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Sample records for noxious cold sensation

  1. Noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 is activated by pungent compounds and bradykinin.

    PubMed

    Bandell, Michael; Story, Gina M; Hwang, Sun Wook; Viswanath, Veena; Eid, Samer R; Petrus, Matt J; Earley, Taryn J; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2004-03-25

    Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain. PMID:15046718

  2. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  3. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid activates hTRPA1 and modulates behavioral responses to noxious cold in mice

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, William John; Camo, Maxime; Mitchell, Vanessa; Vaughan, Christopher Walter; Connor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a major biologically active component of the creosote bush, Larrea tridentate, widely used in unregulated therapies. NDGA is a lipoxygenase inhibitor while a derivative, terameprocol, has been trialed as a chemotherapeutic agent. When investigating fatty acid activation of the human transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (hTRPA1), we found that NDGA activated the channel. Here we investigate the actions of NDGA and terameprocol at hTRPA1 and the consequences of this for noxious cold sensitivity in mice. hTRPA1 was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells (HEK 293-TRPA1) and channel activity examined by measuring changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca]i) using a fluorescent dye and activation of membrane currents using patch clamp electrophysiology. The effects of local NDGA and terameprocol application on acetone-induced paw flinching were examined in mice. NDGA (pEC50 of 5.4 ± 0.1, maximum change in fluorescence of 385 ± 30%) and terameprocol (pEC50 4.5 ± 0.2, maximum 550 ± 75%) increased [Ca]i in HEK 293-hTRPA1 cells. NDGA also induced an increase in membrane conductance in HEK 293-hTRPA1 cells. These effects were prevented by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, and were dependent on the presence of Cys621, Cys 641, and Cys 665 in hTRPA1. Neither NDGA nor terameprocol alone produced spontaneous pain behaviors in mice after hind paw injection, but both enhanced responses to acetone. NDGA and terameprocol are efficacious activators of TRPA1. NDGA should be used with care to probe lipoxygenase involvement in nociception while TRPA1 activity should be considered when considering use of these drugs in humans. PMID:25505619

  4. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  5. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M.; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED. PMID:26675826

  6. Eugenol and carvacrol induce temporally desensitizing patterns of oral irritation and enhance innocuous warmth and noxious heat sensation on the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Amanda H.; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol and carvacrol, from the spices clove and oregano, respectively, are agonists of TRPV3 which is implicated in transduction of warmth and possibly heat pain. We presently investigated the temporal dynamics of lingual irritation elicited by these agents, and their effects on innocuous warmth and heat pain, using a half-tongue method in human subjects. The irritant sensation elicited by both eugenol and carvacrol decreased across repeated applications at a 1-min interstimulus interval (self-desensitization) which persisted for at least 10 min. Both agents also cross-desensitized capsaicin-evoked irritation. Eugenol and carvacrol significantly increased the magnitude of perceived innocuous warmth (44°C) for >10 min, and briefly (<5 min) enhanced heat pain elicited by a 49°C stimulus. Similar albeit weaker effects were observed when thermal stimuli were applied after the tongue had been desensitized by repeated application of eugenol or carvacrol, indicating that the effect is not due solely to summation of chemoirritant and thermal sensations. Neither chemical affected sensations of innocuous cool or cold pain. A separate group of subjects were asked to subdivide eugenol and carvacrol irritancy into subqualities, the most frequently-reported being numbing and warmth, with brief burning, stinging/pricking and tingle, confirming an earlier study. Eugenol, but not carvacrol, reduced detection of low-threshold mechanical stimuli. Eugenol and carvacrol enhancement of innocuous warmth may involve sensitization of thermal gating of TRPV3 expressed in peripheral warm fibers. The brief heat hyperalgesia following eugenol may involve a TRPV3-mediated enhancement of thermal gating of TRPV1 expressed in lingual polymodal nociceptors. PMID:23791894

  7. Effects of alcohol on autonomic responses and thermal sensation during cold exposure in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Saito, Kumiko; Nakamura, Mayumi; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the effects of alcohol on thermoregulatory responses and thermal sensations during cold exposure in humans. Eight healthy men (mean age 22.3+/-0.7 year) participated in this study. Experiments were conducted twice for each subject at a room temperature of 18 degrees C. After a 30-min resting period, the subject drank either 15% alcohol at a dose of 0.36 g/kg body weight (alcohol session) or an equal volume of distilled water (control session), and remained in a sitting position for another 60 min. Mean skin temperature continued to decrease and was similar in control and alcohol sessions. Metabolic rate was lower in the alcohol session, but the difference did not affect core temperature, which decreased in a similar manner in both alcohol and control sessions (from 36.9+/-0.1 degrees C to 36.6+/-0.1 degrees C). Whole body sensations of cold and thermal discomfort became successively stronger in the control session, whereas these sensations were both greatly diminished after drinking alcohol. In a previous study we performed in the heat, using a similar protocol, alcohol produced a definite, coordinated effect on all autonomic and sentient heat loss effectors. In the current study in the cold, as compared to responses in the heat, alcohol intake was followed by lesser alterations in autonomic effector responses, but increased changes in sensations of temperature and thermal discomfort. Overall, our results indicate that although alcohol influences thermoregulation in the cold as well as in the heat, detailed aspects of the influence are quite different. PMID:18420115

  8. Clinical assessment of the warming sensation accompanying flavor 316282 in a cold and cough syrup containing paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by flavor 316282 in a cold and cough product in the target population. Methods: A single-cohort, single-treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30-mL dose of syrup containing flavor 316282, paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessment of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture, and acceptability of the product as a cold and cough remedy was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 51 subjects were included; 47 (92.1%) experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 100 s (95% confidence interval = 82 s, 112 s). The majority of subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good, or fair for treatment of cough and cold symptoms (96.1%), taste (80.4%), and texture (98.0%). There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: Flavor 316282 in a cold and cough syrup is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe, and palatable. PMID:26770699

  9. TRPA1 Contributes to Cold Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Camino, Donato del; Murphy, Sarah; Heiry, Melissa; Barrett, Lee B.; Earley, Taryn J.; Cook, Colby A.; Petrus, Matt J.; Zhao, Michael; D'Amours, Marc; Deering, Nate; Brenner, Gary J.; Costigan, Michael; Hayward, Neil J.; Chong, Jayhong A.; Fanger, Christopher M.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Moran, Magdalene M.

    2010-01-01

    TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. While it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions where reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1-/- mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:21068322

  10. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity. PMID:26454262

  11. Concept of visual sensation.

    PubMed

    Bundesen, C

    1977-06-01

    A direct-realist account of visual sensation is outlined. The explanatory notion of elements in visual sensation (atomic sensations) is reinterpreted, and the suggested interpretation is formally justified by constructing a Boolean algebra for visual sensations. The related notion of sensory levels (visual field vs visual world) is discussed. PMID:887374

  12. Inhibitory effects of heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation on perception and brain activity related to Aβ-fibre activation.

    PubMed

    Rustamov, Nabi; Tessier, Jessica; Provencher, Benjamin; Lehmann, Alexandre; Piché, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    Heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) inhibits pain and pain processes through cerebral and cerebrospinal mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether HNCS inhibits non-nociceptive processes, which needs to be clarified for a better understanding of HNCS analgesia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HNCS on perception and scalp somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Seventeen healthy volunteers participated in two counter-balanced sessions, including non-nociceptive (selective Aβ-fibre activation) or nociceptive electrical stimulation, combined with HNCS. HNCS was produced by a 20-min cold pressor test (left hand) adjusted individually to produce moderate pain (mean ± SEM: 42.5 ± 5.3 on a 0-100 scale, where 0 is no pain and 100 the worst pain imaginable). Non-nociceptive electrical stimulation was adjusted individually at 80% of pain threshold and produced a tactile sensation in every subject. Nociceptive electrical stimulation was adjusted individually at 120% of RIII-reflex threshold and produced moderate pain (45.3 ± 4.5). Shock sensation was significantly decreased by HNCS compared with baseline for non-nociceptive (P < 0.001) and nociceptive (P < 0.001) stimulation. SEP peak-to-peak amplitude at Cz was significantly decreased by HNCS for non-nociceptive (P < 0.01) and nociceptive (P < 0.05) stimulation. These results indicate that perception and brain activity related to Aβ-fibre activation are inhibited by HNCS. The mechanisms of this effect remain to be investigated to clarify whether it involves inhibition of spinal wide-dynamic-range neurons by diffuse noxious inhibitory controls, supraspinal processes or both. PMID:27086672

  13. Normal and abnormal coding of painful sensations

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Steven A; Ma, Qiufu; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Noxious stimuli cause pain and pain arises from noxious stimuli… usually. Exceptions to these apparent truisms are the basis for clinically important problems and provide valuable insight into the neural code for pain. In this Perspective, we will discuss how painful sensations are encoded. We will argue that although primary somatosensory afferents are specialized (i.e. tuned to specific stimulus features), natural stimuli often activate >1 type of afferent. Manipulating co-activation patterns can alter perception, which argues against each type of afferent acting independently (as expected for strictly labeled lines) and suggests instead that signals conveyed by different types of afferents interact. Deciphering the central circuits that mediate those interactions is critical for explaining the generation and modulation of neural signals ultimately perceived as pain. The advent of genetic and optical dissection techniques promise to dramatically accelerate progress towards this goal, which will facilitate the rational design of future pain therapeutics. PMID:24473266

  14. Brain mediators of the effects of noxious heat on pain

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Lauren Y.; Lindquist, Martin A.; Bolger, Niall; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent human neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of either noxious stimulus intensity or reported pain. While useful, analyzing brain relationships with stimulus intensity and behavior separately does not address how sensation and pain are linked in the central nervous system. In this paper, we used multi-level mediation analysis to identify brain mediators of pain—regions whose trial-by-trial responses to heat explained variability in the relationship between noxious stimulus intensity (across four levels) and pain. This approach has the potential to identify multiple circuits with complementary roles in pain genesis. Brain mediators of noxious heat effects on pain included targets of ascending nociceptive pathways (anterior cingulate, insula, SII, and medial thalamus) and also prefrontal and subcortical regions not associated with nociceptive pathways per se. Cluster analysis revealed that mediators were grouped into several distinct functional networks, including: a) somatosensory, paralimbic, and striatal-cerebellar networks that increased with stimulus intensity; and b) two networks co-localized with ‘default mode’ regions in which stimulus intensity-related decreases mediated increased pain. We also identified ‘thermosensory’ regions that responded to increasing noxious heat but did not predict pain reports. Finally, several regions did not respond to noxious input, but their activity predicted pain; these included ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, cerebellar regions, and supplementary motor cortices. These regions likely underlie both nociceptive and non-nociceptive processes that contribute to pain, such as attention and decision-making processes. Overall, these results elucidate how multiple distinct brain systems jointly contribute to the central generation of pain. PMID:24845572

  15. TRP channel blamed for burning cold after a tropical fish meal

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    EMBO J (2012) 31 19, 3795–3808 doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.207; published online 07312012 Ciguatera is one of the most common forms of food poisoning, occurring after consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins. New work by Vetter et al (2012) reveals the key molecular players that underlie the altered temperature sensation associated with ciguatera. In particular, they show that ciguatoxins act on sensory neurons that express TRPA1, an ion channel implicated in the detection of noxious cold. PMID:22960637

  16. Enhancement of Analgesic Effect by Combination of Non-Noxious Stimulation and Noxious Stimulation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fujii-Abe, Keiko; Umino, Masahiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa; Kawahara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the combined effects of heterosegmental non-noxious and noxious stimulation on electrically induced tooth pain. The late component of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP), induced by electrical tooth stimulation and pain intensity, were examined under electrical stimulation to forearms. Noxious, non-noxious, and combined non-noxious and noxious electrical stimulation were applied to median nerves on the forearms. Four experimental sessions (ie, control session, combined non-noxious and noxious stimulation session, non-noxious stimulation session, and noxious stimulation session were performed for each subject at each 10-minute interval for 30 minutes. The amplitudes of the SEP and VAS scores in the combined stimulation session decreased significantly compared with those in the control session and the reduction rates were 51.1% (13.4 μV) and 41.0% (23.5 mm), respectively. These results show that the combined stimulation has a more potent analgesic effect than that of either the non-noxious or the noxious stimulation. It is suggested that a potent analgesia was produced by an activated central mechanism, including endogenous opioid and descending pain inhibitory systems due to combined non-noxious and noxious stimulation. PMID:25490991

  17. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  18. The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality. PMID:21587232

  19. Students Enjoy Chemical Sensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.; Kanematsu, Hideyuki

    2003-01-01

    This exciting new way of teaching high school/college chemistry combines music, visual aids, and chemical experiments in multi-sensory lessons that motivate students and provide them with meaningful learning experiences in science. The method, known as the Chemical Sensation Project, acknowledges that some individuals learn by seeing or hearing,…

  20. Sensational Stars with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Karen; Miller, Lucy Jane

    2008-01-01

    Sensory processing refers to the way the brain takes incoming sensory messages, converts them into meaningful messages, then makes a response. If the responses are disorganized or inappropriate given the sensory input, sensory processing disorder (SPD) may co-exist with autism. If a child has an occasional atypical response to sensation, he or she…

  1. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

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  2. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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  3. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  4. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  5. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  6. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  7. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds. The Administrator has determined that it is necessary to designate the following plants 1 as noxious weeds...

  8. 7 CFR 201.16 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds. 201.16 Section 201.16 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.16 Noxious-weed seeds. (a) Except for those kinds of noxious-weed seeds shown in paragraph (b) of this section, the names of the kinds of noxious-weed seeds and...

  9. Neuronal processing of noxious thermal stimuli mediated by dendritic Ca(2+) influx in Drosophila somatosensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Terada, Shin-Ichiro; Matsubara, Daisuke; Onodera, Koun; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Uemura, Tadashi; Usui, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Adequate responses to noxious stimuli causing tissue damages are essential for organismal survival. Class IV neurons in Drosophila larvae are polymodal nociceptors responsible for thermal, mechanical, and light sensation. Importantly, activation of Class IV provoked distinct avoidance behaviors, depending on the inputs. We found that noxious thermal stimuli, but not blue light stimulation, caused a unique pattern of Class IV, which were composed of pauses after high-frequency spike trains and a large Ca(2+) rise in the dendrite (the Ca(2+) transient). Both these responses depended on two TRPA channels and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC), showing that the thermosensation provokes Ca(2+) influx. The precipitous fluctuation of firing rate in Class IV neurons enhanced the robust heat avoidance. We hypothesize that the Ca(2+) influx can be a key signal encoding a specific modality. PMID:26880554

  10. Neuronal processing of noxious thermal stimuli mediated by dendritic Ca2+ influx in Drosophila somatosensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Shin-Ichiro; Matsubara, Daisuke; Onodera, Koun; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Uemura, Tadashi; Usui, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Adequate responses to noxious stimuli causing tissue damages are essential for organismal survival. Class IV neurons in Drosophila larvae are polymodal nociceptors responsible for thermal, mechanical, and light sensation. Importantly, activation of Class IV provoked distinct avoidance behaviors, depending on the inputs. We found that noxious thermal stimuli, but not blue light stimulation, caused a unique pattern of Class IV, which were composed of pauses after high-frequency spike trains and a large Ca2+ rise in the dendrite (the Ca2+ transient). Both these responses depended on two TRPA channels and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC), showing that the thermosensation provokes Ca2+ influx. The precipitous fluctuation of firing rate in Class IV neurons enhanced the robust heat avoidance. We hypothesize that the Ca2+ influx can be a key signal encoding a specific modality. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12959.001 PMID:26880554

  11. A sensory labeled-line for cold: TRPM8-expressing sensory neurons define the cellular basis for cold, cold pain, and cooling-mediated analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Wendy M.; Palkar, Radhika; Lippoldt, Erika K.; McCoy, Daniel D.; Baluch, Farhan; Chen, Jessica; McKemy, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Many primary sensory neurons are polymodal, responding to multiple stimulus modalities (chemical, thermal, or mechanical), yet each modality is recognized differently. While polymodality implies that stimulus encoding occurs in higher centers such as the spinal cord or brain, recent sensory neuron ablation studies find that behavioral responses to different modalities require distinct subpopulations, suggesting the existence of modality-specific labeled-lines at the level of the sensory afferent. Here we provide evidence that neurons expressing TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-gated channel required for normal cold responses in mammals, represents a labeled-line solely for cold sensation. We examined the behavioral significance of conditionally ablating TRPM8+ neurons in adult mice, finding that, like animals lacking TRPM8 channels (Trpm8−/−), animals depleted of TRPM8 neurons (ablated) are insensitive to cool to painfully cold temperatures. Ablated animals showed little aversion to noxious cold and did not distinguish between cold and a preferred warm temperature, a phenotype more profound than that of Trpm8−/− mice which exhibit only partial cold avoidance and preference behaviors. In addition to acute responses, cold pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury was significantly attenuated in ablated and Trpm8−/− mice. Moreover, cooling-induced analgesia after nerve injury was abolished in both genotypes. Lastly, heat, mechanical, and proprioceptive behaviors were normal in ablated mice, demonstrating that TRPM8 neurons are dispensable for other somatosensory modalities. Together these data show that while some limited cold sensitivity remains in Trpm8−/− mice, TRPM8 neurons are required for the breadth of behavioral responses evoked by cold temperatures. PMID:23407943

  12. Mapping multidimensional pain experience onto electrophysiological responses to noxious laser heat stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stancak, Andrej; Cook, Stephanie; Wright, Hazel; Fallon, Nicholas

    2016-01-15

    The origin of the conscious experience of pain in the brain is a continuing enigma in neuroscience. To shed light on the brain representation of a multifaceted pain experience in humans, we combined multivariate analysis of subjective aspects of pain sensations with detailed, single-trial analysis of electrophysiological brain responses. Participants were asked to fully focus on any painful or non-painful sensations occurring in their left hand during an interval surrounding the onset of noxious laser heat stimuli, and to rate their sensations using a set of visual analogue scales. Statistical parametric mapping was used to compute a multivariate regression analysis of subjective responses and single-trial laser evoked potentials (LEPs) at subject and group levels. Standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography method was used to reconstruct sources of LEPs. Factor analysis of subjective responses yielded five factors. Factor 1, representing pain, mapped firstly as a negative potential at the vertex and a positive potential at the fronto-temporal region during the 208-260ms interval, and secondly as a strong negative potential in the right lateral frontal and prefrontal scalp regions during the 1292-1340ms interval. Three other factors, labelled "anticipated pain", "stimulus onset time", and "body sensations", represented non-specific aspects of the pain experience, and explained portions of LEPs in the latency range from 200ms to 700ms. The subjective space of pain during noxious laser stimulation is represented by one large factor featuring pain intensity, and by other factors accounting for non-specific parts of the sensory experience. Pain is encoded in two separate latency components with different scalp and brain representations. PMID:26477652

  13. The potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianna; Yang, Hongli; Li, Kun; Lei, Xiaofei; Xu, Changqing

    2016-09-01

    Piezo2 is an important mechano-gated ion channel that is involved in light touch sensitivity and inflammatory allodynia. However, current research has focused on the function of Piezo2 in somatic sensation but not in visceral sensation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Piezo2 in visceral sensation of mechanically innocuous and noxious stimuli under physiological and hyperalgesic conditions using rats as a model organism. Neonatal enema with acetic acid induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of Piezo2-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced Piezo2 expression in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Piezo2 knock-down in DRG attenuated visceral sensation to innocuous stimuli in control rats and to both innocuous and noxious stimuli in rats with neonatal irritation. Compared with control rats, Piezo2 was not up-regulated in irritated rats at the mRNA or protein levels in thoracolumbar or lumbosacral DRGs, while TRPV1 was up-regulated in lumbosacral DRGs. These data suggest a potential role of Piezo2 in the mediation of visceral sensation. PMID:27481627

  14. Differential activation of the human trigeminal nuclear complex by noxious and non-noxious orofacial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nash, Paul G; Macefield, Vaughan G; Klineberg, Iven J; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2009-11-01

    There is good evidence from animal studies for segregation in the processing of non-nociceptive and nociceptive information within the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. However, it remains unknown whether a similar segregation occurs in humans, and a recent tract tracing study suggests that this segregation may not exist. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to define and compare activity patterns of the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex during non-noxious and noxious cutaneous and non-noxious and noxious muscle orofacial stimulation in humans. We found that during cutaneous pain, signal intensity increased within the entire rostrocaudal extent of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (SpV), encompassing the ipsilateral oralis (SpVo), interpolaris (SpVi) and caudalis (SpVc) subdivisions. In contrast, muscle pain did not activate SpVi, but instead activated a discrete region of the ipsilateral SpVo and SpVc. Further, muscle noxious stimulation activated a region of the ipsilateral lateral pons in the region of the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus (Vp). Innocuous orofacial stimulation (lip brushing) also evoked a significant increase in signal intensity in the ipsilateral Vp; however, non-noxious muscle stimulation showed no increase in signal in this area. The data reveal that orofacial cutaneous and muscle nociceptive information and innocuous cutaneous stimulation are differentially represented within the trigeminal nuclear complex. It is well established that cutaneous and muscle noxious stimuli evoke different perceptual, behavioural and cardiovascular changes. We speculate that the differential activation evoked by cutaneous and muscle noxious stimuli within the trigeminal sensory complex may contribute to the neural basis for these differences. PMID:19492300

  15. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  16. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Aeginetia...

  17. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  18. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  19. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Acacia...

  20. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of noxious weeds. 360.200 Section 360.200 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.200 Designation of noxious weeds....

  1. Role of thermo TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in heat, cold, and mechanical nociception of rats.

    PubMed

    Nozadze, Ivliane; Tsiklauri, Nana; Gurtskaia, Gulnazi; Tsagareli, Merab G

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive response of the nervous system to changes in temperature is of predominant importance for homeotherms to maintain a stable body temperature. A number of temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have been studied as nociceptors that respond to extreme temperatures and harmful chemicals. Recent findings in the field of pain have established a family of six thermo-TRP channels (TRPA1, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4) that exhibit sensitivity to increases or decreases in temperature, as well as to chemical substances eliciting the respective hot or cold sensations. In this study, we used behavioral methods to investigate whether mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) and capsaicin affect the sensitivity to heat, innocuous and noxious cold, and mechanical stimuli in male rats. The results obtained indicate that TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are clearly involved in pain reactions, and the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate enhances the heat pain sensitivity, possibly by indirectly modulating TRPV1 channels coexpressed in nociceptors with TRPA1. Overall, our data support the role of thermosensitive TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in pain modulation and show that these two thermoreceptor channels are in a synergistic and/or conditional relationship with noxious heat and cold cutaneous stimulation. PMID:26274042

  2. Acute Heat-Evoked Temperature Sensation Is Impaired but Not Abolished in Mice Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation. PMID:24925072

  3. Topical application of L-menthol induces heat analgesia, mechanical allodynia, and a biphasic effect on cold sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, Amanda H; Sawyer, Carolyn M; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Tsagareli, Merab G; Tsiklauri, Nana; Carstens, E

    2010-10-15

    Menthol is used in analgesic balms and also in foods and oral hygiene products for its fresh cooling sensation. Menthol enhances cooling by interacting with the cold-sensitive thermoTRP channel TRPM8, but its effect on pain is less well understood. We presently used behavioral methods to investigate effects of topical menthol on thermal (hot and cold) pain and innocuous cold and mechanical sensitivity in rats. Menthol dose-dependently increased the latency for noxious heat-evoked withdrawal of the treated hindpaw with a weak mirror-image effect, indicating antinociception. Menthol at the highest concentration (40%) reduced mechanical withdrawal thresholds, with no effect at lower concentrations. Menthol had a biphasic effect on cold avoidance. At high concentrations (10% and 40%) menthol reduced avoidance of colder temperatures (15 degrees C and 20 degrees C) compared to 30 degrees C, while at lower concentrations (0.01-1%) menthol enhanced cold avoidance. In a -5 degrees C cold plate test, 40% menthol significantly increased the nocifensive response latency (cold hypoalgesia) while lower concentrations were not different from vehicle controls. These results are generally consistent with neurophysiological and human psychophysical data and support TRPM8 as a potential peripheral target of pain modulation. PMID:20398704

  4. Infrared simulation model SENSAT-2.

    PubMed

    Richter, R

    1987-06-15

    The computer model SENSAT-2 has been developed for remote sensing uses of passive sensors in the 1-28-, microm infrared spectral region. The model calculates the IR signature of up to three homogeneous objects in the instantaneous field of view of the sensor. For the atmospheric part, model LOWTRAN-6 is used within SENSAT-2. Model SENSAT-2 can be used for mission analysis of sensors on different platforms like groundbased, aircraft, or satellite. It is a useful design tool for simulating and assessing the radiometric relations that are indispensable in designing sensors. Further uses include the comparison of measurements with simulation results and the radiometric correction of measurements. PMID:20489878

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 4.03-60 - Noxious liquid substance (NLS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-60 Noxious liquid substance (NLS). Noxious liquid substance (NLS) means— (a) Each substance listed in 33 CFR 151.47 or 151.49; (b) Each substance having an “A,” “B,” “C... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noxious liquid substance (NLS). 4.03-60 Section...

  10. Guidelines for management of noxious weeds at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, R.C.; Malady, M.B.

    1995-10-27

    Integrated Pest Management Services is responsible for management and control of noxious weeds on the Hanford Site. Weed species and populations are prioritized and objective defined, according to potential site and regional impact. Population controls are implemented according to priority. An integrated approach is planned for noxious weed control in which several management options are considered and implemented separately or in coordination to best meet management objectives. Noxious weeds are inventories and monitored to provide information for planning and program review.

  11. TMC-1 Mediates Alkaline Sensation in C. elegans through Nociceptive Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Guang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Noxious pH triggers pungent taste and nocifensive behavior. While the mechanisms underlying acidic pH sensation have been extensively characterized, little is known about how animals sense alkaline pH in the environment. TMC genes encode a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we characterize C. elegans TMC-1, which was suggested to form a Na(+)-sensitive channel mediating salt chemosensation. Interestingly, we find that TMC-1 is required for worms to avoid noxious alkaline environment. Alkaline pH evokes an inward current in nociceptive neurons, which is primarily mediated by TMC-1 and to a lesser extent by the TRP channel OSM-9. However, unlike OSM-9, which is sensitive to both acidic and alkaline pH, TMC-1 is only required for alkali-activated current, revealing a specificity for alkaline sensation. Ectopic expression of TMC-1 confers alkaline sensitivity to alkali-insensitive cells. Our results identify an unexpected role for TMCs in alkaline sensation and nociception. PMID:27321925

  12. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  13. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  14. Are mirror-sensations really synesthetic?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-sensations, including touch and pain, are often referred to as synesthetic. The term can be challenged, however, because mirror-sensations lack the incongruency and saliency of synesthesia, may involve problems of perspective rather than entangled sensations, and may be easier to generate with suggestion. If mirror-sensations are truly sensations then they might be expected to act like the true sensation and mirror-pain, for example, might inhibit pain at a distance or itch in the same location. These predictions are highly testable. PMID:25997924

  15. A simple and inexpensive method for determining cold sensitivity and adaptation in mice.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Daniel S; Golden, Judith P; Vogt, Sherri K; Gereau, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is a serious clinical problem, affecting a broad subset of patients and causing significant decreases in quality of life. The cold plantar assay allows the objective and inexpensive assessment of cold sensitivity in mice, and can quantify both analgesia and hypersensitivity. Mice are acclimated on a glass plate, and a compressed dry ice pellet is held against the glass surface underneath the hindpaw. The latency to withdrawal from the cooling glass is used as a measure of cold sensitivity. Cold sensation is also important for survival in regions with seasonal temperature shifts, and in order to maintain sensitivity animals must be able to adjust their thermal response thresholds to match the ambient temperature. The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) also allows the study of adaptation to changes in ambient temperature by testing the cold sensitivity of mice at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. Mice are acclimated as described above, but the glass plate is cooled to the desired starting temperature using aluminum boxes (or aluminum foil packets) filled with hot water, wet ice, or dry ice. The temperature of the plate is measured at the center using a filament T-type thermocouple probe. Once the plate has reached the desired starting temperature, the animals are tested as described above. This assay allows testing of mice at temperatures ranging from innocuous to noxious. The CPA yields unambiguous and consistent behavioral responses in uninjured mice and can be used to quantify both hypersensitivity and analgesia. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice. PMID:25867969

  16. A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Determining Cold Sensitivity and Adaptation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Daniel S.; Golden, Judith P.; Vogt, Sherri K.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is a serious clinical problem, affecting a broad subset of patients and causing significant decreases in quality of life. The cold plantar assay allows the objective and inexpensive assessment of cold sensitivity in mice, and can quantify both analgesia and hypersensitivity. Mice are acclimated on a glass plate, and a compressed dry ice pellet is held against the glass surface underneath the hindpaw. The latency to withdrawal from the cooling glass is used as a measure of cold sensitivity. Cold sensation is also important for survival in regions with seasonal temperature shifts, and in order to maintain sensitivity animals must be able to adjust their thermal response thresholds to match the ambient temperature. The Cold Plantar Assay (CPA) also allows the study of adaptation to changes in ambient temperature by testing the cold sensitivity of mice at temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 5 °C. Mice are acclimated as described above, but the glass plate is cooled to the desired starting temperature using aluminum boxes (or aluminum foil packets) filled with hot water, wet ice, or dry ice. The temperature of the plate is measured at the center using a filament T-type thermocouple probe. Once the plate has reached the desired starting temperature, the animals are tested as described above. This assay allows testing of mice at temperatures ranging from innocuous to noxious. The CPA yields unambiguous and consistent behavioral responses in uninjured mice and can be used to quantify both hypersensitivity and analgesia. This protocol describes how to use the CPA to measure cold hypersensitivity, analgesia, and adaptation in mice. PMID:25867969

  17. Developmental changes in the electroencephalogram and responses to a noxious stimulus in anaesthetized tammar wallaby joeys (Macropus eugenii eugenii).

    PubMed

    Diesch, T J; Mellor, D J; Johnson, C B; Lentle, R G

    2010-04-01

    The tammar wallaby joey is born extremely immature and most of its neurological development occurs in the maternal pouch. It is not known at what in-pouch age functions such as conscious sensory perception commence. We determined the electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to noxious stimulation in lightly anaesthetized tammar wallaby joeys. Baseline median (F50) and spectral edge (F95) frequencies, total power (Ptot) and frequency spectra between 1 and 30 Hz of the EEG power spectrum were determined. Joeys aged less than 127 days showed little or no EEG activity. Prolonged periods of spontaneous EEG activity were present by 142 days. This activity increased, as did the power in all frequencies, while the duration of any intervening isoelectric periods decreased with increasing in-pouch age. EEG responses to a noxious stimulus (toe clamping) changed with increasing in-pouch age as there was no response from joeys aged 94-127 days (no EEG), a minimal decrease in the F50 in those aged between 142 and 181 days (P = 0.052) and a greater decrease in the F50 in those aged between 187 and 261 days (P < 0.001). The pattern of these changes, which presumably reflects anatomical and functional maturation of the cerebral cortex, is similar to, but develops more slowly than, that reported in the rat. The opening of the eyes and development of the pelage are discussed as markers of when brain development may be sufficient for joeys to consciously perceive noxious sensations including pain. PMID:19900986

  18. Treatment of flue gas containing noxious gases

    SciTech Connect

    Dvirka, M.; Psihos, G.J.; Cosulich, J.J.

    1987-07-21

    A method is described of reducing the noxious gases such as chlorides including hydrogen chloride and chlorine from the flue gases derived from the incineration of solid waste materials in a furnace with a combustion chamber and a combustion zone to substantially reduce the formation of dioxins for a cleaner effluent gas to the atmosphere, comprising: introducing sodium bicarbonate into the flue gas of a furnace incinerating the waste materials, positioning introduction of sodium bicarbonate for at least one location along the path of the flue gas at a temperature below about 1564/sup 0/F but not below about 518/sup 0/F, heating the sodium bicarbonate in the flue gas for a time sufficient to drive off the water and carbon dioxide from the sodium bicarbonate, forming sodium carbonate particle during the heating of the sodium bicarbonate, the sodium carbonate having a higher porosity to produce a greater reaction area on the surface of the particles, contacting the porous sodium carbonate with chlorides in the flue gases for a sufficient time and temperature to react and produce sodium chloride and prevent their formation of dioxins; and separating the sodium chloride from the flue gas to produce a cleaner gas for exit to the atmosphere.

  19. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P < 0.05) but not in Sup, and at the forearm was lower during HT than NT in the Sup and further in Sit (both, P < 0.05), with interactive effects of temperature (NT vs. HT) × posture (Sup vs. Sit) (chest, P = 0.08; forearm, P < 0.05). The threshold for warm sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P < 0.05). Thus, thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  20. Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Moshourab, Rabih A.; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A.J.; Francisco, Allain G.; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N.; Lewin, Gary R.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Summary The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals1. It is postulated that mechanically activated (MA) cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive2. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting (RA) MA ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel cell-neurite complexes3,4. Merkel cells have been demonstrated to play a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by its innervating sensory neuron4-6. However, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity4,7. Here, we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most RA MA currents in DRG neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2CKO mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that mechanosensitivity of LTMRs strongly depends on Piezo2. This striking cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioral phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light touch sensation in multiple behavioral assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays RA MA currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most LTMR subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Interestingly, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that yet-unknown MA ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

  1. Warm air sensation for assessment of block after spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Ayorinde, B T; Rowbotham, D J; Buggy, D J

    2000-03-01

    We have evaluated a new method of assessing dermatomal sensory levels after regional anaesthesia based on warm sensation. Sensory levels were assessed in 30 patients after spinal anaesthesia using a respiratory gas humidifier, adapted to deliver a constant flow of warm air at 40 +/- 0.2 degrees C. This was compared with the cold sensation from ethyl chloride spray. The frequency distribution of the dermatomal differences showed 96.6% of the comparisons were between +1 and -1 dermatomes. The median difference in dermatomal levels between the two methods of assessment was 0 (interquartile range 0-1) (P = 0.65). We conclude that the warm air method compares favourably with ethyl chloride spray and both can be used interchangeably. PMID:10793604

  2. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  3. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  4. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  5. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  6. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  7. 7 CFR 360.300 - Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 Notice of restrictions on movement of noxious weeds. No person may move a Federal noxious weed into...

  8. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  9. 7 CFR 360.305 - Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.305 Disposal of noxious weeds when permits are canceled. When a permit for the movement of a noxious weed...

  10. The function of intradental nerves in relation to the sensations induced by dental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Närhi, M; Hirvonen, T; Huopaniemi, T

    1984-01-01

    Stimulation of intradental nerves has been widely used in pain research as a method for selective activation of pain pathways. It is believed that the only sensation experienced by human subjects in response to activation of pulp nerves is that of pain. However, this concept is not strictly correct. With electrical stimulation at threshold level or near to it a sensation which is not necessarily painful ("prepain") is experienced. When the stimulus intensity is increased suprathreshold, the sensation tends to change to a painful and unpleasant one. The changes in sensations are probably caused by activation of intradental nerve units with different thresholds and conduction velocities. In cats the fastest conducting pulp nerve fibres have the lowest thresholds and slowly conducting units are activated at much higher current levels. In most experiments on human teeth using natural stimuli like hot and cold the only sensation experienced has been pain. It seems also difficult for the subjects to find any difference between different stimuli. Correspondingly, in animal experiments it has been shown that different stimuli applied to dentine are capable of activating the same intradental nerve units probably with a common mechanism (hydrodynamic). However, some recent studies indicate that sensation of cold could be induced by stimulating human teeth. PMID:6148844

  11. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Undoubtedly, adjusting our thermoregulatory behavior represents the most effective mechanism to maintain thermal homeostasis and ensure survival in the diverse thermal environments that we face on this planet. Remarkably, our thermal behavior is entirely dependent on the ability to detect variations in our internal (i.e., body) and external environment, via sensing changes in skin temperature and wetness. In the past 30 years, we have seen a significant expansion of our understanding of the molecular, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological mechanisms that allow humans to sense temperature and humidity. The discovery of temperature-activated ion channels which gate the generation of action potentials in thermosensitive neurons, along with the characterization of the spino-thalamo-cortical thermosensory pathway, and the development of neural models for the perception of skin wetness, are only some of the recent advances which have provided incredible insights on how biophysical changes in skin temperature and wetness are transduced into those neural signals which constitute the physiological substrate of skin thermal and wetness sensations. Understanding how afferent thermal inputs are integrated and how these contribute to behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses under normal brain function is critical to determine how these mechanisms are disrupted in those neurological conditions, which see the concurrent presence of afferent thermosensory abnormalities and efferent thermoregulatory dysfunctions. Furthermore, advancing the knowledge on skin thermal and wetness sensations is crucial to support the development of neuroprosthetics. In light of the aforementioned text, this review will focus on the peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning skin thermal and wetness sensations in humans. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1279-1294, 2016.2016. PMID:27347898

  12. Functional role of induced gamma oscillatory responses in processing noxious and innocuous sensory events in humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C; Chien, J H; Chang, Y W; Kim, J H; Anderson, W S; Lenz, F A

    2015-12-01

    Gamma time-frequency responses (TFRs) induced by painful laser in the contralateral primary somatosensory (SI) cortex have been shown to correlate with perceived pain-intensity in human. Given the functional roles of gamma TFRs in the cortical spaces, it remains unclear whether such a relationship is sustained for other brain regions where the laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) are presented. In this study, we delivered the painful laser pluses at random pain-intensity levels (i.e. strong, medium and weak) in a single train to the dorsal hand of six patients with uncontrolled epilepsy. The laser stimulus produced a painful pinprick sensation by activating nociceptors located in the superficial layers of the skin. For each patient, arrays of >64 subdural electrodes were implanted directly covering the contralateral SI, parasylvian (PS) and medial frontal (MF) cortices to study the stimulus related gamma (TFRs) in the neocortex. In addition, using the same stimulation paradigm, the modality specificity of gamma TFRs was further examined by applying innocuous vibrotactile stimuli to the same regions of the dorsal hand in a separated group of five patients. Our results showed that gamma TFRs are not modality specific, but the largest gamma TFRs were consistently found within the SI region and noxious laser elicited significantly stronger gamma TFRs than innocuous nonpainful vibratory stimuli. Furthermore, stronger pain induced stronger gamma TFRs in the cortices of SI (r=0.4, p<0.001) and PS (r=0.29, p=0.005). Given that potentially harmful noxious stimulus would automatically capture greater attention than the innocuous ones, our results support the hypothesis that the degree of SI and PS gamma TFRs is associated with an attentional drive provoked by painful stimuli. PMID:26408986

  13. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

  14. Treating pain with pain: supraspinal mechanisms of endogenous analgesia elicited by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Christian; Bingel, Ulrike; Büchel, Christian

    2011-02-01

    While being exposed to an intensive tonic pain stimulus at one area of the body, another phasic pain stimulus applied to a remote site is perceived as less painful. The neurophysiological basis for this "pain inhibits pain" phenomenon has been presumed to be an activation of the spino-bulbo-spinal mechanism termed "diffuse noxious inhibitory controls." However, several additional mechanisms such as an activation of the descending pain control system may contribute to this observation. Here we investigated the underlying supraspinal mechanisms of "heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulations" (HNCS), representing this specific experimental constellation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral recordings in combination with a modified cold-pressor task and phasic painful stimuli, and investigated the contribution of endogenous opioids to this mechanism using the opioid antagonist naloxone in a double-blind crossover design. HNCS led to marked endogenous analgesia and this effect correlated positively with the perceived intensity of the tonic painful stimulus. Furthermore, HNCS was paralleled by reduced blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses in classical pain-responsive regions. Conversely, HNCS led to tonic BOLD increases in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex. The strength of functional coupling between the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and key structures of the descending pain control system was enhanced during HNCS, which correlated positively with the individual endogenous analgesia during HNCS. These effects were in part reversed by naloxone, speaking for the contribution of endogenous opioid neurotransmission to this mechanism. Taken together, these results demonstrate a substantial contribution of higher-order brain regions to the phenomenon of hypoalgesia during HNCS. Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows how the human brain is involved in heterotopic noxious conditioning and reveals active supraspinal pain

  15. Assessment of Change in Palatal Sensation in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients by Using Two-Point Palatal Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Yang, Youngsoo; Choi, Hye Rang; Cho, Jae Hoon; Kim, Gee-Tae; Kim, Jin Kook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have impaired responses to inspiratory resistive loading during sleep. This may be due, in part, to a change in the upper airway sensation. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with OSAS have diminished upper airway sensation due to snoring. Methods. A total of 53 participants were selected based on clinical evaluation and polysomnography. Two-point discrimination was measured with modified calipers in the tongue and soft palate. Results. A total of 10 participants were included in the control group, 12 participants in the simple snoring group, and 27 participants in the OSAS group. There were 12 patients in the impaired sensation group of the OSAS group. On comparing polysomnography, patients with impairment of their palatal sensory input in two-point discrimination (TPD) had a more protracted duration of the longest snoring episode than those with simple snoring and normal sensation. Patients with decreased sensory input in TPD had longer average duration of snoring episodes and relative snoring time than those with simple snoring and normal sensory input in cold uvular TPD. Comparison of the cold uvular TPD for normal sensation and impaired sensation in patients with OSAS after treatment showed a different trend. Conclusion. Impaired sensation of the soft palate was correlated with the longest snoring episode duration, average snoring episode duration, and relative snoring time. It is helpful in detecting the early stage of neural degradation in OSAS patients by assessing snoring components of polysomnography and TPD in the soft palate. PMID:27095515

  16. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  17. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  18. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  19. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  20. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  1. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  2. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  3. 7 CFR 201.52 - Noxious-weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... following indicated numbers of a single kind of seed, bulblet, or tuber are found in the pure seed analysis (or noxious-weed seed examination of a like amount) the occurrence of that kind in the remainder...

  4. 75 FR 68945 - Update of Noxious Weed Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... (74 FR 27456-27467, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0146) a proposal \\1\\ to make several changes to the... interim rule published and effective on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53397-53400, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0097... contaminated with various noxious weed seeds, including Cuscuta spp. We have determined that heat...

  5. Molecular mechanism of sweetness sensation.

    PubMed

    DuBois, Grant E

    2016-10-01

    The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation). Evidence based on the sweet water aftertastes of several novel sweetness inhibitors is presented providing new support for constitutive activity in T1R2/T1R3. And a model is developed to rationalize the linear C/R functions of CHO sweeteners and hyperbolic C/R functions of HP sweeteners, where the former may activate T1R2/T1R3 by both binding and constitutive activity modulation (i.e., without binding) and the latter activate T1R2/T1R3 only by binding. PMID:26992959

  6. La3+ Alters the Response Properties of Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Low-Temperature Noxious Stimulation of the Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yanjiao

    2015-01-01

    Although dental pain is a serious health issue with high incidence among the human population, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are assumed to be involved in the generation of dental pain. However, most of the studies were conducted with molecular biological or histological methods. In vivo functional studies on the role of TRP channels in the mechanisms of dental pain are lacking. This study uses in vivo cellular electrophysiological and neuropharmacological method to directly disclose the effect of LaCl3, a broad spectrum TRP channel blocker, on the response properties of neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex to low-temperature noxious stimulation of the dental pulp. It was found that LaCl3 suppresses the high-firing-rate responses of all nociceptive neurons to noxious low-temperature stimulation and also inhibits the spontaneous activities in some nonnociceptive neurons. The effect of LaCl3 is reversible. Furthermore, this effect is persistent and stable unless LaCl3 is washed out. Washout of LaCl3 quickly revitalized the responsiveness of neurons to low-temperature noxious stimulation. This study adds direct evidence for the hypothesis that TRP channels are involved in the generation of dental pain and sensation. Blockade of TRP channels may provide a novel therapeutic treatment for dental pain. PMID:26604777

  7. Human responses to cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    The thermoneutral ambient temperature for naked and resting humans is ca. 27 degrees C. Exposure to cold stimulates cold receptors of the skin which causes cold thermal sensations and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction in skin, arms and legs. Diminished skin and extremity blood flow increases the thermal insulation of superficial tissues more than 300% corresponding to 0.9 clo (0.13 degrees C x m(-2) x W(-1)). With thermoregulatory vasoconstriction/ vasodilatation the body heat balance can be maintained within a range of ca. 4 degrees C, the middle of the range being at ca. 21 degrees C when light clothing is used. Below the thermoneutral zone metabolic heat production (shivering) is stimulated and above the zone starts heat loss by evaporation (sweating). Cold induced vasoconstriction increases blood pressure and viscosity and decreases plasma volume consequently increasing cardiac work. Cold induced hypertensive response can be counteracted by light exercise, while starting heavy work in cold markedly increases blood pressure. Under very cold conditions the sympathetic stimulation opens the anastomoses between arterioles and venules which increases skin temperatures markedly but temporarily, especially in finger tips. Adaptation to cold takes ca. 2 weeks, whereafter the physiological responses to cold are attenuated and cold exposure is subjectively considered less stressful. PMID:17929604

  8. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  9. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  10. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  11. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  12. 7 CFR 360.300 - General prohibitions and restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of noxious weeds; permits. 360.300 Section 360.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.300 General prohibitions and restrictions on the movement of noxious weeds; permits. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  14. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  15. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  16. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  17. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  18. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  19. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  20. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  1. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  2. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  3. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  4. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  5. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  6. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  7. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. 201.17... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.17 Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia. (a) Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia are: Quackgrass (Elytrigia...

  8. 7 CFR 360.501 - Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.501 Petitions to remove a taxon from the noxious weed lists. A person may petition the Administrator to remove...

  9. 7 CFR 360.302 - Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weeds. 360.302 Section 360.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.302 Consideration of applications for permits to move noxious weeds. Upon the receipt of an application made...

  10. 7 CFR 360.301 - Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... move noxious weeds. 360.301 Section 360.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.301 Information required for applications for permits to move noxious weeds. (a) Permit to...

  11. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  12. Differentiating hemodynamic responses in rat primary somatosensory cortex during non-noxious and noxious electrical stimulation by optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Weihua; Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Shangbin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2007-02-16

    Nociception in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex remains in need of further elucidation. The spatiotemporal comparison on changes of the cerebral blood volume evoked by graded peripheral electrical stimulation was performed in rat contralateral somatosensory cortex with optical intrinsic signal imaging (OISI, optical reflectance at 550 nm). Non-noxious electrical stimulus was applied with 5 Hz pulses (0.5 ms peak duration) for 2 s at the threshold current for muscle twitch, while noxious stimulus was delivered at currents of 10x and 20x amplitude of the predetermined threshold. Although the dimensions of peak response defined in the spatial domain (cerebral blood volume increase) in the S1 cortex presented no significant difference under non-/noxious stimuli, its early response component (about 1 s after stimulation onset) revealed by OISI technique was suggested to differentiate the loci of activated cortical region due to different stimulation in this study. The magnitude and duration of the optical intrinsic signal (OIS) response was found increasing with the varying stimulus intensity. Regions activated by the delivery of a noxious stimulus were surrounded by a ring of inverted optical intrinsic signal, the amplitude of that was inversely proportional to the strength of the optical signal attributable to activation. Intense stimuli significantly augmented the inverted optical signal in magnitude and spatial extent. These results indicated that noxious stimulation evoked different response patterns in the contralateral S1 cortex. The magnitude-dependent inverted optical signal might contribute to the differentiation of nociceptive input in the S1 cortex. PMID:17196176

  13. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    PubMed

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space. PMID:26348194

  14. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. PMID:23707679

  15. [Burning oral sensation: when is really BMS?].

    PubMed

    Spadari, Fracesco; Garagiola, Umberto; Dzsida, Eszter; Azzi, Lorenzo; Kálmán, Fanni Sára

    2015-12-01

    The aims and purposes of this systematic review of the international literature are to discuss and clarify some considerations on Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Over the last 40 years, many researchers have addressed this disease clinically or experimentally. Thus, the etiology and pathogenesis of BMS remain unclear. We analyzed the etiopathogenesis of Burning Mouth Syndrome and of the burning oral sensation and currently, we could not find a consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of BMS, and a "Gold Standard" classification is required because not every burning sensation in the mouth is BMS. PMID:26863819

  16. Race, ethnicity, and noxious facilities: Environmental racism re- examined

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, A.L. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    The charge has been made that hazardous facilities tend to be located in proximity to minority populations. This study uses a facility density measure for three categories of noxious facilities to examine the relationship between facilities and minority population concentrations. County-level data are used in a correlation analysis for African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians in the four major regions of the US. Even controlling for income and housing value, and limiting the data set to urban areas, consistent patterns of moderate to strong association of facility densities with minority population percentages are found.

  17. Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu

    1998-12-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described. Sulfur dioxide dissolved in water is detected using an acid-base indicator, decolorizing of anthocyanin, or reduction of permanganate. The SO2 is generated by addition of sulfite or bisulfite to a strong acid or by the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid to sugars. Nitrogen dioxide is generated by mixing copper and nitric acid and detected using an acid-base indicator.

  18. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  19. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  20. "The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

  1. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  2. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  3. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  4. 7 CFR 360.304 - Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. 360.304 Section 360.304 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.304 Denial of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; cancelation of a permit to move a noxious weed. (a) The Administrator may deny...

  5. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  6. In vivo responses of cutaneous C-mechanosensitive neurons in mouse to punctate chemical stimuli that elicit itch and nociceptive sensations in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ma, C.; Nie, H.; Gu, Q.; Sikand, P.

    2012-01-01

    Native cowhage spicules, and heat-inactivated spicules containing histamine or capsaicin, evoke similar sensations of itch and nociceptive sensations in humans. In ongoing studies of the peripheral neural mechanisms of chemical itch and pain in the mouse, extracellular electrophysiological recordings were obtained, in vivo, from the cell bodies of mechanosensitive nociceptive neurons in response to spicule stimuli delivered to their cutaneous receptive fields (RFs) on the distal hindlimb. A total of 43 mechanosensitive, cutaneous, nociceptive neurons with axonal conduction velocities in the C-fiber range (C-nociceptors) were classified as CM if responsive to noxious mechanical stimuli, such as pinch, or CMH if responsive to noxious mechanical and heat stimuli (51°C, 5 s). The tips of native cowhage spicules, or heat-inactivated spicules containing histamine or capsaicin, were applied to the RF. Heat-inactivated spicules containing no chemical produced only a transient response occurring during insertion. Of the 43 mechanosensitive nociceptors recorded, 20 of the 25 CMHs responded to capsaicin, and of these, 13 also responded to cowhage and/or histamine. In contrast, none of the 18 CMs responded to any of the chemical stimuli. The time course of the mean discharge rate of CMHs was similar in response to each type of spicule and generally similar, although reaching a peak earlier, to the temporal profiles of itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by the same stimuli in humans. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the itch and nociceptive sensations evoked by these punctuate chemical stimuli are mediated at least in part by the activity of mechanoheat-sensitive C-nociceptors. In contrast, activity in mechanosensitive C-nociceptors that do not respond to heat or to pruritic chemicals is hypothesized as contributing to pain but not to itch. PMID:21994268

  7. Characterization of Deqi Sensation and Acupuncture Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing-Yue; Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), deqi experienced by patients is often described as suan (aching or soreness), ma (numbness or tingling), zhang (fullness, distention, or pressure), and zhong (heaviness) and is felt by the acupuncturists (needle grasping) as tense, tight, and full. It is believed that deqi may be an important variable in the studies of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment. In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand deqi, which include a couple of questionnaires to qualify and quantify deqi sensations, neuroimaging studies of deqi and acupuncture, physiological mechanisms of deqi, and the relation between deqi and clinical efficacy. However, many problems need to be resolved, and more researches are required to be made in the future. PMID:23864884

  8. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  9. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  10. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  11. 46 CFR 125.120 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bulk in integral tanks or fixed independent tanks must— (1) Meet the definition of oceangoing in 33 CFR... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. 125.120... GENERAL § 125.120 Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk. (a) Except as provided by this...

  12. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate should not be listed as a Federal noxious weed and... tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate, as Federal noxious weeds. On May 13, 2003, APHIS responded to the... genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate as well as non-herbicide-tolerant...

  13. TRPA1 mediates the noxious effects of natural sesquiterpene deterrents.

    PubMed

    Escalera, Jasmine; von Hehn, Christian A; Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2008-08-29

    Plants, fungi, and animals generate a diverse array of deterrent natural products that induce avoidance behavior in biological adversaries. The largest known chemical family of deterrents are terpenes characterized by reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated dialdehyde moieties, including the drimane sesquiterpenes and other terpene species. Deterrent sesquiterpenes are potent activators of mammalian peripheral chemosensory neurons, causing pain and neurogenic inflammation. Despite their wide-spread synthesis and medicinal use as desensitizing analgesics, their molecular targets remain unknown. Here we show that isovelleral, a noxious fungal sesquiterpene, excites sensory neurons through activation of TPRA1, an ion channel involved in inflammatory pain signaling. TRPA1 is also activated by polygodial, a drimane sesquiterpene synthesized by plants and animals. TRPA1-deficient mice show greatly reduced nocifensive behavior in response to isovelleral, indicating that TRPA1 is the major receptor for deterrent sesquiterpenes in vivo. Isovelleral and polygodial represent the first fungal and animal small molecule agonists of nociceptive transient receptor potential channels. PMID:18550530

  14. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Qi; Ye, Lin-Lan; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Qi, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Jia-Di; Wang, Gang; Farhan, Ulah-Khan; Waqas, Nawaz; Chen, Ding-Ding; Han, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Hui

    2016-06-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products, including gingerol, a main active constituent of ginger. Ginger could improve the digestive function; however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated. In the present study, gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium. TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPA1-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies. The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA. Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion. The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red, EGTA, and TRPA1-specific siRNA. In summary, our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. PMID:27473961

  15. A TRPA1-dependent mechanism for the pungent sensation of weak acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan Y; Chang, Rui B; Allgood, Sallie D; Silver, Wayne L; Liman, Emily R

    2011-06-01

    Acetic acid produces an irritating sensation that can be attributed to activation of nociceptors within the trigeminal ganglion that innervate the nasal or oral cavities. These sensory neurons sense a diverse array of noxious agents in the environment, allowing animals to actively avoid tissue damage. Although receptor mechanisms have been identified for many noxious chemicals, the mechanisms by which animals detect weak acids, such as acetic acid, are less well understood. Weak acids are only partially dissociated at neutral pH and, as such, some can cross the cell membrane, acidifying the cell cytosol. The nociceptor ion channel TRPA1 is activated by CO(2), through gating of the channel by intracellular protons, making it a candidate to more generally mediate sensory responses to weak acids. To test this possibility, we measured responses to weak acids from heterologously expressed TRPA1 channels and trigeminal neurons with patch clamp recording and Ca(2+) microfluorometry. Our results show that heterologously expressed TRPA1 currents can be induced by a series of weak organic acids, including acetic, propionic, formic, and lactic acid, but not by strong acids. Notably, the degree of channel activation was predicted by the degree of intracellular acidification produced by each acid, suggesting that intracellular protons are the proximate stimulus that gates the channel. Responses to weak acids produced a Ca(2+)-independent inactivation that precluded further activation by weak acids or reactive chemicals, whereas preactivation by reactive electrophiles sensitized TRPA1 channels to weak acids. Importantly, responses of trigeminal neurons to weak acids were highly overrepresented in the subpopulation of TRPA1-expressing neurons and were severely reduced in neurons from TRPA1 knockout mice. We conclude that TRPA1 is a general sensor for weak acids that produce intracellular acidification and suggest that it functions within the pain pathway to mediate sensitivity to

  16. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  17. 77 FR 3729 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Pest, Noxious...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Plant Pest, Noxious Weed, and Garbage Regulations AGENCY: Animal and... information collection associated with plant pest, noxious weed, and garbage regulations. DATES: We will...: For information regarding plant pest, noxious weed, and garbage regulations, contact Dr. Shirley...

  18. Not in whose backyard Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people's reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  19. Not in whose backyard? Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-04-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  20. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  1. Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

  2. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Alexander R.; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological – reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  3. Method for cleansing noxious constituents from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, D.J.; Schauer, J.M.

    1982-05-18

    An apparatus and method for chemically altering and scrubbing the noxious constituents from foundry core manufacturing and arc welding operations is disclosed. An upstanding closed container is provided and a gas washing liquid is disposed within the container to a predetermined level. A horizontal baffle is mounted stationarily within the container at an elevation spaced above the level of the gas washing liquid therein and spaced peripheral portions of the baffle are spaced inwardly of the opposing inner surface of the container. A gas drive pipe extends into the container, downwardly past the baffle , and opens downwardly in a central lower portion of the container, below the baffle and near the bottom of the liquid. The container includes a top cover and an outlet duct is provided which opens outwardly of the container through a central portion of the cover. The gases are pumped into the drive pipe to achieve a critical velocity at the exit of the drive pipe of about 2, 300-20,000 linear feet per minu entering the liquid in a substantially vertical downward direction within the critical velocity range, small gascontaining bubbles, on the order of 1/8 - 3/8 inches in diameter, are formed as the gas stream rises, which bubbles impact against the horizontal baffle. The high velocity gases impart sufficient kinetic energy to the system to enable the necessary chemical reactions and scrubbing to proceed.

  4. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin.

    PubMed

    Burton, Alexander R; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological - reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  5. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = −.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  6. Impaired diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature-stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Itomi, Yasuo; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. A hypofunction in descending pain inhibitory systems is considered to be involved in the chronic pain of fibromyalgia. We examined functional changes in descending pain inhibitory systems in rats with specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART) stress, by measuring the strength of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). Hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical von Frey filament or fiber-specific electrical stimuli by the Neurometer system were used to measure the pain response. To induce DNIC, capsaicin was injected into the intraplantar of the forepaw. SART-stressed rats were established by exposure to repeated cold stress for 4 days. In the control rats, heterotopic intraplantar capsaicin injection increased withdrawal threshold, indicative of analgesia by DNIC. The strength of DNIC was reduced by naloxone (μ-opioid receptor antagonist, intraperitoneally and intracerebroventricularly), yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, intrathecally), and WAY-100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, intrathecally) in the von Frey test. In SART-stressed rats, capsaicin injection did not increase withdrawal threshold in the von Frey test, indicating deficits in DNIC. In the Neurometer test, deficient DNIC in SART-stressed rats were observed only for Aδ- and C-fibers, but not Aβ-fibers stimulation. Analgesic effect of intracerebroventricular morphine was markedly reduced in SART-stressed rats compared with the control rats. Taken together, in SART-stressed rats, capsaicin-induced DNIC were deficient, and a hypofunction of opioid-mediated central pain modulation system may cause the DNIC deficit. PMID:27178898

  7. A comparison of noxious facilities` impacts for home owners versus renters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The siting of noxious facilities, such as hazardous waste facilities, is often vigorously opposed by local residents, and thus it is now common for local residents to be compensated for the presence of the facility. One technique that has been employed to implicitly value noxious facilities is the intercity hedonic approach, which examines the wage and land rent premia between cities that result from the presence of the facility. However, most of the focus has been on the behavior of home owners as opposed to renters. Since these two groups of residents vary on numerous dimensions such as marital status, age, sex, and personal mobility, it would not be surprising to find different marginal valuations of local site characteristics. The authors use 1980 Census data to derive separate estimates for owners and renters of the implicit value placed on eight different types of noxious facilities. They find that renters and owners differ in their response to noxious facilities, although the differences are not systematic. Furthermore, the differences between owners and renters are not primarily due to differential mobility or socio-demographic factors. Controlling those factors decreases the differences between renters` and owners` implicit valuations of noxious facilities by less than 10%. Unmeasured differences between the two groups, such as tastes, risk aversion, or commitment to the community, must account for the remaining difference in valuations. These findings suggest that policymakers should separately consider the responses of owners and renters when estimating noxious facility impacts.

  8. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  9. The Effects of Sensation Seeking and Misattribution of Arousal on Attraction toward Similar or Dissimilar Strangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the prediction that individual differences in sensation seeking moderate the relationship between attitudinal similarity and attraction. Results showed high sensation seekers were more attracted than low sensation seekers to dissimilar others, whereas low sensation seekers were more attracted than high sensation seekers to people with…

  10. Large Intercalated Neurons of Amygdala Relay Noxious Sensory Information

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Thomas C.M.; Busti, Daniela; Micklem, Benjamin R.; Mansouri, Mahnaz; Magill, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Various GABAergic neuron types of the amygdala cooperate to control principal cell firing during fear-related and other behaviors, and understanding their specialized roles is important. Among GABAergic neurons, the so-called intercalated cells (ITCcs) are critically involved in the expression and extinction of fear memory. Tightly clustered small-sized spiny neurons constitute the majority of ITCcs, but they are surrounded by sparse, larger neurons (L-ITCcs) for which very little information is known. We report here a detailed neurochemical, structural and physiological characterization of rat L-ITCcs, as identified with juxtacellular recording/labeling in vivo. We supplement these data with anatomical and neurochemical analyses of nonrecorded L-ITCcs. We demonstrate that L-ITCcs are GABAergic, and strongly express metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α and GABAA receptor α1 subunit, together with moderate levels of parvalbumin. Furthermore, L-ITCcs are innervated by fibers enriched with metabotropic glutamate receptors 7a and/or 8a. In contrast to small-sized spiny ITCcs, L-ITCcs possess thick, aspiny dendrites, have highly branched, long-range axonal projections, and innervate interneurons in the basolateral amygdaloid complex. The axons of L-ITCcs also project to distant brain areas, such as the perirhinal, entorhinal, and endopiriform cortices. In vivo recorded L-ITCcs are strongly activated by noxious stimuli, such as hindpaw pinches or electrical footshocks. Consistent with this, we observed synaptic contacts on L-ITCc dendrites from nociceptive intralaminar thalamic nuclei. We propose that, during salient sensory stimulation, L-ITCcs disinhibit local and distant principal neurons, acting as “hub cells,” to orchestrate the activity of a distributed network. PMID:25653362

  11. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  12. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  13. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  14. 7 CFR 360.303 - Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed; conditions specified in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noxious weed; conditions specified in permit. 360.303 Section 360.303 Agriculture Regulations of the... NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.303 Approval of an application for a permit to move a noxious weed... noxious weed. If the application is approved, the Administrator will issue the permit including...

  15. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  16. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    PubMed

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  17. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  18. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  19. A sensate liner for personnel monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Eric J.; Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Park, Ms. Sungmee; Rajamanickam, Rangaswamy; Eisler, Robert, , Dr.; Burghart, Mr. George; McKee, Mr. Tony

    This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed.

  20. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  1. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerance is an abnormal sensitivity to a cold environment or cold temperatures. ... can be a symptom of a problem with metabolism. Some people (often very thin women) do not tolerate cold environments because they have very little body fat and ...

  2. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  3. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  4. The effect of heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation on Aδ-, C- and Aβ-fibre brain responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Torta, Diana M; Churyukanov, Maxim V; Plaghki, Leon; Mouraux, André

    2015-11-01

    Human studies have shown that heterotopic nociceptive conditioning stimulation (HNCS) applied to a given body location reduces the percept and brain responses elicited by noxious test stimuli delivered at a remote body location. It remains unclear to what extent this effect of HNCS relies on the spinal-bulbar-spinal loop mediating the effect of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) described in animals, and/or on top-down cortical mechanisms modulating nociception. Importantly, some studies have examined the effects of HNCS on the brain responses to nociceptive input conveyed by Aδ-fibres. In contrast, no studies have explored the effects of HNCS on the responses to selective nociceptive C-fibre input and non-nociceptive Aβ-fibre input. In this study, we measured the intensity of perception and event-related potentials (ERPs) to stimuli activating Aδ-, C- and Aβ-fibres, before, during and after HNCS, obtained by immersing one foot in painful cold water. We observed that (i) the perceived intensity of nociceptive Aδ- and C-stimuli was reduced during HNCS, and (ii) the ERPs elicited by Aδ- and Aβ- and C-stimuli were also reduced during HNCS. Importantly, because Aβ-ERPs are related to primary afferents that ascend directly through the dorsal columns without being relayed at spinal level, the modulation of these responses may not be explained by an influence of descending projections modulating the transmission of nociceptive input at spinal level. Therefore, our results indicate that, in humans, HNCS should be used with caution as a direct measure of DNIC-related mechanisms. PMID:26369522

  5. Sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts. PMID:18422419

  6. Viewing the body modulates both pain sensations and pain responses.

    PubMed

    Beck, Brianna; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Viewing the body can influence pain perception, even when vision is non-informative about the noxious stimulus. Prior studies used either continuous pain rating scales or pain detection thresholds, which cannot distinguish whether viewing the body changes the discriminability of noxious heat intensities or merely shifts reported pain levels. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated two intensities of heat-pain stimulation. Noxious stimuli were delivered to the hand in darkness immediately after participants viewed either their own hand or a non-body object appearing in the same location. The visual condition varied randomly between trials. Discriminability of the noxious heat intensities (d') was lower after viewing the hand than after viewing the object, indicating that viewing the hand reduced the information about stimulus intensity available within the nociceptive system. In Experiment 2, the hand and the object were presented in separate blocks of trials. Viewing the hand shifted perceived pain levels irrespective of actual stimulus intensity, biasing responses toward 'high pain' judgments. In Experiment 3, participants saw the noxious stimulus as it approached and touched their hand or the object. Seeing the pain-inducing event counteracted the reduction in discriminability found when viewing the hand alone. These findings show that viewing the body can affect both perceptual processing of pain and responses to pain, depending on the visual context. Many factors modulate pain; our study highlights the importance of distinguishing modulations of perceptual processing from modulations of response bias. PMID:26884131

  7. Ernst Mach and the episode of the monocular depth sensations.

    PubMed

    Banks, E C

    2001-01-01

    Although Ernst Mach is widely recognized in psychology for his discovery of the effects of lateral inhibition in the retina ("Mach Bands"), his contributions to the theory of depth perception are not as well known. Mach proposed that steady luminance gradients triggered sensations of depth. He also expanded on Ewald Hering's hypothesis of "monocular depth sensations," arguing that they were subject to the same principle of lateral inhibition as light sensations were. Even after Hermann von Helmholtz's attack on Hering in 1866, Mach continued to develop theories involving the monocular depth sensations, proposing an explanation of perspective drawings in which the mutually inhibiting depth sensations scaled to a mean depth. Mach also contemplated a theory of stereopsis in which monocular depth perception played the primary role. PMID:11596069

  8. Cold Transiently Activates Calcium-Permeable Channels in Arabidopsis Mesophyll Cells1[W

    PubMed Central

    Carpaneto, Armando; Ivashikina, Natalya; Levchenko, Victor; Krol, Elzbieta; Jeworutzki, Elena; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Hedrich, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Living organisms are capable of discriminating thermal stimuli from noxious cold to noxious heat. For more than 30 years, it has been known that plant cells respond to cold with a large and transient depolarization. Recently, using transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the calcium-sensitive protein aequorin, an increase in cytosolic calcium following cold treatment was observed. Applying the patch-clamp technique to Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we could identify a transient plasma membrane conductance induced by rapid cooling. This cold-induced transient conductance was characterized as an outward rectifying 33 pS nonselective cation channel. The permeability ratio between calcium and cesium was 0.7, pointing to a permeation pore >3.34 Å (ø of cesium). Our experiments thus provide direct evidence for the predicted but not yet measured cold-activated calcium-permeable channel in plants. PMID:17114272

  9. Changes in the Bispectral Index in Response to Experimental Noxious Stimuli in Adults under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robin Marie; Gélinas, Céline; Choinière, Manon; Parenteau-Goudreault, Elizabeth; Bourgault, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pain assessment is a major challenge in nonverbal patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent studies suggest a relationship between the Bispectral Index (BIS) and nociceptive stimuli. This study was designed to examine changes in BIS in response to experimental noxious stimuli. Methods. Thirty participants under general anesthesia were in this quasiexperimental, within subject, pre- and poststudy. In the operating room (OR), BIS was monitored during moderate and severe noxious stimuli, induced by a thermal probe on the participants' forearm, after induction of general anesthesia, prior to surgery. Results. Significant increases in BIS occurred during moderate (increase from 35.00 to 40.00, P = 0.003) and severe noxious stimuli (increase from 37.67 to 40.00, P = 0.007). ROC showed a sensitivity (Se) of 40.0% and a specificity (Sp) of 73.3% at a BIS value > 45, in distinguishing a moderate from a severe noxious stimuli. Conclusion. BIS increased in response to moderate and severe noxious stimuli. The Se and Sp of the BIS did not support the use of the BIS for distinction of different pain intensities in the context of deep sedation in the OR. However, the results justify further studies in more lightly sedated patients such as those in the ICU. PMID:27335878

  10. Sensation and experience of pain in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Y

    1993-04-01

    The study explored children's self-assessment of the pain experience and to understood the relative factors that influence the words used to represent children's pain. Using an outline of a human figure and a section of the open questionnaire to study, 106 nine- to sixteen-year-old children marked their pain location using colors to represent pain. They rated the intensity and duration of their pain, and described their experience of pain (sensation, causes, and ways to manage pain). The results showed that children clearly described pain, that there were appreciable differences between feelings of headache, leg pain, backache, and shoulder pain with pain intensity and duration of pain; that explained the difference of occurrence of abdominal pain in cross effect between age and sex; that explained the difference of the occurrence of toothache in cross effect among triangle of hospitalized experience, age, and sex; that there was significant relationship between abdominal pain and family structure. For severe abdominal pain or toothache the children could ask doctors for pain relief. For the others, they could take medication or rest for their middle or mild abdominal pain. The ways to manage leg pain were injection and massage. Change of position was applied to relieve backache. From the children's self-reports, we understand that causes of children's pain were derived from bad sleep, food, decayed teeth, exercising, and hitting. Pain avoidance is best achieved by accident prevention, cultivation of good health habits, and integration of daily living skills. PMID:8320754

  11. Ionic basis of cold receptors acting as thermostats.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Makoto; Takao, Keizo; Hori, Aiko; Shiraki, Takuma; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2002-05-15

    When temperature (T) of skin decreases stepwise, cold fibers evoke transient afferent discharges, inducing cold sensation and heat-gain responses. Hence we have proposed that cold receptors at distal ends of cold fibers are thermostats to regulate skin T against cold. Here, with patch-clamp techniques, we studied the ionic basis of cold receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats, as a model of nerve endings. Cells that increased cytosolic Ca(2+) level in response to moderate cooling were identified as neurons with cold receptors. In whole-cell current-clamp recordings of these cells, in response to cooling, cold receptors evoked a dynamic receptor potential (RP), eliciting impulses briefly. In voltage-clamp recordings (-60 mV), step cooling induced an inward cold current (I(cold)) with inactivation, underlying the dynamic RP. Ca(2+) ions that entered into cells from extracellular side induced the inactivation. Analysis of the reversal potential implied that I(cold) was nonselective cation current with high Ca(2+) permeability. Threshold temperatures of cooling-induced Ca(2+) response and I(cold) were different primarily among cells. In outside-out patches, when T decreased, single nonselective cation channels became active at a critical T. This implies that a cold receptor is an ion channel and acts as the smallest thermostat. Because these thermal properties were consistent with that in cold fibers, we conclude that the same cold receptors exist at nerve endings and generate afferent impulses for cold sensation and heat-gain behaviors in response to cold. PMID:12019319

  12. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  13. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  14. Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, D; Mayer, P; Gries, F A

    1988-01-01

    Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold pain perception thresholds (thenar eminence) were significantly elevated in the patients as compared with the controls (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001). No significant differences in thermal discrimination (thenar), heat and cold pain perception (foot), and metacarpal as well as malleolar vibration perception thresholds were noted between the groups. The rates of abnormalities among the individual tests ranged from 0% to 27.5%, being lowest for vibration perception and highest for thermal perception thresholds after cold stimuli. The results in nine of 12 tests correlated significantly with age, but only two were related to HbA1c. Thus, sensory neural functions transmitted by small fibres, but not those transmitted by large fibres, were impaired in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetics after the correction of initial ketosis and hyperglycaemia. Cooling perception tests were most sensitive in detecting abnormality. An age-related involvement of different small fibre functions was present in these patients. PMID:3236020

  15. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  16. Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha. PMID:23935663

  17. Dizziness and Balance Problems in Kids: Spinning Sensations and Unsteadiness

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Dizziness and Balance Problems in Kids Spinning Sensations and Unsteadiness Most ... life, it could be a sign of a balance disorder. Most balance problems are temporary and easy ...

  18. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  19. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  20. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  1. Should We Use Colours as Symbolic Representations of Hot and Cold?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeao; Sampaio e Sousa, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    People usually talk about "hot and cold" colours without really thinking of the impact these definitions may have on scientific understanding. These colours are associated with the human sensations of hot and cold, and this idea is consistent with commonsense and daily experience. Interacting with students, we detect conceptual conflicts when they…

  2. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  3. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  4. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  5. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  6. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... institutions in surveillance of pesticides spray programs; and (3) State cattle and sheep sanitary or...

  7. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means. PMID:8049001

  8. The Effects of Noxious Subliminal Suggestion upon Smoking Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutto, Franklin N.; Galli, Nicholas

    The efforts of smoking cessation programs have met with various degrees of success and fresh approaches to the problem are needed. An innovative technique that interrupts the psychogenic drives of smokers was employed to determine the effect of noxious subliminal suggestion on smoking attitudes and behavior. Adult smokers (N=60) were shown…

  9. Manganese-enhanced MR imaging of brain activation evoked by noxious peripheral electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Myeounghoon; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Chulhyun; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Cheong, Chaejoon; Sohn, Jin-Hun; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2016-02-01

    As imaging technology develops, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has furthered our understanding of brain function by clarifying the anatomical structure and generating functional imaging data related to information processing in pain conditions. Recent studies have reported that manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides valuable information about the functions of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to identify specific brain regions activated during noxious electric stimulation using high-resolution MEMRI. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: naïve, sham electrical stimulation, and noxious electric stimulation. Under urethane with α-chloralose mixture anesthesia, a catheter was placed in the external carotid artery to administrate 20% mannitol and manganese chloride (25mM MnCl2). Noxious electric stimulation (2Hz, 10V) was applied to the hind paw with a needle electrode. Stimulation-induced neuronal activation was detected using 4.7-T MRI. In response to noxious electrical stimulation, remarkable Mn(2+)-enhanced signals were observed in the agranular insular cortex, auditory cortex, primary somatosensory cortex of the hind limb, and granular and dysgranular insular cortex, which correspond to sensory tactile electric stimulus to the hindpaws. These results indicate that the combination of MEMRI with activity-induced Mn(2+)-dependent contrast can delineate functional areas in the rat brain. PMID:26733299

  10. Aversion-related Circuitry in the Cerebellum: Responses to Noxious Heat and Unpleasant Images

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric A.; Elman, Igor; Pendse, Gautam; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    The cerebellum is reliably activated during both acute and chronic pain conditions, but it is unclear if the response to aversive painful stimuli can be generalized to other aversive stimuli. We hypothesized that cerebellar activation during pain reflects higher-level encoding of aversive stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare cerebellar responses in 11 healthy volunteers to noxious heat (46°C) applied to the hand and to the passive viewing of images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Aversive stimuli in the form of noxious heat and unpleasant pictures (unpleasant vs. neutral) activated overlapping areas in the posterior cerebellum, specifically in hemispheric lobule VI, Crus I, and VIIb. Pleasant pictures (pleasant vs. neutral) did not share the same pattern of activation as observed with the aversive stimuli. Cerebellar areas that showed functional overlap with both heat pain and unpleasant picture viewing were significantly inversely correlated with fMRI signals measured in limbic system structures, including the anterior hypothalamus, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and the parahippocampal gyrus. Heat specific functional connectivity was detected in many regions including primary motor cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, and the periaqueductal gray. The overlap between cerebellar lobuli reactive to noxious heat and passive viewing of unpleasant images suggest that the cerebellum may contain specific regions involved in encoding generalized aversive processing. The separate cortical networks suggest that noxious heat evoked responses in the cerebellum can be divided into sensorimotor and emotional networks. PMID:21389234

  11. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  12. 75 FR 23151 - Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... published at 74 FR 53397-53400 on October 19, 2009. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Alan V. Tasker... interim rule that amended 7 CFR parts 360 and 361 and that was published at 74 FR 53397-53400 on October... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 360 and 361 Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair...

  13. Prolonged noxious mechanical stimulation of the rat's tail: responses and encoding properties of dorsal horn neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Cervero, F; Handwerker, H O; Laird, J M

    1988-01-01

    1. Single-unit electrical activity has been recorded from dorsal horn neurones in the sacral (S1-S2) segments of the spinal cord of barbiturate-anaesthetized rats. Fifty-two neurones responding to a manually applied pinch of their receptive fields in the tail were selected. They were subsequently tested for their responses to four successive 2 min pinches at noxious intensities delivered by a feed-back-controlled mechanical device. 2. Neurones were tested with both innocuous (i.e. brushing and stroking) and noxious (i.e. pinching, pin-prick, and in some cases heating about 45 degrees C) stimulation of their cutaneous receptive fields. Three of the tested cells were driven exclusively by innocuous skin stimulation (mechanoreceptive or class 1), thirty-six were driven by both innocuous and noxious skin stimulation (multireceptive or class 2) and thirteen were driven exclusively by noxious skin stimulation (nocireceptive or class 3). 3. All of the multireceptive and nocireceptive neurones responded to the 2 min noxious pinch with an initial phasic discharge followed by sustained firing that showed little evidence of adaptation throughout the stimulus period. The three mechanoreceptive neurones responded to the 2 min noxious pinch with a short discharge at the stimulus onset, but were silent for the remainder of the stimulus period. 4. Thirty-one cells were tested with successive 2 min pinches of 4, 6 and 8 N (and in some cases, a further 4 N pinch) applied at 10 min intervals. Different encoding properties were observed during the sustained part of the neuronal response according to: (i) the afferent fibre input characteristics of the cell; (ii) whether or not the tail had received a test series of pinches earlier in the same experiment. 5. None of the multireceptive cells with only an A-fibre afferent input encoded the stimulus strength. However, the multireceptive cells with both an A- and a C-fibre afferent input and all nocireceptive cells did encode the stimulus

  14. A psychophysiological study in humans using phasic colonic distension as a noxious visceral stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ness, T J; Metcalf, A M; Gebhart, G F

    1990-12-01

    Psychophysiological experiments were performed in 9 humans using constant-pressure, phasic, graded distention (30 sec, 20-70 mm Hg) of the sigmoid colon as a visceral stimulus. Reliable cardiovascular (pressor), respiratory and visceromotor responses in addition to reports of pressure/pain sensations were evoked by colonic distension in 8 of the 9 subjects. The pressure/pain sensations were referred to the lower abdomen, lower back and perineum and their intensity quantified using a visual analogue scale. Responses to colonic distension were graded and increased with repeated distensions at the same intensity (60 mm Hg). The area of referral as indicated by subject drawings increased with repeated distensions as did the intensity of the subjects' sensory and affective descriptors of the sensation. Five of the subjects differentiated between 'pressure' and 'pain' sensations evoked by colonic distension; the intensity of the 'pain' sensation accelerated during the distending stimulus whereas the 'pressure' sensation was typically stable or adapting during the distending stimulus. PMID:2293146

  15. A comparison of noxious facilities` impacts for home owners versus renters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1996-09-01

    The siting of noxious facilities, such as hazardous waste facilities, is often vigorously opposed by local residents. As a result, one would expect people`s residential and employment choices to reflect a desire to avoid proximity to such facilities. Ibis behavior would in turn affect labor and housing prices. One technique that has been employed to implicitly value impacts of noxious facilities is the intercity hedonic approach, which examines the wage and land rent differentials among cities that result from environmental amenities and disamenities. However, most of the research focus has been on the behavioral response of home owners as opposed to renters. Since these two groups of residents vary on numerous dimensions such as marital status, age, sex, and personal mobility, it would not be surprising to find different marginal valuations of local site characteristics. We use 1980 Census data to derive separate estimates for owners and renters of the implicit value placed on eight different types of noxious facilities. Although the magnitude of the responses of renters and owners to noxious facilities and other environmental characteristics varies, the signs are generally consistent. The differences in values between owners and renters are not primarily due to differential mobility or sociodemographic factors. Controlling those factors decreases the differences between renters` and owners` implicit valuations by less than 10%. Unmeasured differences in characteristics between the two groups, such as tastes, risk aversion, or commitment to the community, must account for the remaining difference in valuations. These findings suggest that policymakers should separately consider the responses of owners and renters when estimating noxious facility impacts.

  16. Heat and noxious chemical sensor, chicken TRPA1, as a target of bird repellents and identification of its structural determinants by multispecies functional comparison.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Banzawa, Nagako; Fukuta, Naomi; Saito, Claire T; Takahashi, Kenji; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Ohta, Toshio; Tominaga, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    Nociceptive receptors enable animals to sense tissue-damaging stimuli, thus playing crucial roles in survival. Due to evolutionary diversification, responses of nociceptive receptors to specific stimuli can vary among species. Multispecies functional comparisons of nociceptive receptors help elucidate their evolutionary process and molecular basis for activation. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel serves as a nociceptive receptor for chemical and thermal stimuli that is heat-activated in reptiles and frogs while potentially cold-activated in rodents. Here, we characterized channel properties of avian TRPA1 in chicken. Chicken TRPA1 was activated by noxious chemicals that also activate TRPA1 in other vertebrates. Regarding thermal sensitivity, chicken TRPA1 was activated by heat stimulation, but not cold, thus thermal sensitivity of avian TRPA1 does not coincide with rodent TRPA1, although both are homeotherms. Furthermore, in chicken sensory neurons, TRPA1 was highly coexpressed with TRPV1, another nociceptive heat and chemical receptor, similar to mammals and frogs. These results suggest that TRPA1 acted as a noxious chemical and heat receptor, and was coexpressed with TRPV1 in the ancestral terrestrial vertebrate. The acquisition of TRPV1 as a novel heat receptor in the ancestral terrestrial vertebrate is likely to have affected the functional evolution of TRPA1 regarding thermal sensitivity and led to the diversification among diverse vertebrate species. Additionally, we found for the first time that chicken TRPA1 is activated by methyl anthranilate (MA) and its structurally related chemicals used as nonlethal bird repellents. MA-induced responses were abolished by a TRPA1 antagonist in somatosensory neurons, indicating that TRPA1 acts as a MA receptor in chicken. Furthermore, TRPA1 responses to MA varied among five diverse vertebrate species. Utilizing species diversity and mutagenesis experiments, three amino acids were identified

  17. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men) received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu), LU7 (liéque), and LR3 (táichong); once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS), and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale"). Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67), intensity (p-value = 0.71) and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98). In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a product of non

  18. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task. PMID:26870943

  19. Where is hidden the ghost in phantom sensations?

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The term phantom sensations (PS) refers to sensations in a missing body part. They are almost universal in amputees and can be both painful and not painful. Although PS have been frequently described in limb amputees, they can also occur in other clinical conditions and several pathophysiological interpretations have been proposed, with a predominance of theories based on a central origin. Actually, different mechanisms are able to create a phantom sensation. After an amputation, PS are frequently generated by the genesis of ectopic action potentials in the interrupted nerve fibers but the PS generator can also be more proximal. Sometimes PS are not created by the stimulation of somatosensory fibers with a missing territory, but they can be the result of central sensitization or neuroplastic changes that allow for the convergence of impulses coming from different body parts (referred sensations), one of which is missing. In conclusion, PS can be generated by both neuropathic and non-neuropathic mechanisms developed in the amputated body part or in other parts of the nervous system. Since these mechanisms are not pathognomonic of amputation there are no hidden ghosts to look for in phantom sensations. The only interpretative rule is just to follow the pathophysiological principles. PMID:26244147

  20. Where is hidden the ghost in phantom sensations?

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2015-07-16

    The term phantom sensations (PS) refers to sensations in a missing body part. They are almost universal in amputees and can be both painful and not painful. Although PS have been frequently described in limb amputees, they can also occur in other clinical conditions and several pathophysiological interpretations have been proposed, with a predominance of theories based on a central origin. Actually, different mechanisms are able to create a phantom sensation. After an amputation, PS are frequently generated by the genesis of ectopic action potentials in the interrupted nerve fibers but the PS generator can also be more proximal. Sometimes PS are not created by the stimulation of somatosensory fibers with a missing territory, but they can be the result of central sensitization or neuroplastic changes that allow for the convergence of impulses coming from different body parts (referred sensations), one of which is missing. In conclusion, PS can be generated by both neuropathic and non-neuropathic mechanisms developed in the amputated body part or in other parts of the nervous system. Since these mechanisms are not pathognomonic of amputation there are no hidden ghosts to look for in phantom sensations. The only interpretative rule is just to follow the pathophysiological principles. PMID:26244147

  1. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué, Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or "connecting" with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task. PMID:26870943

  2. Drug Addiction Endophenotypes: Impulsive Versus Sensation-Seeking Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Turton, Abigail J.; Pradhan, Shachi; Bullmore, Edward T.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of substance abuse disorders, but the role of pre-existing vulnerability in addiction is still poorly understood. Personality traits of impulsivity and sensation-seeking are highly prevalent in chronic drug users and have been linked with an increased risk for substance abuse. However, it has not been clear whether these personality traits are a cause or an effect of stimulant drug dependence. Method We compared self-reported levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking between 30 sibling pairs of stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological brothers/sisters who did not have a significant drug-taking history and 30 unrelated, nondrug-taking control volunteers. Results Siblings of chronic stimulant users reported significantly higher levels of trait-impulsivity than control volunteers but did not differ from control volunteers with regard to sensation-seeking traits. Stimulant-dependent individuals reported significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking compared with both their siblings and control volunteers. Conclusions These data indicate that impulsivity is a behavioral endophenotype mediating risk for stimulant dependence that may be exacerbated by chronic drug exposure, whereas abnormal sensation-seeking is more likely to be an effect of stimulant drug abuse. PMID:20678754

  3. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  4. Linguistic dimensions in descriptors expressing thermal sensation in Korean: `warm' projects thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2010-07-01

    The present study was triggered by the inconsistency in verbal descriptors in English and Korean describing ‘warm’ and ‘hot’ in the thermal sensation scale. The purpose of this study was to examine the linguistic dimensions of the terms expressing ‘ ttatteuhada (warm)’ and ‘ yakkan duptta (slightly hot)’ in Korean. A total of 988 urban Koreans (479 males and 509 females) participated in a questionnaire survey consisting of six questions. The one-to-one survey was conducted indoors in December 2008. Our results showed that (1) ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’ in Korean are distinctive thermal descriptors; (2) ‘warm’ projects thermal comfort (80.4% of 988 respondents), but ‘slightly hot’ projects some thermal discomfort (54.3% of 988 respondents); (3) a slight thermally comfortable feeling was expressed as ‘warm’ (83.9% of 988 respondents), while a slight thermally uncomfortable feeling was seldom expressed as ‘warm’ (6.2% of 988 respondents) in mild heat environments; (4) the linguistic dimension within the term ‘warm’ was less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than that of the term ‘slightly hot’. In summary, ‘warm’ in Korean connotes a thermally comfortable feeling. In the case of being a little thermally uncomfortable, Koreans project their thermal sensation through the term ‘slightly hot’, rather than ‘warm’. In conclusion, thermal descriptors in the ISO 10551/ASHRAE scale, i.e., ‘very cold-cold-cool-slightly cool-neutral-slightly warm-warm-hot-very hot’, are not valid for the evaluation of mild hot environments in Korea. A new categorical scale is required in Korean considering the descriptors ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’.

  5. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Methods: Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Results: In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). Conclusions: These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance–like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a

  6. The effect of cold protective clothing on comfort and perception of performance.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Kirsi; Valkama, Anita; Remes, Jouko; Anttonen, Hannu; Peitso, Ari

    2010-01-01

    The physiological properties of clothing designed to provide protection against cold, windy and damp conditions affect comfort. The weight, thickness, stiffness of the fabrics and friction between the clothing layers affect physical performance. The comfort and perception of performance associated with 3 military winter combat clothing systems from different decades (the new M05 system, the previous M91 system and traditional clothing) were observed during a winter military manoeuvre. Subjective experiences concerning comfort and performance were recorded for 319 subjects using questionnaires. The most challenging conditions for comfort and performance were perspiration in the cold and external moisture. The new M05 system provided warmer thermal sensations (p < .010), dryer moisture sensations in the presence of external dampness (p < .001), dryer perspiration moisture sensations (p < .050) and better perception of physical (p < .001) and mental performance (p < .001) than the other systems. Careful development of the clothing system guarantees good comfort and performance during cold exposure. PMID:20540839

  7. Bonneville Power Administration, Lower Columbia Region: Noxious Weed Management, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR; Oregon Department of Agriculture Noxious Weed Control Program

    1996-01-01

    During the 1996 season ODA executed the contract between BPA and ODA. Execution of this contract included the following activities: Survey for target noxious weeds, such as Gorse; collection and redistribution of biological control agents, for example, Apion seed weevils for Scotch broom, bioagents for diffuse and spotted knapweed, Gorse spider mite, and gall fly releases for control of Canada thistle and bull thistle; and control of isolated infestations of Gorse on BPA rights-of-way. Training was provided for line crews at the Chemawa, Alevy and North Bend districts. The purpose of the program is to assist BPA in the integrated prevention and control of noxious weed species on BPA transmission line maintenance right-of-ways.

  8. Rubber Hand Illusion Reduces Discomfort Caused by Cold Stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecka, Marta; Klimza, Anna; Łukowska, Marta; Wierzchoń, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in body-ownership disruptions and their consequences for subjective experiences such as tactile sensations or pain. Here, we investigated the effect of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) on the perceived discomfort caused by cold stimulus applied to the real hand. The results showed reduced discomfort to cold reflected in behavioural and subjective measures. The stronger the illusion, the later the cold temperature became unpleasant and the less intense the experience was rated. We discuss the link between thermoception and body ownership as well as possible theoretical and methodological implications for studies on pain experience under RHI. PMID:25295527

  9. Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We compared data…

  10. Sensational Thinking: A Teaching/Learning Model for Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sharon; Shallcross, Doris

    1994-01-01

    A five-step model intervention called "Sensational Thinking," which incorporates readiness, reception, reflection, revelation, and re-creation activities, was evaluated with four kindergarten classes. Experimental groups showed increased creativity over control groups in solving paradoxical problems. The study is seen as supporting the premise…

  11. E. Mach on the analysis of motion sensation.

    PubMed

    Henn, V

    1984-01-01

    Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his many and widely read publications contributed to physics, physiology, and philosophy. His work on the analysis of motion sensation is discussed in the light of contemporary ideas and modern concepts of vestibular physiology. PMID:6384156

  12. Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

  13. Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

  14. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  15. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman׳s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers. PMID:26364127

  16. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

  17. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Seiki; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yosky; Iwase, Masao; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tsukada, Hideo; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2 15O positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11). Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue. PMID:21188225

  18. Determining perception-based impacts of noxious facilities on wage rates and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    This document, written for the US Department of Energy, discusses current information and the need for future research on estimating the impacts on wages and property values that could result from people`s perceptions of the risks associated with noxious facilities. Psychometric studies indicate that the US population is averse to living near noxious facilities, nuclear-related facilities in particular. Contingent valuation and hedonic studies find that the net economic impacts of proximity to noxious facilities are generally negative and often substantial. Most of these studies are limited in scope, and none estimate the impacts derived from public perceptions of such facilities. This study examines the mechanisms by which negative public perceptions result in economic impacts reflected in wages and property values. On the basis of these mechanisms, it develops a predictive model of perception-based impacts and identifies the data and methods needed to implement it. The key to predicting perception-based impacts lies in combining psychometric and hedonic methods. The reliability of psychometric measures as indicators of aversive stimuli that precipitate economic impacts can be empirically tested. To test the robustness of the findings, alternative estimation methods an be employed in the hedonic analysis. Contingent valuation methods can confirm the results.

  19. Determining perception-based impacts of noxious facilities on wage rates and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    This document, written for the US Department of Energy, discusses current information and the need for future research on estimating the impacts on wages and property values that could result from people's perceptions of the risks associated with noxious facilities. Psychometric studies indicate that the US population is averse to living near noxious facilities, nuclear-related facilities in particular. Contingent valuation and hedonic studies find that the net economic impacts of proximity to noxious facilities are generally negative and often substantial. Most of these studies are limited in scope, and none estimate the impacts derived from public perceptions of such facilities. This study examines the mechanisms by which negative public perceptions result in economic impacts reflected in wages and property values. On the basis of these mechanisms, it develops a predictive model of perception-based impacts and identifies the data and methods needed to implement it. The key to predicting perception-based impacts lies in combining psychometric and hedonic methods. The reliability of psychometric measures as indicators of aversive stimuli that precipitate economic impacts can be empirically tested. To test the robustness of the findings, alternative estimation methods an be employed in the hedonic analysis. Contingent valuation methods can confirm the results.

  20. A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Ringkamp, M.; Schepers, R. J.; Shimada, S.G.; Johanek, L.M.; Hartke, T.V.; Borzan, J.; Shim, B.; LaMotte, R.H.; Meyer, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of non-histaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in non-histaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: 1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a sub-group of subjects with A-fiber dominated itch, 2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber versus C-fiber dominated itch, 3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, 4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, 5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and 6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that non-histaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

  1. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... symptoms are: Nasal congestion Runny nose Scratchy throat Sneezing Adults and older children with colds generally have ...

  2. Cold Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Cold Intolerance Many polio ... index of Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Back to top Contact ...

  3. Turning On or Turning Off: Sensation Seeking or Tension Reduction as Motivational Determinants of Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Raymond M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Assessed the relative influences of sensation-seeking or tension-reduction motives on drinking behavior. Data indicated a strong positive relationship between sensation seeking and alcohol use, whereas the relationship between anxiety and alcohol use was nonsignificant. The importance of sensation-seeking motives to a comprehensive motivational…

  4. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  5. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  6. Panic attacks and interoceptive acuity for cardiac sensations.

    PubMed

    Asmundson, G J; Sandler, L S; Wilson, K G; Norton, G R

    1993-02-01

    It has been suggested that perception of visceral changes, and cognitive reactions to such changes, may be important for triggering panic attacks. It remains to be determined, however, whether people with panic attacks are actually characterized by enhanced perceptual acuity for interoceptive stimuli. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between panic attacks and awareness for cardiac sensations using an objective heartbeat discrimination procedure. Twenty panickers and 20 nonpanickers were given 60 trials of the Whitehead heartbeat discrimination procedure. Thirty trials were given during rest and 30 following hyperventilation. Results indicated that panic attacks were not related to enhanced interoceptive acuity for cardiac sensations, either at rest or following hyperventilation. These results are discussed in terms of their relevance to cognitive models of panic. PMID:8442744

  7. Transmission and Reproduction of Force Sensation by Bilateral Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) which thinks a great deal of patient’s quality of life (QOL) has attracted attention during about ten years. In this paper, it aims at development of the technology for transmitting force sensation required in medical treatment especially through surgical instruments, such as forceps. In bilateral control, it is a problem how master and slave robots realize the law of action and reaction to the environment. Mechanism of contact with environment and bilateral controller based on stiffness are shown. Master arm in contact with human and slave arm in contact with environment are given compliance, and stable contact with environment can be realized. The proposed method is applied to 3-link master-slave manipulators. As a result, transmission and reproduction of force sensation can be realized. The experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

  8. Upper extremity hemodynamics and sensation with backpack loads.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae Hoon; Neuschwander, Timothy B; Macias, Brandon R; Bachman, Larry; Hargens, Alan R

    2014-05-01

    Heavy backpacks are often used in extreme environments, for example by military during combat, therefore completion of tasks quickly and efficiently is of operational relevance. The purpose of this study was to quantify hemodynamic parameters (brachial artery Doppler and microvascular flow by photoplethysmography; tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy; arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter) and sensation in upper extremities and hands (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and 2-point discrimination test) while wearing a loaded backpack (12 kg) in healthy adults for 10 min. All values were compared to baseline before wearing a backpack. Moderate weight loaded backpack loads significantly decreased upper extremity sensation as well as all macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamic values. Decreased macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamics may produce neurological dysfunction and consequently, probably affect fine motor control of the hands. PMID:24075289

  9. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  10. Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations Is Predictive, not Postdictive

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J. Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2006-01-01

    When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause. PMID:16402860

  11. Effect of socks on the assessment of vibration sensation.

    PubMed

    Meral, R C; Matur, Z; Dertsiz, B; Oge, A E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the difference between the measurement of vibration sensation without and with socks. Material and Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (H group) and 19 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP group) were included. The sites of measurement were the great toe (GT) and medial malleolus (MM). A standard 128 Hz tuning fork was used in the measurements. Results. Mean duration of vibration sensations without and with socks was as follows: in the H group, 19.4 ± 4.2 and 19.5 ± 4.2 s at GT and 15.1 ± 3.3 and 14.6 ± 3.3 s at MM; in the PNP group, 13.4 ± 3.8 and 12.7 ± 4.1 s at GT and 11.9 ± 3.8 and 11.7 ± 3.4 s at MM. No significant difference was found between the measurements without and with socks, except those found at the MM in group H (P = 0.02). This significant difference was further analyzed in terms of effect size which was concluded to be practically insignificant (Cohen's d < 0.2). Shorter mean vibration duration was measured at MM as compared to GT that could be explained by the damping effect. Conclusions. Wearing socks of moderate thickness does not have any important effect on the duration of vibration sensation. This might be considered as a reflection of the remarkable properties of vibration sensation. PMID:24282644

  12. The lateral calcaneal flap for sensate heel reconstruction revisited.

    PubMed

    Korentager, R

    1994-06-01

    Defects of the heel can be difficult to treat because they require a thin, sensate, soft-tissue cover. The lateral calcaneal flap can provide this type of reconstruction in selected patients. A 27-year-old man had a painful defect in a grafted heel that prevented him from working. A satisfactory painless heel was provided by resurfacing the area with a lateral calcaneal flap. The donor defect was minimized by interfascicular dissection of the sural nerve. PMID:8199942

  13. Medication Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603

  14. Beyond re-membering: phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs.

    PubMed

    Brugger, P; Kollias, S S; Müri, R M; Crelier, G; Hepp-Reymond, M C; Regard, M

    2000-05-23

    Phantom limbs are traditionally conceptualized as the phenomenal persistence of a body part after deafferentation. Previous clinical observations of subjects with phantoms of congenitally absent limbs are not compatible with this view, but, in the absence of experimental work, the neural basis of such "aplasic phantoms" has remained enigmatic. In this paper, we report a series of behavioral, imaging, and neurophysiological experiments with a university-educated woman born without forearms and legs, who experiences vivid phantom sensations of all four limbs. Visuokinesthetic integration of tachistoscopically presented drawings of hands and feet indicated an intact somatic representation of these body parts. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of phantom hand movements showed no activation of primary sensorimotor areas, but of premotor and parietal cortex bilaterally. Movements of the existing upper arms produced activation expanding into the hand territories deprived of afferences and efferences. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex consistently elicited phantom sensations in the contralateral fingers and hand. In addition, premotor and parietal stimulation evoked similar phantom sensations, albeit in the absence of motor evoked potentials in the stump. These data indicate that body parts that have never been physically developed can be represented in sensory and motor cortical areas. Both genetic and epigenetic factors, such as the habitual observation of other people moving their limbs, may contribute to the conscious experience of aplasic phantoms. PMID:10801982

  15. Measurement of perceived stereoscopic sensation through disparity metrics and compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyosawa, Satoshi; Kawai, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    Literatures use disparity as a principle measure evaluating discomfort, various artifacts, or movie production styles associated to stereoscopy, yet, statistics used to represent image or frame are often different. The current study examines 20 disparity statistics to find metrics that would best represent subjective stereoscopic sensation. Additionally, effect of disparity distribution pattern within an image is considered: Here, the patterns are categorised either single-peak or multiple-peak from the shape of disparity histogram. In the experiment, 14 stereoscopic images were presented to 15 subjects. Each subject evaluated perceived sense of distance and volume (3D space) through 7 points Likert scale. The result shows that the statistics that correlated significantly to the subjective sensation differed by the disparity compositions, hence, the metrics should be chosen accordingly. For the sense of distance, maximum, range, and the difference between 95th and 5th percentiles were found to be appropriate metrics under the single-peak, and minimum, contrast, and 5th percentile were representative under the multiple-peak. Similarly, for the sense of volume, range was found to be appropriate under the single-peak, but no metrics was found under the multiple-peak. The discrepancy is assumed due to different observation styles under differently composed images. We believe that the current study provides optimal disparity metrics for stereoscopic sensation measurements.

  16. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

  17. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and nerve injury: restoring an imbalance between descending monoamine inhibitions and facilitations.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Kirsty; Patel, Ryan; Goncalves, Leonor; Townson, Louisa; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated facilitations after neuropathy. We investigated the pharmacological basis of DNIC and whether it can be restored after neuropathy. Deep dorsal horn neurons were activated by von Frey filaments applied to the hind paw, and DNIC was induced by a pinch applied to the ear in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. Spinal nerve ligation was the model of neuropathy. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control was present in control rats but abolished after neuropathy. α2 adrenoceptor mechanisms underlie DNIC because the antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, markedly attenuated this descending inhibition. We restored DNIC in spinal nerve ligated animals by blocking 5-HT3 descending facilitations with the antagonist ondansetron or by enhancing norepinephrine modulation through the use of reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, NRI) or tapentadol (μ-opioid receptor agonist and NRI). Additionally, ondansetron enhanced DNIC in normal animals. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls are reduced after peripheral nerve injury illustrating the central impact of neuropathy, leading to an imbalance in descending excitations and inhibitions. Underlying noradrenergic mechanisms explain the relationship between conditioned pain modulation and the use of tapentadol and duloxetine (a serotonin, NRI) in patients. We suggest that pharmacological strategies through manipulation of the monoamine system could be used to enhance DNIC in patients by blocking descending facilitations with ondansetron or enhancing norepinephrine inhibitions, so possibly reducing chronic pain. PMID:26010460

  18. Chromogranin A and cortisol at intraoperative repeated noxious stimuli: Surgical stress in a dog model

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Biomarkers representing sympathetic tone and the surgical stress response are measured to objectively evaluate surgical techniques and anaesthetic protocols. If a part of the intraoperative procedure is repeated on the contralateral organ, one animal may potentially serve as its own control and, if so, may minimize the problem of individual differences of the stress response to anaesthesia and surgery. This study aimed to investigate the use of chromogranin A for measurement of the intraoperative sympathetic tone. Additional aims were to investigate chromogranin A and cortisol as indicators of the intraoperative surgical stress response caused by repeated noxious stimuli in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy and thereby to investigate the possibility of one dog serving as its own control. Methods: Experiments were carried out on 10 dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Perioperative blood samples (0–6) were collected after premedication, immediately before induction of anaesthesia (0), after induction of anaesthesia and before incision (1), before (2) and after (3) removal of the first ovary, after a 15-min pause before removal of the second ovary (4), after removal of the second ovary (5) and after closing the abdomen (6). Plasma chromogranin A and cortisol were analysed. Results: Plasma chromogranin A did not change. Plasma cortisol concentration did not change between before anaesthesia and opening of the abdomen. Plasma cortisol increased at removal of the first ovary. Cortisol did not change at removal of the second ovary but remained increased compared to initial sample. Conclusion: The results suggest chromogranin A is a poor indicator of intraoperative sympathetic tone during elective surgery in dogs. Cortisol measurement was useful for assessment of intraoperative noxious stimuli. However, at these test conditions, neither plasma chromogranin A nor plasma cortisol was useful for assessment of repeated intraoperative noxious stimuli where

  19. Activation of rostral ventromedial medulla neurons by noxious stimulation of cutaneous and deep craniofacial tissues.

    PubMed

    Khasabov, Sergey G; Malecha, Patrick; Noack, Joseph; Tabakov, Janneta; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Bereiter, David A; Simone, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) projects to the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and is a major source of descending modulation of nociceptive transmission. Traditionally, neurons in the RVM are classified functionally as on, off, and neutral cells on the basis of responses to noxious cutaneous stimulation of the tail or hind paw. On cells facilitate nociceptive transmission, off cells are inhibitory, whereas neutral cells are unresponsive to noxious stimuli and their role in pain modulation is unclear. Classification of RVM neurons with respect to stimulation of craniofacial tissues is not well defined. In isoflurane-anesthetized male rats, RVM neurons first were classified as on (25.5%), off (25.5%), or neutral (49%) cells by noxious pinch applied to the hind paw. Pinching the skin overlying the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) altered the proportions of on (39.2%), off (42.2%), and neutral (19.6%) cells. To assess the response of RVM cells to specialized craniofacial inputs, adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 0.01-1 mM) was injected into the TMJ and capsaicin (0.1%) was applied to the ocular surface. TMJ and ocular surface stimulation also resulted in a reduced proportion of neutral cells compared with hind paw pinch. Dose-effect analyses revealed that on and off cells encoded the intra-TMJ concentration of ATP. These results suggest that somatotopy plays a significant role in the functional classification of RVM cells and support the notion that neutral cells likely are subgroups of on and off cells. It is suggested that a portion of RVM neurons serve different functions in modulating craniofacial and spinal pain conditions. PMID:25185804

  20. Spatial and Temporal Brain Responses to Noxious Heat Thermal Stimuli in Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, T; Imamura, Y; Kohashi, R; Dezawa, K; Nakaya, Y; Sato, Y; Watanabe, K; Morimoto, Y; Shizukuishi, T; Abe, O; Haji, T; Tabei, K; Taira, M

    2016-09-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic orofacial pain condition. Although the pathophysiology of BMS is not clearly understood, central and peripheral neuropathic mechanisms are thought to be involved. The authors compared brain response to noxious heat stimuli in 16 right-handed women with primary BMS and 15 sex- and age-matched right-handed healthy female controls. A thermal stimulus sequence of 32 °C to 40 °C to 32 °C to 49 °C was repeated 4 times in a cycle. Warm and noxious heat stimuli were delivered with a Peltier thermode placed on the right palm or right lower lip for 32 s each in a session. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained by recording echoplanar images with a block design. Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software was used to analyze the data. Patients and controls both reported feeling more pain during palm stimulation than during lip stimulation. Repetition of noxious heat stimulus on the lower lip but not on the palm induced habituation in brain activity in the cingulate cortex without reduction in pain perception. Multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between perceived pain intensity and suppression of brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex when the repeated thermal sequence was applied at the lower lip. Furthermore, the response of the parahippocampal area differed in BMS patients and controls when the same repeated thermal sequence was applied at the palm. The authors' findings indicate that BMS patients show specific brain responses due to impaired function of the central and peripheral nervous systems (clinical trial registration: UMIN000015002). PMID:27302878

  1. Activation of rostral ventromedial medulla neurons by noxious stimulation of cutaneous and deep craniofacial tissues

    PubMed Central

    Khasabov, Sergey G.; Malecha, Patrick; Noack, Joseph; Tabakov, Janneta; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Bereiter, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) projects to the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and is a major source of descending modulation of nociceptive transmission. Traditionally, neurons in the RVM are classified functionally as ON, OFF, and NEUTRAL cells on the basis of responses to noxious cutaneous stimulation of the tail or hind paw. ON cells facilitate nociceptive transmission, OFF cells are inhibitory, whereas NEUTRAL cells are unresponsive to noxious stimuli and their role in pain modulation is unclear. Classification of RVM neurons with respect to stimulation of craniofacial tissues is not well defined. In isoflurane-anesthetized male rats, RVM neurons first were classified as ON (25.5%), OFF (25.5%), or NEUTRAL (49%) cells by noxious pinch applied to the hind paw. Pinching the skin overlying the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) altered the proportions of ON (39.2%), OFF (42.2%), and NEUTRAL (19.6%) cells. To assess the response of RVM cells to specialized craniofacial inputs, adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 0.01–1 mM) was injected into the TMJ and capsaicin (0.1%) was applied to the ocular surface. TMJ and ocular surface stimulation also resulted in a reduced proportion of NEUTRAL cells compared with hind paw pinch. Dose-effect analyses revealed that ON and OFF cells encoded the intra-TMJ concentration of ATP. These results suggest that somatotopy plays a significant role in the functional classification of RVM cells and support the notion that NEUTRAL cells likely are subgroups of ON and OFF cells. It is suggested that a portion of RVM neurons serve different functions in modulating craniofacial and spinal pain conditions. PMID:25185804

  2. An Assessment of Stakeholder Perceptions and Management of Noxious Alien Plants in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Jara; Vilà, Montserrat; Hulme, Philip E.

    2009-06-01

    Despite biological invasions being a worldwide phenomenon causing significant ecological, economic, and human welfare impacts, there is limited understanding regarding how environmental managers perceive the problem and subsequently manage alien species. Spanish environmental managers were surveyed using questionnaires to (1) analyze the extent to which they perceive plant invasions as a problem; (2) identify the status, occurrence, and impacts of noxious alien plant species; (3) assess current effort and expenditure targeting alien plant management; and, finally, (4) identify the criteria they use to set priorities for management. In comparison to other environmental concerns, plant invasions are perceived as only moderately problematic and mechanical control is the most valued and frequently used strategy to cope with plant invasions in Spain. Based on 70 questionnaires received, 193 species are considered noxious, 109 of which have been the subject of management activities. More than 90% of species are found in at least one protected area. According to respondents, the most frequently managed species are the most widespread across administrative regions and the ones perceived as causing the highest impacts. The perception of impact seems to be independent of their invasion status, since only half of the species identified as noxious are believed to be invasive in Spain, while 43% of species thought to only be casual aliens are causing a high impact. Records of management costs are poor and the few data indicate that the total actual expenditure amounted to 50,492,437 € in the last decade. The majority of respondents stated that management measures are insufficient to control alien plants due to limited economic resources, lack of public awareness and support, and an absence of coordination among different public administrations. Managers also expressed their concern about the fact that much scientific research is concerned with the ecology of alien plants

  3. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  4. Pharmacological Blockade of TRPM8 Ion Channels Alters Cold and Cold Pain Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Daniel D.; McKemy, David D.

    2011-01-01

    TRPM8 (Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8) is a cold- and menthol-gated ion channel necessary for the detection of cold temperatures in the mammalian peripheral nervous system. Functioning TRPM8 channels are required for behavioral responses to innocuous cool, noxious cold, injury-evoked cold hypersensitivity, cooling-mediated analgesia, and thermoregulation. Because of these various roles, the ability to pharmacologically manipulate TRPM8 function to alter the excitability of cold-sensing neurons may have broad impact clinically. Here we examined a novel compound, PBMC (1-phenylethyl-4-(benzyloxy)-3-methoxybenzyl(2-aminoethyl)carbamate) which robustly and selectively inhibited TRPM8 channels in vitro with sub-nanomolar affinity, as determined by calcium microfluorimetry and electrophysiology. The actions of PBMC were selective for TRPM8, with no functional effects observed for the sensory ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1. PBMC altered TRPM8 gating by shifting the voltage-dependence of menthol-evoked currents towards positive membrane potentials. When administered systemically to mice, PBMC treatment produced a dose-dependent hypothermia in wildtype animals while TRPM8-knockout mice remained unaffected. This hypothermic response was reduced at lower doses, whereas responses to evaporative cooling were still significantly attenuated. Lastly, systemic PBMC also diminished cold hypersensitivity in inflammatory and nerve-injury pain models, but was ineffective against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold hypersensitivity, despite our findings that TRPM8 is required for the cold-related symptoms of this pathology. Thus PBMC is an attractive compound that serves as a template for the formulation of highly specific and potent TRPM8 antagonists that will have utility both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21984952

  5. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  6. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  7. Prevalence of cold-related complaints, symptoms and injuries in the general population: the FINRISK 2002 cold substudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of cold-related complaints and symptoms in the general population has remained unknown. As part of the nationwide FINRISK 2002 health survey performed in Finland, 8,723 people aged 25 64 years filled in a questionnaire asking about the number of hours spent weekly in cold air, their sensations during cold exposure, cold-related complaints, symptoms of diseases, and degradation of performance. Cold thermal sensations at +5°C to -5°C were reported by 35% of men and 46% of women. Almost all subjects reported at least some cold-related complaints, most commonly musculoskeletal pain (men 30%, women 27%), followed by respiratory (25% / 29%), white finger (15% / 18%) and episodic peripheral circulation symptoms (12% / 15%). Decreased mental or physical performance in cold was reported by 75% of men and 70% of women, most commonly impairing manual dexterity and tactile sense. With declining temperature, the first symptom to emerge was pain in the elbow or the forearm (at -3°C), followed by increased excretion of mucus from the lungs (-5°C), while most other symptoms appeared only at lower temperatures of -15°C to -20°C. Most symptoms showed little or no association with the weekly duration of exposure, with the exception of cold-induced pain at most sites. Although, in general, Finns are well adapted to the cold climate, the high prevalence of cold-related complaints poses a challenge to the health care system in terms of decreased performance and the possibility that such symptoms predict more serious health effects, such as increased mortality.

  8. The noxious effects of electroimmobilization in adult Holstein cows: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, P J; McDonell, W N

    1986-01-01

    Ten adult Holstein cows were used in an experiment to determine whether the induction of electroimmobilization was a noxious event. The cows were halter trained and accustomed to being led into a set of stocks. The time taken for the cattle to walk the last ten metres into the stocks was recorded. The heart rate of the cow was recorded for a three minute period prior to a ten second exposure to a high pitched sound (the conditioning stimulus). Measurements were collected for three repetitions and then the cows were assigned to two groups of five. One group was immobilized for 30 seconds using a commercial electroimmobilizer, the other group was not treated. This procedure was repeated ten times over a period of eight days. The cows were then exposed to the conditioning stimulus and their response observed. The treated group took significantly (P less than 0.05) longer to get into the stocks and the regression slopes for heart rate were significantly different from the control group. The treated cows responded to the conditioning stimulus at five and nine months after the end of the conditioning period. Adult Holstein cows regarded electroimmobilization as a noxious event and were very strongly conditioned to this stimulus. PMID:3756681

  9. An interregional hedonic analysis of noxious facility impacts on local wages and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Nieves, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    Claims of property value loss are commonly raised by homeowners when noxious facilities are sited or when new information about the hazards of existing facilities is made public. While the capitalization of externalities into land values is consistent with economic theory, empirical measurement of impacts has not generated consistent results. This is true both for hedonic measurements as well as other types of econometric analyses. While it is well established that job and site risks have similar impacts on regional labor markets, there are no studies relating the presence of a broad range of noxious facilities to local wage premiums. In contrast, this study employs an interregional framework in a hedonic analysis of both wage and property markets and considers eight different facility classifications. This paper discusses the development of the hedonic model employed in this study. It develops more fully the theoretical advantages of the intercity model and alternative methods of deriving implicit prices for environmental amenities and disamenities. The unique data base and the structure of the estimated model are described. It also includes a discussion of the research findings. Major conclusions and suggestions for further research are presented.

  10. An interregional hedonic analysis of noxious facility impacts on local wages and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Nieves, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Claims of property value loss are commonly raised by homeowners when noxious facilities are sited or when new information about the hazards of existing facilities is made public. While the capitalization of externalities into land values is consistent with economic theory, empirical measurement of impacts has not generated consistent results. This is true both for hedonic measurements as well as other types of econometric analyses. While it is well established that job and site risks have similar impacts on regional labor markets, there are no studies relating the presence of a broad range of noxious facilities to local wage premiums. In contrast, this study employs an interregional framework in a hedonic analysis of both wage and property markets and considers eight different facility classifications. This paper discusses the development of the hedonic model employed in this study. It develops more fully the theoretical advantages of the intercity model and alternative methods of deriving implicit prices for environmental amenities and disamenities. The unique data base and the structure of the estimated model are described. It also includes a discussion of the research findings. Major conclusions and suggestions for further research are presented.

  11. Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

  12. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  13. Cat's medullary reticulospinal and subnucleus reticularis dorsalis noxious neurons form a coupled neural circuit through collaterals of descending axons.

    PubMed

    Leiras, Roberto; Martín-Cora, Francisco; Velo, Patricia; Liste, Tania; Canedo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Animals and human beings sense and react to real/potential dangerous stimuli. However, the supraspinal mechanisms relating noxious sensing and nocifensive behavior are mostly unknown. The collateralization and spatial organization of interrelated neurons are important determinants of coordinated network function. Here we electrophysiologically studied medial medullary reticulospinal neurons (mMRF-RSNs) antidromically identified from the cervical cord of anesthetized cats and found that 1) more than 40% (79/183) of the sampled mMRF-RSNs emitted bifurcating axons running within the dorsolateral (DLF) and ventromedial (VMF) ipsilateral fascicles; 2) more than 50% (78/151) of the tested mMRF-RSNs with axons running in the VMF collateralized to the subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) that also sent ipsilateral descending fibers bifurcating within the DLF and the VMF. This percentage of mMRF collateralization to the SRD increased to more than 81% (53/65) when considering the subpopulation of mMRF-RSNs responsive to noxiously heating the skin; 3) reciprocal monosynaptic excitatory relationships were electrophysiologically demonstrated between noxious sensitive mMRF-RSNs and SRD cells; and 4) injection of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin evidenced mMRF to SRD and SRD to mMRF projections contacting the soma and proximal dendrites. The data demonstrated a SRD-mMRF network interconnected mainly through collaterals of descending axons running within the VMF, with the subset of noxious sensitive cells forming a reverberating circuit probably amplifying mutual outputs simultaneously regulating motor activity and spinal noxious afferent input. The results provide evidence that noxious stimulation positively engages a reticular SRD-mMRF-SRD network involved in pain-sensory-to-motor transformation and modulation. PMID:26581870

  14. Sensation-seeking and differentially arousing television commercials.

    PubMed

    Leone, C; D'Arienzo, J

    2000-12-01

    The authors predicted (a) that disinhibited consumers would react more favorably to advertising that was high in arousal and (b) that inhibited consumers would react more favorably to advertising that was low in arousal. They tested these predictions by having U.S. college students evaluate both the commercial and the product being marketed in 1 of 2 beer commercials. The prospective buyers then completed a measure of dispositional sensation-seeking tendencies. Although the participants who differed in disinhibition reacted differently to the 2 commercials, the nature of their responses was more complex than predicted. PMID:11195722

  15. Relationship Between Patients’ Perceptions of Postsurgical Sequelae and Altered Sensations After Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ceib; Essick, Greg; Blakey, George; Tucker, Myron

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Following orthognathic surgery, patients use qualitatively different words to describe altered sensation on their face. These words indicate normal, hypoesthetic, paresthetic, or dysesthetic sensations and so reflect the intrusiveness of the altered sensation. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the intrusiveness of the altered sensation and the extent to which it and the associated impairment in facial function were perceived to be a problem in the lives of the patients. Patients and Methods One hundred forty-six patients who had a mandibular osteotomy with or without a maxillary procedure were included. Word choice data were obtained during patients’ assessment of spontaneous and evoked facial sensations before surgery and at 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery and the difficulty or problem levels associated with the altered sensation itself (PAS) and facial functions or oral behaviors in every day life (PAF) were obtained from validated questionnaires. Stratified-by-subject repeated measures Mantel Haenszel correlation statistics were calculated to assess the associations between the intrusiveness of the altered sensation and the problem levels associated with the altered sensation and with the facial functions. Results On average, the perception of the difficulty with each of the PAS and PAF items decreased from 1 week to 6 months after surgery (all P values < .0001). Patients reported more difficulty in every day life related to the effect of the altered sensations than they did related to the effect on facial functions. The correlations of the intrusiveness of the altered sensation and problems with altered sensations (PAS) were stronger overall and at each visit than the correlations with problems of altered facial function (PAF). Although the correlation coefficients tended to increase in value from 1 week to 6 months postsurgery for the PAF items, the increase was proportionately greater for the PAS items

  16. Chilling Out with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cold virus, but more than 200 viruses can cause colds. Because there are so many, ... to help you feel better. Take that, cold viruses! continue How Kids Catch Colds Mucus (say: MYOO- ...

  17. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  18. Arousal responses to noxious stimuli in somatoparaphrenia and anosognosia: clues to body awareness.

    PubMed

    Romano, Daniele; Gandola, Martina; Bottini, Gabriella; Maravita, Angelo

    2014-04-01

    A complex brain representation of our body allows us to monitor incoming sensory stimuli and plan actions towards the external world. A critical element of such a complex representation is the sense of ownership towards our own body parts. Brain damage may disrupt this representation, leading to the striking neuropsychological condition called somatoparaphrenia, that is, the delusion that one's own limbs belong to someone else. The clinical features characterizing somatoparaphrenia are well known, however, physiological clues of the level at which this condition may disrupt sensory functions are unknown. In the present study we investigated this issue by measuring the anticipatory skin conductance response to noxious stimuli approaching either the affected or the intact body side in a group of patients with somatoparaphrenia (n=5; three females, age range=66-84), and in a group of patients with anosognosia for sensory deficits, i.e. preserved ownership but decreased awareness of somatosensory deficit, (n=5; one female, age range=62-81 years) and in a group of purely hemiplegic patients (n=5; two females, age range=63-74 years) with no deficits of ownership or sensory awareness. Results show that anticipatory skin conductance responses to noxious stimuli directed to the contralesional hand are significantly reduced as compared to noxious stimuli directed to the ipsilesional hand in patients with somatoparaphrenia. By contrast a non-reduced anticipatory skin conductance response was observed in control participants as well as in patients affected by anosognosia for the somatosensory deficit and in patients affected by pure motor deficits. Furthermore, a pain anticipation response was always measured when the stimuli were directed towards the ipsilesional, unaffected hand in all groups. Our results show for the first time that the delusions shown by somatoparaphrenic patients are associated with an altered physiological index of perceptual analysis. The reduced

  19. From urothelial signalling to experiencing a sensation related to the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Birder, L.; Wyndaele, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying bladder sensation and the way we experience sensations during normal voiding and in pathology is complex and not well understood. During storage and emptying, mechanical changes occurring in number of cell types within the bladder wall (i.e. the uroepithelium and bladder afferents) can have a major influence on our sensory systems. In this review, we discuss bladder sensation with a focus on coding events in the periphery. PMID:23110490

  20. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5 °C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli. PMID:26047142

  1. Haptic perception with an articulated, sensate robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present a series of haptic exploratory procedures, or EPs, implemented for a multi-fingered, articulated, sensate robot hand. These EPs are designed to extract specific tactile and kinesthetic information form an object via their purposive invocation by an intelligent robotic system. Taken together, they form and active robotic touch perception system to be used both in extracting information about the environment for internal representation and in acquiring grasps for manipulation. The haptic system presented utilizes and integrated robotic system consisting of PUMA 560 robot arm, a JPL/Stanford robot hand, with joint torque sensing in the fingers, a wrist force/torque sensor, and 256 element, spatially-resolved fingertip tactile array. We describe the EPs implemented for this system and provide experimental results which illustrate how they function and how the information which they extract may be used. In addition to the sensate hand and arm, the robot also contains structured-lighting vision and a Prolog-based reasoning system capable of grasp generation and object categorization. We present a set of simple tasks which show how both grasping and recognition may be enhanced by the addition of active touch perception. 34 refs., 23 figs.

  2. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-06-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5 °C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli.

  3. Negotiating pain: the joint construction of a child's bodily sensation

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Traditional theories of socialisation, in which the child was viewed as a passive subject of external influences, are increasingly being rejected in favour of a new sociology of childhood which frames the child as a social actor. This article demonstrates the way in which conversation analysis can reveal children's agency in the micro-detail of naturally occurring episodes in which children express bodily sensations and pain in everyday life. Based on 71 video-recordings of mealtimes with five families, each with two children under 10 years old, the analysis focuses on the components of children's expressions of bodily sensation (including pain), the character of parents’ responses and the nature of the subsequent talk. The findings provide further evidence that children are social actors, active in constructing, accepting and resisting the nature of their physical experience and pain. A conversation analysis of ordinary family talk facilitates a description of how a child's agency is built, maintained or resisted through the interactional practices participants employ to display knowledge. PMID:25760923

  4. Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response.

    PubMed Central

    Armel, K Carrie; Ramachandran, V S

    2003-01-01

    Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, as indicated by subjective reports and SCR, if the real hand was simultaneously visible during stroking, or if the real hand was hidden but touched asynchronously. The fact that the illusion could be significantly diminished when the real hand was simultaneously visible suggests that the illusion and associated SCRs were due to perceptual assimilation of the table (or rubber hand) into one's body image rather than associative conditioning. These experiments demonstrate the malleability of body image and the brain's remarkable capacity for detecting statistical correlations in the sensory input. PMID:12965016

  5. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5 °C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli. PMID:26047142

  6. Genetically influenced change in sensation seeking drives the rise of delinquent behavior during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige; Quinn, Patrick D; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation seeking and delinquent behavior were assessed biennially between ages 10-11 and 16-17 in a nationally representative sample of 7675 youths from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth: Children and Young Adults (CNLSY). Analyses using latent growth curve modeling found that within-person change in sensation seeking was significantly and positively correlated with within-person change in delinquency from childhood to adolescence. Furthermore, behavioral genetic analyses of a subset of 2562 sibling pairs indicated that there were substantial genetic influences on both initial levels of sensation seeking and change in sensation seeking during early adolescence, with over 80% of individual differences in change due to genetic factors. Finally, these genetically driven increases in sensation seeking were most important for predicting increases in delinquency, whereas environmental paths between sensation seeking and delinquency were not significant. These results suggest that developmental changes in delinquent behaviors during adolescence are driven by a genetically governed process of personality change. PMID:22251301

  7. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes. PMID:17345917

  8. TRPA1 Mediates the Noxious Effects of Natural Sesquiterpene Deterrents*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Escalera, Jasmine; von Hehn, Christian A.; Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2008-01-01

    Plants, fungi, and animals generate a diverse array of deterrent natural products that induce avoidance behavior in biological adversaries. The largest known chemical family of deterrents are terpenes characterized by reactive α,β-unsaturated dialdehyde moieties, including the drimane sesquiterpenes and other terpene species. Deterrent sesquiterpenes are potent activators of mammalian peripheral chemosensory neurons, causing pain and neurogenic inflammation. Despite their wide-spread synthesis and medicinal use as desensitizing analgesics, their molecular targets remain unknown. Here we show that isovelleral, a noxious fungal sesquiterpene, excites sensory neurons through activation of TPRA1, an ion channel involved in inflammatory pain signaling. TRPA1 is also activated by polygodial, a drimane sesquiterpene synthesized by plants and animals. TRPA1-deficient mice show greatly reduced nocifensive behavior in response to isovelleral, indicating that TRPA1 is the major receptor for deterrent sesquiterpenes in vivo. Isovelleral and polygodial represent the first fungal and animal small molecule agonists of nociceptive transient receptor potential channels. PMID:18550530

  9. [Toxicological effects of weapons of mass destruction and noxious agents in modern warfare and terrorism].

    PubMed

    Vucemilović, Ante

    2010-06-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) best portray the twisted use of technological achievements against the human species. Despite arm control efforts, WMD threat continues to exist and even proliferate. This in turn calls for improvement in defensive measures against this threat. The modern soldier is exposed to a number of chemical, biological, and radiological agents in military and peace operations, while civilians are mainly exposed to terrorist attacks. Regardless of origin or mode of action, WMDs and other noxious agents aim for the same - to make an organism dysfunctional. Because their effects are often delayed, these agents are hard to spot on time and treat. This review presents a biomedical aspect of agents used in warfare and terrorism, including polonium-210, depleted uranium, salmonella, anthrax, genetically modified bacteria, cobweb-like polymer fibre, sarin, and mustard gas. PMID:20587400

  10. Race, region and risk: An examination of minority proximity to noxious facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, A.L. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The past decade has given rise to terms like environmental racism, eco-racism, and environmental inequities to characterize a disproportional distribution of environmental disamenities among minority communities. Much of the literature supports the contention that racial and ethnic minorities and low-income groups bear a disproportionate burden of risk from hazardous activities and substances in the environment. This study expands the scope of prior studies by employing county-level data for the entire nation and including a broad range of facility types associated with environmental disamenities. In addition, it addresses the issue of the distribution of noxious facilities among white and non-white populations in an attempt to determine the relative exposure to risk among different racial and ethnic groups. In addition, the authors also explore the relative importance of nonurban versus urban residence.

  11. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  12. Distinct temporal filtering mechanisms are engaged during dynamic increases and decreases of noxious stimulus intensity

    PubMed Central

    Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Frahm, Ken Steffen; Coghill, Robert C.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical stimuli are subject to pronounced temporal filtering during afferent processing such that changes occurring at certain rates are amplified and others are diminished. Temporal filtering of nociceptive information remains poorly understood. However, the phenomenon of offset analgesia, where a disproportional drop in perceived pain intensity is caused by a slight drop in noxious heat stimulation, indicates potent temporal filtering in the pain pathways. To develop a better understanding of how dynamic changes in a physical stimulus are constructed into an experience of pain, a transfer function between the skin temperature and the perceived pain intensity was modeled. Ten seconds of temperature-controlled near-infrared (970 nm) laser stimulations above the pain threshold with a 1°C increment, decrement, or constant temperature were applied to the dorsum of the hand of healthy human volunteers. The skin temperature was assessed by an infrared camera. Offset analgesia was evoked by laser heat stimulation. The estimated transfer functions showed shorter latencies when the temperature was increased by 1°C (0.53 seconds [0.52-0.54 seconds]) than when decreased by 1°C (1.15 seconds [1.12-1.18 seconds]) and smaller gains (increase: 0.89 [0.82-0.97]; decrease: 2.61 [1.91-3.31]). The maximal gain was observed at rates around 0.06 Hz. These results show that temperature changes occurring around 0.06 Hz are best perceived and that a temperature decrease is associated with a larger but slower change in pain perception than a comparable temperature increase. These psychophysical findings confirm the existence of differential mechanisms involved in temporal filtering of dynamic increases and decreases in noxious stimulus intensity. PMID:26035254

  13. Species differences and molecular determinant of TRPA1 cold sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Kang, Dawon; Xu, Jing; Lake, Marc; Hogan, James O.; Sun, Chaohong; Walter, Karl; Yao, Betty; Kim, Donghee

    2013-01-01

    TRPA1 is an ion channel and has been proposed as a thermosensor across species. In invertebrate and ancestral vertebrates such as fly, mosquito, frog, lizard and snakes, TRPA1 serves as a heat receptor, a sensory input utilized for heat avoidance or infrared detection. However, in mammals, whether TRPA1 is a receptor for noxious cold is highly controversial, as channel activation by cold was observed by some groups but disputed by others. Here we attribute the discrepancy to species differences. We show that cold activates rat and mouse TRPA1 but not human or rhesus monkey TRPA1. At the molecular level, a single residue within the S5 transmembrane domain (G878 in rodent but V875 in primate) accounts for the observed difference in cold sensitivity. This residue difference also underlies the species-specific effects of menthol. Together, our findings identify the species-specific cold activation of TRPA1 and reveal a molecular determinant of cold-sensitive gating. PMID:24071625

  14. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, M; Tan, C Y; Virtue, S; Ambler, G K; Watson, L P E; Murgatroyd, P R; Chatterjee, V K; Vidal-Puig, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold) or 24°C (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure. PMID:26864459

  15. How and why Caenorhabditis elegans uses distinct escape and avoidance regimes to minimize exposure to noxious heat.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Dominique A

    2013-10-01

    Minimizing the exposure to deleterious extremes of temperature is essential for animals to avoid tissue damages. Because their body temperature equilibrates very rapidly with their surroundings, small invertebrates are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious impact of high temperatures, which jeopardizes their growth, fertility, and survival. The present article reviews recent analyses of Caenorhabditis elegans behavior in temperature gradients covering innocuous and noxious temperatures. These analyses have highlighted that worm uses two separate, multi-componential navigational strategies: an avoidance strategy, aiming at staying away from noxious heat, and an escape strategy, aiming at running away after exposure. Here, I explain why efficient escape and avoidance mechanisms are mutually exclusive and why worm needs to switch between distinct behavioral regimes to achieve efficient protective thermoregulation. Collectively, these findings reveal some largely unrecognized strategies improving worm goal-directed navigation and the fascinating level of sophistication of the behavioral responses deployed to minimize the exposure to noxious heat. Because switching between avoidance and escape regimes circumvents constraints that are valid for navigation behaviors in general, similar solutions might be used by worms and also other organisms in response to various environmental parameters covering an innocuous/noxious, non-toxic/toxic range. PMID:24744986

  16. Sensation Seeking as Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Background High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. Methods A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. Results High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. Limitations The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. Conclusions The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. PMID:22921521

  17. A remote instruction system empowered by tightly shared haptic sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagawa, Tsuneo; Utsumiya, Kouichi

    2007-09-01

    We present a system to realize an on-line instruction environment among physically separated participants based on a multi-modal communication strategy. In addition to visual and acoustic information, commonly used communication modalities in network environments, our system provides a haptic channel to intuitively conveying partners' sense of touch. The human touch sensation, however, is very sensitive for delays and jitters in the networked virtual reality (NVR) systems. Therefore, a method to compensate for such negative factors needs to be provided. We show an NVR architecture to implement a basic framework that can be shared by various applications and effectively deals with the problems. We take a hybrid approach to implement both data consistency by client-server and scalability by peer-to-peer models. As an application system built on the proposed architecture, a remote instruction system targeted at teaching handwritten characters and line patterns on a Korea-Japan high-speed research network also is mentioned.

  18. Reactivity to sensations in borderline personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Ahn, Roianne; Geiger, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are widely considered to have problems with emotional reactivity. However, the specific kinds of stimuli that are associated with heightened emotional reactivity in BPD have not been well characterized. Thus, it is unclear whether the emotional dysfunction in BPD occurs in response to any emotionally evocative stimuli, or to specific classes of stimuli. In this study, we used subjective measures (self-report and interview-based) to compare reactivity to sensations (auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, visual) between participants with BPD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 50). Controlling for trait negative emotional reactivity, individuals with BPD reported being significantly more reactive across sensory stimuli. However, the difference between controls and BPD was significantly greater for reactivity to auditory stimuli compared to other sensory stimuli. Findings from this study provide preliminary data suggesting individuals with BPD may be characterized by heightened self-reported reactivity to aversive sounds. PMID:22023306

  19. Incidental Haptic Sensations Influence Social Judgments and Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Joshua M.; Nocera, Christopher C.; Bargh, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Touch is both the first sense to develop and a critical means of information acquisition and environmental manipulation. Physical touch experiences may create an ontological scaffold for the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal conceptual and metaphorical knowledge, as well as a springboard for the application of this knowledge. In six experiments, holding heavy or light clipboards, solving rough or smooth puzzles, and touching hard or soft objects nonconsciously influenced impressions and decisions formed about unrelated people and situations. Among other effects, heavy objects made job candidates appear more important, rough objects made social interactions appear more difficult, and hard objects increased rigidity in negotiations. Basic tactile sensations are thus shown to influence higher social cognitive processing in dimension-specific and metaphor-specific ways. PMID:20576894

  20. Attenuated self-tickle sensation even under trajectory perturbation.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, George; Paton, Bryan; Howell, Jacqui; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-11-01

    The efference copy account of the tickle effect (i.e., our inability to tickle ourselves) predicts no tickle effect (i.e., an ability to tickle ourselves) when the trajectory of a tactile stimulus is perturbed relative to the associated movement, and there is evidence in support of this. The active inference account, however, predicts the tickle effect should survive trajectory perturbation. We test these accounts of the tickle effect under the hypothesis that previous findings are due to attentional modulation, and that the tickle effect will be found in a paradigm with no conscious attention directed to the trajectory perturbation. We thus expected to find support for active inference. Our first experiment confirms this hypothesis, while our second seeks to explain previous findings in terms of the modulation of the tickle sensation when there is awareness of, and different degrees of attention to, the spatial tactile and kinesthetic trajectories. PMID:26143281

  1. [Rethink on "experiment of progated sensation along meridians"].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-shi

    2011-11-01

    The theory, methods and ideas of "experiment of progated sensation along meridians (PSM)" were examined in the article through retrieval of ancient medical books, excavating the theory of meridians, the qi of meridians, ying (nutrient) qi, wei (defensive) qi and the related acupuncture techniques. The result shows that PSM is not the reaction of the meridian qi, but the reflection of wei (defensive) qi. Therefore, whether the experiment of PSM revealed with the phenomenon of meridian and all hypothesis based on it or not are still remained as a question. However, although PSM is considered to be related with the wei (defensive) qi, it can not be concluded that the experiment of PSM revealed the function of the wei (defensive) qi. PMID:22136040

  2. Aging, alcoholism, anxiety, and sensation seeking: an exploratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; McAlhany, D A; McCurdy, R L; Shaw, D L; Roitzsch, J C

    1982-01-01

    Aging alcoholic (n = 36) and aging nonalcoholic (n = 35) male veterans were compared on biographic/demographic variables and psychological characteristics. Results indicated that aging alcoholics and nonalcoholics were married at approximately the same ages, married roughly the same number of times, and produced similar numbers of offspring, but aging alcoholics were better educated and had fewer persons economically dependent on them. They had higher scores than aging nonalcoholics on objective measures of state anxiety, trait anxiety, overall fears, tissue damage fears, social-interpersonal fears, miscellaneous fears, and failure/loss of self-esteem fears. Aging alcoholics also had higher scores on the sensation-seeking variable of boredom susceptibility and disinhibition, suggesting the existence of a relationship between need for sensory stimulation and maladaptive drinking among aging alcoholics. PMID:7080893

  3. Mechanical systems biology of C. elegans touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alex; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin’s surface to mechano-electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission and apply the concepts emerging from this work to the sense of touch. We focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a well-studied model for touch sensation in which mechanics can be studied on the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Finally, we conclude that force transmission is an emergent property of macromolecular cellular structures that mutually stabilize one another. PMID:25597279

  4. Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples.

    PubMed

    Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music-groove-we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

  5. Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples

    PubMed Central

    Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music—groove—we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

  6. "The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'. PMID:22822610

  7. Assessment of bladder sensation in mice with a novel device

    PubMed Central

    Bicer, Fuat; Kim, Jin Young; Horowitz, Andrew; Daneshgari, Firouz; Liu, Guiming

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and test the efficacy of an implantable bladder electrode device that can be used with the Neurometer® electrodiagnostic stimulator to assess fiber-specific afferent bladder sensation in the mouse. Methods We constructed a ball-tipped platinum electrode and surgically implanted it into the mouse bladder. The Neurometer® was connected to the electrode to apply selective nerve fiber stimuli (250 Hz for Aδ fibers and 5 Hz for C fibers) of increasing intensities to the bladder mucosa in the mouse to determine bladder sensory threshold (BST) values. Using 58 female C57BL/6J mice, we measured the temporal and interobserver consistency of BST measurements, the effects of intravesical administration of lidocaine and resiniferatoxin on the BST, and the effects of our device on voiding behavior and bladder mucosal integrity. Results BST values at 250 and 5 Hz did not vary significantly when measured 2, 4, and 6 days after device implantation, or when obtained by two blinded, independent observers. Intravesical lidocaine yielded a transient increase in BST values at both 250 Hz and 5 Hz, whereas resiniferatoxin yielded a significant increase only at the 5 Hz stimulus frequency after 24 hours. Moderately increased micturition frequency and decreased volume per void were observed 4 and 6 days after device implantation. Histology revealed mild inflammatory changes in the area of the bladder adjacent to the implanted BST device. Conclusion Assessment of neuroselective bladder sensation in mice is feasible with our device, which provides reproducible BST values for autonomic bladder afferent nerve fibers. PMID:24958485

  8. Chemesthesis and taste: evidence of independent processing of sensation intensity.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; George, Pravin; Akirav, Carol

    2005-11-15

    The ability to perceive taste from temperature alone ("thermal taste") was recently shown to predict higher perceptual responsiveness to gustatory and olfactory stimuli. This relationship was hypothesized to be due in part to individual differences in CNS processes involved in flavor perception. Here we report three experiments that tested whether subjects who differ in responsiveness to thermal taste and/or chemical taste also differ in responsiveness to oral chemesthesis. In experiment 1, subjects identified as 'thermal tasters' (TTs) or 'thermal non-tasters' (TnTs) used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate the intensity of sensations produced on the tongue tip by capsaicin, menthol, sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and QSO4. TTs rated all four taste stimuli higher than did TnTs, whereas sensations of burning/stinging/pricking and temperature from capsaicin and menthol did not differ significantly between groups. In experiment 2, testing with capsaicin on both the front and back of the tongue confirmed there was no difference in ratings of burning/stinging/pricking when subjects were grouped according to the ability to perceive thermal taste. In experiment 3, subjects were classified as high- or low-tasters according to their ratings of sucrose sweetness rather than thermal taste. No group difference was found for perception of capsaicin even when presented in mixture with sucrose or NaCl. The results are discussed in the context of previous evidence of an association between chemesthesis and sensitivity to the bitter tastant PROP, and in terms of the various peripheral and central neural processes that may underlie intensity perception in taste and chemesthesis. PMID:16199067

  9. Pathophysiology and treatment of patients with globus sensation--from the viewpoint of esophageal motility dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Noriaki; Tsutsui, Hideaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2014-01-01

    "Globus sensation" is often described as the sensation of a lump in the throat associated with dry swallowing or the need for dry swallowing, which disappears completely during eating or drinking and for which no organic cause can be established. Due to the uncertain etiology of "globus sensation", it remains difficult to establish standard treatment strategies for affected patients. Lately most attention has been focused on gastroesophageal reflux disease and several reports have indicated that there is a close relationship between esophageal acid reflux and globus sensation. Nowadays, empirical therapy with a high dose of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is considered to be indicated for patients with globus sensation, after excluding organic diseases such as pharyngeal cancer, Zenker's diverticulum, or thyroid enlargement. If patients are nonresponsive to PPI therapy, evaluation of esophageal motility should be done. In our recent study, 47.9% had abnormal esophageal motility, with the most common esophageal motility abnormality being an ineffective esophageal motility in PPI-resistant patients with globus sensation. This suggests that prokinetics alone or adding prokinetics to PPI should be the treatment to be considered, although few studies have investigated the efficacy of prokinetics in the treatment of patients with globus sensation. If patients without any esophageal motility dysfunctions are nonresponsive to PPI therapy, either cognitive-behavioral therapy, anti-depressants, or gabapentin could be helpful, although further well-designed, randomized controlled large-scale studies will be necessary to determine the effectiveness of each treatment strategy on patients with globus sensation. PMID:26081369

  10. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  11. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  12. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  13. Intercorrelations of the Sensation - Seeking Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Keith W.

    1977-01-01

    Two separate studies using Form IV of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) are reported. The first study correlates SSS by factor and sex with the earlier Form II SSS, supporting the reliability of the General SSS scale and discriminant validity of the Form IV SSS factor scales in relationship to general sensation-seeking. In the second study,…

  14. Altered developmental trajectories for impulsivity and sensation seeking among adolescent substance users.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Ryan, Stacy R; Bray, Bethany C; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n=117) and did not (n=269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  15. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  16. The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

  17. Associations Between Message Features and Subjective Evaluations of the Sensation Value of Antidrug Public Service Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Susan E.; Palmgreen, Philip; Stephenson, Michael T.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies message design features that show the greatest promise for developing message high in sensation value for anti-drug campaigns and other interventions aimed at sensation-seeking risky behaviors. Investigates certain features of drug prevention Public Service Announcements (PSAs) associated with viewers' subjective responses to them.…

  18. The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

  19. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885

  20. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested. PMID:25781668

  1. Sensation seeking and alcohol use by college students: examining multiple pathways of effects.

    PubMed

    Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the proposition that peer influence mediates the effect of sensation seeking, a personality trait, on alcohol use among college students. Cross-sectional data to test this proposition were collected from a representative sample of college students at a large public northeastern university (N = 427). Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, sensation seeking influenced personal alcohol use both directly and indirectly, through its impact on students' frequency of association with alcohol-using peers and the size of their drinking norm misperception. The findings suggest that interventions that seek to limit the frequency in which high sensation seekers associate with peers whose alcohol use is extreme or, alternatively, seek to facilitate social interactions of high sensation seekers with normative peers, may supplement efforts to influence sensation seekers' alcohol and other drug use through tailored mass media advertisements. PMID:16624794

  2. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients' satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients’ satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  4. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing physical fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that fatigue sensation impairs the ability and efficiency to perform activities and can be a cause of fatigue itself. As such, it is important to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation. The re-experiencing of mental fatigue sensation involves brain regions including Brodmann's area (BA) 40, BA 39, and the pulvinar nucleus. In the present study, we examined neural activity caused by re-experiencing a physical fatigue sensation that had been experienced. Fifteen healthy male volunteers participated in fatigue and control experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, participants performed a handgrip task for 10 min to induce a physical fatigue sensation and then re-experienced the physical fatigue sensation during magnetoencephalography (MEG) session. In the control experiment, they did not perform the handgrip task but re-experienced the sensation without physical fatigue in an MEG session. Neural activity related to re-experiencing physical fatigue sensations of the right hand (right condition), left hand (left condition), and related to listening to the auditory cues (sound condition) was assessed using spatial filtering analyses of the MEG data. Changes in oscillatory band power in some brain regions, including BA 40, were common between the right and left conditions. A part of the neural activity related to the re-experiencing physical fatigue sensation, such as the decrease in alpha (8-13 Hz) band power in the BA 40, was also observed in the sound condition. These findings may help to understand the neural mechanisms related to intentionally and unintentionally re-experiencing physical fatigue sensation. PMID:27093868

  5. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  6. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  7. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotics - colds and flu ... treat infections that are caused by a virus. Colds and flu are caused by viruses. If you ... Hamilton A. Treatments for symptoms of the common cold. Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(12):Online. PMID: ...

  8. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    Colds and vitamin C ... belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold , research about this claim is conflicting. Large doses ... vitamin C may help reduce how long a cold lasts, but they do not appear to protect ...

  9. Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    This chapter and the following one address collective effects of quantum particles, that is, the effects which are observed when we put together a large number of identical particles, for example, electrons, helium-4 or rubidium-85 atoms. We shall see that quantum particles can be classified into two categories, bosons and fermions, whose collective behavior is radically different. Bosons have a tendency to pile up in the same quantum state, while fermions have a tendency to avoid each other. We say that bosons and fermions obey two different quantum statistics, the Bose-Einstein and the Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively. Temperature is a collective effect, and in Section 5.1 we shall explain the concept of absolute temperature and its relation to the average kinetic energy of molecules. We shall describe in Section 5.2 how we can cool atoms down thanks to the Doppler effect, and explain how cold atoms can be used to improve the accuracy of atomic clocks by a factor of about 100. The effects of quantum statistics are prominent at low temperatures, and atom cooling will be used to obtain Bose-Einstein condensates at low enough temperatures, when the atoms are bosons.

  10. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. Objective To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Design Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. Results QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Conclusions Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury. PMID:24624368

  11. Visual and noxious electrical stimulus-evoked membrane-potential responses in anterior cingulate cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Qing; Ning, Li; Wang, Zhiru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to participate in numerous brain functions, such as memory storage, emotion, attention, as well as perception of acute and chronic pain. ACC-dependent brain functions often rely on ACC processing of various forms of environmental information. To understand the neural basis of ACC functions, previous studies have investigated ACC responses to environmental stimulation, particularly complex sensory stimuli as well as award and aversive stimuli, but this issue remains to be further clarified. Here, by performing whole-cell recording in vivo in anaesthetized adult rats, we examined membrane-potential (MP) responses of layer II/III ACC neurons that were evoked by a brief flash of visual stimulation and pain-related electrical stimulation delivered to hind paws. We found that ~54 and ~81 % ACC neurons exhibited excitatory MP responses, subthreshold or suprathreshold, to the visual stimulus and the electrical stimulus, respectively, with no cell showing inhibitory MP responses. We further found that the visually evoked ACC response could be greatly diminished by local lidocaine infusion in the visual thalamus, and only their temporal patterns but not amplitudes could be changed by large-scale visual cortical lesions. Our in vivo whole-cell recording data characterized in ACC neurons a visually evoked response, which was largely dependent on the visual thalamus but not visual cortex, as well as a noxious electrical stimulus-evoked response. These findings may provide potential mechanisms that are used for ACC functions on the basis of sensory information processing. PMID:27585569

  12. Review on hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) involved in marine spill incidents—an online database.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Isabel; Moreira, Susana; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-03-21

    In this review, we have collected information on the behavior, fate, weathering, and impact of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) accidentally spilled at sea on the marine biota. The information was compiled on a datasheet and converted into a database that can be accessed by the general public (www.ciimar.up.pt/hns). Systematization of data is important to assist stakeholders involved in HNS spill preparedness and response, facilitating the incorporation of lessons from past incidents in the decision process. The database contains 184 entries of HNS spilled in 119 incidents in marine waters around the world. Data were analyzed in terms of HNS physical behavior in water according to SEBC (Standard European Behavior Classification) codes. The most common products involved in accidental spills in the marine environment were identified and major lessons highlighted. From the analysis, it was determined that most HNS spills were poorly documented and information was mistreated. In most cases, no monitoring programs were implemented following the incident. This conduct has occurred in 24 out of 119 incidents analyzed and has consequently limited the information on fate, behavior, and weathering of HNS spilled that could have been recovered. Major gaps were identified, and priorities and recommendations were drawn as a step toward improving preparedness and response to HNS spills. PMID:25559778

  13. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles. PMID:26757000

  14. Differential modulation of hippocampal plasticity in a non-noxious conflict model for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Collins, D R

    2009-09-15

    Modulation of synaptic strength may underlie stress-induced changes in cognitive ability. Long-term memory formation underpinning fear and anxiety behaviors, such as those seen in post-traumatic stress and phobic disorders, is thought to be dependent on amygdalo-hippocampal interactions. In most models, however, painful stimuli are used to induced stress and anxiety. Here, the effects of a novel conflict model, developed to generate a more naturalistic model of anxiety, utilizing two non-noxious stressors (predator (cat) odor and light), on hippocampus plasticity were determined. Exposure to the external stimuli elicited typical, stimulus-specific, anxiety-related behaviors. Dual presentation of the stressors evoked an increase in the variability of behaviors, suggesting that the animals were experiencing conflicting drives. Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) within the CA1 region of the hippocampus was reduced following exposure to light stress, independent of presence, or absence, of odor. However, after a single presentation, LTP was reduced following either odor presentation or dual presentation of the stressors. Furthermore, LTP in ex vivo tissue obtained from conflict-exposed animals showed differential hemispheric responses, suggesting that long-term contextual-related components of anxiety behavior are dependent on modification of hippocampal circuitry. PMID:19527775

  15. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a crucial mediator of the noxious effects of mustard oil.

    PubMed

    Everaerts, Wouter; Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Farre, Ricard; Leten, Cindy; Apetrei, Aurelia; Dewachter, Ilse; van Leuven, Fred; Vennekens, Rudi; De Ridder, Dirk; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2011-02-22

    Mustard oil (MO) is a plant-derived irritant that has been extensively used in experimental models to induce pain and inflammation. The noxious effects of MO are currently ascribed to specific activation of the cation channel TRPA1 in nociceptive neurons. In contrast to this view, we show here that the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 has a surprisingly large contribution to aversive and pain responses and visceral irritation induced by MO. Furthermore, we found that this can be explained by previously unknown properties of this compound. First, MO has a bimodal effect on TRPA1, producing current inhibition at millimolar concentrations. Second, it directly and stably activates mouse and human recombinant TRPV1, as well as TRPV1 channels in mouse sensory neurons. Finally, physiological temperatures enhance MO-induced TRPV1 stimulation. Our results refute the dogma that TRPA1 is the sole nocisensor for MO and motivate a revision of the putative roles of these channels in models of MO-induced pain and inflammation. We propose that TRPV1 has a generalized role in the detection of irritant botanical defensive traits and in the coevolution of multiple mammalian and plant species. PMID:21315593

  16. The Scalp Confounds Near-Infrared Signal from Rat Brain Following Innocuous and Noxious Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Wei; Liu, Hanli; Peng, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared imaging (fNIRI) is a non-invasive, low-cost and highly portable technique for assessing brain activity and functions. Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that fNIRI is able to assess brain activity at associated regions during pain processing, indicating a strong possibility of using fNIRI-derived brain activity pattern as a biomarker for pain. However, it remains unclear how, especially in small animals, the scalp influences fNIRI signal in pain processing. Previously, we have shown that the use of a multi-channel system improves the spatial resolution of fNIRI in rats (without the scalp) during pain processing. Our current work is to investigate a scalp effect by comparing with new data from rats with the scalp during innocuous or noxious stimulation (n = 6). Results showed remarkable stimulus-dependent differences between the no-scalp and intact-scalp groups. In conclusion, the scalp confounded the fNIRI signal in pain processing likely via an autonomic mechanism; the scalp effect should be a critical factor in image reconstruction and data interpretation. PMID:26426058

  17. Smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between sensation seeking, peer smoking, and smoking among young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sensation seeking is a strong correlate of smoking among adolescents, yet the research on mediators of this association is not well established. The proposed model of the present study includes antecedent variables (sensation seeking), mediators (perceived peer smoking, outcome expectancies including negative consequences, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite-and-weight control), and one outcome variable (smoking cigarettes during the past 30 days). Methods: Self-reported data obtained from Hungarian high-school students (ninth grade, N = 2,565, mean age 15.3 years, SD = 0.56) were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Before testing of the main model, the construct validity of mediators (outcome expectancy scales) was supported with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling. The final model was tested with structural equation modeling, and the goodness-of-fit indices and the proportion of direct and indirect effects were analyzed. Results: Our mediational model had an excellent model fit, and this study supported both the proposed sensation seeking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways and sensation seeking→perceived peer smoking→positive and negative reinforcement→smoking behavior pathways. The total indirect effect explains 76% of sensation seeking and smoking association. Results support the notion that positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. Discussion: Results support the notion that perceived peer smoking, positive and negative reinforcement expectancies mediate between sensation seeking and smoking. PMID:19959571

  18. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  19. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  20. Quantifying Different Tactile Sensations Evoked by Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation Using Electroencephalography Features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dingguo; Xu, Fei; Xu, Heng; Shull, Peter B; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2016-03-01

    Psychophysical tests and standardized questionnaires are often used to analyze tactile sensation based on subjective judgment in conventional studies. In contrast with the subjective evaluation, a novel method based on electroencephalography (EEG) is proposed to explore the possibility of quantifying tactile sensation in an objective way. The proposed experiments adopt cutaneous electrical stimulation to generate two kinds of sensations (vibration and pressure) with three grades (low/medium/strong) on eight subjects. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related synchronization/desynchronization (ERS/ERD) are extracted from EEG, which are used as evaluation indexes to distinguish between vibration and pressure, and also to discriminate sensation grades. Results show that five-phase P1–N1–P2–N2–P3 deflection is induced in EEG. Using amplitudes of latter ERP components (N2 and P3), vibration and pressure sensations can be discriminated on both individual and grand-averaged ERP (p < 0.05). The grand-average ERPs can distinguish the three sensations grades, but there is no significant difference on individuals. In addition, ERS/ERD features of mu rhythm (8–13 Hz) are adopted. Vibration and pressure sensations can be discriminated on grand-average ERS/ERD (p < 0.05), but only some individuals show significant difference. The grand-averaged results show that most sensation grades can be differentiated, and most pairwise comparisons show significant difference on individuals (p < 0.05). The work suggests that ERP- and ERS/ERD-based EEG features may have potential to quantify tactile sensations for medical diagnosis or engineering applications. PMID:26762865

  1. Placebo-Induced Somatic Sensations: A Multi-Modal Study of Three Different Placebo Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beissner, Florian; Brünner, Franziska; Fink, Maria; Meissner, Karin; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1) placebo irritant solution, (2) placebo laser stimulation, and (3) imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS), while subjects’ sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as “tingling” and “warm” that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205mm²) and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS). Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon. PMID:25901350

  2. 75 FR 57496 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rule To Require the Use of Certified Noxious-Weed-Free Forage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Idaho is proposing a supplementary rule that would require anyone bringing or anyone feeding or storing forage or straw on BLM-administered land when using BLM public lands in Idaho to use certified noxious-weed-free forage and straw. Restoration, rehabilitation, and stabilization projects also will be required to use weed-free straw bales and mulch for......

  3. 76 FR 43706 - Final Supplementary Rules To Require the Use of Certified Noxious-Weed-Free Forage and Straw on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Idaho is finalizing a supplementary rule that will require anyone using, feeding, or storing forage or straw on BLM-administered land in Idaho to use certified noxious-weed-free forage and straw. Restoration, rehabilitation, and stabilization projects also will be required to use weed-free straw bales and mulch for project work. This action is a......

  4. The Basis of Food Texture Sensation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali V; Aikin, Timothy J; Li, Zhengzheng; Montell, Craig

    2016-08-17

    Food texture has enormous effects on food preferences. However, the mechanosensory cells and key molecules responsible for sensing the physical properties of food are unknown. Here, we show that akin to mammals, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, prefers food with a specific hardness or viscosity. This food texture discrimination depends upon a previously unknown multidendritic (md-L) neuron, which extends elaborate dendritic arbors innervating the bases of taste hairs. The md-L neurons exhibit directional selectivity in response to mechanical stimuli. Moreover, these neurons orchestrate different feeding behaviors depending on the magnitude of the stimulus. We demonstrate that the single Drosophila transmembrane channel-like (TMC) protein is expressed in md-L neurons, where it is required for sensing two key textural features of food-hardness and viscosity. We propose that md-L neurons are long sought after mechanoreceptor cells through which food mechanics are perceived and encoded by a taste organ, and that this sensation depends on TMC. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27478019

  5. Phantom auditory sensation in rats: an animal model for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Jastreboff, P J; Brennan, J F; Coleman, J K; Sasaki, C T

    1988-12-01

    In order to measure tinnitus induced by sodium salicylate injections, 84 pigmented rats, distributed among 14 groups in five experiments, were used in a conditioned suppression paradigm. In Experiment 1, all groups were trained with a conditioned stimulus (CS) consisting of the offset of a continuous background noise. One group began salicylate injections before Pavlovian training, a second group started injections after training, and a control group received daily saline injections. Resistance to extinction was profound when injections started before training, but minimal when initiated after training, which suggests that salicylate-induced effects acquired differential conditioned value. In Experiment 2 we mimicked the salicylate treatments by substituting a 7 kHz tone in place of respective injections, resulting in effects equivalent to salicylate-induced behavior. In a third experiment we included a 3 kHz CS, and again replicated the salicylate findings. In Experiment 4 we decreased the motivational level, and the sequential relation between salicylate-induced effects and suppression training was retained. Finally, no salicylate effects emerged when the visual modality was used. These findings support the demonstration of phantom auditory sensations in animals. PMID:3214530

  6. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    PubMed

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry--the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation--and that of adaptation--the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:25201560

  7. Referral of sensation to an advanced humanoid robotic hand prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Birgitta; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Antfolk, Christian; Cipriani, Christian; Sebelius, Fredrik; Lundborg, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Hand prostheses that are currently available on the market are used by amputees to only a limited extent, partly because of lack of sensory feedback from the artificial hand. We report a pilot study that showed how amputees can experience a robot-like advanced hand prosthesis as part of their own body. We induced a perceptual illusion by which touch applied to the stump of the arm was experienced from the artificial hand. This illusion was elicited by applying synchronous tactile stimulation to the hidden amputation stump and the robotic hand prosthesis in full view. In five people who had had upper limb amputations this stimulation caused referral touch sensation from the stump to the artificial hand, and the prosthesis was experienced more like a real hand. We also showed that this illusion can work when the amputee controls the movements of the artificial hand by recordings of the arm muscle activity with electromyograms. These observations indicate that the previously described "rubber hand illusion" is also valid for an advanced hand prosthesis, even when it has a robotic-like appearance. PMID:19863429

  8. [Changes in specific sensation in pilots exposed to systematic general vibration].

    PubMed

    Podshivalov, A A; Krylov, Iu V; Zaritskiĭ, V V

    1995-01-01

    Helicopter pilots exposed to excessive general vibration demonstrate changes of specific sensation (vibrotactile, vestibular, auditory), that could be signs of occupational disorder. Those changes are increased thresholds of vibrotactile sensation, lower vestibulovegetative stability, changed vestibulospinal reflexes, more common occurrence of consistent deafness for voice frequencies in comparison with jet aircraft pilots. Experimental vibration (50-1,800 (m/s2) 2 hour) caused no changes of the vibrotactile and auditory sensation, and the modified vestibular function could prove the increased vestibular reactivity. PMID:7620795

  9. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Linker-Nord, Sara; Busciglio, Irene; Iturrino, Johanna; Szarka, Lawrence A; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Daikenchuto (TU 100), a botanical agent that modulates gastrointestinal nerves, is used in the treatment of motility and functional disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of TU-100 on rectal compliance and sensation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods In 20 patients per treatment arm, we conducted a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose pharmacodynamics study evaluating the effects of TU-100, 15 g (5 g t.i.d. [means 3 times a day]), for 14–16 consecutive days on rectal compliance and rectal sensation (thresholds and sensation ratings), all measured at baseline and on the last day of medication treatment. The primary endpoint was rectal sensation thresholds and sensation ratings in response to balloon distension at 32 mmHg. Secondary endpoints were rectal compliance, sensation thresholds, ratings and tone (fasting and postprandial), bowel pattern, abdominal pain (average and worst severity) and bloating scores, IBS quality of life and safety profile. Results Rectal sensation ratings post-treatment were significantly associated with baseline (pre-treatment) ratings and with level of anxiety or stress recorded at the time of the sensation testing. There were no effects of TU-100 treatment on rectal sensation ratings, sensation thresholds, rectal fasting or postprandial tone, rectal compliance, bowel function, abdominal pain or bloating scores, or IBS quality of life. Conclusions TU-100 did not significantly affect rectal compliance and sensation in patients with IBS in this study. PMID:26486374

  10. Light spectrum regulates cell accumulation during daytime in the raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua causing noxious red tides.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Tomoyuki; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Iwahori, Sho; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-07-01

    Most marine raphidophyte species cause noxious red tides in temperate coastal areas around the world. It is known that swimming abilities enable raphidophytes to accumulation of cells and to actively acquire light at surface layers and nutrients over a wide depth range. However, it remains unclear how the swimming behavior is affected by environmental conditions, especially light condition. In the present study, we observed the accumulation of the harmful red-tide raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua under various light conditions during the daytime in the laboratory. When exposed to ultraviolet-A/blue light (320-480nm) or red light (640-680nm) from above, cells moved downward. In the case of blue light (455nm), cells started to swim downward after 5-15min of irradiation at a photon flux density≥10μmolm(-2)s(-1). When exposed to monochromatic lights (400-680nm) from the side, cells moved away from the blue light source and then descended, but just moved downward under red light. However, mixing of green/orange light (520-630nm) diminished the effects of blue light. When exposed to a mixture of 30μmolm(-2)s(-1) of blue light (440nm) and ≥6μmolm(-2)s(-1) of yellow light (560nm) from above, cells did not move downward. These results indicate that blue light induces negative phototaxis and ultraviolet-A/blue and red lights induce descending, and green/orange light cancels out their effects in C. antiqua. PMID:27107332

  11. Astaxanthin Protects Primary Hippocampal Neurons against Noxious Effects of Aβ-Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Lobos, Pedro; Bruna, Barbara; Cordova, Alex; Barattini, Pablo; Galáz, Jose Luis; Adasme, Tatiana; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Muñoz, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the ensuing oxidative stress contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathology. We reported previously that amyloid-β peptide oligomers (AβOs) produce aberrant Ca2+ signals at sublethal concentrations and decrease the expression of type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2), which are crucial for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory. Here, we investigated whether the antioxidant agent astaxanthin (ATX) protects neurons from AβOs-induced excessive mitochondrial ROS generation, NFATc4 activation, and RyR2 mRNA downregulation. To determine mitochondrial H2O2 production or NFATc4 nuclear translocation, neurons were transfected with plasmids coding for HyperMito or NFATc4-eGFP, respectively. Primary hippocampal cultures were incubated with 0.1 μM ATX for 1.5 h prior to AβOs addition (500 nM). We found that incubation with ATX (≤10 μM) for ≤24 h was nontoxic to neurons, evaluated by the live/dead assay. Preincubation with 0.1 μM ATX also prevented the neuronal mitochondrial H2O2 generation induced within minutes of AβOs addition. Longer exposures to AβOs (6 h) promoted NFATc4-eGFP nuclear translocation and decreased RyR2 mRNA levels, evaluated by detection of the eGFP-tagged fluorescent plasmid and qPCR, respectively. Preincubation with 0.1 μM ATX prevented both effects. These results indicate that ATX protects neurons from the noxious effects of AβOs on mitochondrial ROS production, NFATc4 activation, and RyR2 gene expression downregulation. PMID:27034843

  12. NMDA receptor mediates chronic visceral pain induced by neonatal noxious somatic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Adrian; Mickle, Aaron; Bruckert, Mitchell; Kannampalli, Pradeep; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2014-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDAR) are important in the development and maintenance of central sensitization. Our objective was to investigate the role of spinal neurons and NMDAR in the maintenance of chronic visceral pain. Neonatal rats were injected with acidic saline adjusted to pH4.0 in the gastrocnemius muscle every other day for 12 days. In adult rats, NR1 and NR2B subunits were examined in the lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal cord. A baseline, visceromotor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) was recorded before and after administration of the NMDA antagonist, CGS-19755. Extracellular recordings were performed from CRD-sensitive LS spinal neurons and pelvic nerve afferents (PNA) before and after CGS-19755. Rats that received pH 4.0 saline injections demonstrated a significant increase in the expression NR2B subunits and VMR response to CRD >20mmHg. CGS-19755 (i.v. or i.t.) had no effect in naïve rats, but significantly decreased the response to CRD in pH4.0 saline injected rats. CGS-19755 had no effect on the spontaneous firing of SL-A, but decreased that of SL-S. Similarly, CGS-19755 attenuates the responses of SL-S neurons to CRD, but had no effect on SL-A neurons or on the response characteristics of PNA fibers. Neonatal noxious somatic stimulation results in chronic visceral hyperalgesia and sensitizes a specific subpopulation of CRD-sensitive spinal neurons. The sensitization of these SL-S spinal neurons is attenuated by the NMDAR antagonist. The results of this study suggest that spinal NMDARs play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia early in life. PMID:25281204

  13. Activated platelets release sphingosine 1-phosphate and induce hypersensitivity to noxious heat stimuli in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Weth, Daniela; Benetti, Camilla; Rauch, Caroline; Gstraunthaler, Gerhard; Schmidt, Helmut; Geisslinger, Gerd; Sabbadini, Roger; Proia, Richard L.; Kress, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    At the site of injury activated platelets release various mediators, one of which is sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). It was the aim of this study to explore whether activated human platelets had a pronociceptive effect in an in vivo mouse model and whether this effect was based on the release of S1P and subsequent activation of neuronal S1P receptors 1 or 3. Human platelets were prepared in different concentrations (105/μl, 106/μl, 107/μl) and assessed in mice with different genetic backgrounds (WT, S1P1fl/fl, SNS-S1P1−/−, S1P3−/−). Intracutaneous injections of activated human platelets induced a significant, dose-dependent hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation. The degree of heat hypersensitivity correlated with the platelet concentration as well as the platelet S1P content and the amount of S1P released upon platelet activation as measured with LC MS/MS. Despite the significant correlations between S1P and platelet count, no difference in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was observed in mice with a global null mutation of the S1P3 receptor or a conditional deletion of the S1P1 receptor in nociceptive primary afferents. Furthermore, neutralization of S1P with a selective anti-S1P antibody did not abolish platelet induced heat hypersensitivity. Our results suggest that activated platelets release S1P and induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo. However, the platelet induced heat hypersensitivity was caused by mediators other than S1P. PMID:25954148

  14. Thalamic Kv7 channels: pharmacological properties and activity control during noxious signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Manuela; Szkudlarek, Hanna J; Coulon, Philippe; Meuth, Patrick; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Nguyen, Xuan Vinh; Göbel, Kerstin; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Meuth, Sven G; Pape, Hans-Christian; Budde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The existence of functional Kv7 channels in thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons and the effects of the K+-current termed M-current (IM) on thalamic signal processing have long been debated. Immunocytochemical evidence suggests their presence in this brain region. Therefore, we aimed to verify their existence, pharmacological properties and function in regulating activity in neurons of the ventrobasal thalamus (VB). Experimental Approach Characterization of Kv7 channels was performed by combining in vitro, in vivo and in silico techniques with a pharmacological approach. Retigabine (30 μM) and XE991 (20 μM), a specific Kv7 channel enhancer and blocker, respectively, were applied in acute brain slices during electrophysiological recordings. The effects of intrathalamic injection of retigabine (3 mM, 300 nL) and/or XE991 (2 mM, 300 nL) were investigated in freely moving animals during hot-plate tests by recording behaviour and neuronal activity. Key Results Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 subunits were found to be abundantly expressed in TC neurons of mouse VB. A slow K+-current with properties of IM was activated by retigabine and inhibited by XE991. Kv7 channel activation evoked membrane hyperpolarization, a reduction in tonic action potential firing, and increased burst firing in vitro and in computational models. Single-unit recordings and pharmacological intervention demonstrated a specific burst-firing increase upon IM activation in vivo. A Kv7 channel-mediated increase in pain threshold was associated with fewer VB units responding to noxious stimuli, and increased burst firing in responsive neurons. Conclusions and Implications Kv7 channel enhancement alters somatosensory activity and may reflect an anti-nociceptive mechanism during acute pain processing. PMID:25684311

  15. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed. PMID:21449245

  16. The vital sensation of the minerals: reducing uncertainty in homeopathic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E A; Geraghty, J

    2007-04-01

    We illustrate the 'vital sensation' of mineral-based homeopathic medicines as revealed by an interview style based on a synthesis of the Bombay method and Scholten's, understanding derived from the periodic table. The 'Bombay method', described by Rajan Sankaran, builds on homeopathic teaching giving a structure to guide the gathering and synthesising homeopathic data. The concept of 'levels' gives a route to the deepest reflection of the vital disturbance, the vital sensation. Moving through the levels of fact, symptom, emotion, delusion and finally vital sensation provides valuable prescribing information. These aspects are discussed in conjunction with the kingdoms: plant, mineral and animal, focusing on the mineral kingdom. By synthesizing information relating to the concepts of vital sensation and kingdom we can reduce uncertainly in homeopathic prescribing. PMID:17437937

  17. Sexual sensation seeking in Spanish young men and women with different sexual orientations.

    PubMed

    Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266

  18. Asimadoline, a κ-Opioid Agonist, and Visceral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Asimadoline is a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist with a diaryl acetamide structure. It has high affinity for the κ receptor, with IC50 of 5.6 nM (guinea pig) and 1.2 nM (human recombinant), and high selectively with κ: μ: δ binding ratios of 1:501:498 in human recombinant receptors. It acts as a complete agonist in in vitro assay. Asimadoline reduced sensation in response to colonic distension at subnoxious pressures in healthy volunteers and in IBS patients without alteration of colonic compliance. Asimadoline reduced satiation and enhanced the postprandial gastric volume (in female volunteers). However, there were no significant effects on gastrointestinal transit, colonic compliance, fasting or postprandial colonic tone. In a clinical trial in 40 patients with functional dyspepsia (Rome II), asimadoline did not significantly alter satiation or symptoms over 8 weeks. However, asimadoline, 0.5 mg, significantly decreased satiation in patients with higher postprandial fullness scores, and daily postprandial fullness severity (over 8 weeks); the asimadoline 1.0 mg group was borderline significant. In a clinical trial in patients with IBS, average pain 2 hours post-on-demand treatment with asimadoline was not significantly reduced. Post-hoc analyses suggest asimadoline was effective in mixed IBS. In a 12-week study in 596 patients, chronic treatment with asimadoline, 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg, was associated with adequate relief of pain and discomfort, improvement in pain score and number of pain free days in patients with IBS-D. The 1.0 mg dose was also efficacious in IBS-alternating. There were also weeks with significant reduction in bowel frequency and urgency. Asimadoline has been well tolerated in human trials to date. PMID:18715494

  19. Mechanism of acupuncture regulating visceral sensation and mobility.

    PubMed

    Rong, Peijing; Zhu, Bing; Li, Yuqing; Gao, Xinyan; Ben, Hui; Li, Yanhua; Li, Liang; He, Wei; Liu, Rupeng; Yu, Lingling

    2011-06-01

    . This study focuses on the relevance and associations between meridians and viscera. A summary of the mechanisms of acupuncture regulating visceral sensation and mobility and the specific relationships between acupoints and their target organs are presented in this review. PMID:21695619

  20. Extraretinal Induced Visual Sensations during IMRT of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Buchstab, Barbara Myrthe; Leitzen, Christina; Garbe, Stephan; Müdder, Thomas; Oberste-Beulmann, Susanne; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Simon, Birgit; Nelles, Michael; Block, Wolfgang; Schoroth, Felix; Schild, Hans Heinz; Schüller, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Background We observed visual sensations (VSs) in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin. Methods and Findings Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years) with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy) with helical tomotherapy (TT). A megavolt—CT (MVCT) was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF) matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR) from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient) 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm). The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%). Conclusions There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs. PMID:25875609

  1. Risk-Taking and Sensation Seeking Propensity in Post-Institutionalized Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Quevedo, Karina; Lafavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth with histories of institutional/orphanage care are at increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems during childhood and adolescence. Although these problems have been well described, the related adolescent behaviors of risk-taking and sensation seeking have not yet been explored in this population. This study examined risk-taking and sensation seeking propensity, and associations with conduct problems and depressive symptoms, in early adolescents who were adopted as young children from institutional care. Methods Risk-taking and sensation seeking propensities of 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized (PI; n=54) adolescents were compared to two groups: youth internationally adopted early from foster care (PFC; n=44) and non-adopted youth (NA; n=58). Participants were recruited to equally represent pre/early- and mid/late-pubertal stages within each group. Participants completed the youth version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2007) and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children (Russo et al., 1991). Parents completed clinical ratings of participants’ conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Results PI adolescents demonstrated lower risk-taking than PFC and NA peers. Pre/early-pubertal PI youth showed lower sensation seeking, while mid/late pubertal PI youth did not differ in from other groups. PI adolescents had higher levels of conduct problems but did not differ from the other youth in depressive symptoms. In PI youth only, conduct problems were negatively correlated with risk-taking and positively correlated with sensation seeking, while depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with both risk-taking and sensation seeking. Conclusions Early institutional care is associated with less risk-taking and sensation seeking during adolescence. The deprived environment of an institution likely contributes to PI youth having a preference for safe choices, which may only be partially reversed with puberty. Whether

  2. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-07-14

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads' tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads' tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P < 0.01) in a similar manner for all four vibration locations. Specifically, vibration at 60% of the sensory threshold improved the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01), while vibration at 120% of the sensory threshold degraded the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01) and the 80% vibration did not significantly change the fingertip sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  3. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery. PMID:24235291

  4. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P < 0.01) in a similar manner for all four vibration locations. Specifically, vibration at 60% of the sensory threshold improved the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01), while vibration at 120% of the sensory threshold degraded the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01) and the 80% vibration did not significantly change the fingertip sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  5. Exogenously Applied Muscle Metabolites Synergistically Evoke Sensations of Muscle Fatigue and Pain in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Kelly A.; Swenson, Jeffrey D.; Vanhaitsma, Timothy A.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Jo, Daehyun; Light, Kathleen C.; Schweinhardt, Petra; Amann, Markus; Light, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of fatigue is common in many disease states, however, the mechanisms of sensory muscle fatigue are not understood. In mice, rats and cats, muscle afferents signal metabolite production in skeletal muscle using a complex of ASIC, P2X and TRPV1 receptors. Endogenous muscle agonists for these receptors are combinations of protons, lactate, and ATP. Here we applied physiological concentrations of these agonists to muscle interstitium in human subjects to determine if this combination could activate sensations, and if so determined how these subjects described these sensations. Ten volunteers received infusions (0.2 ml over 30-s) containing protons, lactate and ATP under the fascia of a thumb muscle, abductor pollicis brevis (APB). Infusion of individual metabolites at maximum amounts evoked no fatigue or pain. Metabolite combinations found in resting muscles (pH 7.4+300nM ATP+1mM lactate) also evoked no sensation. The infusion of a metabolite-combination found in muscle during moderate endurance-exercise (pH 7.3+400nM ATP+5 mM lactate) produced significant fatigue sensations. Infusion of a metabolite-combination associated with vigorous exercise (pH 7.2+500nM ATP+10mM lactate) produced stronger sensations of fatigue and some ache. Higher levels of metabolites (as found with ischemic exercise) caused more ache but no additional fatigue-sensation. Thus, in a dose-dependent manner, intramuscular infusion of combinations of protons, lactate, and ATP leads to fatigue-sensation and eventually pain, probably through activation of ASIC, P2X, and TRPV1 receptors. This is the first demonstration in humans that metabolites normally produced by exercise act in combination to activate sensory neurons that signal sensations of fatigue and muscle pain. PMID:24142455

  6. Cold acclimation recruits human brown fat and increases nonshivering thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van der Lans, Anouk A.J.J.; Hoeks, Joris; Brans, Boudewijn; Vijgen, Guy H.E.J.; Visser, Mariëlle G.W.; Vosselman, Maarten J.; Hansen, Jan; Jörgensen, Johanna A.; Wu, Jun; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Schrauwen, Patrick; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No sex differences in BAT presence and activity were found either before or after cold acclimation. Respiration measurements in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria revealed no significant contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling to the increased NST. Based on cell-specific markers and on uncoupling protein-1 (characteristic of both BAT and beige/brite cells), this study did not show “browning” of abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue upon cold acclimation. The observed physiological acclimation is in line with the subjective changes in temperature sensation; upon cold acclimation, the subjects judged the environment warmer, felt more comfortable in the cold, and reported less shivering. The combined results suggest that a variable indoor environment with frequent cold exposures might be an acceptable and economic manner to increase energy expenditure and may contribute to counteracting the current obesity epidemic. PMID:23867626

  7. Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

    2014-08-01

    A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

  8. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Trevor P; Roesch, Etienne B; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  9. The tickly homunculus and the origins of spontaneous sensations arising on the hands.

    PubMed

    Michael, George A; Naveteur, Janick

    2011-09-01

    Everyone has felt those tingling, tickly sensations occurring spontaneously all over the body in the absence of stimuli. But does anyone know where they come from? Here, right-handed subjects were asked to focus on one hand while looking at it (convergent focusing) and while looking away (divergent focusing) and subsequently to map and describe the spatial and qualitative attributes of sensations arising spontaneously. The spatial distribution of spontaneous sensations followed a proximo-distal gradient, similar to the one previously described for the density of receptive units. The intensity and spatial extent of the reported sensations were modulated by the focusing condition, especially in respect of the left hand. Convergent focusing acted upon the conscious perception of sensations by enhancing or suppressing them. To our knowledge, this is the first ever study of spontaneous sensations, and it offers considerable insight into their sources. The presence of the proximo-distal distributional gradient is a clear sign that receptive units are involved. The enhancement/suppression effects also confirm the involvement of attention. Finally, left-hand dominance suggests several right-hemisphere processes may be involved, such as spatial and tactile perception, and probably interoception. PMID:21190869

  10. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Trevor P.; Roesch, Etienne B.; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption. PMID:27445877

  11. Brain responses to repeated visual experience among low and high sensation seekers: role of boredom susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yang; Lianekhammy, Joann; Lawson, Adam; Guo, Chunyan; ynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.; Gold, Brian T.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and presented 1–3 times. Sixty-four channel ERP responses were recorded while participants classified items as “man-made” or “not man-made” in a repetition priming task. The two groups showed different ERP responses at frontal electrode sites after seeing a visual stimulus for 400–800 ms. The frontal late positive components (LPC) showed different habituation of ERP responses to new and studied repeated objects between high and low sensation seekers. Source localization analysis (LORETA) indicated that during visual stimulus adaptation the left ventral pre-frontal cortex showed lack of frontal involvement among high sensation seekers. Furthermore, frontal LPC latencies during repeated visual exposure correlated with boredom susceptibility and experience seeking subscales. The distinct profiles of brain responses to repeated visual experience in high and low sensation seekers provide evidence that individual differences in neural adaptation can be linked to personality dimensions. PMID:19560906

  12. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Dienes, Lóránt; Kiss, Huba J.; Perényi, Kristóf; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Zoltán Z.; Barsi, Árpád; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients. Methods Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years) with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years) without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT) in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar) drops. Results In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p<0.004). NI-BUT significantly increased after HP-guar (p = 0.003) but not after saline drops (p = 0.14). In both groups, either after saline or HP-guar the shape of symptom intensity curves remained the same with significantly lower irritation scores (p<0.004), however after HP-guar the decrease was significantly more pronounced (p<0.004). Corneal sensitivity to selective mechanical, cold and chemical stimulation decreased significantly in both groups after HP-guar (p<0.05), but not after saline drops (p>0.05). Conclusion Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is

  13. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  14. Somatosympathetic Vasoconstrictor Reflexes in Human Spinal Cord Injury: Responses to Innocuous and Noxious Sensory Stimulation below Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Macefield, Vaughan G.; Burton, Alexander R.; Brown, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    It is known that the sudden increases in blood pressure associated with autonomic dysreflexia in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are due to a spinally mediated reflex activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons supplying skeletal muscle and the gut. Apart from visceral inputs, such as those originating from a distended bladder, there is a prevailing opinion that autonomic dysreflexia can be triggered by noxious stimulation below the lesion. However, do noxious inputs really cause an increase in blood pressure in SCI? Using microelectrodes inserted into a peripheral nerve to record sympathetic nerve activity we had previously shown that selective stimulation of small-diameter afferents in muscle or skin, induced by bolus injection of hypertonic saline into the tibialis anterior muscle or the overlying skin, evokes a sustained increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure and a transient increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity and decrease in skin blood flow in able-bodied subjects. We postulated that these sympathetic responses would be exaggerated in SCI, with a purely noxious stimulus causing long-lasting increases in blood pressure and long-lasting decreases in skin blood flow. Surprisingly, though, we found that intramuscular or subcutaneous injection of hypertonic saline into the leg caused negligible changes in these parameters. Conversely, weak electrical stimulation over the abdominal wall, which in able-bodied subjects is not painful and activates large-diameter cutaneous afferents, caused a marked increase in blood pressure in SCI but not in able-bodied subjects. This suggests that it is activation of large-diameter somatic afferents, not small-diameter afferents, that triggers increases in sympathetic outflow in SCI. Whether the responses to activation of large-diameter afferents reflect plastic changes in the spinal cord in SCI is unknown. PMID:22737131

  15. Comparison of anterior cingulate and primary somatosensory neuronal responses to noxious laser-heat stimuli in conscious, behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Chih; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2005-09-01

    In this study, we investigated single-unit responses of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to noxious stimulation of the tail of the rat. The influences of morphine on these nociceptive responses were also compared. Multiple single-unit activities were recorded from two eight-channel microwire arrays chronically implanted in the tail region of the SmI and ACC, respectively. CO2 laser-heat irradiation of the middle part of the tail at an intensity slightly higher than that causing a maximal tail flick response was used as a specific noxious stimulus. Examined individually, ACC neurons were less responsive than SmI neurons to laser-heat stimulus, in that only 51% of the ACC units (n = 125) responded compared with 88% of the SmI units (n = 74). Among these responsive ACC units, many had a very long latency and long-lasting excitatory type of response that was seldom found in the SmI. When ensemble activities were examined, laser heat evoked both short- (60 approximately 150 ms) and long-latency (151 approximately 600 ms) responses in the SmI and ACC. Latencies of both responses were longer in the ACC. Furthermore, a single dose of 2.5-10 mg/kg morphine intraperitoneally suppressed only the long latency response in the SmI, but significantly attenuated both responses in the ACC. These effects of morphine were completely blocked by prior treatment with the opiate receptor blocker, naloxone. These results provide further evidence suggesting that the SmI and ACC may play different roles in processing noxious information. PMID:16105955

  16. Noxious mechanical heterotopic stimulation induces inhibition of the spinal dorsal horn neuronal network: analysis of spinal somatosensory-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Gallardo, J; Eblen-Zajjur, A

    2016-09-01

    Most of the endogenous pain modulation (EPM) involves the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). EPM including diffuse noxious inhibitory controls have been extensively described in oligoneuronal electrophysiological recordings but less attention had been paid to responses of the SDH neuronal population to heterotopic noxious stimulation (HNS). Spinal somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) offer the possibility to evaluate the neuronal network behavior, reflecting the incoming afferent volleys along the entry root, SDH interneuron activities and the primary afferent depolarization. SEP from de lumbar cord dorsum were evaluated during mechanical heterotopic noxious stimuli. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were Laminectomized (T10-L3). The sural nerve of the left hind paw was electrically stimulated (5 mA, 0.5 ms, 0.05 Hz) to induce lumbar SEP. The HNS (mechanic clamp) was applied sequentially to the tail, right hind paw, right forepaw, muzzle and left forepaw during sural stimulation. N wave amplitude decreases (-16.6 %) compared to control conditions when HNS was applied to all areas of stimulation. This effect was more intense for muzzle stimulation (-23.5 %). N wave duration also decreased by -23.6 %. HNS did not change neither the amplitude nor the duration of the P wave but dramatically increases the dispersion of these two parameters. The results of the present study strongly suggest that a HNS applied to different parts of the body is able to reduce the integrated electrical response of the SDH, suggesting that not only wide dynamic range neurons but many others in the SDH are modulated by the EPM. PMID:27207681

  17. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  18. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The ... Cold knife cone biopsy is done to detect cervical cancer or early changes that lead to cancer. ...

  19. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  20. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  1. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  2. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  3. Sensory origin of lobeline-induced sensations: a correlative study in man and cat.

    PubMed Central

    Raj, H; Singh, V K; Anand, A; Paintal, A S

    1995-01-01

    1. Intravenous injections of lobeline HCl into twenty-six normal young male human volunteers produced sensations of choking, pressure or fumes in the throat and upper chest at a mean threshold dose of 12 micrograms kg-1. 2. Reflex changes in breathing pattern usually appeared just before the sensations. Increasing the dose of lobeline increased the intensity of the sensations gradually until a dry cough appeared at a mean threshold dose of 24.3 micrograms kg-1. At these doses there was a mean difference of 0.3s in the latencies for sensation and respiratory reflex; in four subjects there was no difference at all. 3. In cats anaesthetized with 35 mg kg-1 sodium pentobarbitone, injecting 25-67 micrograms kg-1 lobeline into the right atrium sensitized thirteen out of seventeen rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). In three out of four cats lobeline had no excitatory effect on the RARs in the absence of normal activity (i.e. when it was injected while artificial respiration was suspended), but on restarting the respiration the activity increased greatly. After injecting lobeline, the activity increased during inflation or deflation or in both phases of the respiratory cycle. It also increased greatly during deflation produced by suction of air from the lungs after lobeline. Such presumed increased activity in the RARs of man produced by forced expiration to residual volume at the time lobeline-induced sensations were expected did not enhance the sensations in any subject. 4. In all the subjects tested, forced expiration alone, which should stimulate RARs, never produced a dry cough or sensations similar to those produced by lobeline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7730986

  4. Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Agnes; Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D; Husain, Masud

    2013-08-01

    Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling. PMID:23926253

  5. Federal Interagency Coordination for Invasive Plant Issues -- The Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW) is a formal partnership between 16 federal agencies that have invasive plant management and regulatory responsibilities for the United States and its territories. Efforts to develop a national level federal interagency committee to coordinate federal activities were initiated by national weed program managers with the USDA Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management in 1989. FICMNEW was formally established through a Memorandum of Understanding that was signed by agency administrators of member agencies in August, 1994.

  6. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  7. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  8. Cold habituation does not improve manual dexterity during rest and exercise in 5 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew D.; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J.; Pollock, Brandon S.; Burns, Keith J.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2014-04-01

    When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.

  9. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    PubMed

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

  10. Internal sensations as a source of fear: exploring a link between hypoxia and flight phobia.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bogaerde, Anouk; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Although flight phobia is very common in the general population, knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is limited. The aim of the current study is to determine whether hypoxia is selectively associated with flight anxiety. We wanted to explore levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the associated subjective somatic sensations in flight phobics and controls. The data collected in this study were obtained from 103 participants: 54 had flight phobia, 49 were controls. SpO2 as well as a subjective report of somatic sensations and anxiety were measured during short haul flights, both at ground level and at cruising altitude. Results indicated that both flight phobics and controls showed a comparable clinical significant decrease in SpO2 from sea level to cruising altitude. Next, at ground level the flight phobic group reported more somatic sensations, most likely due to the elevated levels of anxiety at that point. However, at cruising altitude the flight phobic group still reported more somatic sensations while the level of anxiety was no longer significantly different from controls. This finding points to altered symptom perception in flight phobia and stresses the importance of somatic sensations in this particular phobia. PMID:22574671

  11. The Emotional and Functional Impact of the Type of Tinnitus Sensation.

    PubMed

    Moring, John; Bowen, Anne; Thomas, Jenifer; Bira, Lindsay

    2016-09-01

    One to three percent of individuals with tinnitus experience significant reduction in quality of life. Factors that contribute to distress include personality variables, intolerance to loud noises, external locus of control, and pre-existing anxiety. Characteristics of tinnitus itself, such as perceived loudness, can also cause functional impairment. It is unknown whether different tinnitus sensations have various effects on either emotional or functional impairment, which can reduce quality of life. While audiological tests can determine pitch and loudness of tinnitus, questionnaires also can be easily used to assess subjective characteristics of tinnitus. In this study, 370 participants, recruited via email from a national tinnitus organization, completed online surveys that assessed tinnitus-related distress and provided qualitative descriptions of their tinnitus sensation. Self-reports of tinnitus sensation were rated by five independent coders, with excellent agreement. Individuals who reported a combination of tinnitus sensations were found to experience significantly more functional impairment and avoidant behavior. Future research should utilize more sophisticated approaches to categorize individuals' tinnitus sensation and to examine associated emotional and functional differences. Providers should appropriately refer patients for tinnitus management and empirically-supported therapies aimed at reducing tinnitus related distress and functional impairment. PMID:26613765

  12. Effects of bronchoconstriction and external resistive loading on the sensation of dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, O; Kikuchi, Y; Hida, W; Iwase, N; Satoh, M; Chonan, T; Takishima, T

    1991-12-01

    To determine whether the intensity of dyspnea at a given level of respiratory motor output differs between bronchoconstriction and the presence of an external resistance, we compared the sensation of difficulty in breathing during isocapnic voluntary hyperventilation in six normal subjects. An external resistance of 1.9 cmH2O.1-1.s was applied during both inspiration and expiration. To induce bronchoconstriction, histamine aerosol (5 mg/ml) was inhaled until airway resistance (Raw) increased to a level approximately equal to the subject's control Raw plus the added external resistance. To clarify the role of vagal afferents on the genesis of dyspnea during both forms of obstruction to airflow, the effect of airway anesthesia by lidocaine aerosol inhalation was also examined after histamine and during external resistive loading. The sensation of difficulty in breathing was rated at 30-s intervals on a visual analog scale during isocapnic voluntary hyperpnea, in which the subjects were asked to copy an oscilloscope volume trace obtained previously during progressive hypercapnia. Histamine inhalation significantly increased the intensity of the dyspneic sensation over the equivalent external resistive load at the same levels of ventilation and occlusion pressure during voluntary hyperpnea. Inhaled lidocaine decreased the sensation of dyspnea during bronchoconstriction with no change in Raw, but it did not significantly change the sensation during external resistive loading. These results suggest that afferent vagal activity plays a role in the genesis of dyspnea during bronchoconstriction. PMID:1778911

  13. The impulsivity and sensation-seeking mediators of the psychological consequences of pathological gambling in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606

  14. Milder form of heat-related symptoms and thermal sensation: a study in a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Pantavou, Katerina G; Lykoudis, Spyridon P; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K

    2016-06-01

    Mild heat-related health effects and their potential association with meteorological and personal parameters in relation to subjective and objective thermal sensation were investigated. Micrometeorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted in an urban Mediterranean environment during a warm, cool, and a transitional season. The participants were asked to indicate their thermal sensation based on a seven-point scale and report whether they were experiencing any of the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion. Two thermal indices, Actual Sensation Vote (ASV) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), were estimated in order to obtain an objective measure of individuals' thermal sensation. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify risk parameters while cluster analysis was used to determine thresholds of air temperature, ASV and UTCI related to health effects. Exhaustion was the most frequent symptom reported by the interviewees. Females and smokers were more likely to report heat-related symptoms than males and nonsmokers. Based on cluster analysis, 35 °C could be a cutoff point for the manifestation of heat-related symptoms during summer. The threshold for ASV was 0.85 corresponding to "warm" thermal sensation and for UTCI was about 30.85 °C corresponding to "moderate heat stress" according to the Mediterranean assessment scale. PMID:26506928

  15. Psychophysical measurements of itch and nociceptive sensations in an experimental model of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pall, Parul S.; Hurwitz, Olivia E.; King, Brett A.; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common condition that can significantly impact the quality of life. Contact with allergens results in delayed hypersensitivity reactions involving T-lymphocytes, with associated skin inflammation and spontaneous itch and nociceptive sensations. However, psychophysical studies of these sensations are lacking. In the present study, we sensitized eight healthy volunteers to squaric acid dibutyl ester (SADBE). Two weeks later, one volar forearm was challenged with SADBE, and the other with acetone vehicle control. Subsequently, subjects rated the maximal perceived intensity of spontaneous itch, pricking/stinging, and burning every 6–12 hours for one week, using the generalized labeled magnitude scale. In the laboratory, they judged stimulus-evoked sensations within and outside the chemically-treated area. The SADBE- but not the acetone-treated skin resulted in a) localized inflammation, with spontaneous itch and nociceptive sensations peaking at 24–48 hours post-challenge, b) alloknesis, hyperknesis, and hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli that were reduced or eliminated by anesthetic cooling of the SADBE-treated area and restored upon re-warming, suggesting sensations and dysesthesias are dependent on ongoing peripheral neural activity, and c) enhanced itch to intradermal injection of histamine, BAM8-22, or β-alanine. This experimental model of T-cell-mediated inflammation may prove useful in evaluating potential treatments of itch from ACD. PMID:26002605

  16. Is there an association between Helicobacter pylori in the inlet patch and globus sensation?

    PubMed Central

    Alagozlu, Hakan; Simsek, Zahide; Unal, Selahattin; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Dumlu, Sukru; Dursun, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and globus sensation (GS) in the patients with cervical inlet patch. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with esophageal inlet patches were identified from 6760 consecutive patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy prospectively. In these 68 patients with cervical inlet patches, symptoms of globus sensation (lump in the throat), hoarseness, sore throat, frequent clearing of the throat, cough, dysphagia, odynophagia of at least 3 mo duration was questioned prior to endoscopy. RESULTS: Cervical heterotopic gastric mucosa (CHGM) was found in 68 of 6760 patients. The endoscopic prevalence of CHGM was determined to be 1%. H. pylori was identified in 16 (23.5%) of 68 patients with inlet patch. Fifty-three patients were classified as CHGM II. This group included 48 patients with globus sensation, 4 patients with chronic cough and 1 patient with hoarseness. All the patients who were H. pylori (+) in cervical inlet patches had globus sensation. CONCLUSION: Often patients with CHGM have a long history of troublesome throat symptoms. We speculate that disturbances in globus sensation are like non-ulcer dyspepsia. PMID:20039447

  17. [Comparison of phantom limb pain or phantom extremity sensation of upper and lower extremity amputations].

    PubMed

    Uğur, Fatih; Akin, Aynur; Esmaoğlu, Aliye; Doğru, Kudret; Ors, Sevgi; Aydoğan, Harun; Gülcü, Nebahat; Boyaci, Adem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the upper and the lower extremity amputations with regard to phantom pain, phantom sensation and stump pain. A questionnaire consisting of 23 questions was send to the patients who underwent upper or lower extremity amputation surgery between 1996- 2005. The patients were questioned for the presence of phantom pain and sensations and if they existed for the frequency, intensity, cause of amputation, pre-amputation pain, stump pain, usage of artificial limb. Totally 147 patients were included and the response rate was 70 %. The incidence of phantom pain in Upper Extremity Group was 60 % and 65.8% in Lower Extremity Group. The incidence of phantom sensations was 70.7% in Upper Extremity Group and 75.6% in Lower Extremity Group. There was no significant difference between two groups considering in phantom pain and phantom sensations. The phantom pain was significantly higher in patients who lost dominant hand, experienced pre amputation pain and suffered stump pain. There were no significant differences in regard to phantom pain and sensation between upper and lower extremity amputations. However the presence of preamputation pain, stump pain and amputation of dominant hand were found as risk factors for the development of phantom pain. PMID:17457707

  18. Milder form of heat-related symptoms and thermal sensation: a study in a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantavou, Katerina G.; Lykoudis, Spyridon P.; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.

    2015-10-01

    Mild heat-related health effects and their potential association with meteorological and personal parameters in relation to subjective and objective thermal sensation were investigated. Micrometeorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted in an urban Mediterranean environment during a warm, cool, and a transitional season. The participants were asked to indicate their thermal sensation based on a seven-point scale and report whether they were experiencing any of the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion. Two thermal indices, Actual Sensation Vote (ASV) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), were estimated in order to obtain an objective measure of individuals' thermal sensation. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify risk parameters while cluster analysis was used to determine thresholds of air temperature, ASV and UTCI related to health effects. Exhaustion was the most frequent symptom reported by the interviewees. Females and smokers were more likely to report heat-related symptoms than males and nonsmokers. Based on cluster analysis, 35 °C could be a cutoff point for the manifestation of heat-related symptoms during summer. The threshold for ASV was 0.85 corresponding to "warm" thermal sensation and for UTCI was about 30.85 °C corresponding to "moderate heat stress" according to the Mediterranean assessment scale.

  19. Milder form of heat-related symptoms and thermal sensation: a study in a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantavou, Katerina G.; Lykoudis, Spyridon P.; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.

    2016-06-01

    Mild heat-related health effects and their potential association with meteorological and personal parameters in relation to subjective and objective thermal sensation were investigated. Micrometeorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted in an urban Mediterranean environment during a warm, cool, and a transitional season. The participants were asked to indicate their thermal sensation based on a seven-point scale and report whether they were experiencing any of the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion. Two thermal indices, Actual Sensation Vote (ASV) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), were estimated in order to obtain an objective measure of individuals' thermal sensation. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify risk parameters while cluster analysis was used to determine thresholds of air temperature, ASV and UTCI related to health effects. Exhaustion was the most frequent symptom reported by the interviewees. Females and smokers were more likely to report heat-related symptoms than males and nonsmokers. Based on cluster analysis, 35 °C could be a cutoff point for the manifestation of heat-related symptoms during summer. The threshold for ASV was 0.85 corresponding to "warm" thermal sensation and for UTCI was about 30.85 °C corresponding to "moderate heat stress" according to the Mediterranean assessment scale.

  20. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  1. Serotonin release in the central nucleus of the amygdala in response to noxious and innocuous cutaneous stimulation in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Ryota; Shimoju, Rie; Takagi, Noriaki; Shibata, Hideshi; Kurosawa, Mieko

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of noxious (pinching) and innocuous (stroking) stimulation of skin on serotonin (5-HT) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in anesthetized rats. 5-HT in the CeA was collected by microdialysis methods. Dialysate output from consecutive 10-min periods was injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph and 5-HT was measured with an electrochemical detector. Bilateral pinching of the back for 10 min increased 5-HT release significantly; 5-HT release was also increased with stimulation of the forelimb or hindlimb. In contrast, stroking of these areas decreased 5-HT release significantly. Furthermore, simultaneous stroking and pinching produced no change in the 5-HT release. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that 5-HT release in the CeA is regulated by somatic afferent stimulation in a modality-dependent manner, and that innocuous stimulation can dampen the change in 5-HT release that occurs in response to noxious stimulation. PMID:26668011

  2. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases.

    PubMed

    Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A; Caceres, Ana I; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-04-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca(2+) influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals. PMID:19036859

  3. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... These cells produce essential immune system proteins called interferons that respond to a cold virus. The cells ... several degrees below core body temperature, virus-fighting interferons were less able to do their job. The ...

  4. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    PubMed

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research. PMID:26150795

  5. Qualitative Descriptors Used by Patients Following Orthognathic Surgery to Portray Altered Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ceib; Essick, Greg; Zuniga, John; Tucker, Myron; Blakey, George

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Following orthognathic surgery, patients use qualitatively different words to describe the altered sensation on their face that results from tissue inflammation and nerve injury. These words indicate normal, hypoesthetic, paresthetic, and dysesthetic sensations, and reflect the intrusiveness of the alteration. Our intent was to study the words chosen by patients from a standardized list to characterize sensory recovery during the first 6 months after surgery and to examine whether patients who underwent different surgical procedures tended to choose different sets of words. Patients and Methods Patients’ selections from a list of 27 words that described their assessment of spontaneous and evoked facial sensations were obtained before surgery and at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Data were obtained from 146 patients enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate the potential of sensory retraining in the rehabilitation of patients who experience impairment in sensory function after nerve injury. Mantel Haenszel general correlation and row mean score statistics were used to assess the association between time and word choice and to compare the word choice categories of 4 surgical groups: bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) only, with or without genioplasty; BSSO + Le Fort I, with or without genioplasty. Results In general, the number of words selected to describe the alteration in sensation decreased over time, as did the intrusiveness of the category of words chosen. However, the intrusiveness remained the same or worsened from 1 week to 6 months for 32% of patients. With increased time after surgery, the percentage of patients who reported altered evoked sensations exceeded the percentage who reported spontaneous sensations. For example, at 6 months the altered sensation of 66% of the patients was classified in the paresthesia and dysesthesia categories by the evoked assessment of sensation; whereas

  6. New method for assessment of anal sensation in various anorectal disorders.

    PubMed

    Roe, A M; Bartolo, D C; Mortensen, N J

    1986-04-01

    A new technique for quantifying anal sensation utilizing mucosal electrosensitivity is described and has been tested in 97 patients. Normal subjects (n = 20) have a sensory threshold varying from 2 to 7.3 mA being most acute in the region of the anal valves. Sensory awareness also extends into the upper anal canal. Patients with neuropathic incontinence (n = 17) have a sensory deficit (P less than 0.002) whilst patients with haemorrhoids (n = 28) have less sensitive mucosa displaced into the upper anal canal (P less than 0.0001). Patients with acute fissure-in-ano (n = 10) have lower thresholds of sensation at the site of the fissure and slow transit constipation patients (n = 22) have normal anal sensation. The technique is reproducible and should prove useful in the investigation of anorectal disorders. PMID:3697665

  7. Relationship between diet-induced changes in body fat and appetite sensations in women.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Drapeau, Vicky; Astrup, Arne; Tremblay, Angelo

    2009-06-01

    To quantify the impact of weight/fat loss on appetite sensations, 54 overweight women followed a caloric restriction program (-2900 kJ/day). Their body composition and appetite sensations were assessed. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to measure desire to eat, hunger, fullness and prospective food consumption. The results showed that there is a significant association between the decrease in body fat mass and the change in appetite sensations, predicting a 5.8-mm increase in desire to eat and a 3.6-mm decrease in fullness per kg fat loss. This quantified relationship could serve as a reference point to evaluate the satiating efficiency of functional foods when they are combined with a weight-reducing program. PMID:19389439

  8. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    PubMed Central

    Bustin, Gaëlle M.; Jones, Daniel N.; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research. PMID:26150795

  9. Social Self-control, Sensation Seeking and Substance Use in Samples of US and Russian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Kniazer, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the relations of social self-control and sensation seeking with substance use across samples of US and Russian adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from 362 tenth-graders from Ufa, Russia, and 965 tenth-graders from California. Results Lack of social self-control was significantly related with higher alcohol and hard drug use in the Russian sample and higher cigarette use in the US sample. Higher sensation-seeking showed significant associations with higher cigarette and alcohol use in the Russian sample and higher alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use in the US sample. Conclusion As with US adolescents, prevention programs for Russian adolescents may also benefit from being tailored to higher sensation-seekers and including self-control skills training. PMID:20001194

  10. Phytosterols in onion contribute to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Egusa, Ai Saiga; Nagao, Akira; Odahara, Tsutomu; Sugise, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Nosho, Yasuharu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the substance in a precipitate of heat-treated onion concentrate (HOC) that contributes to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute induced by the sensing of richness and persistence in terms of taste, aroma and texture. Adding precipitate, separated from HOC, to consommé enhanced the lingering sensation of aroma in the consommé more than adding the supernatant from HOC. After the precipitate was washed with hot water and ethanol its enhancing effect disappeared. Analysis of the HOC precipitate showed that it contained phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Tests of binding to aroma compounds showed that both sterols, as well as the washed precipitate, were able to bind methyl propyl disulfide and N-hexanal. Thus phytosterols in the HOC precipitate seemed to bind and hold the aroma compounds and gradually release them, inducing a lingering sensation of aroma under the koku concept during consumption. PMID:26304403

  11. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

  12. Somatic aphasia: Mismatch of body sensations with autonomic stress reactivity in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although one of the main characteristics of psychopaths is a deficit in emotion, it is unknown whether they show a fundamental impairment in appropriately recognizing their own body sensations during an emotion-inducing task. Method Skin conductance and heart rate were recorded in 138 males during a social stressor together with subjective reports of body sensations. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R) 2nd edition (Hare, 2003). Results Nonpsychopathic controls who reported higher body sensations showed higher heart rate reactivity, but this verbal-autonomic consistency was not found in psychopathic individuals. This mind-body disconnection is particularly associated with the interpersonal-affective factor of psychopathy. Conclusions Findings are the first to document this body sensations– autonomic mismatch in psychopaths, and suggest that somatic aphasia the inaccurate identification and recognition of one‘s own somatic states may partly underlie the interpersonal-affective features of psychopaths. PMID:22490763

  13. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-04-01

    International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries. PMID:23316097

  14. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  15. Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Campbell, Benjamin; MacKillop, James; Lum, J. Koji; Wilson, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a sample of 195 subjects, we examined whether SOB was associated with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. Additionally we examined potential interactions of dopamine receptor genes with SOB for the same set of traits. Phenotypes were evaluated using the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Delay Discounting Task. Subjects were also asked about their age at first sex as well as their desired age at the birth of their first child. The dopamine gene polymorphisms examined were Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) TaqI A and D4 (DRD4) 48 bp VNTR. Primary analyses included factorial gender×SOB ANOVAs or binary logistic regression models for each dependent trait. Secondary analysis extended the factorial models by also including DRD2 and DRD4 genotypes as independent variables. Winter-born males were more sensation seeking than non-winter born males. In factorial models including both genotype and season of birth as variables, two previously unobserved effects were discovered: (1) a SOB×DRD4 interaction effect on venturesomeness and (2) a DRD2×DRD4 interaction effect on sensation seeking. Conclusion These results are consistent with past findings that SOB is related to sensation seeking. Additionally, these results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that SOB modifies the behavioral expression of dopaminergic genetic polymorphism. These findings suggest that SOB should be included in future studies of

  16. BAM8-22 peptide produces itch and nociceptive sensations in humans independent of histamine release.

    PubMed

    Sikand, Parul; Dong, Xinzhong; LaMotte, Robert H

    2011-05-18

    Chronic itch accompanying many dermatological, neurological, and systemic diseases is unresponsive to antihistamines. Our knowledge of endogenous chemicals that evoke histamine-independent itch and their molecular targets is very limited. Recently it was demonstrated in behavioral and cellular experiments that bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 peptide (BAM8-22), a proteolytically cleaved product of proenkephalin A, is a potent activator of Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs), MrgprC11 and hMrgprX1, and induces scratching in mice in an Mrgpr-dependent manner. To study the sensory qualities that BAM8-22 evokes in humans, we tested the volar forearm of 15 healthy volunteers with heat-inactivated cowhage spicules previously soaked in the peptide. BAM8-22 produced itch in each subject, usually accompanied by sensations of pricking/stinging and burning. The sensations were occasionally accompanied by one or more mechanically evoked dysesthesias, namely alloknesis, hyperknesis, and/or hyperalgesia, but no wheal or neurogenic flare in the skin surrounding the application site. The inactive truncated peptide BAM8-18 produced weak or no sensations. Pretreatment of the tested skin with an antihistamine cream (doxepin) inhibited histamine-induced sensations, dysesthesias, and skin reactions but not the sensations and dysesthesias evoked by BAM8-22. We show that BAM8-22 produces itch and nociceptive sensations in humans in a histamine-independent manner. Thus, BAM8-22 may be an endogenous itch mediator that activates, in humans, MrgprX1, a novel target for potential anti-itch treatments. PMID:21593341

  17. BAM8–22 peptide produces itch and nociceptive sensations in humans independent of histamine release

    PubMed Central

    Sikand, Parul; Dong, Xinzhong; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic itch accompanying many dermatological, neurological and systemic diseases is unresponsive to antihistamines. Our knowledge of endogenous chemicals that evoke histamine-independent itch and their molecular targets is very limited. Recently it was demonstrated in behavioral and cellular experiments that bovine adrenal medulla 8–22 peptide (BAM8–22), a proteolytically cleaved product of proenkephalin A, is a potent activator of Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs), MrgprC11 and hMrgprX1, and induces scratching in mice in a Mrgpr-dependent manner. To study the sensory qualities that BAM8–22 evokes in humans we tested the volar forearm of 15 healthy volunteers with heat-inactivated cowhage spicules previously soaked in the peptide. BAM8–22 produced itch in each subject, usually accompanied by sensations of pricking/stinging and burning. The sensations were occasionally accompanied by one or more mechanically evoked dysesthesias, namely alloknesis, hyperknesis, and hyperalgesia, but no wheal or neurogenic flare in the skin surrounding the application site. The inactive truncated peptide BAM8–18 produced weak or no sensations. Pretreatment of the tested skin with an antihistamine cream (doxepin) inhibited the histamine-induced sensations, dysesthesias and skin reactions but not the sensations and dysesthesias evoked by BAM8–22. We show that BAM8–22 produces itch and nociceptive sensations in humans in a histamine-independent manner. Thus, BAM8–22 may be an endogenous itch mediator that activates, in humans, MrgprX1, a novel target for potential anti-itch treatments. PMID:21593341

  18. Acupuncture treatment of phantom limb pain and phantom limb sensation in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Davies, Arwel

    2013-03-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with phantom limb pain and phantom limb sensation 12 weeks after an above-elbow amputation of his right arm. He underwent seven sessions of acupuncture at weekly intervals carried out by his general practitioner on his intact left arm, with complete relief of the phantom limb pain and considerable improvement of the phantom limb sensation of his right arm. This case demonstrates the possible benefits from the use of short acupuncture sessions for a potentially chronic condition undertaken within the constraints of a busy general medical practice. PMID:23220713

  19. Novel TRPM8 antagonist attenuates cold hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ryan; Gonçalves, Leonor; Newman, Robert; Jiang, Feng Li; Goldby, Anne; Reeve, Jennifer; Hendrick, Alan; Teall, Martin; Hannah, Duncan; Almond, Sarah; Brice, Nicola; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal cold sensitivity is a common feature of a range of neuropathies. In the murine somatosensory system, multiple aspects of cold sensitivity are dependent on TRPM8, both short term and in response to peripheral nerve injury. The specialized nature of cold-sensitive afferents and the restricted expression of TRPM8 render it an attractive target for the treatment of cold hypersensitivity. This current study examines the effect of a novel TRPM8 antagonist (M8-An) in naive and spinal nerve-ligated rats through behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological approaches. In vitro, M8-An inhibited icilin-evoked Ca(2+) currents in HEK293 cells stably expressing human TRPM8 with an IC(50) of 10.9 nM. In vivo, systemic M8-An transiently decreased core body temperature. Deep dorsal horn recordings were made in vivo from neurons innervating the hind paw. M8-An inhibited neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling of the receptive field in spinal nerve-ligated rats but not in naive rats. No effect on neuronal responses to mechanical and heat stimulation was observed. In addition, M8-An also attenuated behavioral responses to cold but not mechanical stimulation after nerve ligation without affecting the uninjured contralateral response. The data presented here support a contribution of TRPM8 to the pathophysiology of cold hypersensitivity in this model and highlight the potential of the pharmacological block of TRPM8 in alleviating the associated symptoms. PMID:24472724

  20. Cold pool dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Leah D.; Heever, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) alter cold pool characteristics and dissipation rates are investigated in this study using idealized two-dimensional numerical simulations and an environment representative of daytime, dry, continental conditions. Simulations are performed with no SHFs, SHFs calculated using a bulk formula, and constant SHFs for model resolutions with horizontal (vertical) grid spacings ranging from 50 m (25 m) to 400 m (200 m). In the highest resolution simulations, turbulent entrainment of environmental air into the cold pool is an important mechanism for dissipation in the absence of SHFs. Including SHFs enhances cold pool dissipation rates, but the processes responsible for the enhanced dissipation differ depending on the SHF formulation. The bulk SHFs increase the near-surface cold pool temperatures, but their effects on the overall cold pool characteristics are small, while the constant SHFs influence the near-surface environmental stability and the turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool. The changes to the entrainment rates are found to be the most significant of the SHF effects on cold pool dissipation. SHFs may also influence the timing of cold pool-induced convective initiation by altering the environmental stability and the cold pool intensity. As the model resolution is coarsened, cold pool dissipation is found to be less sensitive to SHFs. Furthermore, the coarser resolution simulations not only poorly but sometimes wrongly represent the SHF impacts on the cold pools. Recommendations are made regarding simulating the interaction of cold pools with convection and the land surface in cloud-resolving models.

  1. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  2. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Ostling, Erik W.; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-seekers and a group of low sensation-seekers (N = 20). Inhibitory control was measured by a cued go/no-go task and speed of information processing was assessed by the Rapid Information Processing (RIP) task. Alcohol impaired inhibitory control and information processing. Group differences were also observed. Compared with their low sensation-seeking counterparts, high sensation-seekers demonstrated increased sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol and a poorer degree of inhibitory control that was further impaired by alcohol. The findings highlight reward- and cognitive-based mechanisms by which sensation-seeking could operate to increase risk for alcohol abuse. PMID:19004578

  3. Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

  4. Examining the Role of Trait Reactance and Sensation Seeking on Perceived Threat, State Reactance, and Reactance Restoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Brian L.; Stephenson, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation sought to advance Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) by examining whether trait reactance and sensation seeking influence the magnitude of a perceived threat, state reactance, and reactance restoration. Results revealed that high trait reactant (HTR) and low trait reactant (LTR) individuals and high sensation seekers…

  5. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  6. Moderating Effect of Gender on the Relationship between Sensation Seeking-Impulsivity and Substance Use in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joseph R.; Yardley, John K.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the moderating effect of gender on the predictive relationships between a measure of sensation seeking and impulsivity and four adolescent substance use outcomes. Main-effect relationships were consistently found for sensation seeking-impulsivity with each outcome, but not for gender. Gender was found to moderate the relationship between…

  7. Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates - Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

  8. Neural Processing of Respiratory Sensations when Breathing Becomes More Difficult and Unpleasant

    PubMed Central

    von Leupoldt, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.; Davenport, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate perception of respiratory sensations is important for the successful management and treatment of respiratory diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that external stimuli such as affective pictures and distracting films can impact the perception and neural processing of respiratory sensations. This study examined the neural processing of respiratory sensations when breathing as an internal stimulus is manipulated and becomes more difficult and unpleasant. Sustained breathing through an inspiratory resistive load was used to increase perceived breathing difficulty in 12 female individuals without respiratory disease. Using high-density EEG, respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) to short inspiratory occlusions were recorded at early versus late time points of sustained loaded breathing. Ratings of perceived intensity and unpleasantness of breathing difficulty showed an increase from early to late time points of loaded breathing (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). This was paralleled by significant increases in the magnitudes of RREP components N1, P2, and P3 (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). The present results demonstrate increases in the neural processing of respiratory sensations when breathing becomes more difficult and unpleasant. This might reflect a protective neural mechanism allowing effective response behavior when air supply is at risk. PMID:21423384

  9. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  10. Short-term intensive glycemic control improves vibratory sensation in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukushima, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Taniguchi, Ataru; Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Kuroe, Akira; Yasuda, Koichiro; Hosokawa, Masaya; Yamada, Yuichiro; Inagaki, Nobuya; Seino, Yutaka

    2008-04-01

    Strict long-term glycemic control has been reported to prevent or improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy, but the effects of short-term glycemic control have not been clarified in patients with type 2 diabetes. To investigate reversibility of impaired vibratory sensation by short-term glycemic control, we used the TM31 liminometer and C64 tuning fork methods to measure peripheral neuropathy. Thirty-one type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c: 10.8+/-0.4%, mean+/-S.E.M., range from 7.9% to 16.2%) were administered strict glycemic control. Vibratory sensation before and after short-term glycemic control was evaluated, and the metabolic profile including plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid (FFA) was measured. After 20.0+/-2.1 days of strict glycemic control, vibratory sensation improved significantly in both upper and lower extremities, assessed by TM31 liminometer and C64 tuning fork. Along with the improved glycemic control, lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, triglyceride and FFA) was significantly improved. Thus, short-term intensive glycemic control can improve vibratory sensation, metabolic changes in glucose and lipid metabolism being the factors responsible for improved of peripheral nerve function. PMID:18262304

  11. Comparison between Subjective Sensations during First and Second Phacoemulsification Eye Surgeries in Patients with Bilateral Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-guo; Ye, Ting; Huang, Qing; Feng, Yi-fan; Wang, Jue; Fu, Xun-an; Xiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate and compare the subjective sensations reported by patients during first and second cataract extractions. Methods. Consecutive patients undergoing bilateral sequential cataract extraction using phacoemulsification were recruited. Following cataract surgery, patients completed questionnaires designed to evaluate subjective sensations, including anxiety, eye bulges, pain, and light sensitivity. Changes in painful sensations experienced by patients between the two surgeries were also recorded. Comparisons were also performed for each subjective sensation between different age groups (<50, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and >79 years). Results. A total of 127 patients were included in the final evaluation. Statistical comparison of the results showed that there were significant differences in perception of anxiety, eye bulges, and pain scores between the first and second cataract surgeries (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference for light sensitivity scores between the two surgeries (P = 0.555). The differences in anxiety, perception of eye bulges, pain, and light sensitivity scores between both the surgeries showed no correlation with age (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions. Our research confirms the common observation that patients with bilateral cataracts often report more ocular discomfort during the second surgery. There are, therefore, additional factors that should be considered upon treating patients with bilateral cataracts, and the provision of preoperative counseling could play an important role in providing adequate patient care. PMID:27239336

  12. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  13. Sustained attention to spontaneous thumb sensations activates brain somatosensory and other proprioceptive areas.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Clemens C C; Díaz, José-Luis; Concha, Luis; Barrios, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    The present experiment was designed to test if sustained attention directed to the spontaneous sensations of the right or left thumb in the absence of any external stimuli is able to activate corresponding somatosensory brain areas. After verifying in 34 healthy volunteers that external touch stimuli to either thumb effectively activate brain contralateral somatosensory areas, and after subtracting attention mechanisms employed in both touch and spontaneous-sensation conditions, fMRI evidence was obtained that the primary somatosensory cortex (specifically left BA 3a/3b) becomes active when an individual is required to attend to the spontaneous sensations of either thumb in the absence of external stimuli. In addition, the left superior parietal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, motor and premotor cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Broca's area, and occipital cortices were activated. Moreover, attention to spontaneous-sensations revealed an increased connectivity between BA 3a/3b, superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), probably allowing top-down activations of primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that specific primary somatosensory areas in conjunction with other left parieto-frontal areas are involved in processing proprioceptive and interoceptive bodily information that underlies own body-representations and that these networks and cognitive functions can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. PMID:24727703

  14. Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment for Panic Disorder with Moderate to Severe Agoraphobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morissette, Sandra Baker; Spiegel, David A.; Heinrichs, Nina

    2005-01-01

    The current article presents a detailed description of an intensive treatment program for panic disorder with moderate to severe levels of agoraphobia (PDA), called Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment (SFIT). Although the efficacy of traditional CBT treatment programs has been well established for the treatment of PDA, patients with moderate to…

  15. New aspects of the Slug Mucosal Irritation assay: predicting nasal stinging, itching and burning sensations.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Joke; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean-Paul

    2011-10-01

    Stinging, itching and/or burning (SIB) sensations cannot be detected by animal tests or in vitro models. In the past, the Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) assay demonstrated a relation between an increased mucus production in slugs and an elevated incidence of SIB sensations in humans. A new 1-day SMI test procedure was developed focusing on the prediction of these short-term sensations. The objective of this study was to verify whether this new procedure is capable predicting mucosal tolerance of several marketed nasal formulations using the slug Arion lusitanicus. Irritation and tissue damage were quantified with a 5-day repeated exposure study by means of the mucus produced and proteins and enzymes released. The new protocol predicted SIB sensations by means of mucus production. The effects of six liquid nasal formulations were tested with both protocols, while five physiologic saline solutions were only tested with the new protocol to optimize it. None of the tested liquid nasal formulations resulted in tissue damage; however, exposure to the different formulations had a clear effect on the mucus production of the slugs and moderate discomfort was observed in some cases. These effects were due to the active ingredient, the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative or the hyperosmolality of the formulation. For the most part results agreed with clinical data found in literature. It was concluded that the SMI assay, and the new 1-day protocol in particular, is a good tool to predict nasal clinical discomfort. PMID:21132841

  16. Measuring an Individual's Investment in the Future: Symbolic Immortality, Sensation Seeking, and Psychic Numbness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Robert C.; Mister, Rena D.

    1988-01-01

    Operationalized Lifton's constructs of symbolic immortality and developed instrument to measure individual's needs for symbolic immortality in Lifton's five modes (biological, religious, nature, creative, experiential) in study which also examined age effects on needs for symbolic immortality and relation between sensation seeking and symbolic…

  17. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  18. Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Sensation-Seeking Needs and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.; And Others

    Although recent research suggests that drug misuse involves multiple etiologies, more information is needed to aid in the development of individualized treatment regimens. Individuals with high sensation-seeking (SS) needs do not appear to respond well to traditional counseling approaches. Adolescents (N=584) aged 15 or 18 at time 1 (T1) and 18 or…

  20. Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

  1. A sensory feedback system for prosthetic hand based on evoked tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Liu, X X; Chai, G H; Qu, H E; Lan, N

    2015-08-01

    The lack of reliable sensory feedback has been one of the barriers in prosthetic hand development. Restoring sensory function from prosthetic hand to amputee remains a great challenge to neural engineering. In this paper, we present the development of a sensory feedback system based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) at the stump skin of residual limb induced by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). The system could map a dynamic pattern of stimuli to an electrode placed on the corresponding projected finger areas on the stump skin. A pressure transducer placed at the tip of prosthetic fingers was used to sense contact pressure, and a high performance DSP processor sampled pressure signals, and calculated the amplitude of feedback stimulation in real-time. Biphasic and charge-balanced current pulses with amplitude modulation generated by a multi-channel laboratory stimulator were delivered to activate sensory nerves beneath the skin. We tested this sensory feedback system in amputee subjects. Preliminary results showed that the subjects could perceive different levels of pressure at the tip of prosthetic finger through evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with distinct grades and modalities. We demonstrated the feasibility to restore the perceptual sensation from prosthetic fingers to amputee based on the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) with TENS. PMID:26736798

  2. Presentation of Various Tactile Sensations Using Micro-Needle Electrotactile Display.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Tanaka, Kohei; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Tactile displays provoke tactile sensations by artificially stimulating tactile receptors. While many types of tactile displays have been developed, electrotactile displays that exploit electric stimulation can be designed to be thin, light, flexible and thus, wearable. However, the high voltages required to stimulate tactile receptors and limited varieties of possible sensations pose problems. In our previous work, we developed an electrotactile display using a micro-needle electrode array that can drastically reduce the required voltage by penetrating through the high-impedance stratum corneum painlessly, but displaying various tactile sensations was still a challenge. In this work, we demonstrate presentation of tactile sensation of different roughness to the subjects, which is enabled by the arrangement of the electrodes; the needle electrodes are on the fingertip and the ground electrode is on the fingernail. With this arrangement, the display can stimulate the tactile receptors that are located not only in the shallow regions of the finger but also those in the deep regions. It was experimentally revealed that the required voltage was further reduced compared to previous devices and that the roughness presented by the display was controlled by the pulse frequency and the switching time, or the stimulation flow rate. The proposed electrotactile display is readily applicable as a new wearable haptic device for advanced information communication technology. PMID:26845336

  3. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  4. Presentation of Various Tactile Sensations Using Micro-Needle Electrotactile Display

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kohei; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Tactile displays provoke tactile sensations by artificially stimulating tactile receptors. While many types of tactile displays have been developed, electrotactile displays that exploit electric stimulation can be designed to be thin, light, flexible and thus, wearable. However, the high voltages required to stimulate tactile receptors and limited varieties of possible sensations pose problems. In our previous work, we developed an electrotactile display using a micro-needle electrode array that can drastically reduce the required voltage by penetrating through the high-impedance stratum corneum painlessly, but displaying various tactile sensations was still a challenge. In this work, we demonstrate presentation of tactile sensation of different roughness to the subjects, which is enabled by the arrangement of the electrodes; the needle electrodes are on the fingertip and the ground electrode is on the fingernail. With this arrangement, the display can stimulate the tactile receptors that are located not only in the shallow regions of the finger but also those in the deep regions. It was experimentally revealed that the required voltage was further reduced compared to previous devices and that the roughness presented by the display was controlled by the pulse frequency and the switching time, or the stimulation flow rate. The proposed electrotactile display is readily applicable as a new wearable haptic device for advanced information communication technology. PMID:26845336

  5. Great Sensations: A Program to Encourage Heart Healthy Snacking by High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Classroom instruction, parent outreach, and media campaigns were strategies used by the Great Sensations program, designed to teach high school students good snacking habits. The program focused on salt and high blood pressure. Program design and results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  6. Comparison between Subjective Sensations during First and Second Phacoemulsification Eye Surgeries in Patients with Bilateral Cataract.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Ye, Ting; Huang, Qing; Feng, Yi-Fan; Wang, Jue; Fu, Xun-An; Xiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate and compare the subjective sensations reported by patients during first and second cataract extractions. Methods. Consecutive patients undergoing bilateral sequential cataract extraction using phacoemulsification were recruited. Following cataract surgery, patients completed questionnaires designed to evaluate subjective sensations, including anxiety, eye bulges, pain, and light sensitivity. Changes in painful sensations experienced by patients between the two surgeries were also recorded. Comparisons were also performed for each subjective sensation between different age groups (<50, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and >79 years). Results. A total of 127 patients were included in the final evaluation. Statistical comparison of the results showed that there were significant differences in perception of anxiety, eye bulges, and pain scores between the first and second cataract surgeries (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference for light sensitivity scores between the two surgeries (P = 0.555). The differences in anxiety, perception of eye bulges, pain, and light sensitivity scores between both the surgeries showed no correlation with age (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions. Our research confirms the common observation that patients with bilateral cataracts often report more ocular discomfort during the second surgery. There are, therefore, additional factors that should be considered upon treating patients with bilateral cataracts, and the provision of preoperative counseling could play an important role in providing adequate patient care. PMID:27239336

  7. Perception, Evaluation, and Performance in a Neat and Messy Room by High and Low Sensation Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, David J.; Lindauer, Martin S.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes two studies that investigated the relationship between the effects of room environment (neat versus messy) and high and low sensation seeker's perception, evaluation, and performance. Elapsed time estimation did not vary as a function of room condition and personality. Sex differences were not found to be critical. (BT)

  8. Galen on the Patient's Role in Pain Diagnosis: Sensation, Consensus, and Metaphor.

    PubMed

    Roby, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Pain might be a powerful diagnostic tool, but it is at the same time an intensely private and subjective experience that represents a formidable problem in the communication between physician and patient. Galen addresses (principally in De locis affectis) the problem of constructing a consistent and univocal terminology for different pain sensations, rejecting the system proposed earlier by Archigenes on the grounds that he relies on metaphorical descriptors which indiscriminately incorporate terms belonging to information generated by all the senses, fails to conform to patient testimony, and refers to ambiguous concepts. Galen sets himself the task of developing a system of proper or literal (kyrios) terms for pain sensations, even despite the apparent ineffability of certain sensations and laymen's imprecise self-analysis and description of their suffering. His pain vocabulary, developed through a combination of consensus between patients and physicians' expert descriptions of their own pain, promises to link terminology univocally to sensation, turning patients' testimony about their subjective experience of pain into universally applicable diagnostic guidance. PMID:26946683

  9. Sensation Seeking as a Psychological Trait of Drug Abuse among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Reginald J.

    1994-01-01

    Conceptualization of the role of personality constructs in the drug usage behavior of individuals with disabilities has both preventive and treatment relevance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sensation seeking and drug usage pattern of persons with spinal cord injury. Implications for rehabilitation research…

  10. An Examination of the Reliability of Scores from Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scales, Form V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deditius-Island, Heide K.; Caruso, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study on Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (M. Zuckerman and others, 1964) using 113 reliability coefficients from 21 published studies. The reliability of scores was marginal for four of the five scales, and low for the other. Mean age of subjects has a significant relationship with score reliability. (SLD)

  11. Pruritic and Nociceptive Sensations and Dysesthesias From a Spicule of Cowhage

    PubMed Central

    LaMotte, R. H.; Shimada, S. G.; Green, B. G.; Zelterman, D.

    2009-01-01

    Although the trichomes (spicules) of a pod of cowhage (Mucuna pruriens) are known to evoke a histamine-independent itch that is mediated by a cysteine protease, little is known of the itch and accompanying nociceptive sensations evoked by a single spicule and the enhanced itch and pain that can occur in the surrounding skin. The tip of a single spicule applied to the forearm of 45 subjects typically evoked 1) itch accompanied by nociceptive sensations (NS) of pricking/stinging and, to a lesser extent, burning, and 2) one or more areas of cutaneous dysesthesia characterized by hyperknesis (enhanced itch to pricking) with or without alloknesis (itch to stroking) and/or hyperalgesia (enhanced pricking pain). Itch could occur in the absence of NS or one or more dysesthesias but very rarely the reverse. The peak magnitude of sensation was positively correlated for itch and NS and increased (exhibited spatial summation) as the number of spicules was increased within a spatial extent of 6 cm but not 1 cm. The areas of dysesthesia did not exhibit spatial summation. We conclude that itch evoked by a punctate chemical stimulus can co-exist with NS and cutaneous dysesthesias as may occur in clinical pruritus. However, cowhage itch was not always accompanied by NS or dysesthesia nor was a momentary change in itch necessarily accompanied by a similar change in NS or vice versa. Thus there may be separate neural coding mechanisms for itch, nociceptive sensations, and each type of dysesthesia. PMID:19144738

  12. Selective sensation based brain-computer interface via mechanical vibrotactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, mechanical vibrotactile stimulation was applied to subjects' left and right wrist skins with equal intensity, and a selective sensation perception task was performed to achieve two types of selections similar to motor imagery Brain-Computer Interface. The proposed system was based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS), which had a correlation with processing of afferent inflow in human somatosensory system, and attentional effect which modulated the ERD/ERS. The experiments were carried out on nine subjects (without experience in selective sensation), and six of them showed a discrimination accuracy above 80%, three of them above 95%. Comparative experiments with motor imagery (with and without presence of stimulation) were also carried out, which further showed the feasibility of selective sensation as an alternative BCI task complementary to motor imagery. Specifically there was significant improvement ([Formula: see text]) from near 65% in motor imagery (with and without presence of stimulation) to above 80% in selective sensation on some subjects. The proposed BCI modality might well cooperate with existing BCI modalities in the literature in enlarging the widespread usage of BCI system. PMID:23762253

  13. [Influence of sociodemographic variables on coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents].

    PubMed

    de la Paz Bermúdez, María; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of gender, age, and type of high school (public/private) on coping styles solve the problem coping style, reference to others coping style and non-productive coping, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents. A total of 4.456 adolescents participated. The following measures were used: Adolescent Coping Scale, Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Social Stress subscale of the Behavior Assessment System for Children. This is a cross-sectional study that used a stratified random sampling considering Spanish regions and type of high school (public/private) to select participants. The sample is representative of the national level at a 95.5% confidence interval. Results showed that males had higher scores in sexual sensation seeking and social stress compared to females. Female adolescents scored higher in reference to others coping style and non-productive coping. Compared to adolescents of public high schools, adolescents who attended to private high schools scored higher in solve the problem coping style and reference to others coping style. Associations among sexual sensation seeking, coping styles, social stress, and health risk behaviors in adolescents are discussed. PMID:19403074

  14. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure to Health Risk Behavior in Adolescence: Motivation to Cope and Sensation Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined two potential mechanisms linking violence exposure and health risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: sensation seeking and coping with stress through escape behavior. Method: Male (59%) and female adolescents (N = 251), ages 12 to 19 years, from diverse ethnic backgrounds (61% African American, 19%…

  15. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis: From Unselective Abatement of Noxious Species to Selective Production of High-Value Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Augugliaro, Vincenzo; Camera-Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Giovanni; Palmisano, Leonardo; Soria, Javier; Yurdakal, Sedat

    2015-05-21

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have been considered as oxidation technologies to abate unselectively noxious species. This article focuses instead on the utilization of these methods for selective syntheses of organic molecules. Some promising reactions have been reported in the presence of various TiO2 samples and the important role played by the amorphous phase has been discussed. The low solubility of most of the organic compounds in water limits the utilization of photocatalysis. Dimethyl carbonate has been proposed as an alternative green organic solvent. The recovery of the products by coupling photocatalysis with pervaporation membrane technology seems to be a solution for future industrial applications. As far as photoelectrocatalysis is concerned, a decrease in recombination of the photogenerated pairs occurs, enhancing the rate of the oxidation reactions and the quantum yield. Another benefit is to avoid reaction(s) between the intermediates and the substrate, as anodic and cathodic reactions take place in different places. PMID:26263277

  16. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.

    PubMed

    Gestal, J J

    1987-08-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). PMID:3307896

  17. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.

    PubMed Central

    Gestal, J J

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). PMID:3307896

  18. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

  19. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis. PMID:23471256

  20. Effect of resiniferatoxin on the noxious heat threshold temperature in the rat: a novel heat allodynia model sensitive to analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Almási, Róbert; Pethö, Gábor; Bölcskei, Kata; Szolcsányi, János

    2003-01-01

    An increasing-temperature hot plate (ITHP) was introduced to measure the noxious heat threshold (45.3±0.3°C) of unrestrained rats, which was reproducible upon repeated determinations at intervals of 5 or 30 min or 1 day. Morphine, diclofenac and paracetamol caused an elevation of the noxious heat threshold following i.p. pretreatment, the minimum effective doses being 3, 10 and 200 mg kg−1, respectively. Unilateral intraplantar injection of the VR1 receptor agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX, 0.048 nmol) induced a profound drop of heat threshold to the innocuous range with a maximal effect (8–10°C drop) 5 min after RTX administration. This heat allodynia was inhibited by pretreatment with morphine, diclofenac and paracetamol, the minimum effective doses being 1, 1 and 100 mg kg−1 i.p., respectively. The long-term sensory desensitizing effect of RTX was examined by bilateral intraplantar injection (0.048 nmol per paw) which produced, after an initial threshold drop, an elevation (up to 2.9±0.5°C) of heat threshold lasting for 5 days. The VR1 receptor antagonist iodo-resiniferatoxin (I-RTX, 0.05 nmol intraplantarly) inhibited by 51% the heat threshold-lowering effect of intraplantar RTX but not α,β-methylene-ATP (0.3 μmol per paw). I-RTX (0.1 or 1 nmol per paw) failed to alter the heat threshold either acutely (5–60 min) or on the long-term (5 days). The heat threshold of VR1 receptor knockout mice was not different from that of wild-type animals (45.6±0.5 vs 45.2±0.4°C). In conclusion, the RTX-induced drop of heat threshold measured by the ITHP is a novel heat allodynia model exhibiting a high sensitivity to analgesics. PMID:12746222

  1. 46 CFR 125.125 - Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk by OSVs of at least 6,000 GT ITC (500 GRT if GT ITC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraph (b)(1) of this section, as defined in 46 CFR 30.10-15; and (ii) In quantities not to exceed 20... Dangerous Cargoes, as defined by 33 CFR 160.204, to or from a portable tank. ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of noxious liquid substances in bulk by OSVs...

  2. The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Ross D; Provan, Sally; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

    2011-12-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency. WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies on single musculotendinous units. We investigated the effects of WBV at two amplitudes on balance, joint position sense (JPS) and cutaneous sensation in young healthy subjects. Eighteen adults (24.3 ± 1.5 years, 15 females) were assessed before WBV (five 1 min bouts, 30 Hz) then immediately, 15 and 30 min afterwards. Two amplitudes (4 and 8 mm peak to peak) were investigated on different occasions. Standing balance was assessed with feet together and eyes closed, and standing on one leg with eyes open and closed. JPS at the knee and ankle was assessed by repositioning tasks while cutaneous sensation was recorded from six sites in the lower limb using pressure aesthesiometry. Neither amplitude affected JPS (P > 0.05). There were minimal effects on balance only in the vertical plane and only 30 min after WBV (P < 0.05). Low amplitude vibration only reduced sensation at the foot and ankle immediately after WBV (P < 0.008). High amplitude vibration impaired sensation at the foot, ankle and posterior shank for the entire test period (P < 0.008). In young healthy individuals WBV did not affect JPS or static balance, but reduced cutaneous sensation. These data may have implications for older and clinical populations with compromised postural control. PMID:21455611

  3. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  4. Motor and parietal cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain and sensations.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Olgiati, Elena; Maravita, Angelo; Ferraro, Francesco; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-08-01

    Limb amputation may lead to chronic painful sensations referred to the absent limb, ie phantom limb pain (PLP), which is likely subtended by maladaptive plasticity. The present study investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive technique of brain stimulation that can modulate neuroplasticity, can reduce PLP. In 2 double-blind, sham-controlled experiments in subjects with unilateral lower or upper limb amputation, we measured the effects of a single session of tDCS (2 mA, 15 min) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) on PLP, stump pain, nonpainful phantom limb sensations and telescoping. Anodal tDCS of M1 induced a selective short-lasting decrease of PLP, whereas cathodal tDCS of PPC induced a selective short-lasting decrease of nonpainful phantom sensations; stump pain and telescoping were not affected by parietal or by motor tDCS. These findings demonstrate that painful and nonpainful phantom limb sensations are dissociable phenomena. PLP is associated primarily with cortical excitability shifts in the sensorimotor network; increasing excitability in this system by anodal tDCS has an antalgic effect on PLP. Conversely, nonpainful phantom sensations are associated to a hyperexcitation of PPC that can be normalized by cathodal tDCS. This evidence highlights the relationship between the level of excitability of different cortical areas, which underpins maladaptive plasticity following limb amputation and the phenomenology of phantom limb, and it opens up new opportunities for the use of tDCS in the treatment of PLP. PMID:23707312

  5. The delayed reproduction of long time intervals defined by innocuous thermal sensation.

    PubMed

    Khoshnejad, Mina; Martinu, Kristina; Grondin, Simon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The presence of discrete events during an interval to be estimated generally causes a dilation of perceived duration (event-filling effect). Here, we investigated this phenomenon in the thermal modality using multi-seconds (19 s) innocuous cool stimuli that were either constant (continuous interval) or fluctuating to create three discrete sensory events (segmented interval). Moreover, we introduced a delay following stimulus offset, before the reproduction phase, to allow for a direct comparison with our recent study showing an underestimation of duration in a delayed reproduction task of heat pain sensations (Khoshnejad et al. in Pain 155:581-590, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.12.015 ). The event-filling effect was tested by comparing the delayed reproduction of the segmented and the continuous stimuli in experimental conditions asking participants to (1) reproduce the dynamics of the sensation (i.e., changes in sensory intensity over time) or (2) reproduce only the interval duration (i.e., sensation onset-to-offset). A perceptual (control) condition required participants to report changes in sensation concurrently with the stimulus. Results of the dynamic task confirmed the underestimation of duration in the delayed reproduction task, but this effect was only found with the continuous and not with the segmented stimulus. This implies that the dilation of duration produced by segmentation might compensate for the underestimation of duration in this delayed reproduction task. However, this temporal dilation effect was only observed when participants were required to attend and reproduce the dynamics of sensation. These results suggest that the event-filling effect can be observed in the thermal sensory modality and that attention directed toward changes in sensory intensity might contribute to this effect. PMID:26724930

  6. Face cooling by cold wind in walking subjects.

    PubMed

    Gavhed, Desiree; Mäkinen, Tero; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2003-05-01

    The effects of low to moderate wind speeds on face temperature, thermal and pain sensations while subjects walked on a treadmill during cold exposure were studied in eight healthy men. The purpose of the study was to evaluate further the risk of frostbite at different activity levels. The walking speed was 2.8 km h(-1) and two inclination levels were used, 0 degrees and 6 degrees. The subjects were exposed to -10 degrees C and 0, 1 or 5 m s(-1) wind for 60 min dressed in cold-protective clothing with only the face unprotected. Results from previous experiments with the same subjects standing for 30 min were included in the analysis of the data. Each individual was exposed to all combinations of air velocity and activity level. The exposure to -10 degrees C and the highest wind speed used would carry no risk of frostbite according to the wind chill index. Cold lowered the skin temperature of the face significantly and wind further increased skin cooling. The activity level did not affect forehead and cheek temperatures, but the average nose skin temperature was higher and pain sensations were reduced at a higher work rate. The predicted risk of frostbite in the nose, based on average responses, would thus be less at a higher work rate. However, the results indicate that exercise does not necessarily protect all individuals from frostbite at moderate air speeds, since the nose skin temperature of 25% of the subjects dropped to 0 degrees C at 5 m s(-1) during both standing and walking. Thus the potential individual risk of frostbite in the nose is similar during light exercise and standing. Moreover, the risk of frostbite seems to be underestimated by the wind chill index under the conditions tested in this study. PMID:12748842

  7. Primary cold agglutinin disease.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Prabodh Chandra; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Bera, Mitali

    2011-07-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented with severe pallor and intermittent passage of cola-coloured urine. Routine investigations were suggestive of auto-immune haemolytic anaemia. Red cell agglutination was observed in peripheral smear and patient's serum was positive for cold agglutinins. Thorough work-up ruled out secondary cold agglutinin disease. Patient was treated successfully with corticosteroids. PMID:22315851

  8. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't just show ...

  9. Liquid metal cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal being provided with a hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal which acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly.

  10. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  11. Hemodynamic and Light-Scattering Changes of Rat Spinal Cord and Primary Somatosensory Cortex in Response to Innocuous and Noxious Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Wei; Liu, Hanli; Peng, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies with an exceptional spatial resolution and noninvasiveness have become a powerful tool for assessing neural activity in both animals and humans. However, the effectiveness of neuroimaging for pain remains unclear partly because the neurovascular coupling during pain processing is not completely characterized. Our current work aims to unravel patterns of neurovascular parameters in pain processing. A novel fiber-optic method was used to acquire absolute values of regional oxy- (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, oxygen saturation rates (SO2), and the light-scattering coefficients from the spinal cord and primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in 10 rats. Brief mechanical and electrical stimuli (ranging from innocuous to noxious intensities) as well as a long-lasting noxious stimulus (formalin injection) were applied to the hindlimb under pentobarbital anesthesia. Interhemispheric comparisons in the spinal cord and SI were used to confirm functional activation during sensory processing. We found that all neurovascular parameters showed stimulation-induced changes; however, patterns of changes varied with regions and stimuli. Particularly, transient increases in HbO and SO2 were more reliably attributed to brief stimuli, whereas a sustained decrease in SO2 was more reliably attributed to formalin. Only the ipsilateral SI showed delayed responses to brief stimuli. In conclusion, innocuous and noxious stimuli induced significant neurovascular responses at critical centers (e.g., the spinal cord and SI) along the somatosensory pathway; however, there was no single response pattern (as measured by amplitude, duration, lateralization, decrease or increase) that was able to consistently differentiate noxious stimuli. Our results strongly suggested that the neurovascular response patterns differ between brief and long-lasting noxious stimuli, and can also differ between the spinal cord and SI. Therefore, a use of multiple-parameter strategy

  12. Hemodynamic and Light-Scattering Changes of Rat Spinal Cord and Primary Somatosensory Cortex in Response to Innocuous and Noxious Stimuli.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Wei; Liu, Hanli; Peng, Yuan Bo

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging technologies with an exceptional spatial resolution and noninvasiveness have become a powerful tool for assessing neural activity in both animals and humans. However, the effectiveness of neuroimaging for pain remains unclear partly because the neurovascular coupling during pain processing is not completely characterized. Our current work aims to unravel patterns of neurovascular parameters in pain processing. A novel fiber-optic method was used to acquire absolute values of regional oxy- (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, oxygen saturation rates (SO₂), and the light-scattering coefficients from the spinal cord and primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in 10 rats. Brief mechanical and electrical stimuli (ranging from innocuous to noxious intensities) as well as a long-lasting noxious stimulus (formalin injection) were applied to the hindlimb under pentobarbital anesthesia. Interhemispheric comparisons in the spinal cord and SI were used to confirm functional activation during sensory processing. We found that all neurovascular parameters showed stimulation-induced changes; however, patterns of changes varied with regions and stimuli. Particularly, transient increases in HbO and SO₂ were more reliably attributed to brief stimuli, whereas a sustained decrease in SO₂ was more reliably attributed to formalin. Only the ipsilateral SI showed delayed responses to brief stimuli. In conclusion, innocuous and noxious stimuli induced significant neurovascular responses at critical centers (e.g., the spinal cord and SI) along the somatosensory pathway; however, there was no single response pattern (as measured by amplitude, duration, lateralization, decrease or increase) that was able to consistently differentiate noxious stimuli. Our results strongly suggested that the neurovascular response patterns differ between brief and long-lasting noxious stimuli, and can also differ between the spinal cord and SI. Therefore, a use of multiple-parameter strategy

  13. Comparing sensibility for touch, cold, and warmth in different skin areas.

    PubMed

    de Rezende Strander, Nanna; Ståhle, Lars; Hansson, Per T

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess if the magnitude estimation of suprathreshold brushing, warmth (40 °C), and cold (25 °C) stimuli of the skin over the dorsum of the hand and the dorsum of the foot are comparable to the perceived intensity for the same stimuli applied to the skin over any of the following areas: forehead, m. trapezius, m. deltoideus, thoracic back, and lumbar back, respectively. Thirty-two subjects aged 18-64 years were included. Participants were examined by two physicians on two different occasions, 1-58 days apart. Participants rated the magnitude of the perceived sensation of each stimulus on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) 0-10, where 0 was anchored to "no sensation at all for touch/cold/warmth" and 10 anchored to "the most intense imaginable non-painful sensation of touch/cold/warmth". The criterion for sensory equivalence for one modality was arbitrarily considered satisfactory if two regions had the same numerical rating ±1 point in at least 85% of the individuals. Based on the pre-study criteria for sensory equivalence applied in this study only one area was found to be equivalent to the foot skin for the percept of brushing, that is, the skin over the deltoid muscle and one area for the hand, that is, the skin over the forehead. We failed to find any area with equivalent sensitivity to the hand or the foot for the cold or warm stimuli. PMID:27377987

  14. Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weather Hazard Heath and Aging Hypothermia: A Cold Weather Hazard What Are The Signs Of Hypothermia? Taking ... cold air. But, not everyone knows that cold weather can also lower the temperature inside your body. ...

  15. Ion channel profile of TRPM8 cold receptors reveals a role of TASK-3 potassium channels in thermosensation.

    PubMed

    Morenilla-Palao, Cruz; Luis, Enoch; Fernández-Peña, Carlos; Quintero, Eva; Weaver, Janelle L; Bayliss, Douglas A; Viana, Félix

    2014-09-11

    Animals sense cold ambient temperatures through the activation of peripheral thermoreceptors that express TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-activated ion channel. These receptors can discriminate a very wide range of temperatures from innocuous to noxious. The molecular mechanism responsible for the variable sensitivity of individual cold receptors to temperature is unclear. To address this question, we performed a detailed ion channel expression analysis of cold-sensitive neurons, combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis with a molecular-profiling approach in fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-purified TRPM8 neurons. We found that TASK-3 leak potassium channels are highly enriched in a subpopulation of these sensory neurons. The thermal threshold of TRPM8 cold neurons is decreased during TASK-3 blockade and in mice lacking TASK-3, and, most importantly, these mice display hypersensitivity to cold. Our results demonstrate a role of TASK-3 channels in thermosensation, showing that a channel-based combinatorial strategy in TRPM8 cold thermoreceptors leads to molecular specialization and functional diversity. PMID:25199828

  16. Feeling hot, feeling cold: TRP channels—a great story unfolds

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Irina; Kym, Philip R; Szallasi, Arpad

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is about the roles that TRP channels play in heat and cold sensation and body temperature regulation. These roles may be exploited for therapeutic purposes (indeed, drugs targeting TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels are currently undergoing clinical trials for indications that range from pain through chronic cough and overactive bladder to cancer) or, conversely, may limit drug development (for example, several TRPV1 antagonists were withdrawn from clinical trials due to the hyperthermic reaction that they caused). In the future, modulation of thermosensitive TRP channels may ultimately find application in the treatment not only of pain, but also itch, stroke, asthma, and metabolic disorders. Of the multitude of targets involved in temperature sensation and body temperature regulation, why TRP channels? And why now?

  17. Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2016-07-01

    Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124714

  18. Psychological and psychophysiological factors in prevention and treatment of cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kappes, B; Mills, W; O'Malley, J

    1993-01-01

    health, performance, and injury prevention in extreme isolated cold environments has important strategic and scientific implications. What is learned from behavioral studies of cold survival provides an opportunity to increase our scientific knowledge and understanding. These cold research findings can assist in our future exploration of cold, underwater farming at great depths, and to far distance space travel to cold planets. The relatively new research frontier "Polar Psychology" has evolved to study how interactions with cold environments can have both positive and/or negative consequences. This research simulates the psychological factors likely to be encountered while exploring isolated cold regions of distant galaxies. The psychological and psychophysiological correlates of cold experience appear to be a function of four interactive issues: the environment, genetic predisposition, learning or experience, and finally perception or cognition. Individual cold tolerance seems to relate heavily on sensation, perception and behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8214374

  19. Febrile/cold agglutinins

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnose certain infections and find the cause of hemolytic anemia (a type of anemia that occurs when red ... or cold agglutinins can help explain why the hemolytic anemia is occurring and direct treatment.

  20. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M.; Wright, Patricia B.; Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed SSS was correlated with number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  1. Instrumentation for magnitude estimation and cross-modality matching of auditory and lingual vibrotactile sensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel; Fucci, Donald; Petrosino, Linda; Wallace, Daniel

    1986-09-01

    An instrumentation system has been designed to investigate the relationship between auditory and oral tactile sensory processes. This instrumentation can be employed to obtain judgments of auditory and oral tactile sensation magnitudes by the psychophysical scaling methods of magnitude estimation and cross-modality matching. The stimulus generating units, stimulus measurement units, and psychophysical sensation magnitude scaling procedures are described. Previous research on the relationship of auditory and oral tactile sensory processes has frequently involved disruption of one or both sensory modes. The instrumentation system described permits investigation of these sensory channels in a nondisruptive manner. The results of two preliminary studies employing the described instrumentation and experimental techniques indicate that the system provides a viable means for investigating auditory and oral tactile sensory interactions in normal and speech-disordered subjects.

  2. Effects of theta burst stimulation on referred phantom sensations in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra C; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-03-01

    To further explore the mechanisms underlying cortical reorganization in patients with phantom sensations after deafferentation, a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study was carried out in two patients with referred phantom sensations (RPS) after incomplete spinal cord injury at the thoracic level. We delivered continuous (inhibitory), intermittent (excitatory), and placebo theta burst stimulation to the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and secondary somatosensory cortex (S2). Perception of RPS was significantly and transiently disrupted by inhibitory theta burst stimulation applied over S1 and, to a lesser extent, S2. This study supports the hypothesis that RPS depend on remapping in the somatosensory cortex and provides further electrophysiological evidence in vivo that cortical reorganizational processes are critically modulated by GABAergic mechanisms. Enhancement of GABAergic activity may block cortical reorganization, leading to RPS in spinal cord injury patients. PMID:26626415

  3. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M; Wright, Patricia B; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed that SSS was correlated with a number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  4. Influence of head orientation on visually induced pitch and roll sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Dichgans, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Observers viewing rotating scenes in their periphery frequently experience self-motion in the opposite direction. A full field flight simulator projection system was used to investigate the sensations resulting from pitch, roll, and yaw stimuli at various head orientations. Steady yaw rate (circularvection) and development of a constant roll tilt angle, for the head erect and constant velocity yaw and roll stimuli, confirmed previous reports. Pitch stimuli also were found to produce a sensation of tilting to a steady pitch angle, which was much stronger for pitch forward than backward. Pitch and roll effects were strongly dependent on head position, increasing for the head rolled 90 deg to the side or inverted, and decreasing for the head pitched 25 deg forward. These results support a hypothesis that visually induced tilt is limited by conflict with otolith information.

  5. Stoicism and Sensation Seeking: Male Vulnerabilities for the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Smith, Phillip N.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate two personality traits (i.e., stoicism and sensation seeking) that may account for well-established gender differences in suicide, within the framework of the interpersonal theory of suicide. This theory proposes that acquired capability for suicide, a construct comprised of pain insensitivity and fearlessness about death, explains gender differences in suicide. Across two samples of undergraduates (N = 185 and N = 363), men demonstrated significantly greater levels of both facets of acquired capability than women. Further, we found that stoicism accounted for the relationship between gender and pain insensitivity, and sensation seeking accounted for the relationship between gender and fearlessness about death. Thus, personality may be one psychological mechanism accounting for gender differences in suicidal behavior. PMID:22736874

  6. 3-iodothyroacetic acid, a metabolite of thyroid hormone, induces itch and reduces threshold to noxious and to painful heat stimuli in mice

    PubMed Central

    Laurino, Annunziatina; De Siena, Gaetano; Resta, Francesco; Masi, Alessio; Musilli, Claudia; Zucchi, Riccardo; Raimondi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Itch is associated with increased sensitization to nociceptive stimuli. We investigated whether 3-iodothyroacetic acid (TA1), by releasing histamine, induces itch and increases sensitization to noxious and painful heat stimuli. Experimental Approach Itch was evaluated after s.c. administration of TA1 (0.4, 1.32 and 4 μg·kg−1). Mice threshold to noxious (NHT) and to painful heat stimuli were evaluated by the increasing-temperature hot plate (from 45.5 to 49.5°C) or by the hot plate (51.5°C) test, respectively, 15 min after i.p. injection of TA1 (0.4, 1.32 and 4 μg·kg−1). Itch, NHT and pain threshold evaluation were repeated in mice pretreated with pyrilamine. Itch and NHT were also measured in HDC+/+ and HDC−/− following injection of saline or TA1 (1.32, 4 and 11 μg·kg−1; s.c. and i.p.). pERK1/2 levels were determined by Western blot in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) isolated from CD1 mice 15 min after they received (i.p.): saline, saline and noxious heat stimulus (46.5°C), TA1 (0.1, 0.4, 1.32, 4 μg·kg−1) or TA1 1.32 μg·kg−1 and noxious heat stimulus. Key Results TA1 0.4 and 1.32 μg·kg−1 induced itch and reduced NHT; pyrilamine pretreatment prevented both of these effects. TA1 4 μg·kg−1 (i.p.) reduced pain threshold without inducing itch or modifying NHT. In HDC−/− mice, TA1 failed to induce itch and to reduce NHT. In DRG, pERK1/2 levels were significantly increased by noxious heat stimuli and by TA1 0.1, 0.4 and 1.32 μg·kg−1; i.p. Conclusions and Implications Increased TA1 levels induce itch and an enhanced sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli suggesting that TA1 might represent a potential cause of itch in thyroid diseases. PMID:25439265

  7. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

  8. Differences in Sensation Seeking Between Alpine Skiers, Snowboarders and Ski Tourers

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Martin; Wolf, Mirjam; Ruedl, Gerhard; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex) were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V) comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2) = 41.5, p < 0.001). Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions “thrill- and adventure-seeking” and “experience-seeking” than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in “disinhibition” related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and “boredom susceptibility” compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group. Key points It is the very first research trying to identify differences between different types of winter sport slope users Obtained results show higher sensation seeking scores in snowboarders These results might stimulate new approaches in educational campaigns to reduce accident rates in winter sports PMID:26957921

  9. Polymorphisms in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs associate with sensations from sampled ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variation in chemosensory genes can explain variability in individual’s perception of and preference for many foods and beverages. To gain insight into variable preference and intake of alcoholic beverages, we explored individual variability in the responses to sampled ethanol. In humans, ethanol elicits sweet, bitter and burning sensations. Here, we explore the relationship between variation in ethanol sensations and polymorphisms in genes encoding bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and a polymodal nociceptor (TRPV1). Methods Caucasian participants (n=93) were genotyped for 16 SNPs in TRPV1, 3 SNPs in TAS2R38 and 1 SNP in TAS2R13. Participants rated sampled ethanol on a generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale. Two stimuli were presented: a 16% ethanol whole mouth sip-and-spit solution with a single time-point rating of overall intensity, and a cotton swab saturated with 50% ethanol on the circumvallate papillae (CV) with repeated ratings made over 3 minutes. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the time-intensity data. Results The ethanol whole mouth solution had overall intensity ratings near ‘very strong’. Burning/stinging had the highest mean AUC values, followed by bitterness and sweetness. Whole mouth intensity ratings were significantly associated with burning/stinging and bitterness AUC values on the CV. Three TRPV1 SNPs (rs224547, rs4780521, rs161364) were associated with ethanol sensations on the CV, with two (rs224547 and rs4780521) exhibiting strong linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, the TAS2R38 SNPs rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939 formed a haplotype, and were associated with bitterness on the CV. Lastly, overall intensity for whole mouth ethanol associated with the TAS2R13 SNP rs1015443. Conclusions These data suggest genetic variations in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs influence sensations from sampled ethanol and may potentially influence how individuals initially respond to alcoholic beverages. PMID:25257701

  10. Immediate Effect of Therapeutic Massage on Pain Sensation and Unpleasantness: A Consecutive Case Series

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain is a common condition that poses a significant burden to its sufferers and costs the US economy billions of dollars each year in lost productivity. Individuals complaining of musculoskeletal pain make up a large proportion of clients treated by massage therapists in community practices, yet few studies have examined the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on this type of pain in the practice setting. Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on musculoskeletal pain sensation and unpleasantness in a community setting. Setting: Solo private practice in central Virginia, United States. Participants: One hundred sixteen first-time clients who complained of musculoskeletal pain as a presenting symptom. Research design: Prospective, consecutive practice-based case series. Intervention: A single 60-minute session of individualized therapeutic massage; techniques used included Swedish massage employing effleurage, petrissage, and friction,;deep tissue; myofascial; positional release; passive and resisted joint mobilization; and biofield modalities. Main Outcome Measures: Visual Analog Scales for pain sensation and unpleasantness. Results: Both pain sensation and unpleasantness were significantly reduced by a single session of therapeutic massage. Mean pain sensation decreased from 3.76 (SD=1.87) prior to massage to .89 (SD=1.35) following massage, with t=18.87, P<.001. Mean pain unpleasantness decreased from 5.21 (SD=2.48) prior to massage to .64 (SD=1.23) following massage, with t =20.45, P<.001. Effect sizes were 1.76 and 1.90, respectively. Conclusions: In this case series, therapeutic massage appeared to be an effective intervention for common musculoskeletal pain that influenced both the physical and affective dimension of the pain experience. Although care was taken to reduce potential bias through limiting eligibility to first time clients and use of a standardized script, practice-based case series have

  11. Differences in Sensation Seeking Between Alpine Skiers, Snowboarders and Ski Tourers.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Martin; Wolf, Mirjam; Ruedl, Gerhard; Burtscher, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Despite different injury rates and injury patterns previous personality related research in the field of downhill winter sports did not subdivide between different alpine slope users. In this study, we tried to find out whether the personality trait sensation seeking differs between skiers, snowboarders and ski tourers. In a cross-sectional survey 1185 persons (726 alpine skiers, 321 snowboarders and 138 ski tourers comparable in age and sex) were electronically questioned with the sensation seeking scale (SSS-V) comprising the four factors thrill and adventure seeking, experiences seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Kruskal-Wallis Tests revealed a significantly higher total score of the SSS-V for snowboarders in comparison to alpine skiers and ski tourers (H(2) = 41.5, p < 0.001). Ski tourers and snowboarders scored significantly higher in the dimensions "thrill- and adventure-seeking" and "experience-seeking" than alpine skiers. Furthermore, snowboarders showed higher scores in "disinhibition" related to alpine skiers and ski tourers and "boredom susceptibility" compared to alpine skiers. Data show differences in the personality trait sensation seeking in people practising different winter sports. As snowboarders showed higher SS-scores compared to alpine skiers and ski tourers prevention and information programs might benefit from a selective approach focusing on special characteristics of the respective group. Key pointsIt is the very first research trying to identify differences between different types of winter sport slope usersObtained results show higher sensation seeking scores in snowboardersThese results might stimulate new approaches in educational campaigns to reduce accident rates in winter sports. PMID:26957921

  12. Electrical sensation during Tai-Chi practice as the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Achiron, A; Barak, Y; Stern, Y; Noy, S

    1997-12-01

    We report a patient with a 3-year history of brief episodes of electrical sensations over her back and upper limbs that occurred during Tai-Chi practicing. This appearance of Lhermitte's sign was later followed by additional neurologic symptoms, and the patient was diagnosed as suffering from multiple sclerosis. Though the patient related the Lhermitte's sign to her ability to achieve full relaxation in Tai-Chi exercise, we think it was the first manifestation of the disease. PMID:9491306

  13. Sensation seeking, augmenting-reducing, and the perceived and preferred effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kohn, P M; Coulas, J T

    1985-01-01

    The following measures were administered to 78 undergraduates: the General and Disinhibition subscales of Zuckerman's (1971) Sensation-Seeking Scale; the Reducer-Augmenter Scale (RAS; Vando, 1970, 1974); self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis; the degree of attribution of stimulant, depressant, and neutral effects to these drugs; and desirability ratings of stimulant and depressant effects ascribed to various drugs. Major findings were as follows: (a) On the RAS, reducing correlated positively with both sensation-seeking measures. (b) Seven of the nine personality-versus-drug-use correlations were positive and significant. (c) Generally, the effects attributed to drugs did not differ by sex, personality, or use. (d) However, frequent drinkers attributed stimulant effects to alcohol more strongly than depressant effects, whereas infrequent drinkers did the opposite. (e) The mean desirability ratings of stimulant and depressant drug effects correlated positively. (f) High disinhibitors rated drug effects of both kinds more favorably than did lows. (g) A similar, more favorable evaluation by high than by low general sensation seekers was significant for male subjects only. (h) Score on the Reducer-Augmenter Scale was not significantly predictive of subjects' desirability ratings. PMID:3981395

  14. Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Anthropometric Measurements and Appetite Sensations in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Alan; Tseng, Jason; Chang, Chia-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. A patient-assessor-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled crossover trial was performed to investigate the effectiveness of laser acupuncture on anthropometric measurements and appetite sensation in obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-two obese subjects were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group or the sham laser acupuncture group. Subjects within each group received the relevant treatment three times a week for 8 weeks. After a two-week washout period, the subjects then received the treatment of the opposite group for another 8 weeks. BMI, body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference, hip circumference, and appetite sensations were measured before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Results. BMI, body fat percentage, WHR, waist circumference, and hip circumference decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the laser acupuncture group compared to baseline but there was no decrease in those variables in the sham laser acupuncture group. Laser acupuncture significantly improved scores on the fullness, hunger, satiety, desire to eat, and overall well-being relative to the baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Laser acupuncture is well tolerated and improves anthropometric measurements and appetite sensations in obese subjects. PMID:27051454

  15. Safety, Efficiency, and Outcomes of Perineoplasty: Treatment of the Sensation of a Wide Vagina.

    PubMed

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Ozturk, Mustafa; Bodur, Serkan; Yılmaz, Ali; Kinci, Mehmet Ferdi; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Background. The sensation of a wide vagina is a common problem for women after childbirth. As its etiology is unknown, there is no uniform management strategy. We hypothesized that, rather than vaginal laxity, the cause was level 3 pelvic support deficiency. Methods. This retrospective study compared preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus length, perineal length, and total vaginal length in patients treated with perineoplasty for the sensation of a wide vagina. A telephone survey was used to determine postoperative patient and male partner satisfaction rates. Results. Mean age of patients was 48 (26-68) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.3 (17.6-33.2); and mean parity was 2.5 (2-5). Preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus, perineal length, and total vaginal length were 4.62 and 3.18 (p < 0.01), 3.06 and 4.04 (p < 0.01), and 9.43 and 9.43 (p = 0.882), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the success rate of the perineoplasty procedure was 87.9%; according to a visual analog scale, partner satisfaction rate was 92.6%. Ten percent (n = 4) of patients said they experienced dyspareunia during sexual intercourse at the introitus of the vagina. Conclusion. With low dyspareunia rates, low complication rates, high patient satisfaction, and satisfactory anatomical success, perineoplasty can be considered successful for treatment of the sensation of a wide vagina. PMID:27610368

  16. Safety, Efficiency, and Outcomes of Perineoplasty: Treatment of the Sensation of a Wide Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Ozturk, Mustafa; Bodur, Serkan; Yılmaz, Ali; Kinci, Mehmet Ferdi; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Background. The sensation of a wide vagina is a common problem for women after childbirth. As its etiology is unknown, there is no uniform management strategy. We hypothesized that, rather than vaginal laxity, the cause was level 3 pelvic support deficiency. Methods. This retrospective study compared preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus length, perineal length, and total vaginal length in patients treated with perineoplasty for the sensation of a wide vagina. A telephone survey was used to determine postoperative patient and male partner satisfaction rates. Results. Mean age of patients was 48 (26–68) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.3 (17.6–33.2); and mean parity was 2.5 (2–5). Preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus, perineal length, and total vaginal length were 4.62 and 3.18 (p < 0.01), 3.06 and 4.04 (p < 0.01), and 9.43 and 9.43 (p = 0.882), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the success rate of the perineoplasty procedure was 87.9%; according to a visual analog scale, partner satisfaction rate was 92.6%. Ten percent (n = 4) of patients said they experienced dyspareunia during sexual intercourse at the introitus of the vagina. Conclusion. With low dyspareunia rates, low complication rates, high patient satisfaction, and satisfactory anatomical success, perineoplasty can be considered successful for treatment of the sensation of a wide vagina. PMID:27610368

  17. Using Virtual Reality to Distract Overweight Children from Bodily Sensations During Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Escobar, Patricia; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Alvarez Pitti, Julio; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Botella, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the potential of virtual reality (VR) to enhance attentional distraction in overweight children as they experience bodily sensations during exercise. It has been suggested that one reason why obese children stop exercising is the perception of bodily sensations. In a counterbalanced design, a total of 109 children (33 overweight, 10-15 years old) were asked to walk twice for 6 minutes on a treadmill under one of two conditions: (a) traditional condition (TC)-focusing their attention on their physical feelings and sensations or (b) distraction condition (DC)-focusing their attention on a virtual environment. Attentional focus during exercise, bad-good feeling states (pre- and postexperimental), perceived exertion (3 minutes and post), heart rate, and enjoyment were assessed. Results indicated that overweight children focused on internal information under the TC, but they significantly shifted their attention to regard the external environment in the DC. This attentional distraction effect of VR was more intense in overweight than in normal-weight children. No differences between groups were found when examining changes in feeling states and perceived exertion. VR increased enjoyment during exercise, and children preferred exercise using virtual environments. VR is useful to promote distraction and may help overweight and obese children to enjoy exercise. PMID:26882326

  18. Benefits of breakfast meals and pattern of consumption on satiety-related sensations in women.

    PubMed

    Berti, Cristiana; Riso, Patrizia; Brusamolino, Antonella; Porrini, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects on satiety-related sensations of seven isoenergetic cereal-based breakfasts and two fruit products (salad and juice) consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Nine healthy women participated to 11 sessions following a randomized repeated-measures design. Subjects were asked to consume seven breakfasts consisting of a standard beverage and a different cereal-based product, and also fruit salad or apricot juice consumed within breakfast or as a midmorning snack. Satiety, desire-to-eat and perceived characteristics of products consumed were monitored on Visual Analog Scales from 8:30 am until lunch. Ratings registered and areas under the curve of sensations were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. All breakfast meals maintained the satiety-related sensations at lunch time higher than basal values. The best satiety control was obtained when the fruit salad was consumed as a midmorning snack. Consequently, regular consumption of breakfast and of whole fruit as midmorning snack may be a valid strategy to achieve appetite control. PMID:26471076

  19. Umami compounds enhance the intensity of retronasal sensation of aromas from model chicken soups.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Goto, Shingo; Miura, Kyo; Takakura, Yukiko; Egusa, Ai S; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the influence of taste compounds on retronasal aroma sensation using a model chicken soup. The aroma intensity of a reconstituted flavour solution from which glutamic acid (Glu), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), or phosphate was omitted was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the model soup. The aroma intensity of 0.4% NaCl solution containing the aroma chicken model (ACM) with added Glu and IMP was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of 0.4% NaCl solution containing only ACM. The quantitative analyses showed that adding monosodium glutamate (MSG) to aqueous aroma solution containing only ACM enhanced the intensity of retronasal aroma sensation by 2.5-folds with increasing MSG concentration from 0% to 0.3%. Sensation intensity using an umami solution with added MSG and IMP was significantly higher than that with only MSG when the MSG concentration was 0.05%, 0.075%, or 0.1%. However, it plateaued when MSG concentration was beyond 0.3%. PMID:26593530

  20. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

  1. Frequent Extreme Cold Exposure and Brown Fat and Cold-Induced Thermogenesis: A Study in a Monozygotic Twin

    PubMed Central

    Vosselman, Maarten J.; Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Kingma, Boris R. M.; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as ‘the Iceman’, who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a ‘normal’ sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. Methods The Iceman (subject A) and his brother (subject B) were studied during mild cold (13°C) and thermoneutral conditions (31°C). Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. Results Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal), within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G). CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%), but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. Conclusion No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the low

  2. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  3. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Instructors who teach outdoors in an environment so cold as to cause injury must satisfy program objectives while avoiding cold injury to themselves and students, help students focus on learning instead of discomfort, and alleviate some students' intense fear of the cold. Dealing with the cold successfully requires a thorough knowledge of:…

  4. Sensation Seeking as a Moderator of Gain- and Loss-Framed HIV-Test Promotion Message Effects.

    PubMed

    Hull, Shawnika J; Hong, Yangsun

    2016-01-01

    This study used an experiment (N = 504) to test whether the fit between sensation-seeking disposition and frame enhances the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed HIV test promotion messages. Gain- and loss-framed messages may be consistent with low and high sensation seekers' disposition with respect to risk behavior. We hypothesized that a loss-framed message would be more persuasive for high sensation seekers and that a gain-framed message should be more effective for low sensation seekers. We also expected elaboration to mediate the interaction. Results demonstrated the hypothesized interaction. When the message frame fit with the viewer's way of thinking, the persuasive power of the message was enhanced. The mediation hypothesis was not supported. Practical implications for targeting and message design are discussed. PMID:26308904

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A BRIEF SUBSTANCE USE SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: VALIDATION AND PREDICTION OF INJECTION-RELATED BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Richardson, Chris; Buxton, Jane; Shoveller, Jeannie; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Sensation seeking, a personality trait, has been shown to predict engagement in high-risk behaviors. However, little is known regarding the impact of sensation seeking on substance use among street youth. We therefore sought to modify a sensation seeking scale (SSS) for use among this population. Street youth from the Vancouver-based At-Risk Youth Study (n = 226) completed the modified SSS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA) were undertaken to establish the scale’s dimensionality and internal validity. The association between SSS score and injection-related behaviors was tested using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. EFA results indicated scale unidimensionality. The comparative fit index (CFI) suggested acceptable fit (CFI = 0.914). In multivariate analysis, sensation seeking was independently associated with injection drug use, crystal methamphetamine use, polysubstance use, and binge drug use (all p < 0.05). Our findings provide preliminary support for the use of the modified SSS among street youth. PMID:25119056

  6. Unilateral inflammation of the hindpaw in rats as a model of prolonged noxious stimulation: alterations in behavior and nociceptive thresholds.

    PubMed

    Stein, C; Millan, M J; Herz, A

    1988-10-01

    Unilateral intraplantar injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) into one hindpaw of rats led to a localized inflammation that became apparent within 12 hours and reached its peak between 2 and 3 weeks. FCA-treated rats displayed a diminished rate of body weight gain, a reduction of food and water intake and a disruption of circadian temperature regulation, as well as decreased locomotor activity and pronounced scratching behavior in the open field. Paw pressure thresholds were reduced only in inflamed paws. Contralateral, noninflamed paws showed comparable thresholds to those of control animals. Tail-flick and tail-pressure responses were not different from controls. These data suggest that FCA-treated animals experience increased noxious input from the inflamed limb and that changes in thresholds to acutely applied nociceptive stimuli are due to a peripheral hypersensitivity of inflamed tissue. The present condition resembles most closely a state of acute inflammatory pain. The term "chronic pain" in its strict sense is not appropriate in this model. PMID:3244721

  7. Enkephalins and dorsal horn neurones of the cat: effects on responses to noxious and innocuous skin stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, A W; Hall, J G; Headley, P M

    1977-01-01

    1. In spinal cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose, a study was made of the effects of methionine enkephalin and methionine enkephalin amide on the responses of neurones of spinal laminae IV and V to noxious and innocuous skin stimuli. The enkephalins were ejected from micropipettes either in the region of cell bodies or in the substantia gelatinosa. 2. Administered near cell bodies the enkephalins reduced spontaneous firing and cell responses to both types of skin stimuli. These effects were antagonized by naloxone when administered near cell bodies but not when given intravenously in doses (0.3-0.6 mg/kg) more than adequate to antagonize analgesic doses of morphine. 3. Administered in the substantia gelatinosa the enkephalins were more selective in their action. The predominant effect was a reduction in nociceptive responses with little effect on non-nociceptive responses although spontaneous firing was commonly reduced. Naloxone administered either in the substantia gelatinosa or intravenously (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) reversed these effects of the enkephalins. PMID:588805

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  9. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18–56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92–0.95; pain rating r = 0.93–0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87–0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity

  10. Cold moderators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, up–grading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  11. Internet self-efficacy, the need for cognition, and sensation seeking as predictors of problematic use of the internet.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo; Tian, Mei

    2011-04-01

    We conducted a study of the relationships between Internet self-efficacy, sensation seeking, the need for cognition, and problematic use of the Internet. The study was based on a randomly selected sample of 979 adult Internet users. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis of these subjects' responses on a questionnaire consisting of relevant items indicated that Internet self-efficacy and sensation seeking positively predicted problematic Internet use. Contrastingly, the need for cognition was significantly negatively associated with problematic Internet use. PMID:20969453

  12. Modulation of non-painful phantom sensation in subjects with spinal cord injury by means of rTMS.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Höller, Yvonne; Bathke, Arne; Frey, Vanessa N; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-09-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), given as theta burst stimulation (TBS), can interfere with non-painful phantom sensations in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). In double-blind, sham-controlled experiments in five subjects with cervical or thoracic traumatic SCI, we evaluated the effects of a single session of inhibitory (continuous) TBS, excitatory (intermittent) TBS, or placebo TBS, on simplex and complex non-painful phantom sensations. The interventions targeted the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), the primary sensory cortex (S1) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Measurements were carried out at baseline (T0), 5 min (T1) and 30 min later (T2) after the intervention. Descriptive evaluation of results shows that non-painful phantom sensations were not affected by rTMS applied over M1. Continuous (inhibitory) TBS over S1 induced a short-lasting decrease of simple non-painful phantom sensations, while continuous TBS over PPC induced a short-lasting decrease of both simple and complex phantom sensations. Intermittent (excitatory) TBS over PPC induced a slight increase of non-painful phantom sensations. Tests for significance confirm these observations, but must be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size. In conclusion, non-painful phantom sensations may be associated to a hyperexcitability of PPC and to a lesser extent of S1, which can be normalized by inhibitory rTMS. Our preliminary findings provide further evidence that neuromodulatory techniques are able to reverse phantom sensations not only after limb amputation but also in other conditions characterized by deafferentation such as SCI. PMID:26405006

  13. The reinforcing, subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine: Influence of sensation-seeking status

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Lile, Joshua A.; Robbins, C. Glenn; Martin, Catherine A.; Rush, Craig R.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences that may contribute to vulnerability to abuse drugs have been identified. Sensation-seeking status has been shown to influence both vulnerability to drug use and response to acute drug administration. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine in high and low sensation-seeking subjects using a modified progressive-ratio procedure. A battery of subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular measures was also included to better characterize the effects of d-amphetamine in these groups. Ten high sensation seekers and ten low sensation seekers that were matched for education, age, drug use, height, and weight, first sampled doses of d-amphetamine (0, 8, and 16 mg). In subsequent sessions, subjects were offered the opportunity to work for the sampled dose on a modified progressive-ratio procedure. d-Amphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like effects (e.g., increased subject-ratings of Like Drug, enhanced performance, and increased heart rate). High sensation seekers were more sensitive than low sensation seekers to the reinforcing and some of the subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine. The results of the present experiment extend those of previous findings by demonstrating that the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine vary as a function of the biologically based sensation-seeking personality trait. These results suggest that increased stimulant drug use and abuse among high sensation seekers may be related, in part, to increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of stimulants among these individuals. PMID:17011712

  14. Religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use for college-aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Todd; Conner, Bradley T

    2015-03-01

    Substance use has been identified as a major problem on college campuses across the country, with excessive use often leading to unintended and unwanted negative health outcomes. Sensation seeking has been shown to be a consistent predictor of engagement in various health risk behaviors, including substance use. Religiosity has been shown to negatively predict substance use. However, there is mixed evidence on the relations among these risk and protective factors. This may be due to the operational definitions of religiosity in previous research. The current study investigated religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use using robust measures of religiosity. The primary hypotheses were (a) sensation seeking would be positively associated with higher levels of heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use; (b) religiosity would be negatively associated with higher levels of substance use; and (c) religiosity would moderate the relation between sensation seeking and substance use such that, when religiosity was high, there would be no association between sensation seeking and substance use, but at low and moderate levels of religiosity, there would be a positive association between them. Religiosity was a significant moderator of the relation between risk seeking and marijuana use (p < .01), but it was less effective as a moderator between sensation seeking and heavy episodic drinking. Religiosity appears to have a stronger buffering effect for illegal drug use compared with alcohol use, perhaps in part because of the relative acceptance of alcohol consumption across major U.S. religious orientations. PMID:25347013

  15. Determination of sensation threshold from small pulse trains of 2.01μm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2009-02-01

    The determination of sensation thresholds has applications ranging from uses in the medical community such as neural pathway mapping and for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy, to potential uses in determining safety standards. This study sought to determine the sensation threshold, and the distribution of sensation probabilities, for pulse trains ranging from two 10 ms pulses to nine 10 ms pulses from 2.01 μm laser light incident on a human forearm and chest. Threshold was defined as the energy density that would elicit sensation 50% of the time (ED50). A method of levels approach was used in conjunction with a monovariate binary response model to determine the ED50. We determined the ED50 and also a distribution of threshold probabilities. Threshold was found to be largely dependant on total energy deposited for smaller pulse trains, and thus independent of the number of pulses. Total energy becomes less important as the number of pulses increases however, and a decrease in threshold was measured for a nine pulse train as compared to one through four pulse trains. Thus we have demonstrated that this method is a useful and easy way for determining sensation thresholds from a 2.01 μm laser for possible clinical use. We have also demonstrated that lower power lasers when pulsed can elicit sensation at comparable levels to higher power single pulse lasers.

  16. Differential ATF3 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons reveals the profile of primary afferents engaged by diverse noxious chemical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bráz, João M.; Basbaum, Allan I.

    2010-01-01

    Although transgenic and knockout mice have helped delineate the mechanisms of action of diverse noxious compounds, it is still difficult to determine unequivocally the subpopulations of primary afferent nociceptor that these molecules engage. As most noxious stimuli lead to tissue and/or nerve injury, here we used induction of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a reliable marker of nerve injury, to assess the populations of primary afferent fibers that are activated after peripheral administration of noxious chemical stimuli. In wild-type mice, hindpaw injections of capsaicin, formalin, mustard oil or menthol induce expression of ATF3 in distinct subpopulations of sensory neurons. Interestingly, even though these noxious chemicals are thought to act through subtypes of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, all compounds also induced ATF3 in neurons that appear not to express the expected TRP channel subtypes. On the other hand, capsaicin failed to induce ATF3 in mice lacking TRPV1, indicating that TRPV1 is required for both the direct and indirect induction of ATF3 in sensory neurons. By contrast, only low doses of formalin or mustard oil failed to induce ATF3 in TRPA1 null mice, indicating that injections of high doses (>0.5%) of formalin or mustard oil recruit both TRPA1 and non-TRPA1 expressing primary afferent fibers. Finally, peripheral injection of menthol, a TRPM8 receptor agonist, induced ATF3 in a wide variety of sensory neurons, but in a TRPM8-independent manner. We conclude that purportedly selective agonists can activate a heterogeneous population of sensory neurons, which ultimately could contribute to the behavioral responses evoked. PMID:20605331

  17. Trigeminal neuropathic pain alters responses in CNS circuits to mechanical (brush) and thermal (cold and heat) stimuli.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Lino; Morris, Susie; Bazes, Shelly; Gostic, Richard; Sherman, Seth; Gostic, Julie; Pendse, Gautam; Moulton, Eric; Scrivani, Steven; Keith, David; Chizh, Boris; Borsook, David

    2006-10-18

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study patients with chronic neuropathic pain involving the maxillary region (V2) of the trigeminal nerve in patients with spontaneous pain and evoked pain to brush (allodynia). Patients underwent two functional scans (2-3 months apart) with mechanical and thermal stimuli applied to the affected region of V2 and to the mirror site in the unaffected contralateral V2 region, as well as bilaterally to the mandibular (V3) division. Patients were stimulated with brush, noxious cold, and noxious heat. Significant changes were observed in regions within and outside the primary trigeminal sensory pathway. Stimulation to the affected (neuropathic) side resulted in predominantly frontal region and basal ganglia activation compared with the control side. The differences were consistent with the allodynia to brush and cold. A region of interest-based analysis of the trigeminal sensory pathway revealed patterns of activation that differentiated between the affected and unaffected sides and that were particular to each stimulus. Activation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus was constant in location for all pain stimuli. Activation in other brainstem nuclei also showed differences in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal for the affected versus the unaffected side. Thus, sensory processing in patients with trigeminal neuropathic pain is associated with distinct activation patterns consistent with sensitization within and outside of the primary sensory pathway. PMID:17050704

  18. "Cold training" affects rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Paola; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Di Meo, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Continuous exposure of homeothermic animals to low environmental temperatures elicits physiological adaptations necessary for animal survival, which are associated to higher generation of pro-oxidants in thermogenic tissues. It is not known whether intermittent cold exposure (cold training) is able to affect tissue responses to continuous cold exposure. Therefore, we investigated whether rat liver responses to continuous cold exposure of 2 days are modified by cold training (1h daily for 5 days per week for 3 consecutive weeks). Continuous cold increased liver oxidative metabolism by increasing tissue content of mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial aerobic capacity. Cold training did not affect such parameters, but attenuated or prevented the changes elicited by continuous cold exposure. Two-day cold exposure increased lipid hydroperoxide and protein-bound carbonyl levels in homogenates and mitochondria, whereas cold training decreased such effects although it decreased only homogenate protein damage in control rats. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPX and GR and H2O2 production were increased by continuous cold exposure. Despite the increase in GPX and GR activities, livers from cold-exposed rats showed increased susceptibility to in vitro oxidative challenge. Such cold effects were decreased by cold training, which in control rats reduced only H2O2 production and susceptibility to stress. The changes of PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 expression levels were consistent with those induced by cold exposure and cold training in mitochondrial protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the mechanisms by which cold training attenuates the effects of the continuous cold exposure remain to be elucidated. PMID:26808664

  19. "Sensational" ART

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2013-01-01

    After reaching the Stanley Cup final in 2007 and many successful seasons, 2011-12 was a rebuilding year for the author's NHL team, the Ottawa Senators. It occurred to him that it might be possible to stage an interactive presentation at Scotia Bank Place with his students. His idea was for students to each hold a segment of a large artwork that…

  20. Massive cold cloud clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, L. Viktor; Marton, Gabor; Zahorecz, Sarolta

    2015-08-01

    The all-sky Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC, Planck 2015 results XXVIII 2015) allows an almost unbiased study of the early phases of star-formation in our Galaxy. Several thousand of the clumps have also distance estimates allowing a mass, and density determination. The nature of Planck clumps varies from IRDCs to tiny nearby cold clouds with masses ranging from one to several tens of thousands solar masses. Some of the clumps are embedded in GMCs, others are isolated. Some are close or even very close to OB associations, while others lay far from any UV luminous objects.The small scale clustering of these objects was studied with the improved Minimum Spanning Tree method of Cartwright & Whitworth identifying groups in 3D space. As a result also massive cold cloud clusters were identified. We analyse the MST structures, and discuss their relation to ongoing and future massive star formation.