σ54 (RpoN) directly activates transcription of another alternative σ factor, σS (RpoS) which, in turn, controls the expression of virulence-associated membrane lipoproteins. As is customary in σ54-dependent gene control, a putative NtrC-like enhancer-binding protein, Rrp2, is required to activate the RpoN-RpoS pathway. However, recently it was found that rpoS transcription in Bb also requires another regulator, BosR, which was previously designated as a Fur or PerR homolog. Given this unexpected requirement for a second activator to promote σ54-dependent gene transcription, and the fact that regulatory mechanisms among similar species of pathogenic bacteria can be strain-specific, we sought to confirm the regulatory role of BosR in a second virulent strain (strain 297) of Bb. Indeed, BosR displayed the same influence over lipoprotein expression and mammalian infectivity for strain Bb 297 that were previously noted for Bb strain B31. We subsequently found that recombinant BosR (rBosR) bound to the rpoS gene at three distinct sites, and that binding occurred despite the absence of consensus Fur or Per boxes. This led to the identification of a novel direct repeat sequence (TAAATTAAAT) critical for rBosR binding in vitro. Mutations in the repeat sequence markedly inhibited or abolished rBosR binding. Taken together, our studies provide new mechanistic insights into how BosR likely acts directly on rpoS as a positive transcriptional activator. Additional novelty is engendered by the facts that, although BosR is a Fur or PerR homolog and it contains zinc (like Fur and PerR), it has other unique features that clearly set it apart from these other regulators. Our findings also have broader implications regarding a previously unappreciated layer of control that can be involved in σ54–dependent gene regulation in bacteria. PMID:21347346

  14. Deciphering CD137 (4-1BB) signaling in T-cell costimulation for translation into successful cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Paulete, Alfonso R; Labiano, Sara; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Etxeberria, Iñaki; Bolaños, Elixabet; Lang, Valérie; Rodriguez, Manuel; Aznar, M Angela; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; Melero, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    CD137 (4-1BB, TNF-receptor superfamily 9) is a surface glycoprotein of the TNFR family which can be induced on a variety of leukocyte subsets. On T and NK cells, CD137 is expressed following activation and, if ligated by its natural ligand (CD137L), conveys polyubiquitination-mediated signals via TNF receptor associated factor 2 that inhibit apoptosis, while enhancing proliferation and effector functions. CD137 thus behaves as a bona fide inducible costimulatory molecule. These functional properties of CD137 can be exploited in cancer immunotherapy by systemic administration of agonist monoclonal antibodies, which increase anticancer CTLs and enhance NK-cell-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Reportedly, anti-CD137 mAb and adoptive T-cell therapy strongly synergize, since (i) CD137 expression can be used to select the T cells endowed with the best activities against the tumor, (ii) costimulation of the lymphocyte cultures to be used in adoptive T-cell therapy can be done with CD137 agonist antibodies or CD137L, and (iii) synergistic effects upon coadministration of T cells and antibodies are readily observed in mouse models. Furthermore, the signaling cytoplasmic tail of CD137 is a key component of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors that are used to redirect T cells against leukemia and lymphoma in the clinic. Ongoing phase II clinical trials with agonist antibodies and the presence of CD137 sequence in these successful chimeric antigen receptors highlight the importance of CD137 in oncoimmunology. PMID:26773716

  15. Collagen-induced arthritis in the BB rat. Prevention of disease by treatment with CTLA-4-Ig.

    PubMed Central

    Knoerzer, D B; Karr, R W; Schwartz, B D; Mengle-Gaw, L J

    1995-01-01

    Antigen-specific T cell activation requires two independent signalling events, one mediated through T cell receptor engagement by the antigen-presenting cell-expressed peptide/class II major histocompatibility complex, and the second through the cognate interactions of costimulatory molecules expressed on the T cell and antigen-presenting cell. There is evidence from in vitro and in vivo experimental systems suggesting that the CD28/B7 costimulatory pathway is crucial for induction of maximal T cell proliferation and T helper-B cell collaboration for IgG production. This pathway can be blocked by CTLA-4-Ig, a soluble form of CTLA-4 which binds with high avidity to the CD28 ligands, B7-1 and B7-2. Here, we show that CTLA-4-Ig treatment prevents clinical and histological manifestations of disease in a collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis in the diabetes resistant BB/Wor rat, when therapy is initiated before immunization with bovine type II collagen (BIIC). Anti-BIIC antibody titers are reduced in CTLA-4-Ig-treated rats compared to diseased control animals. Histologically, joints from CTLA-4-Ig-treated animals show no histological abnormalities, in contrast to control antibody-treated animals, which show complete erosion of the articular cartilage and bone. Despite the efficacy of CTLA-4-Ig in preventing clinical and histological signs of arthritis and reducing antibody responses to BIIC, delayed type hypersensitivity responses to collagen 18 d or more after CTLA-4-Ig treatment ends are similar in CTLA-4-Ig-treated and untreated rats, suggesting that the prolonged disease suppression observed does not result from induction of T cell anergy. Images PMID:7543497

  16. Energy-polarization behaviors of AA'BB'O6 perovskites with double rock-salt order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Vanderbilt, David

    2010-03-01

    Using first-principles methods, we study the energy-polarization relation of double perovskites AA'BB'O6 where atoms in both A and B sites are arranged in rock-salt order. The high-symmetry structure in this case is the tetrahedral F43m space group. If a ferroelectric instability occurs, the energy-vs.-polarization landscape E(P) will tend to have minima for P along tetrahedral directions leading to a rhombohedral space group R3m, with two different values of spontaneous polarization and associated energy along opposite body-diagonal directions; or along Cartesian directions, leading to orthorhombic space group Imm2. We search for polar soft modes at the γ point of the high-symmetry F43m structure and analyze its eigenvectors to identify ferroelectric instabilities, which we find in CaBaTiZrO6, KCaZrNbO6 and PbSnTiZrO6. The results of the first-principle calculations are modeled with a Landau-Devonshire expansion that is truncated at either 4th or 5th order in P, and its predictions are found to agree favorably with our calculation. The 5th-order calculation improves the agreement further except in PSTZ. Recently, synthesis of SrCaTiMnO6 in rock-salt order has been reported.footnotetextJ.L Blok, G. Rijnders and D.H.A. Blank, private communication. Unfortunately, preliminary results do not seem to indicate any polarized structure.

  17. Impact of the Bt corn proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, alone or pyramided, on western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L. This study compared the effect of the Bt proteins Cry34/35Ab1, Cry3Bb1, singly expressed, and Cry3Bb1 plus Cry34/35Ab1 in a pyramid, with a near-isoline control, on D. virgifera adult emergence in fie...

  18. Beauty at HERA-B : Measurement of the bb Production Cross Section in pN Collisions at sqrt(s) = 41.6 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mevius, Maaijke

    2003-04-01

    This thesis reports on the measurement of the bb production cross section using the 2000 dataset of the HERA-B experiment. HERA-B is a fixed target experiment using the 920 GeV protons of the HERA accelerator of DESY, Hamburg. The production cross section of beauty quarks in pN collisions at fixed target energies is not well known. The two existing measurements are inconsistent and suffer from large errors. Theoretical calculations contain large uncertainties. A measurement by HERA-B could contribute to a better understanding of bb hadroprodution. The experiment is built as a forward spectrometer with multiple tracking and particle identification devices. Target wires of different materials can be moved into the halo of the proton beam to obtain the desired interaction rate. The trigger is designed to select the two leptons from J/psi->l+l- decays, both in the muon and in the electron channel. In this thesis only the electron channel was considered. The electron triggered events were used to search for evidence of the b->J/psiX->e+e-X decay. Most of the J/psi are produced directly at the interaction of the proton with the target. Only about 1 per 1000 J/psi is the decay product of a B meson. We measured the bb production cross section relative to the known cross section of the prompt J/psi, making use of the known branching ratio Br(bb->J/psiX). Many of the systematic uncertainties in trigger and detector efficiencies cancel when performing a relative measurement. Thus, for the measurement of the bb production cross section we determined not only the number of bb->J/psiX events, but also the number of prompt J/psi in the same sample. During the commissioning run of 2000, a sample of about 1 million di-electron triggered events was acquired. Most of the data was taken with a Carbon wire. For some runs a second wire of Titanium was inserted. The number of prompt J/psi in this data sample was determined by applying a fit to the spectrum of the invariant mass of the

  19. Combined Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 Grown on Xylo-Oligosaccharides and a Model of Their Utilization▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gilad, Ofir; Jacobsen, Susanne; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Pedersen, Martin Bastian; Garrigues, Christel; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), which are classified as emerging prebiotics, selectively enhance the growth of bifidobacteria in general and of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains in particular. To elucidate the metabolism of XOS in the well-documented and widely used probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach was applied, involving DNA microarrays, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analyses of samples obtained from cultures grown on either XOS or glucose. The analyses show that 9 of the 10 genes that encode proteins predicted to play a role in XOS catabolism (i.e., XOS-degrading and -metabolizing enzymes, transport proteins, and a regulatory protein) were induced by XOS at the transcriptional level, and the proteins encoded by three of these (β-d-xylosidase, sugar-binding protein, and xylose isomerase) showed higher abundance on XOS. Based on the obtained results, a model for the catabolism of XOS in BB-12 is suggested, according to which the strain utilizes an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system (probably for oligosaccharides) to bind XOS on the cell surface and transport them into the cell. XOS are then degraded intracellularly through the action of xylanases and xylosidases to d-xylose, which is subsequently metabolized by the d-fructose-6-P shunt. The findings obtained in this study may have implications for the design of a synbiotic application containing BB-12 and the XOS used in the present study. PMID:20851982

  20. Inhibitory effect of NBL1 on PDGF-BB-induced human PASMC proliferation through blockade of PDGFβ-p38MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chuanjue; Zhang, Hongliang; Guo, Lin-Na; Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Liukun; Pan, Xiangbin; Wei, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery remodelling is a key feature in the pathological progress of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Moreover, excessive proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery remodelling. Neuroblastoma suppressor of tumorigenicity 1 (NBL1) has been previously shown to induce growth inhibition in tumour cells. However, the effect of NBL1 in the regulation of human PASMC proliferation remains unclear. In cultured human PASMCs, we observed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of NBL1 on platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced cell growth, DNA synthesis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, as measured by MTS assay, 5-ethynil-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) analysis and western blots respectively. We also detected the expression and activities of cell-cycle positive regulators (cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6) and negative regulators (p21 and p27) in human PASMCs by western blots and co-immuoprecipitation (IP). Our results show that NBL1-induced growth suppression is associated with the decreased activity of cyclin D1–CDK4 and the decreased phosphorylation of p27 in PDGF-BB-treated human PASMCs. By western blots using the phosphor-specific antibodies, we further demonstrated that NBL1 induced growth suppression is mediated by blockade of the up-stream PDGF-receptor β (PDGFRβ)-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, our results suggest that NBL1 could inhibit PDGF-BB-induced human PASMC proliferation, and the underlying mechanism is associated with the decreased cyclin D1–CDK4 activity and up-regulated p27 by decreasing the phosphorylation of p27 via blockade of PDGFRβ-p38MAPK signal cascade. Our findings may provide a potential therapeutic target for PAH. PMID:27474499

  1. Shared binding sites for the Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa in the African sweet potato pest Cylas puncticollis (Brentidae).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Vera-Velasco, Natalia Mara; Martínez-Solís, María; Ghislain, Marc; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa have been reported to be toxic against larvae of the genus Cylas, which are important pests of sweet potato worldwide and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, relatively little is known about the processing and binding interactions of these coleopteran-specific Cry proteins. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa proteins have shared binding sites in Cylas puncticollis to orient the pest resistance strategy by genetic transformation. Interestingly, processing of the 129-kDa Cry7Aa protoxin using commercial trypsin or chymotrypsin rendered two fragments of about 70 kDa and 65 kDa. N-terminal sequencing of the trypsin-activated Cry7Aa fragments revealed that processing occurs at Glu(47) for the 70-kDa form or Ile(88) for the 65-kDa form. Homologous binding assays showed specific binding of the two Cry3 proteins and the 65-kDa Cry7Aa fragment to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from C. puncticollis larvae. The 70-kDa fragment did not bind to BBMV. Heterologous-competition assays showed that Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa (65-kDa fragment) competed for the same binding sites. Hence, our results suggest that pest resistance mediated by the alteration of a shared Cry receptor binding site might render all three Cry toxins ineffective. PMID:25261517

  2. Effects of Non-Collagenous Proteins, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB on Viability and Proliferation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The dentin matrix servers as a reservoir of growth factors, sequestered during dentinogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and proliferation of dental pulp stem cells in the presence of dentin matrix-derived non-collagenous proteins and two growth factors; platelet-derived growth factor BB and transforming growth factor beta 1. Material and Methods The dental pulp cells were isolated and cultured. The dentin proteins were extracted and purified. The MTT assay was performed for assessment of cell viability and proliferation in the presence of different concentrations of dentin proteins and growth factors during 24 - 72 h post-treatment. Results The cells treated with 250 ng/mL dentin proteins had the best viability and proliferation ability in comparison with other concentrations (P < 0.05). The MTT assay demonstrated that cells cultured with 5 ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor BB had the highest viability at each time point as compared to other groups (P < 0.05). However, in presence of platelet-derived growth factor BB alone and in combination with transforming growth factor beta 1 and dentin proteins (10 ng/mL), significant higher viability was seen at all time points (P < 0.05). The least viability and proliferation at each growth factor concentration was seen in cells treated with combination of transforming growth factor beta 1 and dentin proteins at 72 h (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results indicated that the triple combination of growth factors and matrix-derived non-collagenous proteins (especially at 10 ng/mL concentration) has mitogenic effect on dental pulp stem cells. PMID:27099698

  3. Search for bb¯ decay of the Stand Model Higgs boson produced in association with a vector boson (W/Z) with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yao

    This dissertation presents a search for the bb¯ decay of the Standard Model Higgs boson. The analysis is performed with the ATLAS experiment, using the full dataset delivered by the LHC and recorded by ATLAS detector during LHC Run 1. The integrated luminosities used are 4.7 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV, and 20.3 fb-1 at √s = 8 TeV. The processes considered in this analysis are associated (W/Z)H production, where W → ℓnunu, Z → ℓℓ and Z → nunu. Based on the number of leptons (ℓ), the events used in this analysis are divided into zero, one, and two lepton channels. In this analysis, no significant excess is observed above the Standard Model backgrounds. For mH = 125 GeV, a 95% CL upper limit of 1.4 times the Standard Model expectation is set on the cross section times branching ratio for pp → (W/Z )(H → bb¯). The corresponding expected limit is 1.3 in the absence of signal. The ratio of the measured signal yield to the Standard Model expectation is found to be mu = 0.2 +/- 0.5(stat.) +/- 0.4(syst.). This analysis procedure is validated by a measurement of the yield of diboson production(WZ and ZZ), with Z → bb¯. The ratio of observed diboson signal strength to the Standard Model expectation is found to be muD = 0.93 +/- 0.21, which is consistent with the Standard Model expectation of muD = 1.

  4. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Expressing Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1 Does Not Harm Adult Green Lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Adults of the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are prevalent pollen-consumers in maize fields. They are therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in the pollen of insect-resistant, genetically engineered maize varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic maize (MON 88017, Event Bt176) pollen on fitness parameters of adult C. carnea. Adults were fed pollen from Bt maize varieties or their corresponding near isolines together with sucrose solution for 28 days. Survival, pre-oviposition period, fecundity, fertility and dry weight were not different between Bt or non-Bt maize pollen treatments. In order to ensure that adults of C. carnea are not sensitive to the tested toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, adult C. carnea were fed with artificial diet containing purified Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab at about a 10 times higher concentration than in maize pollen. Artificial diet containing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) was included as a positive control. No differences were found in any life-table parameter between Cry protein containing diet treatments and control diet. However, the pre-oviposition period, daily and total fecundity and dry weight of C. carnea were significantly negatively affected by GNA-feeding. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources as well as the uptake by C. carnea was confirmed. These results show that adults of C. carnea are not affected by Bt maize pollen and are not sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 at concentrations exceeding the levels in pollen. Consequently, Bt maize pollen consumption will pose a negligible risk to adult C. carnea. PMID:18682800

  5. Impact of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Savard, Patricia; Lamarche, Benoît; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Thiboutot, Hélène; Laurin, Émilie; Roy, Denis

    2011-09-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel dose-response study investigated the impact of 4-week commercial yoghurt consumption supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1. placebo (no probiotic, no starter and no green tea extract); 2. Yoptimal (10(9)cfu/100g of BB-12 and LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract) and 3. Yoptimal-10 (10(10)cfu/100g of BB-12, 10(9)cfu/100g of LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract). These yoghurt products also contained Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (10(7)cfu/100g) and Streptococcus thermophilus (10(10)cfu/100g). The quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that there were significant increases (P=0.02) in bifidobacteria counts with the Yoptimal treatment as compared to baseline. The fecal numbers of B. animalis subsp. lactis and LA-5 significantly increased in the two probiotic treatments compared to the placebo treatment. Viable counts of fecal lactobacilli were significantly higher (P=0.05) and those of enterococci were significantly lower (P=0.04) after the intervention when compared to placebo. No significant difference was observed between treatments in volunteers' weight, waist girth, blood pressure, fasting plasma triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, as well as cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. However, a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the placebo group (P=0.0018) but the levels remained stable in the two probiotic yoghurt groups. These results show that probiotic strains supplemented in the form of yoghurt remain active during gut transit and are associated with an increase in beneficial bacteria and a reduction in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00730626. PMID:21296446

  6. Consumption of Bt maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab or Cry3Bb1 does not harm adult green Lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Adults of the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are prevalent pollen-consumers in maize fields. They are therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in the pollen of insect-resistant, genetically engineered maize varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic maize (MON 88017, Event Bt176) pollen on fitness parameters of adult C. carnea. Adults were fed pollen from Bt maize varieties or their corresponding near isolines together with sucrose solution for 28 days. Survival, pre-oviposition period, fecundity, fertility and dry weight were not different between Bt or non-Bt maize pollen treatments. In order to ensure that adults of C. carnea are not sensitive to the tested toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, adult C. carnea were fed with artificial diet containing purified Cry3Bb1 or Cry1Ab at about a 10 times higher concentration than in maize pollen. Artificial diet containing Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) was included as a positive control. No differences were found in any life-table parameter between Cry protein containing diet treatments and control diet. However, the pre-oviposition period, daily and total fecundity and dry weight of C. carnea were significantly negatively affected by GNA-feeding. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources as well as the uptake by C. carnea was confirmed. These results show that adults of C. carnea are not affected by Bt maize pollen and are not sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 at concentrations exceeding the levels in pollen. Consequently, Bt maize pollen consumption will pose a negligible risk to adult C. carnea. PMID:18682800

  7. Impact of inulin and okara on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product and probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Bedani, Raquel; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Isay Saad, Susana Marta

    2013-06-01

    The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 2(2) design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (with okara, 5 g/100 mL); FSP-IO (with inulin + okara, ratio 3:5 g/100 mL). Probiotic viabilities ranged from 8 to 9 log cfu/g during the 28 days of storage, and inulin and/or okara flour did not affect the viability of La-5 and Bb-12. Bb-12 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for La-5, since the Bb-12 and La-5 populations decreased approximately 0.6 log cfu/g and 3.8 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage period. Even though the protective effect of inulin and/or okara flour on probiotic microorganisms was not significant, when compared to a fresh culture, the FSP matrix improved Bb-12 survival on day 1 of storage and may be considered a good vehicle for Bb-12 and could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices. PMID:23541206

  8. Detection of chromosomal blaCTX-M-15 in Escherichia coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates from the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Fukui, Naoki; Taguchi, Masumi; Yamauchi, Kou; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Okano, Sho; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2013-12-01

    Escherichia coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) are distributed worldwide. The bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit has often been found on plasmids and the genetic contexts have been examined; however, less is known about the frequency and contexts of the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit on the chromosome. This study was performed to determine the chromosomal location of the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit and to analyse the molecular structure of the region surrounding the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit in E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 isolates. Twenty-two E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 strains harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) that had been isolated from university hospital patients and nursing home residents in the Kinki region of Japan were examined. Inverse PCR (iPCR) targeting bla(CTX-M-15) was performed to classify the molecular structure of the region surrounding the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit. The isolates were classified into nine types (types A-I) considering the iPCR results; type A was the most prevalent type (13/22 isolates). Sequences of the iPCR-amplified DNA fragments showed that the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit consisted of ISEcp1, bla(CTX-M-15) and orf477Δ. A homology search of the obtained sequences showed that the bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit was inserted into different chromosomal regions in eight of the nine classified types. Although 21 of the 22 E. coli isolates possessed chromosomally located bla(CTX-M-15) transposition units, clonal spread was not evident on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that certain E. coli O25b-B2-ST131 strains harbouring chromosomal bla(CTX-M-15) have emerged and spread in the Kinki region of Japan. PMID:24091130

  9. Measurement of the e+e-→bb¯ Cross Section between s=10.54 and 11.20GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Nash, J. A.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lepeltier, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Schott, G.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Benitez, J. F.; Bertsche, K.; Cai, Y.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Decker, F. J.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Field, R. C.; Fisher, A.; Fox, J.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Iverson, R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Kulikov, A.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Novokhatski, A.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Rivetta, C.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Seeman, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; van Winkle, D.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wienands, U.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittmer, W.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yan, Y.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Yocky, G.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    We report e+e-→bb¯ cross section measurements by the BABAR experiment performed during an energy scan in the range of 10.54 to 11.20 GeV at the SLAC PEP-II e+e- collider. A total relative error of about 5% is reached in more than 300 center-of-mass energy steps, separated by about 5 MeV. These measurements can be used to derive precise information on the parameters of the Υ(10860) and Υ(11020) resonances. In particular we show that their widths may be smaller than previously measured.

  10. Measurement of the e;{+}e;{-}-->bb[over ] Cross Section between sqrt[s]=10.54 and 11.20 GeV.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Cahn, R N; Jacobsen, R G; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Zhang, L; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Nash, J A; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Schott, G; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Li, X; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; Losecco, J M; Wang, W F; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Sekula, S J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Esteve, L; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Benitez, J F; Bertsche, K; Cai, Y; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Decker, F J; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Ecklund, S; Erickson, R; Field, R C; Fisher, A; Fox, J; Gabareen, A M; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Iverson, R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Kulikov, A; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; Novokhatski, A; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Rivetta, C; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Van Winkle, D; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wittmer, W; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yan, Y; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Yocky, G; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Miyashita, T S; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-01-01

    We report e;{+}e;{-}-->bb[over ] cross section measurements by the BABAR experiment performed during an energy scan in the range of 10.54 to 11.20 GeV at the SLAC PEP-II e;{+}e;{-} collider. A total relative error of about 5% is reached in more than 300 center-of-mass energy steps, separated by about 5 MeV. These measurements can be used to derive precise information on the parameters of the Upsilon(10860) and Upsilon(11020) resonances. In particular we show that their widths may be smaller than previously measured. PMID:19257181

  11. 30 Doradus: from here to eternity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.

    This paper represents a journey with look-back time, using the interplay between clusters of hot young massive stars and the interstellar medium, by means of spectroscopy of violent star-forming regions from the nearby giant H II regions 30 Dor in the LMC and NGC 604 in M33, to star-forming galaxies at intermediate and high redshifts (z > 0.1 to z ≡3), reaching the Big Bang nucleosynthesis realm at z > 1000000. Included in the journey are also the promising prospects for the near future, for studying similar objects enshrouded in dust up to z ≡10 - 20.

  12. Recent star formation in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Paresce, F.; Panagia, N.; Beccari, G.; Spezzi, L.; Sirianni, M.; Andersen, M.; SOC, WFC3

    2011-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the WFC3 camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have studied the star formation properties of the central regions of 30 Dor, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterise and quantify this effect using young massive main sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for each object in the field. We then search for pre-main sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (>5 sigma) Halpha excess emission and find about 1200 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzprung--Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one third of these objects have an age of < 3 Myr, compatible with that of the massive stars in the central ionising cluster R136, whereas the rest have ages up to 30 Myr, with a median of 10 Myr. This indicates that star formation has proceeded over an extended period of time, although we cannot discriminate between an extended episode and a series of short and frequent bursts that are not resolved in time. While the younger PMS population preferentially occupies the central regions of the cluster, older PMS objects are more uniformly distributed across the field and are remarkably few at the very centre of the cluster. We attribute this latter effect to photoevaporation of the older circumstellar discs caused by the massive ionising members of R136. This paper is based on Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program.

  13. Guanine nucleotide binding regulatory proteins and adenylate cyclase in livers of streptozotocin- and BB/Wor-diabetic rats. Immunodetection of Gs and Gi with antisera prepared against synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, C J; Blackmore, P F; Johnson, E H; Wange, R L; Krone, P K; Exton, J H

    1989-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase in liver plasma membranes from streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) or BB/Wor spontaneously diabetic rats showed increased responsiveness to GTP, glucagon, fluoroaluminate, and cholera toxin. Basal or forskolin-stimulated activity was unchanged in STZ rats, but increased in BB/Wor rats. No change in the alpha-subunit of Gi (alpha i) was observed in STZ or BB/Wor rats using pertussis toxin-stimulated [32P]ADP-ribosylation. Immunodetection using antibodies against the COOH-terminal decapeptides of alpha T and alpha i-3 showed no change in alpha i in STZ rats and a slight decrease in BB/Wor rats. Angiotensin II inhibition of hepatic adenylate cyclase was not altered in either diabetic rat. In both models of diabetes, Gs alpha-subunits were increased as measured by cholera toxin-stimulated [32P]-ADP-ribosylation of 43-47.5-kD peptides, reconstitution with membranes from S49 cyc- cells or immunoreactivity using antibodies against the COOH-terminal decapeptide of alpha s. These data indicate that STZ-diabetes increases hepatic Gs but does not change Gi or adenylate cyclase catalytic activity. In contrast, BB/Wor rats show increased hepatic Gs and adenylate cyclase. These changes could explain the increase in hepatic cAMP and related dysfunctions observed in diabetes. Images PMID:2498395

  14. Impact of wind on ambient noise recorded by the "13 BB star" seismic array in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Simone; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Seismic interferometry and beam forming techniques were applied to ambient noise recorded during January 2014 at the "13 BB star" array, composed of thirteen seismic stations located in northern Poland, with the aim of evaluating the azimuth of noise sources and the velocities of surface waves. After normalizing the raw recordings in time and frequency domain, the spectral characteristics of the ambient noise were studied to choose a frequency band suitable for the waves' retrieval. To get the velocity of surface waves by seismic interferometry, the crosscorrelation between all station pairs was analysed for the vertical and horizontal components in the 0.05-0.1 Hz, 0.1-1 Hz and 1 10 Hz frequency bands. For each pair, the crosscorrelation was applied to one hour recordings extracted from the ambient noise. The obtained traces were calculated for a complete day, and then summed together: the daily results were stacked for the whole January 2014. In the lowest frequency range, most of the energy is located around the 3.0 km/s line, meaning that the surface waves coming from the uppermost mantle will be retrieved. The intermediate frequency range shows most of the energy between the 2.0 km/s and 1.5 km/s lines: consequently, surface waves originating from the crust will be retrieved. In the highest frequency range, the surface waves are barely visible on the crosscorrelation traces, implying that the associated energy is strongly attenuated. The azimuth variation associated to the noise field was evaluated by means of the beam forming method, using the data from the whole array for all the three components. To that, the beam power was estimated in a small range of frequencies every day for the whole month. For each day, one hour long results of beam forming applications were stacked together. To avoid aliasing and near field effects, the minimum frequency was set at 0.05 Hz and the maximum to 0.1 Hz. In this frequency band, the amplitude maximum was sought

  15. The rms-flux relation in accreting white dwarfs: another nova-like variable and the first dwarf nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Sande, M.; Scaringi, S.; Knigge, C.

    2015-04-01

    We report on the detection of the linear rms-flux relation in two accreting white dwarf binary systems: V1504 Cyg and KIC 8751494. The rms-flux relation relates the absolute root-mean-square (rms) variability of the light curve to its mean flux. The light curves analysed were obtained with the Kepler satellite at a 58.8 s cadence. The rms-flux relation was previously detected in only one other cataclysmic variable (CV), MV Lyr. This result reinforces the ubiquity of the linear rms-flux relation as a characteristic property of accretion-induced variability, since it has been observed in several black hole binaries, neutron star binaries and active galactic nuclei. Moreover, its detection in V1504 Cyg is the first time the rms-flux relation has been detected in a dwarf nova-type CV during quiescence. This result, together with previous studies, hence points towards a common physical origin of accretion-induced variability, independent of the size, mass or type of the central accreting compact object.

  16. Risk assessment of Soulatrolide and Mammea (A/BA+A/BB) coumarins from Calophyllum brasiliense by a toxicogenomic and toxicological approach.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Verjan, J C; Estrella-Parra, E; Vazquez-Martinez, E R; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I; Guerrero-Magos, G; Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Isus, L; Alfaro, A; Cerbón-Cervantes, M; Aloy, P; Reyes-Chilpa, R

    2016-05-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree distributed in Central and South America. It is an important source of tetracyclic dipyrano coumarins (Soulatrolide) and Mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and displays activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Meanwhile, Mammea A/BA and A/BB, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several human leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. Nevertheless, there are few studies evaluating their safety profile. In the present work we performed toxicogenomic and toxicological analysis for both type of compounds. Soulatrolide, and the Mammea A/BA + A/BB mixture (2.1) were slightly toxic accordingly to Lorke assay classification (DL50 > 3000 mg/kg). After a short-term administration (100 mg/kg/daily, orally, 1 week) liver toxicogenomic analysis revealed 46 up and 72 downregulated genes for Mammea coumarins, and 665 up and 1077 downregulated genes for Soulatrolide. Gene enrichment analysis identified transcripts involved in drug metabolism for both compounds. In addition, network analysis through protein-protein interactions, tissue evaluation by TUNEL assay, and histological examination revealed no tissue damage on liver, kidney and spleen after treatments. Our results indicate that both type of coumarins displayed a safety profile, supporting their use in further preclinical studies to determine its therapeutic potential. PMID:26995226

  17. In vitro gastrointestinal resistance of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in soy and/or milk-based synbiotic apple ice creams.

    PubMed

    Matias, Natalia Silva; Padilha, Marina; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2016-10-01

    The viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in synbiotic ice creams, in which milk was replaced by soy extract and/or whey protein isolate (WPI) with inulin, were investigated. The ice creams were showed to be satisfactory vehicles for La-5 and Bb-12 (populations around 7.5logCFU/g), even after the whole storage period (84days/-18°C). In all formulations, the propidium monoazide qPCR (PMA-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that probiotics could resist the in vitro GI assay, with significant survival levels, achieving survival rates exceeding 50%. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy images evidenced cells with morphological differences, suggesting physiological changes in response to the induced stress during the in vitro assay. Although all formulations provided resistance to the probiotic strains under GI stress, the variation found in probiotic survival suggests that GI tolerance is indeed affected by the choice of the food matrix. PMID:27387254

  18. Effect of Photobiomodulation on Transforming Growth Factor-β1, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB, and Interleukin-8 Release in Palatal Wounds After Free Gingival Graft Harvesting: A Randomized Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutfioğlu, Muge; Aydogdu, Ahmet; Saygun, N. Isil; Serdar, Muhittin A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the impact of photobiomodulation (PBM) on the healing of the donor palatal area following free gingival graft (FGG) harvesting by examining changes in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and interleukin (IL)-8 levels in palatal wound fluid (PWF). Material and methods: Thirty patients were selected and randomly assigned to receive PBM (laser group) or PBM sham (sham group) in the palatine area after FGG harvesting. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm) was applied to the test sites immediately after surgery and every 24 h thereafter for 4 days. PWF was collected on Days 7 and 12, and PWF TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and IL-8 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results: PWF TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and IL-8 levels were significantly lower on Day 12 than on Day 7 for both groups. PWF TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and IL-8 levels of the laser group were significantly higher than those of sham group on Day 7 (p < 0.05). PWF TGF-β1 levels were also significantly higher in laser group than in the sham group on Day 12; however, differences in PDGF-BB and IL-8 levels between groups on Day 12 were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusions: Observed increases in PWF TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and IL-8 levels suggest that PBM may accelerate wound healing by stimulating production of selected mediators. PMID:27088277

  19. Van Allen Probe measurements of the electric drift E × B/B2 at Arecibo's L = 1.4 field line coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-07-01

    We have used electric and magnetic measurements by Van Allen Probe B from 2013 to 2014 to examine the equatorial electric drift E × B/B2 at one field line coordinate set to Arecibo's incoherent scatter radar location (L = 1.43). We report on departures from the traditional picture of corotational motion with the Earth in two ways: (1) the rotational angular speed is found to be 10% smaller than the rotational angular speed of the Earth, in agreement with previous works on plasmaspheric notches, and (2) the equatorial electric drift displays a dependence in magnetic local time, with a pattern consistent with the mapping of the Arecibo ionosphere dynamo electric fields along equipotential magnetic field lines. The electric fields due to the ionosphere dynamo are therefore expected to play a significant role when discussing, for instance, the structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere or the transport of trapped particles in the inner belt.

  20. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for the protein coded by gene locus BB0938 of Bordetella bronchiseptica

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Paolo; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Xiao, Rong; Ho, Chi K.; Ma, LiChung; Acton, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The product of gene locus BB0938 from Bordetella bronchiseptica (Swiss-Prot ID: Q7WNU7-BORBR; NESG target ID: BoR11; Wunderlich et al., 2004; Pfam ID: PF03476) is a 128-residue protein of unknown function. This broadly conserved protein family is found in eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 98% of backbone and 94% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a b topology with a seven-residue helical insert, ??????????. BMRB deposit with accession number 6693. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  1. Search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying to a bb pair in events with two oppositely charged leptons using the full CDF data set.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M E; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D T; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-09-14

    We present a search for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a Z boson in data collected with the CDF II detector at the Tevatron, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.45  fb(-1). In events consistent with the decay of the Higgs boson to a bottom-quark pair and the Z boson to electron or muon pairs, we set 95% credibility level upper limits on the ZH production cross section times the H→bb branching ratio as a function of Higgs boson mass. At a Higgs boson mass of 125  GeV/c(2), we observe (expect) a limit of 7.1 (3.9) times the standard model value. PMID:23005614

  2. Study of the structure of e+e--->bb¯g events and first limits on the anomalous chromomagnetic coupling of the b quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kenji; Abe, Koya; Abe, T.; Adam, I.; Akimoto, H.; Akagi, T.; Allen, N. J.; Ash, W. W.; Aston, D.; Baird, K. G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H. R.; Barakat, M. B.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T. L.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Bellodi, G.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bilei, G. M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J. R.; Bower, G. R.; Brau, J. E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W. M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, P. N.; Calcattera, A.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Chou, A.; Church, E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coller, J. A.; Convery, M. R.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R. F.; Coyne, D. G.; Crawford, G.; Damerell, C. J.; Danielson, M. N.; Daoudi, M.; de Groot, N.; dell'orso, R.; Dervan, P. J.; de Sangro, R.; Dima, M.; D'oliveira, A.; Dong, D. N.; Doser, M.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Eschenburg, V.; Etzion, E.; Fahey, S.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fernandez, J. P.; Fero, M. J.; Flood, K.; Frey, R.; Gifford, J.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Goodman, E. R.; Hart, E. L.; Harton, J. L.; Hasan, A.; Hasuko, K.; Hedges, S. J.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hildreth, M. D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M. E.; Hughes, E. W.; Huynh, X.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Jackson, D. J.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J. A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, R. A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kang, H. J.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kim, Y. D.; King, M. E.; King, R.; Kofler, R. R.; Krishna, N. M.; Kroeger, R. S.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Leith, D. W.; Lia, V.; Lin, C.; Liu, M. X.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H. L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Maruyama, T.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A. K.; Meadows, B. T.; Menegatti, G.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P. M.; Moffeit, K. C.; Moore, T. B.; Morii, M.; Muller, D.; Murzin, V.; Nagamine, T.; Narita, S.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Oishi, N.; Onoprienko, D.; Osborne, L. S.; Panvini, R. S.; Park, C. H.; Pavel, T. J.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pitts, K. T.; Plano, R. J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C. Y.; Punkar, G. D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Reeves, T. W.; Reidy, J.; Reinertsen, P. L.; Rensing, P. E.; Rochester, L. S.; Rowson, P. C.; Russell, J. J.; Saxton, O. H.; Schalk, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schumm, B. A.; Schwiening, J.; Sen, S.; Serbo, V. V.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, G.; Sherden, D. J.; Shmakov, K. D.; Simopoulos, C.; Sinev, N. B.; Smith, S. R.; Smy, M. B.; Snyder, J. A.; Staengle, H.; Stahl, A.; Stamer, P.; Steiner, H.; Steiner, R.; Strauss, M. G.; Su, D.; Suekane, F.; Sugiyama, A.; Suzuki, S.; Swartz, M.; Szumilo, A.; Takahashi, T.; Taylor, F. E.; Thom, J.; Torrence, E.; Toumbas, N. K.; Usher, T.; Vannini, C.; Va'vra, J.; Vella, E.; Venuti, J. P.; Verdier, R.; Verdini, P. G.; Wagner, D. L.; Wagner, S. R.; Waite, A. P.; Walston, S.; Wang, J.; Watts, S. J.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weiss, E. R.; Whitaker, J. S.; White, S. L.; Wickens, F. J.; Williams, B.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, S. H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, R. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittlin, J. L.; Woods, M.; Word, G. B.; Wright, T. R.; Wyss, J.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamartino, J. M.; Yang, X.; Yashima, J.; Yellin, S. J.; Young, C. C.; Yuta, H.; Zapalac, G.; Zdarko, R. W.; Zhou, J.

    1999-11-01

    The structure of e+e--->bb¯g events was studied using Z0 decays recorded in the SLC Large Detector experiment at SLAC. Three-jet final states were selected and the charge-coupled device-based vertex detector was used to identify two of the jets as b or b¯. Distributions of the gluon energy and polar angle were measured over the full kinematic range for the first time, and compared with perturbative QCD predictions. The energy distribution is potentially sensitive to an anomalous b chromomagnetic moment κ. We measured κ to be consistent with zero and set the first limits on its value: -0.17<κ<0.11 at 95% C.L.

  3. Cross section for bb¯ production via dielectrons in d + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; et al

    2015-01-26

    We report a measurement of e⁺e⁻ pairs from semileptonic heavy-flavor decays in d+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. Thus, exploring the mass and transverse-momentum dependence of the yield, the bottom decay contribution can be isolated from charm, and quantified by comparison to PYTHIA and MC@NLO simulations. The resulting bb-production cross section is σdAubb=1.37±0.28(stat)±0.46(syst) mb, which is equivalent to a nucleon-nucleon cross section of σNNbb =3.4 ± 0.8(stat)±1.1(syst) µb.

  4. Ultrasensitive sensing platform for platelet-derived growth factor BB detection based on layered molybdenum selenide-graphene composites and Exonuclease III assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Shuai, Hong-Lei; Zhang, Ji-Zong

    2016-03-15

    A highly sensitive and ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) detection is fabricated based on layered molybdenum selenide-graphene (MoSe2-Gr) composites and Exonuclease III (Exo III)-aided signal amplification. MoSe2-Gr is prepared by a simple hydrothermal method and used as a promising sensing platform. Exo III has a specifical exo-deoxyribonuclease activity for duplex DNAs in the direction from 3' to 5' terminus, however its activity is limited on the duplex DNAs with more than 4 mismatched terminal bases at 3' ends. Herein, aptamer and complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences are designed with four thymine bases on 3' ends. In the presence of target protein, the aptamer associates with it and facilitates the formation of duplex DNA between cDNA and signal DNA. The duplex DNA then is digested by Exo III and releases cDNA, which hybridizes with signal DNA to perform a new cleavage process. Nevertheless, in the absence of target protein, the aptamer hybridizes with cDNA will inhibit the Exo III-assisted nucleotides cleavage. The signal DNA then hybridizes with capture DNA on the electrode. Subsequently, horse radish peroxidase is fixed on electrode by avidin-biotin reaction and then catalyzes hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone to produce electrochemical response. Therefore, a bridge can be established between the concentration of target protein and the degree of the attenuation of the obtained signal, providing a quantitative measure of target protein with a broad detection range of 0.0001-1 nM and a detection limit of 20 fM. PMID:26386905

  5. A comprehensive proteomics and genomics analysis reveals novel transmembrane proteins in human platelets and mouse megakaryocytes including G6b-B, a novel ITIM protein

    PubMed Central

    Senis, Yotis A.; Tomlinson, Michael G.; García, Ángel; Dumon, Stephanie; Heath, Victoria L.; Herbert, John; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Spalton, Jennifer C.; Ayman, Sinem; Antrobus, Robin; Zitzmann, Nicole; Bicknell, Roy; Frampton, Jon; Authi, Kalwant; Martin, Ashley; Wakelam, Michael J.O.; Watson, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The platelet surface is poorly characterized due to the low abundance of many membrane proteins and the lack of specialist tools for their investigation. In this study we have identified novel human platelet and mouse megakaryocyte membrane proteins using specialist proteomic and genomic approaches. Three separate methods were used to enrich platelet surface proteins prior to identification by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry: lectin affinity chromatography; biotin/NeutrAvidin affinity chromatography; and free flow electrophoresis. Many known, abundant platelet surface transmembrane proteins and several novel proteins were identified using each receptor enrichment strategy. In total, two or more unique peptides were identified for 46, 68 and 22 surface membrane, intracellular membrane and membrane proteins of unknown sub-cellular localization, respectively. The majority of these were single transmembrane proteins. To complement the proteomic studies, we analysed the transcriptome of a highly purified preparation of mature primary mouse megakaryocytes using serial analysis of gene expression in view of the increasing importance of mutant mouse models in establishing protein function in platelets. This approach identified all of the major classes of platelet transmembrane receptors, including multi-transmembrane proteins. Strikingly, 17 of the 25 most megakaryocyte-specific genes (relative to 30 other SAGE libraries) were transmembrane proteins, illustrating the unique nature of the megakaryocyte/platelet surface. The list of novel plasma membrane proteins identified using proteomics includes the immunoglobulin superfamily member G6b, which undergoes extensive alternate splicing. Specific antibodies were used to demonstrate expression of the G6b-B isoform, which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif. G6b-B undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and association with the SH2-containing phosphatase, SHP-1, in stimulated

  6. Decomposition rates and residue-colonizing microbial communities of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein Cry3Bb-expressing (Bt) and non-Bt corn hybrids in the field.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kai; Serohijos, Raquel C; Devare, Medha; Thies, Janice E

    2011-02-01

    Despite the rapid adoption of crops expressing the insecticidal Cry protein(s) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), public concern continues to mount over the potential environmental impacts. Reduced residue decomposition rates and increased tissue lignin concentrations reported for some Bt corn hybrids have been highlighted recently as they may influence soil carbon dynamics. We assessed the effects of MON863 Bt corn, producing the Cry3Bb protein against the corn rootworm complex, on these aspects and associated decomposer communities by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Litterbags containing cobs, roots, or stalks plus leaves from Bt and unmodified corn with (non-Bt+I) or without (non-Bt) insecticide applied were placed on the soil surface and at a 10-cm depth in field plots planted with these crop treatments. The litterbags were recovered and analyzed after 3.5, 15.5, and 25 months. No significant effect of treatment (Bt, non-Bt, and non-Bt+I) was observed on initial tissue lignin concentrations, litter decomposition rate, or bacterial decomposer communities. The effect of treatment on fungal decomposer communities was minor, with only 1 of 16 comparisons yielding separation by treatment. Environmental factors (litterbag recovery year, litterbag placement, and plot history) led to significant differences for most measured variables. Combined, these results indicate that the differences detected were driven primarily by environmental factors rather than by any differences between the corn hybrids or the use of tefluthrin. We conclude that the Cry3Bb corn tested in this study is unlikely to affect carbon residence time or turnover in soils receiving these crop residues. PMID:21148693

  7. Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and Cry3BbL against the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Prasifka, P L; Rule, D M; Storer, N P; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W H

    2013-04-01

    Studies were conducted across nine U.S. states, over 5 yr, to characterize the efficacy of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids producing insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for control of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte. Hybrids tested had the same genetic background, contained one of two single events (DAS-59122-7 expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 or MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1) or a pyramid consisting of both rootworm-active events (SmartStax traits) and were compared with a non-Bt near isoline. Frequency analyses of root feeding data showed that hybrids containing both events sustained less root damage (0-3 node injury scale) than hybrids containing either event alone. The levels of root protection provided by MON 88017 and DAS-59122-7 were not different from each other. Efficacy was also evaluated based on consistency of protection, based on the proportion of plants with root ratings of either < or = 0.25 or < 1.00 on the node injury scale. The combination of two modes of action in SmartStax provided greater product consistency over a single mode of action at the 0.25 level and all hybrids producing Bt proteins provided equally high consistency at the 1.00 level. Overall these data show single and multiple mode of action hybrids provided high, consistent protection over the past 5 yr across the trial geography; however, pyramiding the rootworm Bt events provided greater and more consistent root protection. These findings also support that pyramided traits like SmartStax (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) remain a viable strategy for delaying resistance to either trait. PMID:23786070

  8. Costimulation as a platform for the development of vaccines: a peptide-based vaccine containing a novel form of 4-1BB ligand eradicates established tumors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh K; Elpek, Kutlu G; Yolcu, Esma S; Schabowsky, Rich-Henry; Zhao, Hong; Bandura-Morgan, Laura; Shirwan, Haval

    2009-05-15

    Vaccines represent an attractive treatment modality for the management of cancer primarily because of their specificity and generation of immunologic memory important for controlling recurrences. However, the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines may require formulations that not only generate effective immune responses but also overcome immune evasion mechanisms employed by progressing tumor. Costimulatory molecules play critical roles in modulating innate, adaptive, and regulatory immunity and have potential to serve as effective immunomodulatory components of therapeutic vaccines. In this study, we tested the function of a novel soluble form of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) costimulatory molecule in modulating innate, adaptive, and regulatory immunity and assessed its therapeutic efficacy in the HPV-16 E7-expressing TC-1 cervical cancer and survivin-expressing 3LL lung carcinoma mouse models. Vaccination with 4-1BBL activated dendritic cells and enhanced antigen uptake, generated CD8(+) T-cell effector/memory responses, and endowed T effector cells refractory to suppression by CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. Immunization with 4-1BBL in combination with an E7 peptide or survivin protein resulted in eradication of TC-1 and 3LL tumors, respectively. 4-1BBL was more effective than TLR agonists LPS, MPL, and CpG and an agonistic 4-1BB antibody as a component of E7 peptide-based therapeutic vaccine for the generation of immune responses and eradication of TC-1 established tumors in the absence of detectable toxicity. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with reversal of tumor-mediated nonresponsiveness/anergy as well as establishment of long-term CD8(+) T-cell memory. Potent pleiotropic immunomodulatory activities combined with lack of toxicity highlight the potential of 4-1BBL molecule as an effective component of therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:19435920

  9. Therapeutic Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory Signaling and Toxicity to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B by a Synthetic Dimeric BB-Loop Mimetic of MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Kissner, Teri L.; Ruthel, Gordon; Alam, Shahabuddin; Mann, Enrique; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Mitra; Larkin, Eileen; Fernandez, Stefan; Ulrich, Robert G.; Ping, Sun; Waugh, David S.; Rebek, Julius; Saikh, Kamal U.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) exposure triggers an exaggerated pro-inflammatory cytokine response that often leads to toxic shock syndrome (TSS) associated with organ failure and death. MyD88 mediates pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling induced by SEB exposure and MyD88−/− mice are resistant to SEB intoxication, suggesting that MyD88 may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention. We targeted the BB loop region of the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain of MyD88 to develop small-molecule therapeutics. Here, we report that a synthetic compound (EM-163), mimic to dimeric form of BB-loop of MyD88 attenuated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 production in human primary cells, whether administered pre- or post-SEB exposure. Results from a direct binding assay, and from MyD88 co-transfection/co-immunoprecipitation experiments, suggest that EM-163 inhibits TIR-TIR domain interaction. Additional results indicate that EM-163 prevents MyD88 from mediating downstream signaling. In an NF-kB-driven reporter assay of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated MyD88 signaling, EM-163 demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of reporter activity as well as TNF-α and IL-1β production. Importantly, administration of EM-163 pre- or post exposure to a lethal dose of SEB abrogated pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and protected mice from toxic shock-induced death. Taken together, our results suggest that EM-163 exhibits a potential for therapeutic use against SEB intoxication. PMID:22848400

  10. A Novel Rare Variant in SCN1Bb Linked to Brugada Syndrome and SIDS by Combined Modulation of Nav1.5 and Kv4.3 Channel Currents

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Barajas-Martínez, Hector; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Crotti, Lia; Veltmann, Christian; Schimpf, Rainer; Urrutia, Janire; Alday, Aintzane; Casis, Oscar; Pfeiffer, Ryan; Burashnikov, Elena; Caceres, Gabriel; Tester, David J.; Wolpert, Christian; Borggrefe, Martin; Schwartz, Peter; Ackerman, Michael J.; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac sodium channel β-subunit mutations have been associated with several inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. OBJECTIVE To identify and characterize variations in SCN1Bb associated with Brugada (BrS) and sudden infant death syndromes (SIDS). METHODS AND RESULTS Patient 1 was a 44-y/o male with an ajmaline-induced Type-1 ST-segment elevation in V1 and V2 supporting the diagnosis of BrS. Patient 2 was a 62-y/o female displaying a coved-type BrS ECG who developed cardiac arrest during fever. Patient 3 was a 4-m/o female SIDS case. All known exons and intron borders of BrS and SIDS susceptibility genes were amplified and sequenced in both directions. A R214Q variant was detected in exon 3A of SCN1Bb (Navβ1B) in all three probands, but not in any other gene previously associated with BrS or SIDS. R214Q was identified in 4 of 807 ethnically-matched healthy controls (0.50%). Wild type (WT) and mutant genes were expressed in TSA201 cells and studied using whole-cell patch-clamp and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. Co-expression of SCN5A/WT+SCN1Bb/R214Q resulted in peak sodium channel current (INa) 56.5% smaller compared to SCN5A/WT+SCN1Bb/WT ( n=11–12, p<0.05 ). Co-expression of KCND3/WT+SCN1Bb/R214Q induced a Kv4.3 current (Ito) 70.6% greater compared with KCND3/WT+SCN1Bb/WT(n=10–11, p<0.01). Co-immunoprecipitation indicated structural association between Navβ1B and Nav1.5 and Kv4.3. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that R214Q variation in SCN1Bb is a functional polymorphism that may serve as a modifier of the substrate responsible for Brugada or SIDS phenotypes via a combined loss of function of INa and gain of function of Ito. PMID:22155597

  11. Improving the Anticancer Efficacy of Laminin Receptor-Specific Therapeutic Ruthenium Nanoparticles (RuBB-Loaded EGCG-RuNPs) via ROS-Dependent Apoptosis in SMMC-7721 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanhui; Yu, Qianqian; Qin, Xiuying; Bhavsar, Dhairya; Yang, Licong; Chen, Qingchang; Zheng, Wenjing; Chen, Lanmei; Liu, Jie

    2016-06-22

    Functionalization can promote the uptake of nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, enabling them to exert their therapeutic effects. In this paper, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which has a high binding affinity to 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR) overexpressed in HCC cells, was employed in the present study to functionalized ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) loaded with luminescent ruthenium complexes to achieve antiliver cancer efficacy. [Ru(bpy)2(4-B)] (ClO4)2·2H2O (RuBB)-loaded EGCG-RuNPs (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) showed small particle size with narrow distribution, better stability, and high selectivity between liver cancer and normal cells. The internalization of RuBB-loaded EGCG-RuNPs was inhibited by 67LR-blocking antibody or laminin, suggesting that 67LR-mediated endocytosis played an important role in the uptake into HCC cells. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopic images showed that RuBB-loaded EGCG-RuNPs accumulated in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that the EGCG-functionalized nanoparticles displayed enhanced anticancer effects in a target-specific manner. Concentrations of RuBB-loaded EGCG-RuNPs, nontoxic in normal L-02 cells, showed direct reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxic, pro-apoptotic, and anti-invasive effects in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, in vivo animal study demonstrated that RuBB-loaded EGCG-RuNPs possessed high antitumor efficacy on tumor-bearing nude mice. It is encouraging to conclude that the multifunctional RuNPs may form the basis of new strategies on the treatment of liver cancer and other malignancies. PMID:26018505

  12. Effect of corn hybrids expressing the coleopteran-specific cry3Bb1 protein for corn rootworm control on aboveground insect predators.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Wilde, Gerald E; Whitworth, R Jeff; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2006-08-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L. (YieldGard Rootworm), expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein on aboveground nontarget insect predators (minute pirate bug, ladybird beetles, and carabids). Visual counts of adult and immature Orius insidiosus (Say), Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Hippodamia convergens Gurin-Meneville, and Scymnus spp. occurring in Bt corn and its non-Bt isoline were made at Manhattan, KS, in 2002 and at Manhattan and Scandia, KS, in 2003. No significant differences were found between the Bt corn and non-Bt isoline plots in the abundance (number per plant) of O. insidiosus, C. maculata, H. convergens, and Scymnus spp. Field predation on Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) egg masses was also observed during the silking stage of corn at Manhattan and Scandia in 2003. No significant differences were observed among treatments in predation rate for predators with chewing versus sucking mouthparts. Two laboratory studies determined the effect of Cry3Bb1 protein expressed in Bt corn pollen on C. maculata and carabids. The larvae of C. maculata were reared on Bt pollen, non-Bt pollen, or greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). The duration of larval and pupal stages, developmental time from egg hatch to adult emergence, percentage of survival, and elytra length were compared among treatments. There were no significant differences in developmental time of larvae fed pollen or greenbugs during their first two instars. However, significantly prolonged development of the third (1 d) and fourth instars (2 d) was observed for larvae fed greenbugs only. Total time for larval development was significantly longer for larvae that fed on greenbugs versus larvae fed on pollen. No significant differences were observed among treatments in the percentage of larvae that pupated or pupal stage duration. Larvae that fed on greenbugs had higher pupal and adult weights

  13. Prospects for observing the standard model Higgs boson decaying into bb final states produced in weak boson fusion with an associated photon at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Cunningham, M.; Dejong, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Santamarina, C.; Schram, M.

    2010-11-01

    One of the primary goals of the Large Hadron Collider is to understand the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. In the standard model, electroweak symmetry breaking is described by the Higgs mechanism which includes a scalar Higgs boson. Electroweak measurements constrain the standard model Higgs boson mass to be in the 114.4 to 157 GeV/c{sup 2} range. For m{sub h}<135 GeV/c{sup 2}, the Higgs predominantly decays into two b-quarks. As such, we investigate the prospect of observing the standard model Higgs decaying to bb produced in weak-boson-fusion with an associated central photon. An isolated, high p{sub T}, central photon trigger is expected to be available at the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In this study, we investigated the effects originating from showering, hadronization, the underlying event model, and jet performance including b-jet calibration on the sensitivity of this channel. We found that the choice of Monte Carlo simulation and its tune has a large effect on the efficacy of the central jet veto and consequently the signal significance. A signal significance of 1.6{sub -0.3}{sup +0.5} can be achieved for m{sub h}=115 GeV/c{sup 2} with 100 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity which correspond to 1 yr at design luminosity at 14 TeV pp collisions.

  14. Docking modes of BB-3497 into the PDF active site--a comparison of the pure MM and QM/MM based docking strategies.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Tripti; Issar, Upasana; Kakkar, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) has emerged as an important antibacterial drug target. Considerable effort is being directed toward developing peptidic and non-peptidic inhibitors for this metalloprotein. In this work, the known peptidic inhibitor BB-3497 and its various ionization and tautomeric states are evaluated for their inhibition efficiency against PDF using a molecular mechanics (MM) approach as well as a mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach, with an aim to understand the interactions in the binding site. The evaluated Gibbs energies of binding with the mixed QM/MM approach are shown to have the best predictive power. The experimental pose is found to have the most negative Gibbs energy of binding, and also the smallest strain energy. A quantum mechanical evaluation of the active site reveals the requirement of strong chelation by the ligand with the metal ion. The investigated ligand chelates the metal ion through the two oxygens of its reverse hydroxamate moiety, particularly the N-O(-) oxygen, forming strong covalent bonds with the metal ion, which is penta-coordinated. In the uninhibited state, the metal ion is tetrahedrally coordinated, and hence chelation with the inhibitor is associated with an increase of the metal ion coordination. Thus, the strong binding of the ligand at the binding site is accounted for. PMID:25994638

  15. Characterization of Beauveria bassiana neutral trehalase (BbNTH1) and recognition of crucial stress-responsive elements to control its expression in response to multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2011-05-20

    A neutral trehalase (NTH1) of fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana was characterized for the first time as a 743-aa enzyme (84.4 kDa). To identify crucial stress-responsive elements (STREs) to control the expression of the NTH-coding gene (BbNTH1) in response to different stresses, the full-length promoter (-2713 bp) upstream of its open reading frame and three upstream-truncated fragments (-1912, -1060 and -560 bp) were fused to the reporter gene eGFP and then transformed into B. bassiana, respectively. Consequently, eGFP was well expressed as intensive fluorescence in mycelia, conidiogenic cells and forming conidia controlled by the full-length promoter with five STREs. Surprisingly, transformants controlled by the shortest fragment with last two STREs at -315 and -274 bp exhibited consistently brightest fluorescence in mycelia under 3-h oxidative adaption of 0.3-1.2mM menadione, and in colonies under 6-day osmotic stress of 0.5-1M NaCl and thermal stress of 15-540 min at 40°C after 3-day growth at 25°C. Single or dual site-directed mutations of the two STREs from CCCCT to CATCT significantly altered the gene response to the multiple stresses. Thus, the two STREs in the downstream 560-bp region of the promoter are crucial to regulating not only constitutive but stress-inducible expression of the target gene. PMID:20630729

  16. Combined Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Decaying to bb̄ Using the D0 Run II Data Set

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Askew, A.; et al

    2012-09-20

    We present the results of the combination of searches for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson and decaying into bb̄ using the data sample collected with the D0 detector in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We derive 95% C.L. upper limits on the Higgs boson cross section relative to the standard model prediction in the mass range 100 GeV≤MH≤150 GeV, and we exclude Higgs bosons with masses smaller than 102 GeV at the 95% C.L. In the mass range 120 GeV≤MH≤145 GeV, the data exhibit an excessmore » above the background prediction with a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations, consistent with the expectation in the presence of a standard model Higgs boson.« less

  17. Combined Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Decaying to bb̄ Using the D0 Run II Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takahashi, M.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tschann-Grimm, K.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.

    2012-09-20

    We present the results of the combination of searches for the standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a W or Z boson and decaying into bb̄ using the data sample collected with the D0 detector in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We derive 95% C.L. upper limits on the Higgs boson cross section relative to the standard model prediction in the mass range 100 GeV≤MH≤150 GeV, and we exclude Higgs bosons with masses smaller than 102 GeV at the 95% C.L. In the mass range 120 GeV≤MH≤145 GeV, the data exhibit an excess above the background prediction with a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations, consistent with the expectation in the presence of a standard model Higgs boson.

  18. Comparison of humoral insulin-like growth factor-1, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factor-β1, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentrations among equine autologous blood-derived preparations.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Christiane R; Troillet, Antonia R; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Winter, Karsten; Brehm, Walter; Ionita, Jean-Claude

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare humoral insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) concentrations in plasma and 3 types of equine autologous blood-derived preparations (ABPs). SAMPLE Blood and ABP samples from 12 horses. PROCEDURES Blood samples from each horse were processed by use of commercial systems to obtain plasma, platelet concentrate, conditioned serum, and aqueous platelet lysate. Half of the platelet concentrate samples were additionally treated with a detergent to release intracellular mediators. Humoral IGF-1, PDGF-BB, TGF-β1, and IL-1Ra concentrations were measured with ELISAs and compared statistically. RESULTS Median IGF-1 concentration was highest in conditioned serum and detergent-treated platelet concentrate, followed by platelet concentrate and plasma; IGF-1 was not detected in platelet lysate. Mean PDGF-BB concentration was highest in platelet lysate, followed by detergent-treated platelet concentrate and conditioned serum; PDGF-BB was not detected in plasma and platelet concentrate. Median TGF-β1 concentration was highest in detergent-treated platelet concentrate, followed by conditioned serum, platelet lysate, and platelet concentrate; TGF-β1 was not detected in most plasma samples. Median IL-1Ra concentration was highest in platelet lysate, followed by conditioned serum; IL-1Ra was not detected in almost all plasma, detergent-treated platelet concentrate, and platelet concentrate samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Each ABP had its own cytokine profile, which was determined by the specific processing method. Coagulation and cellular lysis strongly increased humoral concentrations of cell-derived cytokines. No ABP had the highest concentrations for all cytokines. Further studies are needed to assess clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:27463555

  19. The osteoregenerative effects of platelet-derived growth factor BB cotransplanted with mesenchymal stem cells, loaded on freeze-dried mineral bone block: a pilot study in dog mandible.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, Arash; Dashti, Seyedeh Ghazaleh; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Behnia, Hossein; Abbasnia, Pegah; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-11-01

    Due to shortcomings associated with autogenous bone graft, the gold standard of craniofacial grafting, investigators seek alternatives that are accessible, efficient, and affordable. Accordingly, in the present pilot study, bone regeneration was induced using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) loaded onto freeze-dried mineral bone block (FDMBB) in the presence or absence of recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rh PDGF-BB). Eight weeks after the bilateral extraction of premolars of four mongrel dogs, 25 × 10 mm defects were created at both sides of the mandible. The right mandible received autogenous-BMSC loaded on FDMBB (MSC group), whereas the left mandible received cellular blocks impregnated with rhPDGF-BB (MSC + PDGF Group). Animals were euthanized 8 weeks after grafting. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated higher levels of bone formation for the test group (10.34% ± 0.20 and 26.63% ± 3.14, respectively) when compared to the control group (8.20% ± 0.20 and 21.38% ± 5.11). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). According to the performed micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis, adding 0.5 mg rhPDGF-BB (0.3 mg/mL) to the combination of BMSC/FDMBB did not significantly increase bone formation in supracrestal defect in dog mandible. PMID:24706585

  20. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M

    2015-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points - defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being - in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50% of the time was 1·31 (95% CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95% CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all P<0·05). Effects on defecation frequency were similar for the two doses tested, suggesting that a ceiling effect was reached with the one billion dose. Overall, 4 weeks' supplementation with the probiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency. The results suggest that consumption of BB-12® improves the GI health of individuals whose symptoms are not sufficiently severe to consult a doctor (ISRCTN18128385). PMID:26382580

  1. Impact of the Bt Corn Proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, Alone or Pyramided, on Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence in the Field.

    PubMed

    Hitchon, A J; Smith, J L; French, B W; Schaafsma, A W

    2015-08-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L. The effect of the Bt proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, alone or pyramided in corn hybrids on D. v. virgifera adult emergence was evaluated in field experiments for 3 yr. Experiments were infested artificially with 2,500 viable D. v. virgifera eggs per row meter of corn. The reduction in beetle emergence compared with non-Bt controls, from Cry34/35Ab1, Cry3Bb1, and the pyramided hybrids ranged from 64.3 to 97.4%, 91.1 to 95.2%, and 98.1 to 99.6%, respectively. The sex ratio of emerged beetles was usually female-biased from the Cry3Bb1 and pyramided treatments, but not from Cry34/35Ab1 treatment alone. Emergence from all Bt hybrids was delayed compared with the control, with the delay longest from the pyramided hybrid. In 2013, three egg infestation levels were tested, with density-dependent mortality observed at 1,250 viable eggs per row meter. The effect of Bt proteins on the emergence timing and sex ratio of D. v. virgifera may impact the suitability of resistance management plans, specifically the effectiveness of the refuge strategy. Susceptible males emerging from refuge might not be synchronized to mate with potentially resistant females emerging later from Bt corn hybrids. PMID:26470344

  2. Effect of galactooligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 on growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, microbial community structure, and metabolite production in an in vitro colonic model set up with human or pig microbiota.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Rafael C R; Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Borst, Wendy; Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk; Gutiérrez, Odette P; Maathuis, Annet J H; de Melo Franco, Bernadette D G; De Martinis, Elaine C P; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Venema, Koen; Saad, Susana M I; Smidt, Hauke

    2013-04-01

    A validated in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2), set up with human or pig faeces, was used to evaluate the impact of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, administered alone (i), in the presence of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (ii), and co-administered with probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) (iii) on GOS degradation, microbial growth (L. amylovorus, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and total bacteria) and metabolite production. High performance anion exchange chromatography revealed that GOS degradation was more pronounced in TIM-2 inoculated with pig faeces than with human faeces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected a more complex Lactobacillus spp. community in pig faecal material than in human faecal inoculum. According to 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR, GOS stimulated the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in faecal material from both materials. The cumulative production of short chain fatty acids and ammonia was higher (P < 0.05) for pig than for human faeces. However, lactate accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) in the human model and increased after co-administration with GOS and Bb-12. This study reinforced the notion that differences in microbiota composition between target host organisms need to be considered when animal data are extrapolated to human, as is often done with pre- and probiotic intervention studies. PMID:23167835

  3. Seasonal changes of the ambient noise recorded by the "13 BB star" array in northern Poland within the Trans European Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Simone; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The variations in the azimuth of ambient noise sources, as well as the coherence of the average velocity of surface waves arrivals, were evaluated by applying beam forming and seismic interferometry techniques to the recordings carried out during 2014 at the "13 BB star" array composed of thirteen broadband seismic stations located in northern Poland within the Trans European Suture Zone. The evaluation of the beam power for the whole array each five days for the horizontal and vertical components led to the estimation of the azimuth variation of noise sources during the entire 2014. Fifty days represent a reasonable period to observe seasonal variations of the azimuth in time. The analysis of the azimuths makes evident the strongest beam power associated to noise does not show a preferred direction. The azimuth is predominantly fluctuating between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea: nevertheless, secondary sources like the Atlantic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea were also noticed. To put in evidence the seasonal variations, the amplitude associated to the principal source was evaluated for the three components. It shows high values in January, March, April, July, August and November, whereas it is low in the remaining months. The analysis of the crosscorrelation between all the station pairs, obtained from the stacking of daily traces for January, April and September 2014 in the 0.1 1 Hz frequency band, allowed the estimation of precise values of velocities of surface waves. The best resolution to retrieve the surface waves is achieved in April, whereas in January and September several higher modes are still present in the traces. The fastest arrivals of surface waves are between ~7 s at ~20 km distance and ~40 s at ~120 km with an average velocity of ~3 km/s. The second group of arrivals is located between ~10 s at ~20 km distance and ~60 s at ~120 km: accordingly, the average velocity is ~2 km/s. The third group of arrivals, between ~13 s at 20 km

  4. Native CB1 receptor affinity, intrinsic activity and accumbens shell dopamine stimulant properties of third generation SPICE/K2 cannabinoids: BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Castelli, M Paola; Loi, Barbara; Porcu, Alessandra; Martorelli, Mariella; Miliano, Cristina; Kellett, Kathryn; Davidson, Colin; Stair, Jacqueline L; Schifano, Fabrizio; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the in vivo dopamine (DA) stimulant properties of selected 3rd generation Spice/K2 cannabinoids, BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135, their in vitro affinity and agonist potency at native rat and mice CB1 receptors was studied. The compounds bind with high affinity to CB1 receptors in rat cerebral cortex homogenates and stimulate CB1-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding with high potency and efficacy. BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 showed the lowest Ki of binding to CB1 receptors (0.11 and 0.13 nM), i.e., 30 and 26 times lower respectively than that of JWH-018 (3.38 nM), and a potency (EC50, 2.9 and 3.7 nM, respectively) and efficacy (Emax, 217% and 203%, respectively) as CB1 agonists higher than JWH-018 (EC50, 20.2 nM; Emax, 163%). 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135 had higher Ki for CB1 binding, higher EC50 and lower Emax as CB1 agonists than BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 but still comparatively more favourable than JWH-018. The agonist properties of all the compounds were abolished or drastically reduced by the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (0.1 μM). No activation of G-protein was observed in CB1-KO mice. BB-22 (0.003-0.01 mg/kg i.v.) increased dialysate DA in the accumbens shell but not in the core or in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a bell shaped dose-response curve and an effect at 0.01 mg/kg and a biphasic time-course. Systemic AM251 (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) completely prevented the stimulant effect of BB-22 on dialysate DA in the NAc shell. All the other compounds increased dialysate DA in the NAc shell at doses consistent with their in vitro affinity for CB1 receptors (5F-PB-22, 0.01 mg/kg; 5F-AKB-48, 0.1 mg/kg; STS-135, 0.15 mg/kg i.v.). 3rd generation cannabinoids can be even more potent and super-high CB1 receptor agonists compared to JWH-018. Future research will try to establish if these properties can explain the high toxicity and lethality associated with these compounds. PMID:26686391

  5. IGF-1 and PDGF-bb Suppress IL-1β-Induced Cartilage Degradation through Down-Regulation of NF-κB Signaling: Involvement of Src/PI-3K/AKT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Buhrmann, Constanze; Aldinger, Constance; Rad, Jafar Soleimani; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Growth factors (GFs) capable of antagonizing the catabolic actions of cytokines may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of OA. Herein, we investigated the potential synergistic effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) on different mechanisms participating in IL-1β-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and apoptosis in chondrocytes. Methods Primary chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β to induce dedifferentiation and co-treated with either IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb and evaluated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Results Pretreatment of chondrocytes with IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation via inhibition of IκB-α kinase. Inhibition of IκB-α kinase by GFs led to the suppression of IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation, p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB-regulated gene products involved in inflammation and cartilage degradation (COX-2, MMPs) and apoptosis (caspase-3). GFs or BMS-345541 (specific inhibitor of the IKK) reversed the IL-1β-induced down-regulation of collagen type II, cartilage specific proteoglycans, β1-integrin, Shc, activated MAPKinase, Sox-9 and up-regulation of active caspase-3. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of IGF-1 or/and PDGF-bb on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation were sensitive to inhibitors of Src (PP1), PI-3K (wortmannin) and Akt (SH-5), suggesting that the pathway consisting of non-receptor tyrosine kinase (Src), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B must be involved in IL-1β signaling. Conclusion The results presented suggest that IGF-1 and PDGF-bb are potent inhibitors of IL-1β-mediated activation of NF-κB and apoptosis in chondrocytes, may be mediated in part through suppression of Src/PI-3K/AKT pathway, which may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID

  6. The TIR/BB-loop mimetic AS-1 attenuates mechanical stress-induced cardiac fibroblast activation and paracrine secretion via modulation of large tumor suppressor kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Song, Juan; He, Yijie; Shen, Xin; Li, Jiantao; Que, Linli; Zhu, Guoqing; Zhu, Quan; Cai, Xin; Ha, Tuanzhu; Chen, Qi; Xu, Yong; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua

    2016-06-01

    The TIR/BB-loop mimetic AS-1 has been reported to prevent cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-mediated myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling. To date, it remains unknown whether and if so how AS-1 contributes to mechanical stress (MS)-induced cardiac fibroblast activation, a key process in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Here, we show that phosphorylation and expression of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1), a key molecule in the Hippo-Yes associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway, were down-regulated in primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) in response to MS and in the hearts of mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) procedure; AS-1 treatment was able to restore LATS1 phosphorylation and expression both in vitro and in vivo. AS-1 treatment suppressed the induction of proliferation, differentiation and collagen synthesis in response to MS in NRCFs. AS-1 also ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis through dampening paracrine secretion of stretched cardiac fibroblasts. In mice, AS-1 treatment could protect against TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and heart failure. Of note, LATS1 depletion using siRNA completely abrogated the inhibitory effects of AS-1 on NRCFs under MS including accelerated proliferation, differentiation, enhanced ability to produce collagen and augmented paracrine secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Therefore, our results delineate a previously unrecognized role for LATS1 in cardiac fibroblast to mediate the beneficial effects of AS-1 in preventing pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and heart failure. PMID:26964796

  7. Phase I Clinical Trial of 4-1BB-based Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Choi, Beom K.; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Hyewon; Yun, Tak; Kim, Young H.; Lee, Je-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Although adoptive cell therapy using Ag-specific T cells has been tested successfully in the clinic, the production of these T cells has been challenging. By applying our simple and practical 4-1BB-based method for the generation of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells, here we determined the maximum tolerated dose, toxicity profile, immunologic responses, and clinical efficacy of autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/LMP2A-specific CD8+ T cells (EBV-induced Natural T cell; EBViNT) in patients with relapsed/refractory EBV-positive tumors. This was a single-center, phase I, dose-escalation trial study evaluating 4 escalating dosing schedules of single injected EBViNT. CD8+ T-cell responses against different LMP2A peptides in each patient were determined, and the most effective peptides were used to produce EBViNT. The produced autologous EBViNTs were single infused to patients with EBV-associated malignancy who had failed to standard treatments and were of HLA-A02 or A24 type. Of 11 patients enrolled, 8 patients received a single infusion of EBViNT: 4 with nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 1 with Hodgkin lymphoma, 2 with extranodal NK/T lymphomas, and 1 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Single infusion of EBViNT was well tolerated by all the patients and generated objective antitumor responses in 3 of them. EBViNT infusion induced 2 waves of interferon-γ response: 1 approximately 1 week and the other 4–8 weeks after the treatment. The strength of the second wave was related to the efficacy of the treatment. The current trial shows that EBViNT therapy is safe and may provide a new option for treating EBV-positive recurrent cancer patients resistant to conventional therapy. PMID:26938947

  8. Phase I Clinical Trial of 4-1BB-based Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-positive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Choi, Beom K; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Hyewon; Yun, Tak; Kim, Young H; Lee, Je-Jung; Kwon, Byoung S

    2016-04-01

    Although adoptive cell therapy using Ag-specific T cells has been tested successfully in the clinic, the production of these T cells has been challenging. By applying our simple and practical 4-1BB-based method for the generation of Ag-specific CD8 T cells, here we determined the maximum tolerated dose, toxicity profile, immunologic responses, and clinical efficacy of autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/LMP2A-specific CD8 T cells (EBV-induced Natural T cell; EBViNT) in patients with relapsed/refractory EBV-positive tumors. This was a single-center, phase I, dose-escalation trial study evaluating 4 escalating dosing schedules of single injected EBViNT. CD8 T-cell responses against different LMP2A peptides in each patient were determined, and the most effective peptides were used to produce EBViNT. The produced autologous EBViNTs were single infused to patients with EBV-associated malignancy who had failed to standard treatments and were of HLA-A02 or A24 type. Of 11 patients enrolled, 8 patients received a single infusion of EBViNT: 4 with nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 1 with Hodgkin lymphoma, 2 with extranodal NK/T lymphomas, and 1 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Single infusion of EBViNT was well tolerated by all the patients and generated objective antitumor responses in 3 of them. EBViNT infusion induced 2 waves of interferon-γ response: 1 approximately 1 week and the other 4-8 weeks after the treatment. The strength of the second wave was related to the efficacy of the treatment. The current trial shows that EBViNT therapy is safe and may provide a new option for treating EBV-positive recurrent cancer patients resistant to conventional therapy. PMID:26938947

  9. Effects of entomopathogens on mortality of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Amanda M; French, B Wade; Jaronski, Stefan T; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2014-02-01

    Fitness costs can delay pest resistance to crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and past research has found that entomopathogens impose fitness costs of Bt resistance. In addition, entomopathogens can be used for integrated pest management by providing biological control of pests. The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of maize and is currently managed by planting of Bt maize. We tested whether entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi increased mortality of western corn rootworm and whether these entomopathogens increased fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. We exposed western corn rootworm larvae to two species of nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernemafeltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and to two species of fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) (strain GHA) and Metarhizium brunneum (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (strain F52) in two assay types, namely, seedling mat and small cup. Larval mortality increased with the concentration of H. bacteriophora and S. feltiae in the small cup assay, and with the exception of S. feltiae and B. bassiana in the seedling mat assay, mortality from entomopathogens was significantly greater than zero for the remaining entomopathogens in both assays. However, no fitness costs were observed in either assay type for any entomopathogen. Increased mortality of western corn rootworm larvae caused by these entomopathogens supports their potential use in biological control; however, the lack of fitness costs suggests that entomopathogens will not delay the evolution of Bt resistance in western corn rootworm. PMID:24665720

  10. 4-1BB ligand as an effective multifunctional immunomodulator and antigen delivery vehicle for the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajesh K; Schabowsky, Rich-Henry; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Elpek, Kutlu G; Madireddi, Shravan; Zhao, Hong; Zhong, Zhenping; Miller, Robert W; Macleod, Kathryn J; Yolcu, Esma S; Shirwan, Haval

    2010-05-15

    Therapeutic subunit vaccines based on tumor-associated antigens (TAA) represent an attractive approach for the treatment of cancer. However, poor immunogenicity of TAAs requires potent adjuvants for therapeutic efficacy. We recently proposed the tumor necrosis factor family costimulatory ligands as potential adjuvants for therapeutic vaccines and, hence, generated a soluble form of 4-1BBL chimeric with streptavidin (SA-4-1BBL) that has pleiotropic effects on cells of innate, adaptive, and regulatory immunity. We herein tested whether these effects can translate into effective cancer immunotherapy when SA-4-1BBL was also used as a vehicle to deliver TAAs in vivo to dendritic cells (DCs) constitutively expressing the 4-1BB receptor. SA-4-1BBL was internalized by DCs upon receptor binding and immunization with biotinylated antigens conjugated to SA-4-1BBL resulted in increased antigen uptake and cross-presentation by DCs, leading to the generation of effective T-cell immune responses. Conjugate vaccines containing human papillomavirus 16 E7 oncoprotein or survivin as a self-TAA had potent therapeutic efficacy against TC-1 cervical and 3LL lung carcinoma tumors, respectively. Therapeutic efficacy of the vaccines was associated with increased CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T-cell effector and memory responses and higher intratumoral CD8(+) T effector/CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cell ratio. Thus, potent pleiotropic immune functions of SA-4-1BBL combined with its ability to serve as a vehicle to increase the delivery of antigens to DCs in vivo endow this molecule with the potential to serve as an effective immunomodulatory component of therapeutic vaccines against cancer and chronic infections. PMID:20406989

  11. [The immunotherapy potential of agonistic anti-CD137 (4-1BB) monoclonal antibodies for malignancies and chronic viral diseases].

    PubMed

    Alfaro, C; Murillo, O; Tirapu, I; Azpilicueta, A; Huarte, E; Arina, A; Arribillaga, L; Pérez-Gracia, J L; Bendandi, M; Prieto, J; Lasarte, J J; Melero, I

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacological intervention on the immune system to achieve more intense lymphocyte responses has potential application in tumour immunology and in the treatment of chronic viral diseases. Immunostimulating monoclonal antibodies are defined as a new family of drugs that augment cellular immune responses. They interact as artificial ligands with functional proteins of the immune system, either activating or inhibiting their functions. There are humanized monoclonal antibodies directed to the inhibitory receptor CD152 (CTLA-4) that are being tested in clinical trials with evidence of antitumoural activity. As a drawback, anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies induce severe autoimmunity reactions in a fraction of the patients. Anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies have the ability to induce potent immune responses mainly mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes with the result of frequent complete tumour eradications in mice. Comparative studies in experimental models indicate that the antitumour activity of anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies is superior to that of anti-CD152. CD137 (4-1BB) is a leukocyte differentiation antigen selectively expressed on the surface of activated T and NK lymphocytes, as well as on dendritic cells. Monoclonal antibodies acting as artificial stimulatory ligands of this receptor (anti-CD137 agonist antibodies) enhance cellular antitumoural and antiviral immunity in a variety of mouse models. Paradoxically, anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies are therapeutic or preventive in the course of model autoimmune diseases in mice. In light of these experimental results, a number of research groups have humanized antibodies against human CD137 and early clinical trials are about to start. PMID:16670731

  12. Fatty acid patterns of genetically modified Cry3Bb1 expressing Bt-maize MON88017 and its near-isogenic line.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, Juergen; Rauschen, Stefan; Langer, Uwe; Augustin, Juergen; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2009-01-14

    Fatty acid (FA) profiles of the Bt-maize line MON88017 expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein and its near-isogenic line DKC5143 were examined. Plant compartments under study included leaves taken from different internodes and roots. Sample preparation involved pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of the biomass, transmethylation of the extracted lipids to give fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and finally GC-MS analysis. The essential quality parameters for the FA profiles included total FA and sum of saturated FA, as well as double-bond index (DBI). FA profiles of the roots--characterized by high concentrations of homomorphic FA including palmitic and stearic acid, along with low concentrations of polyunsaturated surrogates--revealed high similarity between the genetically modified and the near-isogenic line. In contrast, FA profiles of the leaves showed significant differences: higher total FA concentrations and higher DBI were observed for the near-isogenic line. This was overwhelmingly associated with lower concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3,6,9ccc) in the genetically modified leaf samples. These differences were particularly pronounced for leaves taken from the fourth elongated, above-ground internode. Given the large reported variability in the population of maize lines, MON88017 and its near-isogenic line can be regarded as equivalent with regard to their fatty acid profiles, despite the differences observed for the leaves. Further experiments are needed to assess whether the genetic modification of Bt-maize plants might induce unintended effects with regard to FA profiles. PMID:19067518

  13. Multiple assays indicate varying levels of cross resistance of Cry3Bb1-selected field populations of the western corn rootworm to mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minnesota populations of the western corn rootworm (WCR) surviving Cry3Bb1-expressing corn in the field and WCR populations assumed to be susceptible to all Bt proteins were evaluated for susceptibility to Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1 in diet assays and three different plant-based ass...

  14. AhR-dependent secretion of PDGF-BB by human classically activated macrophages exposed to DEP extracts stimulates lung fibroblast proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaguin, Marie; Fardel, Olivier; Lecureur, Valérie

    2015-06-15

    Lung diseases are aggravated by exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) found in air pollution. Macrophages are thought to play a crucial role in lung immune response to these pollutants, even if the mechanisms involved remain incompletely characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated that classically and alternative human macrophages (MΦ) exhibited increased secretion of PDGF-B in response to DEP extract (DEPe). This occurred via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activation because DEPe-induced PDGF-B overexpression was abrogated after AhR expression knock-down by RNA interference, in both M1 and M2 polarizing MΦ. In addition, TCDD and benzo(a)pyrene, two potent AhR ligands, also significantly increased mRNA expression of PDGF-B in M1 MΦ, whereas some weak ligands of AhR did not. We next evaluated the impact of conditioned media (CM) from MΦ culture exposed to DEPe or of recombinant PDGF-B onto lung fibroblast proliferation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG-1295, prevents phosphorylations of PDGF-Rβ, AKT and ERK1/2 and the proliferation of MRC-5 fibroblasts induced by recombinant PDGF-B and by CM from M1 polarizing MΦ, strongly suggesting that the PDGF-BB secreted by DEPe-exposed MΦ is sufficient to activate the PDGF-Rβ pathway of human lung fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human MΦ, whatever their polarization status, secrete PDGF-B in response to DEPe and that PDGF-B is a target gene of AhR. Therefore, induction of PDGF-B by DEP may participate in the deleterious effects towards human health triggered by such environmental urban contaminants. - Highlights: • PDGF-B expression and secretion are increased by DEPe exposure in human M1 and M2 MΦ. • DEPe-induced PDGF-B expression is aryl-hydrocarbon-dependent. • DEPe-exposed M1 MΦ secrete sufficient PDGF-B to increase lung fibroblast proliferation.

  15. THE RADIAL VELOCITY DETECTION OF EARTH-MASS PLANETS IN THE PRESENCE OF ACTIVITY NOISE: THE CASE OF {alpha} CENTAURI Bb

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    2013-06-20

    We present an analysis of the publicly available HARPS radial velocity (RV) measurements for {alpha} Cen B, a star hosting an Earth-mass planet candidate in a 3.24 day orbit. The goal is to devise robust ways of extracting low-amplitude RV signals of low-mass planets in the presence of activity noise. Two approaches were used to remove the stellar activity signal which dominates the RV variations: (1) Fourier component analysis (pre-whitening), and (2) local trend filtering (LTF) of the activity using short time windows of the data. The Fourier procedure results in a signal at P = 3.236 days and K = 0.42 m s{sup -1}, which is consistent with the presence of an Earth-mass planet, but the false alarm probability for this signal is rather high at a few percent. The LTF results in no significant detection of the planet signal, although it is possible to detect a marginal planet signal with this method using a different choice of time windows and fitting functions. However, even in this case the significance of the 3.24 day signal depends on the details of how a time window containing only 10% of the data is filtered. Both methods should have detected the presence of {alpha} Cen Bb at a higher significance than is actually seen. We also investigated the influence of random noise with a standard deviation comparable to the HARPS data and sampled in the same way. The distribution of the noise peaks in the period range 2.8-3.3 days has a maximum of Almost-Equal-To 3.2 days and amplitudes approximately one-half of the K-amplitude for the planet. The presence of the activity signal may boost the velocity amplitude of these signals to values comparable to the planet. It may be premature to attribute the 3.24 day RV variations to an Earth-mass planet. A better understanding of the noise characteristics in the RV data as well as more measurements with better sampling will be needed to confirm this exoplanet.

  16. Growth factors in porcine full and partial thickness burn repair. Differing targets and effects of keratinocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, epidermal growth factor, and neu differentiation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Danilenko, D. M.; Ring, B. D.; Tarpley, J. E.; Morris, B.; Van, G. Y.; Morawiecki, A.; Callahan, W.; Goldenberg, M.; Hershenson, S.; Pierce, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    The topical application of recombinant growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer (rPDGF-BB), keratinocyte growth factor (rKGF), and neu differentiation factor has resulted in significant acceleration of healing in several animal models of wound repair. In this study, we established highly reproducible and quantifiable full and deep partial thickness porcine burn models in which burns were escharectomized 4 or 5 days postburn and covered with an occlusive dressing to replicate the standard treatment in human burn patients. We then applied these growth factors to assess their efficacy on several parameters of wound repair: extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production, percent reepithelialization, and new epithelial area. In full thickness burns, only rPDGF-BB and the combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF induced significant changes in burn repair. rPDGF-BB induced marked extracellular matrix and granulation tissue production (P = 0.013) such that the burn defect was filled within several days of escharectomy, but had no effect on new epithelial area or reepithelialization. The combination of rPDGF-BB and rKGF in full thickness burns resulted in a highly significant increase in extracellular matrix and granulation tissue area (P = 0.0009) and a significant increase in new epithelial area (P = 0.007), but had no effect on reepithelialization. In deep partial thickness burns, rKGF induced the most consistent changes. Daily application of rKGF induced a highly significant increase in new epithelial area (P < 0.0001) but induced only a modest increase in reepithelialization (83.7% rKGF-treated versus 70.2% control; P = 0.016) 12 days postburn. rKGF also doubled the number of fully reepithelialized burns (P = 0.02) at 13 days postburn, at least partially because of marked stimulation of both epidermal and follicular proliferation as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression. In situ hybridization for

  17. Effects of synbiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on the fecal microbiota of adults with irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bogovič Matijašić, Bojana; Obermajer, Tanja; Lipoglavšek, Luka; Sernel, Tjaša; Locatelli, Igor; Kos, Mitja; Šmid, Alenka; Rogelj, Irena

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentric study to investigate the influence of a synbiotic fermented milk on the fecal microbiota composition of 30 adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The synbiotic product contained Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12, Streptococcus thermophilus, and dietary fiber (90% inulin, 10% oligofructose), and a heat-treated fermented milk without probiotic bacteria or dietary fiber served as placebo. Stool samples were collected after a run-in period, a 4-wk consumption period, and a 1-wk follow-up period, and were subjected to real-time PCR and 16S rDNA profiling by next-generation sequencing. After 4wk of synbiotic (11 subjects) or placebo (19 subjects) consumption, a greater increase in DNA specific for L. acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis was detected in the feces of the synbiotic group compared with the placebo group by quantitative real-time PCR. After 1wk of follow-up, the content of L. acidophilus La-5 and B. animalis ssp. lactis decreased to levels close to initial levels. No significant changes with time or differences between the groups were observed for Lactobacillus, Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacterium, or all bacteria. The presence of viable BB-12- and La-5-like bacteria in the feces resulting from the intake of synbiotic product was confirmed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. At the end of consumption period, the feces of all subjects assigned to the synbiotic group contained viable bacteria with a BB-12-like RAPD profile, and after 1wk of follow-up, BB-12-like bacteria remained in the feces of 87.5% of these subjects. The presence of La-5-like colonies was observed less frequently (37.5 and 25% of subjects, respectively). Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons revealed that only the percentage of sequences assigned to Strep. thermophilus was temporarily increased in both groups, whereas the

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer), transforming growth factor-beta 1, and basic fibroblast growth factor in dermal wound healing. Neovessel and matrix formation and cessation of repair.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Yanagihara, D.; Mustoe, T. A.; Fox, G. M.; Thomason, A.

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor (BB homodimer, rPDGF-BB), transforming growth factor beta 1 (rTGF-beta 1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (rbFGF) can accelerate healing of soft tissues. However, little information is available characterizing the components of wound matrix induced by these growth factors and the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated repair and wound maturation. In this study, the composition, quantity, and rate of extracellular matrix deposition within growth factor-treated lapine ear excisional wounds were analyzed at different stages of healing using specific histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, coupled with image analysis techniques. Single application of optimal concentrations of each growth factor accelerated normal healing by 30% (P less than 0.0003); rPDGF-BB markedly augmented early glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and fibronectin deposition, but induced significantly greater levels of collagen later in the repair process, compared with untreated wounds rTGF-beta 1 treatment led to rapidly enhanced collagen synthesis and maturation, without increased GAG deposition. In contrast, rbFGF treatment induced a predominantly angiogenic response in wounds, with a marked increase in endothelia and neovessels (P less than 0.0001), and increased wound collagenolytic activity (P less than 0.03). rbFGF-treated wounds did not evolve into collagen-containing scars and continued to accumulate only provisional matrix well past wound closure. These results provide new evidence that growth factors influence wound repair via different mechanisms: 1) rPDGF-BB accelerates deposition of provisional wound matrix; 2) rTGF-beta 1 accelerates deposition and maturation of collagen; and 3) rbFGF induces a profound monocellular angiogenic response which may lead to a marked delay in wound maturation, and the possible loss of the normal signal(s) required to stop repair. These results suggest that specific growth factors may selectively regulate

  19. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks and decaying into bb¯ in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-29

    In this study, a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair, tt¯H, is presented. The analysis uses 20.3 fb–1 of pp collision data at √s=8 TeV, collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider during 2012. The search is designed for the H→bb¯ decay mode and uses events containing one or two electrons or muons. In order to improve the sensitivity of the search, events are categorised according to their jet and b-tagged jet multiplicities. A neural network is used to discriminate between signal and background events, the latter being dominated by tt¯+jets production. In the single-lepton channel, variables calculated using a matrix element method are included as inputs to the neural network to improve discrimination of the irreducible tt¯+bb¯ background. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is found and an observed (expected) limit of 3.4 (2.2) times the Standard Model cross section is obtained at 95 % confidence level. The ratio of the measured tt¯H signal cross section to the Standard Model expectation is found to be μ=1.5±1.1 assuming a Higgs boson mass of 125GeV.

  20. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top quarks and decaying into bb¯ in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-29

    In this study, a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair, tt¯H, is presented. The analysis uses 20.3 fb–1 of pp collision data at √s=8 TeV, collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider during 2012. The search is designed for the H→bb¯ decay mode and uses events containing one or two electrons or muons. In order to improve the sensitivity of the search, events are categorised according to their jet and b-tagged jet multiplicities. A neural network is used to discriminate between signal and background events, the latter being dominatedmore » by tt¯+jets production. In the single-lepton channel, variables calculated using a matrix element method are included as inputs to the neural network to improve discrimination of the irreducible tt¯+bb¯ background. No significant excess of events above the background expectation is found and an observed (expected) limit of 3.4 (2.2) times the Standard Model cross section is obtained at 95 % confidence level. The ratio of the measured tt¯H signal cross section to the Standard Model expectation is found to be μ=1.5±1.1 assuming a Higgs boson mass of 125GeV.« less

  1. Search for Higgs boson pair production in the γγbb[over ¯] final state using pp collision data at sqrt[s]=8  TeV from the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baas, A; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bartsch, V; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernat, P; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M F; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, T T; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, R; 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