Science.gov

Sample records for noxious cold sensation

  1. Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin.

    PubMed

    Bandell, Michael; Story, Gina M; Hwang, Sun Wook; Viswanath, Veena; Eid, Samer R; Petrus, Matt J; Earley, Taryn J; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2004-03-25

    Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain. PMID:15046718

  2. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  3. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid activates hTRPA1 and modulates behavioral responses to noxious cold in mice

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, William John; Camo, Maxime; Mitchell, Vanessa; Vaughan, Christopher Walter; Connor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a major biologically active component of the creosote bush, Larrea tridentate, widely used in unregulated therapies. NDGA is a lipoxygenase inhibitor while a derivative, terameprocol, has been trialed as a chemotherapeutic agent. When investigating fatty acid activation of the human transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (hTRPA1), we found that NDGA activated the channel. Here we investigate the actions of NDGA and terameprocol at hTRPA1 and the consequences of this for noxious cold sensitivity in mice. hTRPA1 was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells (HEK 293-TRPA1) and channel activity examined by measuring changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca]i) using a fluorescent dye and activation of membrane currents using patch clamp electrophysiology. The effects of local NDGA and terameprocol application on acetone-induced paw flinching were examined in mice. NDGA (pEC50 of 5.4 ± 0.1, maximum change in fluorescence of 385 ± 30%) and terameprocol (pEC50 4.5 ± 0.2, maximum 550 ± 75%) increased [Ca]i in HEK 293-hTRPA1 cells. NDGA also induced an increase in membrane conductance in HEK 293-hTRPA1 cells. These effects were prevented by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, and were dependent on the presence of Cys621, Cys 641, and Cys 665 in hTRPA1. Neither NDGA nor terameprocol alone produced spontaneous pain behaviors in mice after hind paw injection, but both enhanced responses to acetone. NDGA and terameprocol are efficacious activators of TRPA1. NDGA should be used with care to probe lipoxygenase involvement in nociception while TRPA1 activity should be considered when considering use of these drugs in humans. PMID:25505619

  4. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  5. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M.; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  6. Eugenol and carvacrol induce temporally desensitizing patterns of oral irritation and enhance innocuous warmth and noxious heat sensation on the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Amanda H.; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol and carvacrol, from the spices clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of TRPV3 which is implicated in transduction of warmth and possibly heat pain. We presently investigated the temporal dynamics of lingual irritation elicited by these agents, and their effects on innocuous warmth and heat pain, using a half-tongue method in human subjects. The irritant sensation elicited by both eugenol and carvacrol decreased across repeated applications at a 1-min interstimulus interval (self-desensitization) which persisted for at least 10 min. Both agents also cross-desensitized capsaicin-evoked irritation. Eugenol and carvacrol significantly increased the magnitude of perceived innocuous warmth (44°C) for >10 min, and briefly (<5 min) enhanced heat pain elicited by a 49°C stimulus. Similar albeit weaker effects were observed when thermal stimuli were applied after the tongue had been desensitized by repeated application of eugenol or carvacrol, indicating that the effect is not due solely to summation of chemoirritant and thermal sensations. Neither chemical affected sensations of innocuous cool or cold pain. A separate group of subjects were asked to subdivide eugenol and carvacrol irritancy into subqualities, the most frequently-reported being numbing and warmth, with brief burning, stinging/pricking and tingle, confirming an earlier study. Eugenol, but not carvacrol, reduced detection of low-threshold mechanical stimuli. Eugenol and carvacrol enhancement of innocuous warmth may involve sensitization of thermal gating of TRPV3 expressed in peripheral warm fibers. The brief heat hyperalgesia following eugenol may involve a TRPV3-mediated enhancement of thermal gating of TRPV1 expressed in lingual polymodal nociceptors. PMID:23791894

  7. Effects of alcohol on autonomic responses and thermal sensation during cold exposure in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Saito, Kumiko; Nakamura, Mayumi; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the effects of alcohol on thermoregulatory responses and thermal sensations during cold exposure in humans. Eight healthy men (mean age 22.3+/-0.7 year) participated in this study. Experiments were conducted twice for each subject at a room temperature of 18 degrees C. After a 30-min resting period, the subject drank either 15% alcohol at a dose of 0.36 g/kg body weight (alcohol session) or an equal volume of distilled water (control session), and remained in a sitting position for another 60 min. Mean skin temperature continued to decrease and was similar in control and alcohol sessions. Metabolic rate was lower in the alcohol session, but the difference did not affect core temperature, which decreased in a similar manner in both alcohol and control sessions (from 36.9+/-0.1 degrees C to 36.6+/-0.1 degrees C). Whole body sensations of cold and thermal discomfort became successively stronger in the control session, whereas these sensations were both greatly diminished after drinking alcohol. In a previous study we performed in the heat, using a similar protocol, alcohol produced a definite, coordinated effect on all autonomic and sentient heat loss effectors. In the current study in the cold, as compared to responses in the heat, alcohol intake was followed by lesser alterations in autonomic effector responses, but increased changes in sensations of temperature and thermal discomfort. Overall, our results indicate that although alcohol influences thermoregulation in the cold as well as in the heat, detailed aspects of the influence are quite different. PMID:18420115

  8. Clinical assessment of the warming sensation accompanying flavor 316282 in a cold and cough syrup containing paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by flavor 316282 in a cold and cough product in the target population. Methods: A single-cohort, single-treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30-mL dose of syrup containing flavor 316282, paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessment of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture, and acceptability of the product as a cold and cough remedy was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 51 subjects were included; 47 (92.1%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 100 s (95% confidence interval = 82 s, 112 s). The majority of subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good, or fair for treatment of cough and cold symptoms (96.1%), taste (80.4%), and texture (98.0%). There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: Flavor 316282 in a cold and cough syrup is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe, and palatable. PMID:26770699

  9. TRPA1 Contributes to Cold Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Camino, Donato del; Murphy, Sarah; Heiry, Melissa; Barrett, Lee B.; Earley, Taryn J.; Cook, Colby A.; Petrus, Matt J.; Zhao, Michael; D'Amours, Marc; Deering, Nate; Brenner, Gary J.; Costigan, Michael; Hayward, Neil J.; Chong, Jayhong A.; Fanger, Christopher M.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Moran, Magdalene M.

    2010-01-01

    TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. While it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions where reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1-/- mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:21068322

  10. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity. PMID:26454262

  11. Concept of visual sensation.

    PubMed

    Bundesen, C

    1977-06-01

    A direct-realist account of visual sensation is outlined. The explanatory notion of elements in visual sensation (atomic sensations) is reinterpreted, and the suggested interpretation is formally justified by constructing a Boolean algebra for visual sensations. The related notion of sensory levels (visual field vs visual world) is discussed. PMID:887374

  12. Inhibitory effects of heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation on perception and brain activity related to Aβ-fibre activation.

    PubMed

    Rustamov, Nabi; Tessier, Jessica; Provencher, Benjamin; Lehmann, Alexandre; Piché, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    Heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) inhibits pain and pain processes through cerebral and cerebrospinal mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether HNCS inhibits non-nociceptive processes, which needs to be clarified for a better understanding of HNCS analgesia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HNCS on perception and scalp somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Seventeen healthy volunteers participated in two counter-balanced sessions, including non-nociceptive (selective Aβ-fibre activation) or nociceptive electrical stimulation, combined with HNCS. HNCS was produced by a 20-min cold pressor test (left hand) adjusted individually to produce moderate pain (mean ± SEM: 42.5 ± 5.3 on a 0-100 scale, where 0 is no pain and 100 the worst pain imaginable). Non-nociceptive electrical stimulation was adjusted individually at 80% of pain threshold and produced a tactile sensation in every subject. Nociceptive electrical stimulation was adjusted individually at 120% of RIII-reflex threshold and produced moderate pain (45.3 ± 4.5). Shock sensation was significantly decreased by HNCS compared with baseline for non-nociceptive (P < 0.001) and nociceptive (P < 0.001) stimulation. SEP peak-to-peak amplitude at Cz was significantly decreased by HNCS for non-nociceptive (P < 0.01) and nociceptive (P < 0.05) stimulation. These results indicate that perception and brain activity related to Aβ-fibre activation are inhibited by HNCS. The mechanisms of this effect remain to be investigated to clarify whether it involves inhibition of spinal wide-dynamic-range neurons by diffuse noxious inhibitory controls, supraspinal processes or both. PMID:27086672

  13. Normal and abnormal coding of painful sensations

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Steven A; Ma, Qiufu; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Noxious stimuli cause pain and pain arises from noxious stimuli… usually. Exceptions to these apparent truisms are the basis for clinically important problems and provide valuable insight into the neural code for pain. In this Perspective, we will discuss how painful sensations are encoded. We will argue that although primary somatosensory afferents are specialized (i.e. tuned to specific stimulus features), natural stimuli often activate >1 type of afferent. Manipulating co-activation patterns can alter perception, which argues against each type of afferent acting independently (as expected for strictly labeled lines) and suggests instead that signals conveyed by different types of afferents interact. Deciphering the central circuits that mediate those interactions is critical for explaining the generation and modulation of neural signals ultimately perceived as pain. The advent of genetic and optical dissection techniques promise to dramatically accelerate progress towards this goal, which will facilitate the rational design of future pain therapeutics. PMID:24473266

  14. Brain mediators of the effects of noxious heat on pain

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Lauren Y.; Lindquist, Martin A.; Bolger, Niall; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent human neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of either noxious stimulus intensity or reported pain. While useful, analyzing brain relationships with stimulus intensity and behavior separately does not address how sensation and pain are linked in the central nervous system. In this paper, we used multi-level mediation analysis to identify brain mediators of pain—regions whose trial-by-trial responses to heat explained variability in the relationship between noxious stimulus intensity (across four levels) and pain. This approach has the potential to identify multiple circuits with complementary roles in pain genesis. Brain mediators of noxious heat effects on pain included targets of ascending nociceptive pathways (anterior cingulate, insula, SII, and medial thalamus) and also prefrontal and subcortical regions not associated with nociceptive pathways per se. Cluster analysis revealed that mediators were grouped into several distinct functional networks, including: a) somatosensory, paralimbic, and striatal-cerebellar networks that increased with stimulus intensity; and b) two networks co-localized with ‘default mode’ regions in which stimulus intensity-related decreases mediated increased pain. We also identified ‘thermosensory’ regions that responded to increasing noxious heat but did not predict pain reports. Finally, several regions did not respond to noxious input, but their activity predicted pain; these included ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, cerebellar regions, and supplementary motor cortices. These regions likely underlie both nociceptive and non-nociceptive processes that contribute to pain, such as attention and decision-making processes. Overall, these results elucidate how multiple distinct brain systems jointly contribute to the central generation of pain. PMID:24845572

  15. TRP channel blamed for burning cold after a tropical fish meal

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    EMBO J (2012) 31 19, 3795–3808 doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.207; published online 07312012 Ciguatera is one of the most common forms of food poisoning, occurring after consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. New work by Vetter et al (2012) reveals the key molecular players that underlie the altered temperature sensation associated with ciguatera. In particular, they show that ciguatoxins act on sensory neurons that express TRPA1, an ion channel implicated in the detection of noxious cold. PMID:22960637

  16. Enhancement of Analgesic Effect by Combination of Non-Noxious Stimulation and Noxious Stimulation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fujii-Abe, Keiko; Umino, Masahiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Kawahara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the combined effects of heterosegmental non-noxious and noxious stimulation on electrically induced tooth pain. The late component of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP), induced by electrical tooth stimulation and pain intensity, were examined under electrical stimulation to forearms. Noxious, non-noxious, and combined non-noxious and noxious electrical stimulation were applied to median nerves on the forearms. Four experimental sessions (ie, control session, combined non-noxious and noxious stimulation session, non-noxious stimulation session, and noxious stimulation session were performed for each subject at each 10-minute interval for 30 minutes. The amplitudes of the SEP and VAS scores in the combined stimulation session decreased significantly compared with those in the control session and the reduction rates were 51.1% (13.4 μV) and 41.0% (23.5 mm), respectively. These results show that the combined stimulation has a more potent analgesic effect than that of either the non-noxious or the noxious stimulation. It is suggested that a potent analgesia was produced by an activated central mechanism, including endogenous opioid and descending pain inhibitory systems due to combined non-noxious and noxious stimulation. PMID:25490991

  17. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  18. The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality. PMID:21587232

  19. Students Enjoy Chemical Sensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.; Kanematsu, Hideyuki

    2003-01-01

    This exciting new way of teaching high school/college chemistry combines music, visual aids, and chemical experiments in multi-sensory lessons that motivate students and provide them with meaningful learning experiences in science. The method, known as the Chemical Sensation Project, acknowledges that some individuals learn by seeing or hearing,…

  20. Sensational Stars with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Karen; Miller, Lucy Jane

    2008-01-01

    Sensory processing refers to the way the brain takes incoming sensory messages, converts them into meaningful messages, then makes a response. If the responses are disorganized or inappropriate given the sensory input, sensory processing disorder (SPD) may co-exist with autism. If a child has an occasional atypical response to sensation, he or she…

  1. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  2. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  3. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  4. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  5. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  6. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  7. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  8. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  9. Neuronal processing of noxious thermal stimuli mediated by dendritic Ca(2+) influx in Drosophila somatosensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Terada, Shin-Ichiro; Matsubara, Daisuke; Onodera, Koun; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Uemura, Tadashi; Usui, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Adequate responses to noxious stimuli causing tissue damages are essential for organismal survival. Class IV neurons in Drosophila larvae are polymodal nociceptors responsible for thermal, mechanical, and light sensation. Importantly, activation of Class IV provoked distinct avoidance behaviors, depending on the inputs. We found that noxious thermal stimuli, but not blue light stimulation, caused a unique pattern of Class IV, which were composed of pauses after high-frequency spike trains and a large Ca(2+) rise in the dendrite (the Ca(2+) transient). Both these responses depended on two TRPA channels and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC), showing that the thermosensation provokes Ca(2+) influx. The precipitous fluctuation of firing rate in Class IV neurons enhanced the robust heat avoidance. We hypothesize that the Ca(2+) influx can be a key signal encoding a specific modality. PMID:26880554

  10. Neuronal processing of noxious thermal stimuli mediated by dendritic Ca2+ influx in Drosophila somatosensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Shin-Ichiro; Matsubara, Daisuke; Onodera, Koun; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Uemura, Tadashi; Usui, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Adequate responses to noxious stimuli causing tissue damages are essential for organismal survival. Class IV neurons in Drosophila larvae are polymodal nociceptors responsible for thermal, mechanical, and light sensation. Importantly, activation of Class IV provoked distinct avoidance behaviors, depending on the inputs. We found that noxious thermal stimuli, but not blue light stimulation, caused a unique pattern of Class IV, which were composed of pauses after high-frequency spike trains and a large Ca2+ rise in the dendrite (the Ca2+ transient). Both these responses depended on two TRPA channels and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC), showing that the thermosensation provokes Ca2+ influx. The precipitous fluctuation of firing rate in Class IV neurons enhanced the robust heat avoidance. We hypothesize that the Ca2+ influx can be a key signal encoding a specific modality. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12959.001 PMID:26880554

  11. A sensory labeled-line for cold: TRPM8-expressing sensory neurons define the cellular basis for cold, cold pain, and cooling-mediated analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Wendy M.; Palkar, Radhika; Lippoldt, Erika K.; McCoy, Daniel D.; Baluch, Farhan; Chen, Jessica; McKemy, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Many primary sensory neurons are polymodal, responding to multiple stimulus modalities (chemical, thermal, or mechanical), yet each modality is recognized differently. While polymodality implies that stimulus encoding occurs in higher centers such as the spinal cord or brain, recent sensory neuron ablation studies find that behavioral responses to different modalities require distinct subpopulations, suggesting the existence of modality-specific labeled-lines at the level of the sensory afferent. Here we provide evidence that neurons expressing TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-gated channel required for normal cold responses in mammals, represents a labeled-line solely for cold sensation. We examined the behavioral significance of conditionally ablating TRPM8+ neurons in adult mice, finding that, like animals lacking TRPM8 channels (Trpm8−/−), animals depleted of TRPM8 neurons (ablated) are insensitive to cool to painfully cold temperatures. Ablated animals showed little aversion to noxious cold and did not distinguish between cold and a preferred warm temperature, a phenotype more profound than that of Trpm8−/− mice which exhibit only partial cold avoidance and preference behaviors. In addition to acute responses, cold pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury was significantly attenuated in ablated and Trpm8−/− mice. Moreover, cooling-induced analgesia after nerve injury was abolished in both genotypes. Lastly, heat, mechanical, and proprioceptive behaviors were normal in ablated mice, demonstrating that TRPM8 neurons are dispensable for other somatosensory modalities. Together these data show that while some limited cold sensitivity remains in Trpm8−/− mice, TRPM8 neurons are required for the breadth of behavioral responses evoked by cold temperatures. PMID:23407943

  12. The potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianna; Yang, Hongli; Li, Kun; Lei, Xiaofei; Xu, Changqing

    2016-09-01

    Piezo2 is an important mechano-gated ion channel that is involved in light touch sensitivity and inflammatory allodynia. However, current research has focused on the function of Piezo2 in somatic sensation but not in visceral sensation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Piezo2 in visceral sensation of mechanically innocuous and noxious stimuli under physiological and hyperalgesic conditions using rats as a model organism. Neonatal enema with acetic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of Piezo2-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced Piezo2 expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Piezo2 knock-down in DRG attenuated visceral sensation to innocuous stimuli in control rats and to both innocuous and noxious stimuli in rats with neonatal irritation. Compared with control rats, Piezo2 was not up-regulated in irritated rats at the mRNA or protein levels in thoracolumbar or lumbosacral DRGs, while TRPV1 was up-regulated in lumbosacral DRGs. These data suggest a potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation. PMID:27481627

  13. Mapping multidimensional pain experience onto electrophysiological responses to noxious laser heat stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stancak, Andrej; Cook, Stephanie; Wright, Hazel; Fallon, Nicholas

    2016-01-15

    The origin of the conscious experience of pain in the brain is a continuing enigma in neuroscience. To shed light on the brain representation of a multifaceted pain experience in humans, we combined multivariate analysis of subjective aspects of pain sensations with detailed, single-trial analysis of electrophysiological brain responses. Participants were asked to fully focus on any painful or non-painful sensations occurring in their left hand during an interval surrounding the onset of noxious laser heat stimuli, and to rate their sensations using a set of visual analogue scales. Statistical parametric mapping was used to compute a multivariate regression analysis of subjective responses and single-trial laser evoked potentials (LEPs) at subject and group levels. Standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography method was used to reconstruct sources of LEPs. Factor analysis of subjective responses yielded five factors. Factor 1, representing pain, mapped firstly as a negative potential at the vertex and a positive potential at the fronto-temporal region during the 208-260ms interval, and secondly as a strong negative potential in the right lateral frontal and prefrontal scalp regions during the 1292-1340ms interval. Three other factors, labelled "anticipated pain", "stimulus onset time", and "body sensations", represented non-specific aspects of the pain experience, and explained portions of LEPs in the latency range from 200ms to 700ms. The subjective space of pain during noxious laser stimulation is represented by one large factor featuring pain intensity, and by other factors accounting for non-specific parts of the sensory experience. Pain is encoded in two separate latency components with different scalp and brain representations. PMID:26477652

  14. Differential activation of the human trigeminal nuclear complex by noxious and non-noxious orofacial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nash, Paul G; Macefield, Vaughan G; Klineberg, Iven J; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2009-11-01

    There is good evidence from animal studies for segregation in the processing of non-nociceptive and nociceptive information within the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. However, it remains unknown whether a similar segregation occurs in humans, and a recent tract tracing study suggests that this segregation may not exist. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to define and compare activity patterns of the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex during non-noxious and noxious cutaneous and non-noxious and noxious muscle orofacial stimulation in humans. We found that during cutaneous pain, signal intensity increased within the entire rostrocaudal extent of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SpV), encompassing the ipsilateral oralis (SpVo), interpolaris (SpVi) and caudalis (SpVc) subdivisions. In contrast, muscle pain did not activate SpVi, but instead activated a discrete region of the ipsilateral SpVo and SpVc. Further, muscle noxious stimulation activated a region of the ipsilateral lateral pons in the region of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus (Vp). Innocuous orofacial stimulation (lip brushing) also evoked a significant increase in signal intensity in the ipsilateral Vp; however, non-noxious muscle stimulation showed no increase in signal in this area. The data reveal that orofacial cutaneous and muscle nociceptive information and innocuous cutaneous stimulation are differentially represented within the trigeminal nuclear complex. It is well established that cutaneous and muscle noxious stimuli evoke different perceptual, behavioural and cardiovascular changes. We speculate that the differential activation evoked by cutaneous and muscle noxious stimuli within the trigeminal sensory complex may contribute to the neural basis for these differences. PMID:19492300

  15. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  16. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Aeginetia...

  17. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  18. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  19. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  20. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds....

  1. Role of thermo TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in heat, cold, and mechanical nociception of rats.

    PubMed

    Nozadze, Ivliane; Tsiklauri, Nana; Gurtskaia, Gulnazi; Tsagareli, Merab G

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive response of the nervous system to changes in temperature is of predominant importance for homeotherms to maintain a stable body temperature. A number of temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have been studied as nociceptors that respond to extreme temperatures and harmful chemicals. Recent findings in the field of pain have established a family of six thermo-TRP channels (TRPA1, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4) that exhibit sensitivity to increases or decreases in temperature, as well as to chemical substances eliciting the respective hot or cold sensations. In this study, we used behavioral methods to investigate whether mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) and capsaicin affect the sensitivity to heat, innocuous and noxious cold, and mechanical stimuli in male rats. The results obtained indicate that TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are clearly involved in pain reactions, and the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate enhances the heat pain sensitivity, possibly by indirectly modulating TRPV1 channels coexpressed in nociceptors with TRPA1. Overall, our data support the role of thermosensitive TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in pain modulation and show that these two thermoreceptor channels are in a synergistic and/or conditional relationship with noxious heat and cold cutaneous stimulation. PMID:26274042

  2. Acute Heat-Evoked Temperature Sensation Is Impaired but Not Abolished in Mice Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation. PMID:24925072

  3. Topical application of L-menthol induces heat analgesia, mechanical allodynia, and a biphasic effect on cold sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, Amanda H; Sawyer, Carolyn M; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Tsagareli, Merab G; Tsiklauri, Nana; Carstens, E

    2010-10-15

    Menthol is used in analgesic balms and also in foods and oral hygiene products for its fresh cooling sensation. Menthol enhances cooling by interacting with the cold-sensitive thermoTRP channel TRPM8, but its effect on pain is less well understood. We presently used behavioral methods to investigate effects of topical menthol on thermal (hot and cold) pain and innocuous cold and mechanical sensitivity in rats. Menthol dose-dependently increased the latency for noxious heat-evoked withdrawal of the treated hindpaw with a weak mirror-image effect, indicating antinociception. Menthol at the highest concentration (40%) reduced mechanical withdrawal thresholds, with no effect at lower concentrations. Menthol had a biphasic effect on cold avoidance. At high concentrations (10% and 40%) menthol reduced avoidance of colder temperatures (15 degrees C and 20 degrees C) compared to 30 degrees C, while at lower concentrations (0.01-1%) menthol enhanced cold avoidance. In a -5 degrees C cold plate test, 40% menthol significantly increased the nocifensive response latency (cold hypoalgesia) while lower concentrations were not different from vehicle controls. These results are generally consistent with neurophysiological and human psychophysical data and support TRPM8 as a potential peripheral target of pain modulation. PMID:20398704

  4. Infrared simulation model SENSAT-2.

    PubMed

    Richter, R

    1987-06-15

    The computer model SENSAT-2 has been developed for remote sensing uses of passive sensors in the 1-28-, microm infrared spectral region. The model calculates the IR signature of up to three homogeneous objects in the instantaneous field of view of the sensor. For the atmospheric part, model LOWTRAN-6 is used within SENSAT-2. Model SENSAT-2 can be used for mission analysis of sensors on different platforms like groundbased, aircraft, or satellite. It is a useful design tool for simulating and assessing the radiometric relations that are indispensable in designing sensors. Further uses include the comparison of measurements with simulation results and the radiometric correction of measurements. PMID:20489878

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  10. Guidelines for management of noxious weeds at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, R.C.; Malady, M.B.

    1995-10-27

    Integrated Pest Management Services is responsible for management and control of noxious weeds on the Hanford Site. Weed species and populations are prioritized and objective defined, according to potential site and regional impact. Population controls are implemented according to priority. An integrated approach is planned for noxious weed control in which several management options are considered and implemented separately or in coordination to best meet management objectives. Noxious weeds are inventories and monitored to provide information for planning and program review.

  11. TMC-1 Mediates Alkaline Sensation in C. elegans through Nociceptive Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Guang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Noxious pH triggers pungent taste and nocifensive behavior. While the mechanisms underlying acidic pH sensation have been extensively characterized, little is known about how animals sense alkaline pH in the environment. TMC genes encode a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we characterize C. elegans TMC-1, which was suggested to form a Na(+)-sensitive channel mediating salt chemosensation. Interestingly, we find that TMC-1 is required for worms to avoid noxious alkaline environment. Alkaline pH evokes an inward current in nociceptive neurons, which is primarily mediated by TMC-1 and to a lesser extent by the TRP channel OSM-9. However, unlike OSM-9, which is sensitive to both acidic and alkaline pH, TMC-1 is only required for alkali-activated current, revealing a specificity for alkaline sensation. Ectopic expression of TMC-1 confers alkaline sensitivity to alkali-insensitive cells. Our results identify an unexpected role for TMCs in alkaline sensation and nociception. PMID:27321925

  12. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  13. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  14. Are mirror-sensations really synesthetic?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-sensations, including touch and pain, are often referred to as synesthetic. The term can be challenged, however, because mirror-sensations lack the incongruency and saliency of synesthesia, may involve problems of perspective rather than entangled sensations, and may be easier to generate with suggestion. If mirror-sensations are truly sensations then they might be expected to act like the true sensation and mirror-pain, for example, might inhibit pain at a distance or itch in the same location. These predictions are highly testable. PMID:25997924

  15. A simple and inexpensive method for determining cold sensitivity and adaptation in mice.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Daniel S; Golden, Judith P; Vogt, Sherri K; Gereau, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is a serious clinical problem, affecting a broad subset of patients and causing significant decreases in quality of life. The cold plantar assay allows the objective and inexpensive assessment of cold sensitivity in mice, and can quantify both analgesia and hypersensitivity. Mice are acclimated on a glass plate, and a compressed dry ice pellet is held against the glass surface underneath the hindpaw. The latency to withdrawal from the cooling glass is used as a measure of cold sensitivity. Cold sensation is also important for survival in regions with seasonal temperature shifts, and in order to maintain sensitivity animals must be able to adjust their thermal response thresholds to match the ambient temperature. The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) also allows the study of adaptation to changes in ambient temperature by testing the cold sensitivity of mice at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. Mice are acclimated as described above, but the glass plate is cooled to the desired starting temperature using aluminum boxes (or aluminum foil packets) filled with hot water, wet ice, or dry ice. The temperature of the plate is measured at the center using a filament T-type thermocouple probe. Once the plate has reached the desired starting temperature, the animals are tested as described above. This assay allows testing of mice at temperatures ranging from innocuous to noxious. The CPA yields unambiguous and consistent behavioral responses in uninjured mice and can be used to quantify both hypersensitivity and analgesia. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice. PMID:25867969

  16. A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Determining Cold Sensitivity and Adaptation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Daniel S.; Golden, Judith P.; Vogt, Sherri K.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is a serious clinical problem, affecting a broad subset of patients and causing significant decreases in quality of life. The cold plantar assay allows the objective and inexpensive assessment of cold sensitivity in mice, and can quantify both analgesia and hypersensitivity. Mice are acclimated on a glass plate, and a compressed dry ice pellet is held against the glass surface underneath the hindpaw. The latency to withdrawal from the cooling glass is used as a measure of cold sensitivity. Cold sensation is also important for survival in regions with seasonal temperature shifts, and in order to maintain sensitivity animals must be able to adjust their thermal response thresholds to match the ambient temperature. The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) also allows the study of adaptation to changes in ambient temperature by testing the cold sensitivity of mice at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. Mice are acclimated as described above, but the glass plate is cooled to the desired starting temperature using aluminum boxes (or aluminum foil packets) filled with hot water, wet ice, or dry ice. The temperature of the plate is measured at the center using a filament T-type thermocouple probe. Once the plate has reached the desired starting temperature, the animals are tested as described above. This assay allows testing of mice at temperatures ranging from innocuous to noxious. The CPA yields unambiguous and consistent behavioral responses in uninjured mice and can be used to quantify both hypersensitivity and analgesia. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice. PMID:25867969

  17. Developmental changes in the electroencephalogram and responses to a noxious stimulus in anaesthetized tammar wallaby joeys (Macropus eugenii eugenii).

    PubMed

    Diesch, T J; Mellor, D J; Johnson, C B; Lentle, R G

    2010-04-01

    The tammar wallaby joey is born extremely immature and most of its neurological development occurs in the maternal pouch. It is not known at what in-pouch age functions such as conscious sensory perception commence. We determined the electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to noxious stimulation in lightly anaesthetized tammar wallaby joeys. Baseline median (F50) and spectral edge (F95) frequencies, total power (Ptot) and frequency spectra between 1 and 30 Hz of the EEG power spectrum were determined. Joeys aged less than 127 days showed little or no EEG activity. Prolonged periods of spontaneous EEG activity were present by 142 days. This activity increased, as did the power in all frequencies, while the duration of any intervening isoelectric periods decreased with increasing in-pouch age. EEG responses to a noxious stimulus (toe clamping) changed with increasing in-pouch age as there was no response from joeys aged 94-127 days (no EEG), a minimal decrease in the F50 in those aged between 142 and 181 days (P = 0.052) and a greater decrease in the F50 in those aged between 187 and 261 days (P < 0.001). The pattern of these changes, which presumably reflects anatomical and functional maturation of the cerebral cortex, is similar to, but develops more slowly than, that reported in the rat. The opening of the eyes and development of the pelage are discussed as markers of when brain development may be sufficient for joeys to consciously perceive noxious sensations including pain. PMID:19900986

  18. Treatment of flue gas containing noxious gases

    SciTech Connect

    Dvirka, M.; Psihos, G.J.; Cosulich, J.J.

    1987-07-21

    A method is described of reducing the noxious gases such as chlorides including hydrogen chloride and chlorine from the flue gases derived from the incineration of solid waste materials in a furnace with a combustion chamber and a combustion zone to substantially reduce the formation of dioxins for a cleaner effluent gas to the atmosphere, comprising: introducing sodium bicarbonate into the flue gas of a furnace incinerating the waste materials, positioning introduction of sodium bicarbonate for at least one location along the path of the flue gas at a temperature below about 1564/sup 0/F but not below about 518/sup 0/F, heating the sodium bicarbonate in the flue gas for a time sufficient to drive off the water and carbon dioxide from the sodium bicarbonate, forming sodium carbonate particle during the heating of the sodium bicarbonate, the sodium carbonate having a higher porosity to produce a greater reaction area on the surface of the particles, contacting the porous sodium carbonate with chlorides in the flue gases for a sufficient time and temperature to react and produce sodium chloride and prevent their formation of dioxins; and separating the sodium chloride from the flue gas to produce a cleaner gas for exit to the atmosphere.

  19. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P < 0.05) but not in Sup, and at the forearm was lower during HT than NT in the Sup and further in Sit (both, P < 0.05), with interactive effects of temperature (NT vs. HT) × posture (Sup vs. Sit) (chest, P = 0.08; forearm, P < 0.05). The threshold for warm sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P < 0.05). Thus, thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  20. Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Moshourab, Rabih A.; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A.J.; Francisco, Allain G.; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N.; Lewin, Gary R.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Summary The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals1. It is postulated that mechanically activated (MA) cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive2. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting (RA) MA ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel cell-neurite complexes3,4. Merkel cells have been demonstrated to play a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by its innervating sensory neuron4-6. However, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity4,7. Here, we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most RA MA currents in DRG neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2CKO mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that mechanosensitivity of LTMRs strongly depends on Piezo2. This striking cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioral phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light touch sensation in multiple behavioral assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays RA MA currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most LTMR subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Interestingly, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that yet-unknown MA ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

  1. Warm air sensation for assessment of block after spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Ayorinde, B T; Rowbotham, D J; Buggy, D J

    2000-03-01

    We have evaluated a new method of assessing dermatomal sensory levels after regional anaesthesia based on warm sensation. Sensory levels were assessed in 30 patients after spinal anaesthesia using a respiratory gas humidifier, adapted to deliver a constant flow of warm air at 40 +/- 0.2 degrees C. This was compared with the cold sensation from ethyl chloride spray. The frequency distribution of the dermatomal differences showed 96.6% of the comparisons were between +1 and -1 dermatomes. The median difference in dermatomal levels between the two methods of assessment was 0 (interquartile range 0-1) (P = 0.65). We conclude that the warm air method compares favourably with ethyl chloride spray and both can be used interchangeably. PMID:10793604

  2. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  3. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  4. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  5. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  6. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  7. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  8. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  9. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  10. The function of intradental nerves in relation to the sensations induced by dental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Närhi, M; Hirvonen, T; Huopaniemi, T

    1984-01-01

    Stimulation of intradental nerves has been widely used in pain research as a method for selective activation of pain pathways. It is believed that the only sensation experienced by human subjects in response to activation of pulp nerves is that of pain. However, this concept is not strictly correct. With electrical stimulation at threshold level or near to it a sensation which is not necessarily painful ("prepain") is experienced. When the stimulus intensity is increased suprathreshold, the sensation tends to change to a painful and unpleasant one. The changes in sensations are probably caused by activation of intradental nerve units with different thresholds and conduction velocities. In cats the fastest conducting pulp nerve fibres have the lowest thresholds and slowly conducting units are activated at much higher current levels. In most experiments on human teeth using natural stimuli like hot and cold the only sensation experienced has been pain. It seems also difficult for the subjects to find any difference between different stimuli. Correspondingly, in animal experiments it has been shown that different stimuli applied to dentine are capable of activating the same intradental nerve units probably with a common mechanism (hydrodynamic). However, some recent studies indicate that sensation of cold could be induced by stimulating human teeth. PMID:6148844

  11. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016. PMID:27347898

  12. Functional role of induced gamma oscillatory responses in processing noxious and innocuous sensory events in humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C; Chien, J H; Chang, Y W; Kim, J H; Anderson, W S; Lenz, F A

    2015-12-01

    Gamma time-frequency responses (TFRs) induced by painful laser in the contralateral primary somatosensory (SI) cortex have been shown to correlate with perceived pain-intensity in human. Given the functional roles of gamma TFRs in the cortical spaces, it remains unclear whether such a relationship is sustained for other brain regions where the laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) are presented. In this study, we delivered the painful laser pluses at random pain-intensity levels (i.e. strong, medium and weak) in a single train to the dorsal hand of six patients with uncontrolled epilepsy. The laser stimulus produced a painful pinprick sensation by activating nociceptors located in the superficial layers of the skin. For each patient, arrays of >64 subdural electrodes were implanted directly covering the contralateral SI, parasylvian (PS) and medial frontal (MF) cortices to study the stimulus related gamma (TFRs) in the neocortex. In addition, using the same stimulation paradigm, the modality specificity of gamma TFRs was further examined by applying innocuous vibrotactile stimuli to the same regions of the dorsal hand in a separated group of five patients. Our results showed that gamma TFRs are not modality specific, but the largest gamma TFRs were consistently found within the SI region and noxious laser elicited significantly stronger gamma TFRs than innocuous nonpainful vibratory stimuli. Furthermore, stronger pain induced stronger gamma TFRs in the cortices of SI (r=0.4, p<0.001) and PS (r=0.29, p=0.005). Given that potentially harmful noxious stimulus would automatically capture greater attention than the innocuous ones, our results support the hypothesis that the degree of SI and PS gamma TFRs is associated with an attentional drive provoked by painful stimuli. PMID:26408986

  13. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

  14. Treating pain with pain: supraspinal mechanisms of endogenous analgesia elicited by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Christian; Bingel, Ulrike; Büchel, Christian

    2011-02-01

    While being exposed to an intensive tonic pain stimulus at one area of the body, another phasic pain stimulus applied to a remote site is perceived as less painful. The neurophysiological basis for this "pain inhibits pain" phenomenon has been presumed to be an activation of the spino-bulbo-spinal mechanism termed "diffuse noxious inhibitory controls." However, several additional mechanisms such as an activation of the descending pain control system may contribute to this observation. Here we investigated the underlying supraspinal mechanisms of "heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulations" (HNCS), representing this specific experimental constellation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral recordings in combination with a modified cold-pressor task and phasic painful stimuli, and investigated the contribution of endogenous opioids to this mechanism using the opioid antagonist naloxone in a double-blind crossover design. HNCS led to marked endogenous analgesia and this effect correlated positively with the perceived intensity of the tonic painful stimulus. Furthermore, HNCS was paralleled by reduced blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses in classical pain-responsive regions. Conversely, HNCS led to tonic BOLD increases in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex. The strength of functional coupling between the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and key structures of the descending pain control system was enhanced during HNCS, which correlated positively with the individual endogenous analgesia during HNCS. These effects were in part reversed by naloxone, speaking for the contribution of endogenous opioid neurotransmission to this mechanism. Taken together, these results demonstrate a substantial contribution of higher-order brain regions to the phenomenon of hypoalgesia during HNCS. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows how the human brain is involved in heterotopic noxious conditioning and reveals active supraspinal pain

  15. Assessment of Change in Palatal Sensation in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients by Using Two-Point Palatal Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Yang, Youngsoo; Choi, Hye Rang; Cho, Jae Hoon; Kim, Gee-Tae; Kim, Jin Kook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have impaired responses to inspiratory resistive loading during sleep. This may be due, in part, to a change in the upper airway sensation. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with OSAS have diminished upper airway sensation due to snoring. Methods. A total of 53 participants were selected based on clinical evaluation and polysomnography. Two-point discrimination was measured with modified calipers in the tongue and soft palate. Results. A total of 10 participants were included in the control group, 12 participants in the simple snoring group, and 27 participants in the OSAS group. There were 12 patients in the impaired sensation group of the OSAS group. On comparing polysomnography, patients with impairment of their palatal sensory input in two-point discrimination (TPD) had a more protracted duration of the longest snoring episode than those with simple snoring and normal sensation. Patients with decreased sensory input in TPD had longer average duration of snoring episodes and relative snoring time than those with simple snoring and normal sensory input in cold uvular TPD. Comparison of the cold uvular TPD for normal sensation and impaired sensation in patients with OSAS after treatment showed a different trend. Conclusion. Impaired sensation of the soft palate was correlated with the longest snoring episode duration, average snoring episode duration, and relative snoring time. It is helpful in detecting the early stage of neural degradation in OSAS patients by assessing snoring components of polysomnography and TPD in the soft palate. PMID:27095515

  16. 75 FR 68945 - Update of Noxious Weed Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... (74 FR 27456-27467, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0146) a proposal \\1\\ to make several changes to the... interim rule published and effective on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53397-53400, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0097... contaminated with various noxious weed seeds, including Cuscuta spp. We have determined that heat...

  17. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  18. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  19. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  20. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  1. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  2. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  3. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  4. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  5. Molecular mechanism of sweetness sensation.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E

    2016-10-01

    The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation). Evidence based on the sweet water aftertastes of several novel sweetness inhibitors is presented providing new support for constitutive activity in T1R2/T1R3. And a model is developed to rationalize the linear C/R functions of CHO sweeteners and hyperbolic C/R functions of HP sweeteners, where the former may activate T1R2/T1R3 by both binding and constitutive activity modulation (i.e., without binding) and the latter activate T1R2/T1R3 only by binding. PMID:26992959

  6. La3+ Alters the Response Properties of Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Low-Temperature Noxious Stimulation of the Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yanjiao

    2015-01-01

    Although dental pain is a serious health issue with high incidence among the human population, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are assumed to be involved in the generation of dental pain. However, most of the studies were conducted with molecular biological or histological methods. In vivo functional studies on the role of TRP channels in the mechanisms of dental pain are lacking. This study uses in vivo cellular electrophysiological and neuropharmacological method to directly disclose the effect of LaCl3, a broad spectrum TRP channel blocker, on the response properties of neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex to low-temperature noxious stimulation of the dental pulp. It was found that LaCl3 suppresses the high-firing-rate responses of all nociceptive neurons to noxious low-temperature stimulation and also inhibits the spontaneous activities in some nonnociceptive neurons. The effect of LaCl3 is reversible. Furthermore, this effect is persistent and stable unless LaCl3 is washed out. Washout of LaCl3 quickly revitalized the responsiveness of neurons to low-temperature noxious stimulation. This study adds direct evidence for the hypothesis that TRP channels are involved in the generation of dental pain and sensation. Blockade of TRP channels may provide a novel therapeutic treatment for dental pain. PMID:26604777

  7. Human responses to cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    The thermoneutral ambient temperature for naked and resting humans is ca. 27 degrees C. Exposure to cold stimulates cold receptors of the skin which causes cold thermal sensations and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction in skin, arms and legs. Diminished skin and extremity blood flow increases the thermal insulation of superficial tissues more than 300% corresponding to 0.9 clo (0.13 degrees C x m(-2) x W(-1)). With thermoregulatory vasoconstriction/ vasodilatation the body heat balance can be maintained within a range of ca. 4 degrees C, the middle of the range being at ca. 21 degrees C when light clothing is used. Below the thermoneutral zone metabolic heat production (shivering) is stimulated and above the zone starts heat loss by evaporation (sweating). Cold induced vasoconstriction increases blood pressure and viscosity and decreases plasma volume consequently increasing cardiac work. Cold induced hypertensive response can be counteracted by light exercise, while starting heavy work in cold markedly increases blood pressure. Under very cold conditions the sympathetic stimulation opens the anastomoses between arterioles and venules which increases skin temperatures markedly but temporarily, especially in finger tips. Adaptation to cold takes ca. 2 weeks, whereafter the physiological responses to cold are attenuated and cold exposure is subjectively considered less stressful. PMID:17929604

  8. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  9. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  10. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  11. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  12. 7 CFR 360.300 - General prohibitions and restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of noxious weeds; permits. 360.300 Section 360.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 General prohibitions and restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  14. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  15. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  16. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  17. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  18. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  19. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  20. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  1. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  2. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  3. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  4. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  5. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  6. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  7. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  8. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  9. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  10. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  11. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  12. Differentiating hemodynamic responses in rat primary somatosensory cortex during non-noxious and noxious electrical stimulation by optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Weihua; Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Shangbin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2007-02-16

    Nociception in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex remains in need of further elucidation. The spatiotemporal comparison on changes of the cerebral blood volume evoked by graded peripheral electrical stimulation was performed in rat contralateral somatosensory cortex with optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI, optical reflectance at 550 nm). Non-noxious electrical stimulus was applied with 5 Hz pulses (0.5 ms peak duration) for 2 s at the threshold current for muscle twitch, while noxious stimulus was delivered at currents of 10x and 20x amplitude of the predetermined threshold. Although the dimensions of peak response defined in the spatial domain (cerebral blood volume increase) in the S1 cortex presented no significant difference under non-/noxious stimuli, its early response component (about 1 s after stimulation onset) revealed by OISI technique was suggested to differentiate the loci of activated cortical region due to different stimulation in this study. The magnitude and duration of the optical intrinsic signal (OIS) response was found increasing with the varying stimulus intensity. Regions activated by the delivery of a noxious stimulus were surrounded by a ring of inverted optical intrinsic signal, the amplitude of that was inversely proportional to the strength of the optical signal attributable to activation. Intense stimuli significantly augmented the inverted optical signal in magnitude and spatial extent. These results indicated that noxious stimulation evoked different response patterns in the contralateral S1 cortex. The magnitude-dependent inverted optical signal might contribute to the differentiation of nociceptive input in the S1 cortex. PMID:17196176

  13. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    PubMed

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space. PMID:26348194

  14. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. PMID:23707679

  15. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    PubMed

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  16. Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu

    1998-12-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described. Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water is detected using an acid-base indicator, decolorizing of anthocyanin, or reduction of permanganate. The SO2 is generated by addition of sulfite or bisulfite to a strong acid or by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to sugars. Nitrogen dioxide is generated by mixing copper and nitric acid and detected using an acid-base indicator.

  17. Race, ethnicity, and noxious facilities: Environmental racism re- examined

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, A.L. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    The charge has been made that hazardous facilities tend to be located in proximity to minority populations. This study uses a facility density measure for three categories of noxious facilities to examine the relationship between facilities and minority population concentrations. County-level data are used in a correlation analysis for African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians in the four major regions of the US. Even controlling for income and housing value, and limiting the data set to urban areas, consistent patterns of moderate to strong association of facility densities with minority population percentages are found.

  18. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  19. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  20. "The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

  1. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  2. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  3. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  4. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  5. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  6. In vivo responses of cutaneous C-mechanosensitive neurons in mouse to punctate chemical stimuli that elicit itch and nociceptive sensations in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ma, C.; Nie, H.; Gu, Q.; Sikand, P.

    2012-01-01

    Native cowhage spicules, and heat-inactivated spicules containing histamine or capsaicin, evoke similar sensations of itch and nociceptive sensations in humans. In ongoing studies of the peripheral neural mechanisms of chemical itch and pain in the mouse, extracellular electrophysiological recordings were obtained, in vivo, from the cell bodies of mechanosensitive nociceptive neurons in response to spicule stimuli delivered to their cutaneous receptive fields (RFs) on the distal hindlimb. A total of 43 mechanosensitive, cutaneous, nociceptive neurons with axonal conduction velocities in the C-fiber range (C-nociceptors) were classified as CM if responsive to noxious mechanical stimuli, such as pinch, or CMH if responsive to noxious mechanical and heat stimuli (51°C, 5 s). The tips of native cowhage spicules, or heat-inactivated spicules containing histamine or capsaicin, were applied to the RF. Heat-inactivated spicules containing no chemical produced only a transient response occurring during insertion. Of the 43 mechanosensitive nociceptors recorded, 20 of the 25 CMHs responded to capsaicin, and of these, 13 also responded to cowhage and/or histamine. In contrast, none of the 18 CMs responded to any of the chemical stimuli. The time course of the mean discharge rate of CMHs was similar in response to each type of spicule and generally similar, although reaching a peak earlier, to the temporal profiles of itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by the same stimuli in humans. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by these punctuate chemical stimuli are mediated at least in part by the activity of mechanoheat-sensitive C-nociceptors. In contrast, activity in mechanosensitive C-nociceptors that do not respond to heat or to pruritic chemicals is hypothesized as contributing to pain but not to itch. PMID:21994268

  7. Characterization of Deqi Sensation and Acupuncture Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing-Yue; Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), deqi experienced by patients is often described as suan (aching or soreness), ma (numbness or tingling), zhang (fullness, distention, or pressure), and zhong (heaviness) and is felt by the acupuncturists (needle grasping) as tense, tight, and full. It is believed that deqi may be an important variable in the studies of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment. In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand deqi, which include a couple of questionnaires to qualify and quantify deqi sensations, neuroimaging studies of deqi and acupuncture, physiological mechanisms of deqi, and the relation between deqi and clinical efficacy. However, many problems need to be resolved, and more researches are required to be made in the future. PMID:23864884

  8. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  9. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  10. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  11. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  12. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate should not be listed as a Federal noxious weed and... tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate, as Federal noxious weeds. On May 13, 2003, APHIS responded to the... genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate as well as non-herbicide-tolerant...

  13. TRPA1 mediates the noxious effects of natural sesquiterpene deterrents.

    PubMed

    Escalera, Jasmine; von Hehn, Christian A; Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2008-08-29

    Plants, fungi, and animals generate a diverse array of deterrent natural products that induce avoidance behavior in biological adversaries. The largest known chemical family of deterrents are terpenes characterized by reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated dialdehyde moieties, including the drimane sesquiterpenes and other terpene species. Deterrent sesquiterpenes are potent activators of mammalian peripheral chemosensory neurons, causing pain and neurogenic inflammation. Despite their wide-spread synthesis and medicinal use as desensitizing analgesics, their molecular targets remain unknown. Here we show that isovelleral, a noxious fungal sesquiterpene, excites sensory neurons through activation of TPRA1, an ion channel involved in inflammatory pain signaling. TRPA1 is also activated by polygodial, a drimane sesquiterpene synthesized by plants and animals. TRPA1-deficient mice show greatly reduced nocifensive behavior in response to isovelleral, indicating that TRPA1 is the major receptor for deterrent sesquiterpenes in vivo. Isovelleral and polygodial represent the first fungal and animal small molecule agonists of nociceptive transient receptor potential channels. PMID:18550530

  14. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Qi; Ye, Lin-Lan; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Qi, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Jia-Di; Wang, Gang; Farhan, Ulah-Khan; Waqas, Nawaz; Chen, Ding-Ding; Han, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products, including gingerol, a main active constituent of ginger. Ginger could improve the digestive function; however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated. In the present study, gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium. TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPA1-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies. The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA. Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion. The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red, EGTA, and TRPA1-specific siRNA. In summary, our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. PMID:27473961

  15. A TRPA1-dependent mechanism for the pungent sensation of weak acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan Y; Chang, Rui B; Allgood, Sallie D; Silver, Wayne L; Liman, Emily R

    2011-06-01

    Acetic acid produces an irritating sensation that can be attributed to activation of nociceptors within the trigeminal ganglion that innervate the nasal or oral cavities. These sensory neurons sense a diverse array of noxious agents in the environment, allowing animals to actively avoid tissue damage. Although receptor mechanisms have been identified for many noxious chemicals, the mechanisms by which animals detect weak acids, such as acetic acid, are less well understood. Weak acids are only partially dissociated at neutral pH and, as such, some can cross the cell membrane, acidifying the cell cytosol. The nociceptor ion channel TRPA1 is activated by CO(2), through gating of the channel by intracellular protons, making it a candidate to more generally mediate sensory responses to weak acids. To test this possibility, we measured responses to weak acids from heterologously expressed TRPA1 channels and trigeminal neurons with patch clamp recording and Ca(2+) microfluorometry. Our results show that heterologously expressed TRPA1 currents can be induced by a series of weak organic acids, including acetic, propionic, formic, and lactic acid, but not by strong acids. Notably, the degree of channel activation was predicted by the degree of intracellular acidification produced by each acid, suggesting that intracellular protons are the proximate stimulus that gates the channel. Responses to weak acids produced a Ca(2+)-independent inactivation that precluded further activation by weak acids or reactive chemicals, whereas preactivation by reactive electrophiles sensitized TRPA1 channels to weak acids. Importantly, responses of trigeminal neurons to weak acids were highly overrepresented in the subpopulation of TRPA1-expressing neurons and were severely reduced in neurons from TRPA1 knockout mice. We conclude that TRPA1 is a general sensor for weak acids that produce intracellular acidification and suggest that it functions within the pain pathway to mediate sensitivity to

  16. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  17. 77 FR 3729 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Pest, Noxious...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Pest, Noxious Weed, and Garbage Regulations AGENCY: Animal and... information collection associated with plant pest, noxious weed, and garbage regulations. DATES: We will...: For information regarding plant pest, noxious weed, and garbage regulations, contact Dr. Shirley...

  18. Not in whose backyard Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people's reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  19. Not in whose backyard? Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-04-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  20. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  1. Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

  2. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = −.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  3. Method for cleansing noxious constituents from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.J.; Schauer, J.M.

    1982-05-18

    An apparatus and method for chemically altering and scrubbing the noxious constituents from foundry core manufacturing and arc welding operations is disclosed. An upstanding closed container is provided and a gas washing liquid is disposed within the container to a predetermined level. A horizontal baffle is mounted stationarily within the container at an elevation spaced above the level of the gas washing liquid therein and spaced peripheral portions of the baffle are spaced inwardly of the opposing inner surface of the container. A gas drive pipe extends into the container, downwardly past the baffle , and opens downwardly in a central lower portion of the container, below the baffle and near the bottom of the liquid. The container includes a top cover and an outlet duct is provided which opens outwardly of the container through a central portion of the cover. The gases are pumped into the drive pipe to achieve a critical velocity at the exit of the drive pipe of about 2, 300-20,000 linear feet per minu entering the liquid in a substantially vertical downward direction within the critical velocity range, small gascontaining bubbles, on the order of 1/8 - 3/8 inches in diameter, are formed as the gas stream rises, which bubbles impact against the horizontal baffle. The high velocity gases impart sufficient kinetic energy to the system to enable the necessary chemical reactions and scrubbing to proceed.

  4. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Alexander R.; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological – reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  5. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin.

    PubMed

    Burton, Alexander R; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological - reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  6. Impaired diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature-stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Itomi, Yasuo; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. A hypofunction in descending pain inhibitory systems is considered to be involved in the chronic pain of fibromyalgia. We examined functional changes in descending pain inhibitory systems in rats with specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART) stress, by measuring the strength of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). Hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical von Frey filament or fiber-specific electrical stimuli by the Neurometer system were used to measure the pain response. To induce DNIC, capsaicin was injected into the intraplantar of the forepaw. SART-stressed rats were established by exposure to repeated cold stress for 4 days. In the control rats, heterotopic intraplantar capsaicin injection increased withdrawal threshold, indicative of analgesia by DNIC. The strength of DNIC was reduced by naloxone (μ-opioid receptor antagonist, intraperitoneally and intracerebroventricularly), yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, intrathecally), and WAY-100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, intrathecally) in the von Frey test. In SART-stressed rats, capsaicin injection did not increase withdrawal threshold in the von Frey test, indicating deficits in DNIC. In the Neurometer test, deficient DNIC in SART-stressed rats were observed only for Aδ- and C-fibers, but not Aβ-fibers stimulation. Analgesic effect of intracerebroventricular morphine was markedly reduced in SART-stressed rats compared with the control rats. Taken together, in SART-stressed rats, capsaicin-induced DNIC were deficient, and a hypofunction of opioid-mediated central pain modulation system may cause the DNIC deficit. PMID:27178898

  7. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  8. The Effects of Sensation Seeking and Misattribution of Arousal on Attraction toward Similar or Dissimilar Strangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the prediction that individual differences in sensation seeking moderate the relationship between attitudinal similarity and attraction. Results showed high sensation seekers were more attracted than low sensation seekers to dissimilar others, whereas low sensation seekers were more attracted than high sensation seekers to people with…

  9. A comparison of noxious facilities` impacts for home owners versus renters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The siting of noxious facilities, such as hazardous waste facilities, is often vigorously opposed by local residents, and thus it is now common for local residents to be compensated for the presence of the facility. One technique that has been employed to implicitly value noxious facilities is the intercity hedonic approach, which examines the wage and land rent premia between cities that result from the presence of the facility. However, most of the focus has been on the behavior of home owners as opposed to renters. Since these two groups of residents vary on numerous dimensions such as marital status, age, sex, and personal mobility, it would not be surprising to find different marginal valuations of local site characteristics. The authors use 1980 Census data to derive separate estimates for owners and renters of the implicit value placed on eight different types of noxious facilities. They find that renters and owners differ in their response to noxious facilities, although the differences are not systematic. Furthermore, the differences between owners and renters are not primarily due to differential mobility or socio-demographic factors. Controlling those factors decreases the differences between renters` and owners` implicit valuations of noxious facilities by less than 10%. Unmeasured differences between the two groups, such as tastes, risk aversion, or commitment to the community, must account for the remaining difference in valuations. These findings suggest that policymakers should separately consider the responses of owners and renters when estimating noxious facility impacts.

  10. Large Intercalated Neurons of Amygdala Relay Noxious Sensory Information

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Thomas C.M.; Busti, Daniela; Micklem, Benjamin R.; Mansouri, Mahnaz; Magill, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Various GABAergic neuron types of the amygdala cooperate to control principal cell firing during fear-related and other behaviors, and understanding their specialized roles is important. Among GABAergic neurons, the so-called intercalated cells (ITCcs) are critically involved in the expression and extinction of fear memory. Tightly clustered small-sized spiny neurons constitute the majority of ITCcs, but they are surrounded by sparse, larger neurons (L-ITCcs) for which very little information is known. We report here a detailed neurochemical, structural and physiological characterization of rat L-ITCcs, as identified with juxtacellular recording/labeling in vivo. We supplement these data with anatomical and neurochemical analyses of nonrecorded L-ITCcs. We demonstrate that L-ITCcs are GABAergic, and strongly express metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α and GABAA receptor α1 subunit, together with moderate levels of parvalbumin. Furthermore, L-ITCcs are innervated by fibers enriched with metabotropic glutamate receptors 7a and/or 8a. In contrast to small-sized spiny ITCcs, L-ITCcs possess thick, aspiny dendrites, have highly branched, long-range axonal projections, and innervate interneurons in the basolateral amygdaloid complex. The axons of L-ITCcs also project to distant brain areas, such as the perirhinal, entorhinal, and endopiriform cortices. In vivo recorded L-ITCcs are strongly activated by noxious stimuli, such as hindpaw pinches or electrical footshocks. Consistent with this, we observed synaptic contacts on L-ITCc dendrites from nociceptive intralaminar thalamic nuclei. We propose that, during salient sensory stimulation, L-ITCcs disinhibit local and distant principal neurons, acting as “hub cells,” to orchestrate the activity of a distributed network. PMID:25653362

  11. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    PubMed

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  12. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  13. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  14. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  15. A sensate liner for personnel monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Eric J.; Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Park, Ms. Sungmee; Rajamanickam, Rangaswamy; Eisler, Robert, , Dr.; Burghart, Mr. George; McKee, Mr. Tony

    This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed.

  16. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  17. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  18. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  19. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  20. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  1. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  2. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  3. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerance is an abnormal sensitivity to a cold environment or cold temperatures. ... can be a symptom of a problem with metabolism. Some people (often very thin women) do not tolerate cold environments because they have very little body fat and ...

  4. The effect of heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation on Aδ-, C- and Aβ-fibre brain responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Torta, Diana M; Churyukanov, Maxim V; Plaghki, Leon; Mouraux, André

    2015-11-01

    Human studies have shown that heterotopic nociceptive conditioning stimulation (HNCS) applied to a given body location reduces the percept and brain responses elicited by noxious test stimuli delivered at a remote body location. It remains unclear to what extent this effect of HNCS relies on the spinal-bulbar-spinal loop mediating the effect of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) described in animals, and/or on top-down cortical mechanisms modulating nociception. Importantly, some studies have examined the effects of HNCS on the brain responses to nociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fibres. In contrast, no studies have explored the effects of HNCS on the responses to selective nociceptive C-fibre input and non-nociceptive Aβ-fibre input. In this study, we measured the intensity of perception and event-related potentials (ERPs) to stimuli activating Aδ-, C- and Aβ-fibres, before, during and after HNCS, obtained by immersing one foot in painful cold water. We observed that (i) the perceived intensity of nociceptive Aδ- and C-stimuli was reduced during HNCS, and (ii) the ERPs elicited by Aδ- and Aβ- and C-stimuli were also reduced during HNCS. Importantly, because Aβ-ERPs are related to primary afferents that ascend directly through the dorsal columns without being relayed at spinal level, the modulation of these responses may not be explained by an influence of descending projections modulating the transmission of nociceptive input at spinal level. Therefore, our results indicate that, in humans, HNCS should be used with caution as a direct measure of DNIC-related mechanisms. PMID:26369522

  5. Sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts. PMID:18422419

  6. Ernst Mach and the episode of the monocular depth sensations.

    PubMed

    Banks, E C

    2001-01-01

    Although Ernst Mach is widely recognized in psychology for his discovery of the effects of lateral inhibition in the retina ("Mach Bands"), his contributions to the theory of depth perception are not as well known. Mach proposed that steady luminance gradients triggered sensations of depth. He also expanded on Ewald Hering's hypothesis of "monocular depth sensations," arguing that they were subject to the same principle of lateral inhibition as light sensations were. Even after Hermann von Helmholtz's attack on Hering in 1866, Mach continued to develop theories involving the monocular depth sensations, proposing an explanation of perspective drawings in which the mutually inhibiting depth sensations scaled to a mean depth. Mach also contemplated a theory of stereopsis in which monocular depth perception played the primary role. PMID:11596069

  7. Viewing the body modulates both pain sensations and pain responses.

    PubMed

    Beck, Brianna; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Viewing the body can influence pain perception, even when vision is non-informative about the noxious stimulus. Prior studies used either continuous pain rating scales or pain detection thresholds, which cannot distinguish whether viewing the body changes the discriminability of noxious heat intensities or merely shifts reported pain levels. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated two intensities of heat-pain stimulation. Noxious stimuli were delivered to the hand in darkness immediately after participants viewed either their own hand or a non-body object appearing in the same location. The visual condition varied randomly between trials. Discriminability of the noxious heat intensities (d') was lower after viewing the hand than after viewing the object, indicating that viewing the hand reduced the information about stimulus intensity available within the nociceptive system. In Experiment 2, the hand and the object were presented in separate blocks of trials. Viewing the hand shifted perceived pain levels irrespective of actual stimulus intensity, biasing responses toward 'high pain' judgments. In Experiment 3, participants saw the noxious stimulus as it approached and touched their hand or the object. Seeing the pain-inducing event counteracted the reduction in discriminability found when viewing the hand alone. These findings show that viewing the body can affect both perceptual processing of pain and responses to pain, depending on the visual context. Many factors modulate pain; our study highlights the importance of distinguishing modulations of perceptual processing from modulations of response bias. PMID:26884131

  8. Cold Transiently Activates Calcium-Permeable Channels in Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells1[W

    PubMed Central

    Carpaneto, Armando; Ivashikina, Natalya; Levchenko, Victor; Krol, Elzbieta; Jeworutzki, Elena; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hedrich, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Living organisms are capable of discriminating thermal stimuli from noxious cold to noxious heat. For more than 30 years, it has been known that plant cells respond to cold with a large and transient depolarization. Recently, using transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the calcium-sensitive protein aequorin, an increase in cytosolic calcium following cold treatment was observed. Applying the patch-clamp technique to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we could identify a transient plasma membrane conductance induced by rapid cooling. This cold-induced transient conductance was characterized as an outward rectifying 33 pS nonselective cation channel. The permeability ratio between calcium and cesium was 0.7, pointing to a permeation pore >3.34 Å (ø of cesium). Our experiments thus provide direct evidence for the predicted but not yet measured cold-activated calcium-permeable channel in plants. PMID:17114272

  9. Sensation and experience of pain in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Y

    1993-04-01

    The study explored children's self-assessment of the pain experience and to understood the relative factors that influence the words used to represent children's pain. Using an outline of a human figure and a section of the open questionnaire to study, 106 nine- to sixteen-year-old children marked their pain location using colors to represent pain. They rated the intensity and duration of their pain, and described their experience of pain (sensation, causes, and ways to manage pain). The results showed that children clearly described pain, that there were appreciable differences between feelings of headache, leg pain, backache, and shoulder pain with pain intensity and duration of pain; that explained the difference of occurrence of abdominal pain in cross effect between age and sex; that explained the difference of the occurrence of toothache in cross effect among triangle of hospitalized experience, age, and sex; that there was significant relationship between abdominal pain and family structure. For severe abdominal pain or toothache the children could ask doctors for pain relief. For the others, they could take medication or rest for their middle or mild abdominal pain. The ways to manage leg pain were injection and massage. Change of position was applied to relieve backache. From the children's self-reports, we understand that causes of children's pain were derived from bad sleep, food, decayed teeth, exercising, and hitting. Pain avoidance is best achieved by accident prevention, cultivation of good health habits, and integration of daily living skills. PMID:8320754

  10. Changes in the Bispectral Index in Response to Experimental Noxious Stimuli in Adults under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robin Marie; Gélinas, Céline; Choinière, Manon; Parenteau-Goudreault, Elizabeth; Bourgault, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pain assessment is a major challenge in nonverbal patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent studies suggest a relationship between the Bispectral Index (BIS) and nociceptive stimuli. This study was designed to examine changes in BIS in response to experimental noxious stimuli. Methods. Thirty participants under general anesthesia were in this quasiexperimental, within subject, pre- and poststudy. In the operating room (OR), BIS was monitored during moderate and severe noxious stimuli, induced by a thermal probe on the participants' forearm, after induction of general anesthesia, prior to surgery. Results. Significant increases in BIS occurred during moderate (increase from 35.00 to 40.00, P = 0.003) and severe noxious stimuli (increase from 37.67 to 40.00, P = 0.007). ROC showed a sensitivity (Se) of 40.0% and a specificity (Sp) of 73.3% at a BIS value > 45, in distinguishing a moderate from a severe noxious stimuli. Conclusion. BIS increased in response to moderate and severe noxious stimuli. The Se and Sp of the BIS did not support the use of the BIS for distinction of different pain intensities in the context of deep sedation in the OR. However, the results justify further studies in more lightly sedated patients such as those in the ICU. PMID:27335878

  11. Ionic basis of cold receptors acting as thermostats.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Makoto; Takao, Keizo; Hori, Aiko; Shiraki, Takuma; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2002-05-15

    When temperature (T) of skin decreases stepwise, cold fibers evoke transient afferent discharges, inducing cold sensation and heat-gain responses. Hence we have proposed that cold receptors at distal ends of cold fibers are thermostats to regulate skin T against cold. Here, with patch-clamp techniques, we studied the ionic basis of cold receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats, as a model of nerve endings. Cells that increased cytosolic Ca(2+) level in response to moderate cooling were identified as neurons with cold receptors. In whole-cell current-clamp recordings of these cells, in response to cooling, cold receptors evoked a dynamic receptor potential (RP), eliciting impulses briefly. In voltage-clamp recordings (-60 mV), step cooling induced an inward cold current (I(cold)) with inactivation, underlying the dynamic RP. Ca(2+) ions that entered into cells from extracellular side induced the inactivation. Analysis of the reversal potential implied that I(cold) was nonselective cation current with high Ca(2+) permeability. Threshold temperatures of cooling-induced Ca(2+) response and I(cold) were different primarily among cells. In outside-out patches, when T decreased, single nonselective cation channels became active at a critical T. This implies that a cold receptor is an ion channel and acts as the smallest thermostat. Because these thermal properties were consistent with that in cold fibers, we conclude that the same cold receptors exist at nerve endings and generate afferent impulses for cold sensation and heat-gain behaviors in response to cold. PMID:12019319

  12. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  13. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  14. Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, D; Mayer, P; Gries, F A

    1988-01-01

    Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold pain perception thresholds (thenar eminence) were significantly elevated in the patients as compared with the controls (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001). No significant differences in thermal discrimination (thenar), heat and cold pain perception (foot), and metacarpal as well as malleolar vibration perception thresholds were noted between the groups. The rates of abnormalities among the individual tests ranged from 0% to 27.5%, being lowest for vibration perception and highest for thermal perception thresholds after cold stimuli. The results in nine of 12 tests correlated significantly with age, but only two were related to HbA1c. Thus, sensory neural functions transmitted by small fibres, but not those transmitted by large fibres, were impaired in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetics after the correction of initial ketosis and hyperglycaemia. Cooling perception tests were most sensitive in detecting abnormality. An age-related involvement of different small fibre functions was present in these patients. PMID:3236020

  15. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  16. Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha. PMID:23935663

  17. Dizziness and Balance Problems in Kids: Spinning Sensations and Unsteadiness

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Dizziness and Balance Problems in Kids Spinning Sensations and Unsteadiness Most ... life, it could be a sign of a balance disorder. Most balance problems are temporary and easy ...

  18. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  19. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  20. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  1. Should We Use Colours as Symbolic Representations of Hot and Cold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeao; Sampaio e Sousa, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    People usually talk about "hot and cold" colours without really thinking of the impact these definitions may have on scientific understanding. These colours are associated with the human sensations of hot and cold, and this idea is consistent with commonsense and daily experience. Interacting with students, we detect conceptual conflicts when they…

  2. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  3. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  4. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  5. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  6. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  7. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means. PMID:8049001

  8. Manganese-enhanced MR imaging of brain activation evoked by noxious peripheral electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Myeounghoon; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Chulhyun; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Cheong, Chaejoon; Sohn, Jin-Hun; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2016-02-01

    As imaging technology develops, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has furthered our understanding of brain function by clarifying the anatomical structure and generating functional imaging data related to information processing in pain conditions. Recent studies have reported that manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides valuable information about the functions of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to identify specific brain regions activated during noxious electric stimulation using high-resolution MEMRI. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: naïve, sham electrical stimulation, and noxious electric stimulation. Under urethane with α-chloralose mixture anesthesia, a catheter was placed in the external carotid artery to administrate 20% mannitol and manganese chloride (25mM MnCl2). Noxious electric stimulation (2Hz, 10V) was applied to the hind paw with a needle electrode. Stimulation-induced neuronal activation was detected using 4.7-T MRI. In response to noxious electrical stimulation, remarkable Mn(2+)-enhanced signals were observed in the agranular insular cortex, auditory cortex, primary somatosensory cortex of the hind limb, and granular and dysgranular insular cortex, which correspond to sensory tactile electric stimulus to the hindpaws. These results indicate that the combination of MEMRI with activity-induced Mn(2+)-dependent contrast can delineate functional areas in the rat brain. PMID:26733299

  9. Aversion-related Circuitry in the Cerebellum: Responses to Noxious Heat and Unpleasant Images

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric A.; Elman, Igor; Pendse, Gautam; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    The cerebellum is reliably activated during both acute and chronic pain conditions, but it is unclear if the response to aversive painful stimuli can be generalized to other aversive stimuli. We hypothesized that cerebellar activation during pain reflects higher-level encoding of aversive stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare cerebellar responses in 11 healthy volunteers to noxious heat (46°C) applied to the hand and to the passive viewing of images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Aversive stimuli in the form of noxious heat and unpleasant pictures (unpleasant vs. neutral) activated overlapping areas in the posterior cerebellum, specifically in hemispheric lobule VI, Crus I, and VIIb. Pleasant pictures (pleasant vs. neutral) did not share the same pattern of activation as observed with the aversive stimuli. Cerebellar areas that showed functional overlap with both heat pain and unpleasant picture viewing were significantly inversely correlated with fMRI signals measured in limbic system structures, including the anterior hypothalamus, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and the parahippocampal gyrus. Heat specific functional connectivity was detected in many regions including primary motor cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, and the periaqueductal gray. The overlap between cerebellar lobuli reactive to noxious heat and passive viewing of unpleasant images suggest that the cerebellum may contain specific regions involved in encoding generalized aversive processing. The separate cortical networks suggest that noxious heat evoked responses in the cerebellum can be divided into sensorimotor and emotional networks. PMID:21389234

  10. The Effects of Noxious Subliminal Suggestion upon Smoking Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutto, Franklin N.; Galli, Nicholas

    The efforts of smoking cessation programs have met with various degrees of success and fresh approaches to the problem are needed. An innovative technique that interrupts the psychogenic drives of smokers was employed to determine the effect of noxious subliminal suggestion on smoking attitudes and behavior. Adult smokers (N=60) were shown…

  11. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  12. 75 FR 23151 - Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... published at 74 FR 53397-53400 on October 19, 2009. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alan V. Tasker... interim rule that amended 7 CFR parts 360 and 361 and that was published at 74 FR 53397-53400 on October... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 360 and 361 Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair...

  13. Prolonged noxious mechanical stimulation of the rat's tail: responses and encoding properties of dorsal horn neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Cervero, F; Handwerker, H O; Laird, J M

    1988-01-01

    1. Single-unit electrical activity has been recorded from dorsal horn neurones in the sacral (S1-S2) segments of the spinal cord of barbiturate-anaesthetized rats. Fifty-two neurones responding to a manually applied pinch of their receptive fields in the tail were selected. They were subsequently tested for their responses to four successive 2 min pinches at noxious intensities delivered by a feed-back-controlled mechanical device. 2. Neurones were tested with both innocuous (i.e. brushing and stroking) and noxious (i.e. pinching, pin-prick, and in some cases heating about 45 degrees C) stimulation of their cutaneous receptive fields. Three of the tested cells were driven exclusively by innocuous skin stimulation (mechanoreceptive or class 1), thirty-six were driven by both innocuous and noxious skin stimulation (multireceptive or class 2) and thirteen were driven exclusively by noxious skin stimulation (nocireceptive or class 3). 3. All of the multireceptive and nocireceptive neurones responded to the 2 min noxious pinch with an initial phasic discharge followed by sustained firing that showed little evidence of adaptation throughout the stimulus period. The three mechanoreceptive neurones responded to the 2 min noxious pinch with a short discharge at the stimulus onset, but were silent for the remainder of the stimulus period. 4. Thirty-one cells were tested with successive 2 min pinches of 4, 6 and 8 N (and in some cases, a further 4 N pinch) applied at 10 min intervals. Different encoding properties were observed during the sustained part of the neuronal response according to: (i) the afferent fibre input characteristics of the cell; (ii) whether or not the tail had received a test series of pinches earlier in the same experiment. 5. None of the multireceptive cells with only an A-fibre afferent input encoded the stimulus strength. However, the multireceptive cells with both an A- and a C-fibre afferent input and all nocireceptive cells did encode the stimulus

  14. A psychophysiological study in humans using phasic colonic distension as a noxious visceral stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ness, T J; Metcalf, A M; Gebhart, G F

    1990-12-01

    Psychophysiological experiments were performed in 9 humans using constant-pressure, phasic, graded distention (30 sec, 20-70 mm Hg) of the sigmoid colon as a visceral stimulus. Reliable cardiovascular (pressor), respiratory and visceromotor responses in addition to reports of pressure/pain sensations were evoked by colonic distension in 8 of the 9 subjects. The pressure/pain sensations were referred to the lower abdomen, lower back and perineum and their intensity quantified using a visual analogue scale. Responses to colonic distension were graded and increased with repeated distensions at the same intensity (60 mm Hg). The area of referral as indicated by subject drawings increased with repeated distensions as did the intensity of the subjects' sensory and affective descriptors of the sensation. Five of the subjects differentiated between 'pressure' and 'pain' sensations evoked by colonic distension; the intensity of the 'pain' sensation accelerated during the distending stimulus whereas the 'pressure' sensation was typically stable or adapting during the distending stimulus. PMID:2293146

  15. A comparison of noxious facilities` impacts for home owners versus renters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1996-09-01

    The siting of noxious facilities, such as hazardous waste facilities, is often vigorously opposed by local residents. As a result, one would expect people`s residential and employment choices to reflect a desire to avoid proximity to such facilities. Ibis behavior would in turn affect labor and housing prices. One technique that has been employed to implicitly value impacts of noxious facilities is the intercity hedonic approach, which examines the wage and land rent differentials among cities that result from environmental amenities and disamenities. However, most of the research focus has been on the behavioral response of home owners as opposed to renters. Since these two groups of residents vary on numerous dimensions such as marital status, age, sex, and personal mobility, it would not be surprising to find different marginal valuations of local site characteristics. We use 1980 Census data to derive separate estimates for owners and renters of the implicit value placed on eight different types of noxious facilities. Although the magnitude of the responses of renters and owners to noxious facilities and other environmental characteristics varies, the signs are generally consistent. The differences in values between owners and renters are not primarily due to differential mobility or sociodemographic factors. Controlling those factors decreases the differences between renters` and owners` implicit valuations by less than 10%. Unmeasured differences in characteristics between the two groups, such as tastes, risk aversion, or commitment to the community, must account for the remaining difference in valuations. These findings suggest that policymakers should separately consider the responses of owners and renters when estimating noxious facility impacts.

  16. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men) received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu), LU7 (liéque), and LR3 (táichong); once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS), and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale"). Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67), intensity (p-value = 0.71) and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98). In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a product of non

  17. Heat and noxious chemical sensor, chicken TRPA1, as a target of bird repellents and identification of its structural determinants by multispecies functional comparison.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Banzawa, Nagako; Fukuta, Naomi; Saito, Claire T; Takahashi, Kenji; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Ohta, Toshio; Tominaga, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    Nociceptive receptors enable animals to sense tissue-damaging stimuli, thus playing crucial roles in survival. Due to evolutionary diversification, responses of nociceptive receptors to specific stimuli can vary among species. Multispecies functional comparisons of nociceptive receptors help elucidate their evolutionary process and molecular basis for activation. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel serves as a nociceptive receptor for chemical and thermal stimuli that is heat-activated in reptiles and frogs while potentially cold-activated in rodents. Here, we characterized channel properties of avian TRPA1 in chicken. Chicken TRPA1 was activated by noxious chemicals that also activate TRPA1 in other vertebrates. Regarding thermal sensitivity, chicken TRPA1 was activated by heat stimulation, but not cold, thus thermal sensitivity of avian TRPA1 does not coincide with rodent TRPA1, although both are homeotherms. Furthermore, in chicken sensory neurons, TRPA1 was highly coexpressed with TRPV1, another nociceptive heat and chemical receptor, similar to mammals and frogs. These results suggest that TRPA1 acted as a noxious chemical and heat receptor, and was coexpressed with TRPV1 in the ancestral terrestrial vertebrate. The acquisition of TRPV1 as a novel heat receptor in the ancestral terrestrial vertebrate is likely to have affected the functional evolution of TRPA1 regarding thermal sensitivity and led to the diversification among diverse vertebrate species. Additionally, we found for the first time that chicken TRPA1 is activated by methyl anthranilate (MA) and its structurally related chemicals used as nonlethal bird repellents. MA-induced responses were abolished by a TRPA1 antagonist in somatosensory neurons, indicating that TRPA1 acts as a MA receptor in chicken. Furthermore, TRPA1 responses to MA varied among five diverse vertebrate species. Utilizing species diversity and mutagenesis experiments, three amino acids were identified

  18. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or "connecting" with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task. PMID:26870943

  19. Where is hidden the ghost in phantom sensations?

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The term phantom sensations (PS) refers to sensations in a missing body part. They are almost universal in amputees and can be both painful and not painful. Although PS have been frequently described in limb amputees, they can also occur in other clinical conditions and several pathophysiological interpretations have been proposed, with a predominance of theories based on a central origin. Actually, different mechanisms are able to create a phantom sensation. After an amputation, PS are frequently generated by the genesis of ectopic action potentials in the interrupted nerve fibers but the PS generator can also be more proximal. Sometimes PS are not created by the stimulation of somatosensory fibers with a missing territory, but they can be the result of central sensitization or neuroplastic changes that allow for the convergence of impulses coming from different body parts (referred sensations), one of which is missing. In conclusion, PS can be generated by both neuropathic and non-neuropathic mechanisms developed in the amputated body part or in other parts of the nervous system. Since these mechanisms are not pathognomonic of amputation there are no hidden ghosts to look for in phantom sensations. The only interpretative rule is just to follow the pathophysiological principles. PMID:26244147

  20. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task. PMID:26870943

  1. Where is hidden the ghost in phantom sensations?

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2015-07-16

    The term phantom sensations (PS) refers to sensations in a missing body part. They are almost universal in amputees and can be both painful and not painful. Although PS have been frequently described in limb amputees, they can also occur in other clinical conditions and several pathophysiological interpretations have been proposed, with a predominance of theories based on a central origin. Actually, different mechanisms are able to create a phantom sensation. After an amputation, PS are frequently generated by the genesis of ectopic action potentials in the interrupted nerve fibers but the PS generator can also be more proximal. Sometimes PS are not created by the stimulation of somatosensory fibers with a missing territory, but they can be the result of central sensitization or neuroplastic changes that allow for the convergence of impulses coming from different body parts (referred sensations), one of which is missing. In conclusion, PS can be generated by both neuropathic and non-neuropathic mechanisms developed in the amputated body part or in other parts of the nervous system. Since these mechanisms are not pathognomonic of amputation there are no hidden ghosts to look for in phantom sensations. The only interpretative rule is just to follow the pathophysiological principles. PMID:26244147

  2. Drug Addiction Endophenotypes: Impulsive Versus Sensation-Seeking Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Turton, Abigail J.; Pradhan, Shachi; Bullmore, Edward T.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of substance abuse disorders, but the role of pre-existing vulnerability in addiction is still poorly understood. Personality traits of impulsivity and sensation-seeking are highly prevalent in chronic drug users and have been linked with an increased risk for substance abuse. However, it has not been clear whether these personality traits are a cause or an effect of stimulant drug dependence. Method We compared self-reported levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking between 30 sibling pairs of stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological brothers/sisters who did not have a significant drug-taking history and 30 unrelated, nondrug-taking control volunteers. Results Siblings of chronic stimulant users reported significantly higher levels of trait-impulsivity than control volunteers but did not differ from control volunteers with regard to sensation-seeking traits. Stimulant-dependent individuals reported significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking compared with both their siblings and control volunteers. Conclusions These data indicate that impulsivity is a behavioral endophenotype mediating risk for stimulant dependence that may be exacerbated by chronic drug exposure, whereas abnormal sensation-seeking is more likely to be an effect of stimulant drug abuse. PMID:20678754

  3. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  4. Linguistic dimensions in descriptors expressing thermal sensation in Korean: `warm' projects thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2010-07-01

    The present study was triggered by the inconsistency in verbal descriptors in English and Korean describing ‘warm’ and ‘hot’ in the thermal sensation scale. The purpose of this study was to examine the linguistic dimensions of the terms expressing ‘ ttatteuhada (warm)’ and ‘ yakkan duptta (slightly hot)’ in Korean. A total of 988 urban Koreans (479 males and 509 females) participated in a questionnaire survey consisting of six questions. The one-to-one survey was conducted indoors in December 2008. Our results showed that (1) ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’ in Korean are distinctive thermal descriptors; (2) ‘warm’ projects thermal comfort (80.4% of 988 respondents), but ‘slightly hot’ projects some thermal discomfort (54.3% of 988 respondents); (3) a slight thermally comfortable feeling was expressed as ‘warm’ (83.9% of 988 respondents), while a slight thermally uncomfortable feeling was seldom expressed as ‘warm’ (6.2% of 988 respondents) in mild heat environments; (4) the linguistic dimension within the term ‘warm’ was less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than that of the term ‘slightly hot’. In summary, ‘warm’ in Korean connotes a thermally comfortable feeling. In the case of being a little thermally uncomfortable, Koreans project their thermal sensation through the term ‘slightly hot’, rather than ‘warm’. In conclusion, thermal descriptors in the ISO 10551/ASHRAE scale, i.e., ‘very cold-cold-cool-slightly cool-neutral-slightly warm-warm-hot-very hot’, are not valid for the evaluation of mild hot environments in Korea. A new categorical scale is required in Korean considering the descriptors ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’.

  5. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Methods: Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Results: In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). Conclusions: These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance–like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a

  6. The effect of cold protective clothing on comfort and perception of performance.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Kirsi; Valkama, Anita; Remes, Jouko; Anttonen, Hannu; Peitso, Ari

    2010-01-01

    The physiological properties of clothing designed to provide protection against cold, windy and damp conditions affect comfort. The weight, thickness, stiffness of the fabrics and friction between the clothing layers affect physical performance. The comfort and perception of performance associated with 3 military winter combat clothing systems from different decades (the new M05 system, the previous M91 system and traditional clothing) were observed during a winter military manoeuvre. Subjective experiences concerning comfort and performance were recorded for 319 subjects using questionnaires. The most challenging conditions for comfort and performance were perspiration in the cold and external moisture. The new M05 system provided warmer thermal sensations (p < .010), dryer moisture sensations in the presence of external dampness (p < .001), dryer perspiration moisture sensations (p < .050) and better perception of physical (p < .001) and mental performance (p < .001) than the other systems. Careful development of the clothing system guarantees good comfort and performance during cold exposure. PMID:20540839

  7. Bonneville Power Administration, Lower Columbia Region: Noxious Weed Management, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR; Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program

    1996-01-01

    During the 1996 season ODA executed the contract between BPA and ODA. Execution of this contract included the following activities: Survey for target noxious weeds, such as Gorse; collection and redistribution of biological control agents, for example, Apion seed weevils for Scotch broom, bioagents for diffuse and spotted knapweed, Gorse spider mite, and gall fly releases for control of Canada thistle and bull thistle; and control of isolated infestations of Gorse on BPA rights-of-way. Training was provided for line crews at the Chemawa, Alevy and North Bend districts. The purpose of the program is to assist BPA in the integrated prevention and control of noxious weed species on BPA transmission line maintenance right-of-ways.

  8. Rubber Hand Illusion Reduces Discomfort Caused by Cold Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecka, Marta; Klimza, Anna; Łukowska, Marta; Wierzchoń, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in body-ownership disruptions and their consequences for subjective experiences such as tactile sensations or pain. Here, we investigated the effect of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) on the perceived discomfort caused by cold stimulus applied to the real hand. The results showed reduced discomfort to cold reflected in behavioural and subjective measures. The stronger the illusion, the later the cold temperature became unpleasant and the less intense the experience was rated. We discuss the link between thermoception and body ownership as well as possible theoretical and methodological implications for studies on pain experience under RHI. PMID:25295527

  9. E. Mach on the analysis of motion sensation.

    PubMed

    Henn, V

    1984-01-01

    Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his many and widely read publications contributed to physics, physiology, and philosophy. His work on the analysis of motion sensation is discussed in the light of contemporary ideas and modern concepts of vestibular physiology. PMID:6384156

  10. Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

  11. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman׳s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers. PMID:26364127

  12. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

  13. Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We compared data…

  14. Sensational Thinking: A Teaching/Learning Model for Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sharon; Shallcross, Doris

    1994-01-01

    A five-step model intervention called "Sensational Thinking," which incorporates readiness, reception, reflection, revelation, and re-creation activities, was evaluated with four kindergarten classes. Experimental groups showed increased creativity over control groups in solving paradoxical problems. The study is seen as supporting the premise…

  15. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  16. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Seiki; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yosky; Iwase, Masao; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tsukada, Hideo; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2 15O positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11). Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue. PMID:21188225

  17. Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

  18. Determining perception-based impacts of noxious facilities on wage rates and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    This document, written for the US Department of Energy, discusses current information and the need for future research on estimating the impacts on wages and property values that could result from people`s perceptions of the risks associated with noxious facilities. Psychometric studies indicate that the US population is averse to living near noxious facilities, nuclear-related facilities in particular. Contingent valuation and hedonic studies find that the net economic impacts of proximity to noxious facilities are generally negative and often substantial. Most of these studies are limited in scope, and none estimate the impacts derived from public perceptions of such facilities. This study examines the mechanisms by which negative public perceptions result in economic impacts reflected in wages and property values. On the basis of these mechanisms, it develops a predictive model of perception-based impacts and identifies the data and methods needed to implement it. The key to predicting perception-based impacts lies in combining psychometric and hedonic methods. The reliability of psychometric measures as indicators of aversive stimuli that precipitate economic impacts can be empirically tested. To test the robustness of the findings, alternative estimation methods an be employed in the hedonic analysis. Contingent valuation methods can confirm the results.

  19. Determining perception-based impacts of noxious facilities on wage rates and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    This document, written for the US Department of Energy, discusses current information and the need for future research on estimating the impacts on wages and property values that could result from people's perceptions of the risks associated with noxious facilities. Psychometric studies indicate that the US population is averse to living near noxious facilities, nuclear-related facilities in particular. Contingent valuation and hedonic studies find that the net economic impacts of proximity to noxious facilities are generally negative and often substantial. Most of these studies are limited in scope, and none estimate the impacts derived from public perceptions of such facilities. This study examines the mechanisms by which negative public perceptions result in economic impacts reflected in wages and property values. On the basis of these mechanisms, it develops a predictive model of perception-based impacts and identifies the data and methods needed to implement it. The key to predicting perception-based impacts lies in combining psychometric and hedonic methods. The reliability of psychometric measures as indicators of aversive stimuli that precipitate economic impacts can be empirically tested. To test the robustness of the findings, alternative estimation methods an be employed in the hedonic analysis. Contingent valuation methods can confirm the results.

  20. A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Ringkamp, M.; Schepers, R. J.; Shimada, S.G.; Johanek, L.M.; Hartke, T.V.; Borzan, J.; Shim, B.; LaMotte, R.H.; Meyer, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of non-histaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in non-histaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: 1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a sub-group of subjects with A-fiber dominated itch, 2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber versus C-fiber dominated itch, 3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, 4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, 5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and 6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that non-histaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

  1. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... symptoms are: Nasal congestion Runny nose Scratchy throat Sneezing Adults and older children with colds generally have ...

  2. Cold Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Cold Intolerance Many polio ... index of Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Back to top Contact ...

  3. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  4. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  5. Turning On or Turning Off: Sensation Seeking or Tension Reduction as Motivational Determinants of Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Raymond M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Assessed the relative influences of sensation-seeking or tension-reduction motives on drinking behavior. Data indicated a strong positive relationship between sensation seeking and alcohol use, whereas the relationship between anxiety and alcohol use was nonsignificant. The importance of sensation-seeking motives to a comprehensive motivational…

  6. Panic attacks and interoceptive acuity for cardiac sensations.

    PubMed

    Asmundson, G J; Sandler, L S; Wilson, K G; Norton, G R

    1993-02-01

    It has been suggested that perception of visceral changes, and cognitive reactions to such changes, may be important for triggering panic attacks. It remains to be determined, however, whether people with panic attacks are actually characterized by enhanced perceptual acuity for interoceptive stimuli. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between panic attacks and awareness for cardiac sensations using an objective heartbeat discrimination procedure. Twenty panickers and 20 nonpanickers were given 60 trials of the Whitehead heartbeat discrimination procedure. Thirty trials were given during rest and 30 following hyperventilation. Results indicated that panic attacks were not related to enhanced interoceptive acuity for cardiac sensations, either at rest or following hyperventilation. These results are discussed in terms of their relevance to cognitive models of panic. PMID:8442744

  7. Upper extremity hemodynamics and sensation with backpack loads.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae Hoon; Neuschwander, Timothy B; Macias, Brandon R; Bachman, Larry; Hargens, Alan R

    2014-05-01

    Heavy backpacks are often used in extreme environments, for example by military during combat, therefore completion of tasks quickly and efficiently is of operational relevance. The purpose of this study was to quantify hemodynamic parameters (brachial artery Doppler and microvascular flow by photoplethysmography; tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy; arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter) and sensation in upper extremities and hands (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and 2-point discrimination test) while wearing a loaded backpack (12 kg) in healthy adults for 10 min. All values were compared to baseline before wearing a backpack. Moderate weight loaded backpack loads significantly decreased upper extremity sensation as well as all macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamic values. Decreased macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamics may produce neurological dysfunction and consequently, probably affect fine motor control of the hands. PMID:24075289

  8. Transmission and Reproduction of Force Sensation by Bilateral Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) which thinks a great deal of patient’s quality of life (QOL) has attracted attention during about ten years. In this paper, it aims at development of the technology for transmitting force sensation required in medical treatment especially through surgical instruments, such as forceps. In bilateral control, it is a problem how master and slave robots realize the law of action and reaction to the environment. Mechanism of contact with environment and bilateral controller based on stiffness are shown. Master arm in contact with human and slave arm in contact with environment are given compliance, and stable contact with environment can be realized. The proposed method is applied to 3-link master-slave manipulators. As a result, transmission and reproduction of force sensation can be realized. The experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

  9. Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations Is Predictive, not Postdictive

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J. Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2006-01-01

    When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause. PMID:16402860

  10. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  11. Effect of socks on the assessment of vibration sensation.

    PubMed

    Meral, R C; Matur, Z; Dertsiz, B; Oge, A E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the difference between the measurement of vibration sensation without and with socks. Material and Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (H group) and 19 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP group) were included. The sites of measurement were the great toe (GT) and medial malleolus (MM). A standard 128 Hz tuning fork was used in the measurements. Results. Mean duration of vibration sensations without and with socks was as follows: in the H group, 19.4 ± 4.2 and 19.5 ± 4.2 s at GT and 15.1 ± 3.3 and 14.6 ± 3.3 s at MM; in the PNP group, 13.4 ± 3.8 and 12.7 ± 4.1 s at GT and 11.9 ± 3.8 and 11.7 ± 3.4 s at MM. No significant difference was found between the measurements without and with socks, except those found at the MM in group H (P = 0.02). This significant difference was further analyzed in terms of effect size which was concluded to be practically insignificant (Cohen's d < 0.2). Shorter mean vibration duration was measured at MM as compared to GT that could be explained by the damping effect. Conclusions. Wearing socks of moderate thickness does not have any important effect on the duration of vibration sensation. This might be considered as a reflection of the remarkable properties of vibration sensation. PMID:24282644

  12. Medication Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603

  13. The lateral calcaneal flap for sensate heel reconstruction revisited.

    PubMed

    Korentager, R

    1994-06-01

    Defects of the heel can be difficult to treat because they require a thin, sensate, soft-tissue cover. The lateral calcaneal flap can provide this type of reconstruction in selected patients. A 27-year-old man had a painful defect in a grafted heel that prevented him from working. A satisfactory painless heel was provided by resurfacing the area with a lateral calcaneal flap. The donor defect was minimized by interfascicular dissection of the sural nerve. PMID:8199942

  14. Beyond re-membering: phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs.

    PubMed

    Brugger, P; Kollias, S S; Müri, R M; Crelier, G; Hepp-Reymond, M C; Regard, M

    2000-05-23

    Phantom limbs are traditionally conceptualized as the phenomenal persistence of a body part after deafferentation. Previous clinical observations of subjects with phantoms of congenitally absent limbs are not compatible with this view, but, in the absence of experimental work, the neural basis of such "aplasic phantoms" has remained enigmatic. In this paper, we report a series of behavioral, imaging, and neurophysiological experiments with a university-educated woman born without forearms and legs, who experiences vivid phantom sensations of all four limbs. Visuokinesthetic integration of tachistoscopically presented drawings of hands and feet indicated an intact somatic representation of these body parts. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of phantom hand movements showed no activation of primary sensorimotor areas, but of premotor and parietal cortex bilaterally. Movements of the existing upper arms produced activation expanding into the hand territories deprived of afferences and efferences. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex consistently elicited phantom sensations in the contralateral fingers and hand. In addition, premotor and parietal stimulation evoked similar phantom sensations, albeit in the absence of motor evoked potentials in the stump. These data indicate that body parts that have never been physically developed can be represented in sensory and motor cortical areas. Both genetic and epigenetic factors, such as the habitual observation of other people moving their limbs, may contribute to the conscious experience of aplasic phantoms. PMID:10801982

  15. Measurement of perceived stereoscopic sensation through disparity metrics and compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyosawa, Satoshi; Kawai, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    Literatures use disparity as a principle measure evaluating discomfort, various artifacts, or movie production styles associated to stereoscopy, yet, statistics used to represent image or frame are often different. The current study examines 20 disparity statistics to find metrics that would best represent subjective stereoscopic sensation. Additionally, effect of disparity distribution pattern within an image is considered: Here, the patterns are categorised either single-peak or multiple-peak from the shape of disparity histogram. In the experiment, 14 stereoscopic images were presented to 15 subjects. Each subject evaluated perceived sense of distance and volume (3D space) through 7 points Likert scale. The result shows that the statistics that correlated significantly to the subjective sensation differed by the disparity compositions, hence, the metrics should be chosen accordingly. For the sense of distance, maximum, range, and the difference between 95th and 5th percentiles were found to be appropriate metrics under the single-peak, and minimum, contrast, and 5th percentile were representative under the multiple-peak. Similarly, for the sense of volume, range was found to be appropriate under the single-peak, but no metrics was found under the multiple-peak. The discrepancy is assumed due to different observation styles under differently composed images. We believe that the current study provides optimal disparity metrics for stereoscopic sensation measurements.

  16. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

  17. Activation of rostral ventromedial medulla neurons by noxious stimulation of cutaneous and deep craniofacial tissues

    PubMed Central

    Khasabov, Sergey G.; Malecha, Patrick; Noack, Joseph; Tabakov, Janneta; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Bereiter, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) projects to the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and is a major source of descending modulation of nociceptive transmission. Traditionally, neurons in the RVM are classified functionally as ON, OFF, and NEUTRAL cells on the basis of responses to noxious cutaneous stimulation of the tail or hind paw. ON cells facilitate nociceptive transmission, OFF cells are inhibitory, whereas NEUTRAL cells are unresponsive to noxious stimuli and their role in pain modulation is unclear. Classification of RVM neurons with respect to stimulation of craniofacial tissues is not well defined. In isoflurane-anesthetized male rats, RVM neurons first were classified as ON (25.5%), OFF (25.5%), or NEUTRAL (49%) cells by noxious pinch applied to the hind paw. Pinching the skin overlying the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) altered the proportions of ON (39.2%), OFF (42.2%), and NEUTRAL (19.6%) cells. To assess the response of RVM cells to specialized craniofacial inputs, adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 0.01–1 mM) was injected into the TMJ and capsaicin (0.1%) was applied to the ocular surface. TMJ and ocular surface stimulation also resulted in a reduced proportion of NEUTRAL cells compared with hind paw pinch. Dose-effect analyses revealed that ON and OFF cells encoded the intra-TMJ concentration of ATP. These results suggest that somatotopy plays a significant role in the functional classification of RVM cells and support the notion that NEUTRAL cells likely are subgroups of ON and OFF cells. It is suggested that a portion of RVM neurons serve different functions in modulating craniofacial and spinal pain conditions. PMID:25185804

  18. An Assessment of Stakeholder Perceptions and Management of Noxious Alien Plants in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Jara; Vilà, Montserrat; Hulme, Philip E.

    2009-06-01

    Despite biological invasions being a worldwide phenomenon causing significant ecological, economic, and human welfare impacts, there is limited understanding regarding how environmental managers perceive the problem and subsequently manage alien species. Spanish environmental managers were surveyed using questionnaires to (1) analyze the extent to which they perceive plant invasions as a problem; (2) identify the status, occurrence, and impacts of noxious alien plant species; (3) assess current effort and expenditure targeting alien plant management; and, finally, (4) identify the criteria they use to set priorities for management. In comparison to other environmental concerns, plant invasions are perceived as only moderately problematic and mechanical control is the most valued and frequently used strategy to cope with plant invasions in Spain. Based on 70 questionnaires received, 193 species are considered noxious, 109 of which have been the subject of management activities. More than 90% of species are found in at least one protected area. According to respondents, the most frequently managed species are the most widespread across administrative regions and the ones perceived as causing the highest impacts. The perception of impact seems to be independent of their invasion status, since only half of the species identified as noxious are believed to be invasive in Spain, while 43% of species thought to only be casual aliens are causing a high impact. Records of management costs are poor and the few data indicate that the total actual expenditure amounted to 50,492,437 € in the last decade. The majority of respondents stated that management measures are insufficient to control alien plants due to limited economic resources, lack of public awareness and support, and an absence of coordination among different public administrations. Managers also expressed their concern about the fact that much scientific research is concerned with the ecology of alien plants

  19. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and nerve injury: restoring an imbalance between descending monoamine inhibitions and facilitations.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Kirsty; Patel, Ryan; Goncalves, Leonor; Townson, Louisa; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated facilitations after neuropathy. We investigated the pharmacological basis of DNIC and whether it can be restored after neuropathy. Deep dorsal horn neurons were activated by von Frey filaments applied to the hind paw, and DNIC was induced by a pinch applied to the ear in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. Spinal nerve ligation was the model of neuropathy. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control was present in control rats but abolished after neuropathy. α2 adrenoceptor mechanisms underlie DNIC because the antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, markedly attenuated this descending inhibition. We restored DNIC in spinal nerve ligated animals by blocking 5-HT3 descending facilitations with the antagonist ondansetron or by enhancing norepinephrine modulation through the use of reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, NRI) or tapentadol (μ-opioid receptor agonist and NRI). Additionally, ondansetron enhanced DNIC in normal animals. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls are reduced after peripheral nerve injury illustrating the central impact of neuropathy, leading to an imbalance in descending excitations and inhibitions. Underlying noradrenergic mechanisms explain the relationship between conditioned pain modulation and the use of tapentadol and duloxetine (a serotonin, NRI) in patients. We suggest that pharmacological strategies through manipulation of the monoamine system could be used to enhance DNIC in patients by blocking descending facilitations with ondansetron or enhancing norepinephrine inhibitions, so possibly reducing chronic pain. PMID:26010460

  20. Chromogranin A and cortisol at intraoperative repeated noxious stimuli: Surgical stress in a dog model

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Biomarkers representing sympathetic tone and the surgical stress response are measured to objectively evaluate surgical techniques and anaesthetic protocols. If a part of the intraoperative procedure is repeated on the contralateral organ, one animal may potentially serve as its own control and, if so, may minimize the problem of individual differences of the stress response to anaesthesia and surgery. This study aimed to investigate the use of chromogranin A for measurement of the intraoperative sympathetic tone. Additional aims were to investigate chromogranin A and cortisol as indicators of the intraoperative surgical stress response caused by repeated noxious stimuli in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy and thereby to investigate the possibility of one dog serving as its own control. Methods: Experiments were carried out on 10 dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Perioperative blood samples (0–6) were collected after premedication, immediately before induction of anaesthesia (0), after induction of anaesthesia and before incision (1), before (2) and after (3) removal of the first ovary, after a 15-min pause before removal of the second ovary (4), after removal of the second ovary (5) and after closing the abdomen (6). Plasma chromogranin A and cortisol were analysed. Results: Plasma chromogranin A did not change. Plasma cortisol concentration did not change between before anaesthesia and opening of the abdomen. Plasma cortisol increased at removal of the first ovary. Cortisol did not change at removal of the second ovary but remained increased compared to initial sample. Conclusion: The results suggest chromogranin A is a poor indicator of intraoperative sympathetic tone during elective surgery in dogs. Cortisol measurement was useful for assessment of intraoperative noxious stimuli. However, at these test conditions, neither plasma chromogranin A nor plasma cortisol was useful for assessment of repeated intraoperative noxious stimuli where

  1. Activation of rostral ventromedial medulla neurons by noxious stimulation of cutaneous and deep craniofacial tissues.

    PubMed

    Khasabov, Sergey G; Malecha, Patrick; Noack, Joseph; Tabakov, Janneta; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Bereiter, David A; Simone, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) projects to the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and is a major source of descending modulation of nociceptive transmission. Traditionally, neurons in the RVM are classified functionally as on, off, and neutral cells on the basis of responses to noxious cutaneous stimulation of the tail or hind paw. On cells facilitate nociceptive transmission, off cells are inhibitory, whereas neutral cells are unresponsive to noxious stimuli and their role in pain modulation is unclear. Classification of RVM neurons with respect to stimulation of craniofacial tissues is not well defined. In isoflurane-anesthetized male rats, RVM neurons first were classified as on (25.5%), off (25.5%), or neutral (49%) cells by noxious pinch applied to the hind paw. Pinching the skin overlying the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) altered the proportions of on (39.2%), off (42.2%), and neutral (19.6%) cells. To assess the response of RVM cells to specialized craniofacial inputs, adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 0.01-1 mM) was injected into the TMJ and capsaicin (0.1%) was applied to the ocular surface. TMJ and ocular surface stimulation also resulted in a reduced proportion of neutral cells compared with hind paw pinch. Dose-effect analyses revealed that on and off cells encoded the intra-TMJ concentration of ATP. These results suggest that somatotopy plays a significant role in the functional classification of RVM cells and support the notion that neutral cells likely are subgroups of on and off cells. It is suggested that a portion of RVM neurons serve different functions in modulating craniofacial and spinal pain conditions. PMID:25185804

  2. Spatial and Temporal Brain Responses to Noxious Heat Thermal Stimuli in Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, T; Imamura, Y; Kohashi, R; Dezawa, K; Nakaya, Y; Sato, Y; Watanabe, K; Morimoto, Y; Shizukuishi, T; Abe, O; Haji, T; Tabei, K; Taira, M

    2016-09-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic orofacial pain condition. Although the pathophysiology of BMS is not clearly understood, central and peripheral neuropathic mechanisms are thought to be involved. The authors compared brain response to noxious heat stimuli in 16 right-handed women with primary BMS and 15 sex- and age-matched right-handed healthy female controls. A thermal stimulus sequence of 32 °C to 40 °C to 32 °C to 49 °C was repeated 4 times in a cycle. Warm and noxious heat stimuli were delivered with a Peltier thermode placed on the right palm or right lower lip for 32 s each in a session. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained by recording echoplanar images with a block design. Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software was used to analyze the data. Patients and controls both reported feeling more pain during palm stimulation than during lip stimulation. Repetition of noxious heat stimulus on the lower lip but not on the palm induced habituation in brain activity in the cingulate cortex without reduction in pain perception. Multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between perceived pain intensity and suppression of brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex when the repeated thermal sequence was applied at the lower lip. Furthermore, the response of the parahippocampal area differed in BMS patients and controls when the same repeated thermal sequence was applied at the palm. The authors' findings indicate that BMS patients show specific brain responses due to impaired function of the central and peripheral nervous systems (clinical trial registration: UMIN000015002). PMID:27302878

  3. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  4. Pharmacological Blockade of TRPM8 Ion Channels Alters Cold and Cold Pain Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Daniel D.; McKemy, David D.

    2011-01-01

    TRPM8 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8) is a cold- and menthol-gated ion channel necessary for the detection of cold temperatures in the mammalian peripheral nervous system. Functioning TRPM8 channels are required for behavioral responses to innocuous cool, noxious cold, injury-evoked cold hypersensitivity, cooling-mediated analgesia, and thermoregulation. Because of these various roles, the ability to pharmacologically manipulate TRPM8 function to alter the excitability of cold-sensing neurons may have broad impact clinically. Here we examined a novel compound, PBMC (1-phenylethyl-4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl(2-aminoethyl)carbamate) which robustly and selectively inhibited TRPM8 channels in vitro with sub-nanomolar affinity, as determined by calcium microfluorimetry and electrophysiology. The actions of PBMC were selective for TRPM8, with no functional effects observed for the sensory ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1. PBMC altered TRPM8 gating by shifting the voltage-dependence of menthol-evoked currents towards positive membrane potentials. When administered systemically to mice, PBMC treatment produced a dose-dependent hypothermia in wildtype animals while TRPM8-knockout mice remained unaffected. This hypothermic response was reduced at lower doses, whereas responses to evaporative cooling were still significantly attenuated. Lastly, systemic PBMC also diminished cold hypersensitivity in inflammatory and nerve-injury pain models, but was ineffective against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold hypersensitivity, despite our findings that TRPM8 is required for the cold-related symptoms of this pathology. Thus PBMC is an attractive compound that serves as a template for the formulation of highly specific and potent TRPM8 antagonists that will have utility both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21984952

  5. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  6. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  7. Prevalence of cold-related complaints, symptoms and injuries in the general population: the FINRISK 2002 cold substudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of cold-related complaints and symptoms in the general population has remained unknown. As part of the nationwide FINRISK 2002 health survey performed in Finland, 8,723 people aged 25 64 years filled in a questionnaire asking about the number of hours spent weekly in cold air, their sensations during cold exposure, cold-related complaints, symptoms of diseases, and degradation of performance. Cold thermal sensations at +5°C to -5°C were reported by 35% of men and 46% of women. Almost all subjects reported at least some cold-related complaints, most commonly musculoskeletal pain (men 30%, women 27%), followed by respiratory (25% / 29%), white finger (15% / 18%) and episodic peripheral circulation symptoms (12% / 15%). Decreased mental or physical performance in cold was reported by 75% of men and 70% of women, most commonly impairing manual dexterity and tactile sense. With declining temperature, the first symptom to emerge was pain in the elbow or the forearm (at -3°C), followed by increased excretion of mucus from the lungs (-5°C), while most other symptoms appeared only at lower temperatures of -15°C to -20°C. Most symptoms showed little or no association with the weekly duration of exposure, with the exception of cold-induced pain at most sites. Although, in general, Finns are well adapted to the cold climate, the high prevalence of cold-related complaints poses a challenge to the health care system in terms of decreased performance and the possibility that such symptoms predict more serious health effects, such as increased mortality.

  8. Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

  9. An interregional hedonic analysis of noxious facility impacts on local wages and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Nieves, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    Claims of property value loss are commonly raised by homeowners when noxious facilities are sited or when new information about the hazards of existing facilities is made public. While the capitalization of externalities into land values is consistent with economic theory, empirical measurement of impacts has not generated consistent results. This is true both for hedonic measurements as well as other types of econometric analyses. While it is well established that job and site risks have similar impacts on regional labor markets, there are no studies relating the presence of a broad range of noxious facilities to local wage premiums. In contrast, this study employs an interregional framework in a hedonic analysis of both wage and property markets and considers eight different facility classifications. This paper discusses the development of the hedonic model employed in this study. It develops more fully the theoretical advantages of the intercity model and alternative methods of deriving implicit prices for environmental amenities and disamenities. The unique data base and the structure of the estimated model are described. It also includes a discussion of the research findings. Major conclusions and suggestions for further research are presented.

  10. An interregional hedonic analysis of noxious facility impacts on local wages and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Nieves, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Claims of property value loss are commonly raised by homeowners when noxious facilities are sited or when new information about the hazards of existing facilities is made public. While the capitalization of externalities into land values is consistent with economic theory, empirical measurement of impacts has not generated consistent results. This is true both for hedonic measurements as well as other types of econometric analyses. While it is well established that job and site risks have similar impacts on regional labor markets, there are no studies relating the presence of a broad range of noxious facilities to local wage premiums. In contrast, this study employs an interregional framework in a hedonic analysis of both wage and property markets and considers eight different facility classifications. This paper discusses the development of the hedonic model employed in this study. It develops more fully the theoretical advantages of the intercity model and alternative methods of deriving implicit prices for environmental amenities and disamenities. The unique data base and the structure of the estimated model are described. It also includes a discussion of the research findings. Major conclusions and suggestions for further research are presented.