Science.gov

Sample records for npp partial site

  1. Chernobyl NPP: Completion of LRW Treatment Plant and LRW Management on Site - 12568

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Klimenko, I.; Taranenko, L.

    2012-07-01

    Since a beginning of ChNPP operation, and after a tragedy in 1986, a few thousands m3 of LRW have been collected in a storage tanks. In 2004 ChNPP started the new project on creation of LRW treatment plant (LRWTP) financed from EBRD fund. But it was stopped in 2008 because of financial and contract problems. In 2010 SIA RADON jointly with Ukrainian partners has won a tender on completion of LRWTP, in particular I and C system. The purpose of LRTP is to process liquid rad-wastes from SSE 'Chernobyl NPP' site and those liquids stored in the LRWS and SLRWS tanks as well as the would-be wastes after ChNPP Power Units 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning. The LRTP design lifetime - 20 years. Currently, the LRTP is getting ready to perform the following activities: 1. retrieval of waste from tanks stored at ChNPP LWS using waste retrieval system with existing equipment involved; 2. transfer of retrieved waste into LRTP reception tanks with partial use of existing transfer pipelines; 3. laboratory chemical and radiochemical analysis of reception tanks contest to define the full spectrum of characteristics before processing, to acknowledge the necessity of preliminary processing and to select end product recipe; 4. preliminary processing of the waste to meet the requirements for further stages of the process; 5. shrinkage (concentrating) of preliminary processed waste; 6. solidification of preliminary processed waste with concrete to make a solid-state (end product) and load of concrete compound into 200-l drums; 7. curing of end product drums in LRTP curing hall; 8. radiologic monitoring of end product drums and their loading into special overpacks; 9. overpack radiological monitoring; 10. send for disposal (ICSRM Lot 3); The current technical decisions allow to control and return to ChNPP of process media and supporting systems outputs until they satisfy the following quality norms: salt content: < 100 g/l; pH: 1 - 11; anionic surface-active agent: < 25 mg/l; oil dissipated in the

  2. Comparison of Candidate Sites for installation of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP Site Using Fuzzy Logic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Kilda, R.; Poskas, G.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW (each) were commissioned in 1983 and 1987 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was finally shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit is planned to be shutdown before 2010. Operational radioactive waste of different activities is generated at Ignalina NPP. After closure of INPP a waste from decommissioning should be managed also. According to Lithuanian regulatory requirements (1) the waste depending on the activity must be managed in different ways. In compliance with this Regulation very low-level radioactive waste (VLLW) could be disposed of in a Landfill facility. In such case very simple engineered barriers are required. A cap on the top of the repository is necessary from long-term safety point of view. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The basic objective of the siting process is to select a suitable site for disposal and demonstrate that this site has characteristics which provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere for desired periods of time. The methodology and results on evaluation and comparison of two candidate sites intended for construction of Landfill facility at Ignalina NPP site are presented in the paper. Criteria for comparison are based on the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) recommendations (2). Modeling of the radionuclide releases has been performed using ISAM (Improving of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal facilities) methodology (3). For generalization of the information and elaboration of the recommendations Fuzzy Logic approach was used (4). (authors)

  3. Partial site release at a power reactor facility.

    PubMed

    Darman, Joseph; Whitney, Michael; Dubiel, Richard

    2004-01-01

    U.S. NRC licensed facilities undergoing decommissioning may wish to remove portions of their site from the jurisdiction of their license, prior to final license termination. The method of partial site release, relevant to radiological conditions, described herein employs NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background. The partial site release process was also informed by NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2000-19 "Partial Release of Reactor Site for Unrestricted Use Before NRC Approval of the License Termination Plan." However, the focus of this discussion is the radiological aspects of partial site release, relevant to the implementation of NUREG-1505 methodology for demonstrating indistinguishability from background, based on the 137Cs concentrations at the site and a suitable background reference area. This type of approach was found acceptable by the NRC, and the partial site release was granted. PMID:14695009

  4. Towards the Seismic Hazard Reassessment of Paks NPP (Hungary) Site: Seismicity and Sensitivity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Laszlo; Monus, Peter; Gyori, Erzsebet; Grenerczy, Gyula; Janos Katona, Tamas; Kiszely, Marta

    2015-04-01

    In context of extension of Paks Nuclear Power Plant by new units, a comprehensive site seismic hazard evaluation program has been developed that is already approved by the Hungarian Authorities. This includes a 3D seismic survey, drilling of several deep boreholes, extensive geological mapping, and geophysical investigations at the site and its vicinity, as well as on near regional, and regional scale. Furthermore, all relevant techniques of modern space geodesy (GPS, PSInSAR) will be also utilized to construct a new seismotectonic model. The implementation of the project is still in progress. In the presentation, some important elements of the new seismic hazard assessment are highlighted, and some results obtained in the preliminary phase of the program are presented and discussed. The first and most important component of the program is the compilation of the seismological database that is developed on different time scale zooming on different event recurrence rates such as paleo-earthquakes (10-1/a). In 1995, Paks NPP installed and started to operate a sensitive microseismic monitoring network capable for locating earthquakes as small as magnitude 2.0 within about 100 km of the NPP site. During the two decades of operation, the microseismic monitoring network located some 2,000 earthquakes within the region of latitude 45.5 - 49 N and longitude 16 - 23 E. Out of the total number of events, 130 earthquakes were reported as 'felt events'. The largest earthquake was an event of ML 4.8, causing significant damage in the epicenter area. The results of microseismic monitoring provide valuable data for seismotectonic modelling and results in more accurate earthquake recurrence equations. The first modern PSHA of Paks NPP site was carried out in 1995. Complex site characterization project was implemented and hazard curves had been evaluated for 10-3 - 10-5 annual frequency. As a follow-up, PSHA results have been reviewed and updated in the frame of periodic safety

  5. Regression tree modeling of forest NPP using site conditions and climate variables across eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    As evidence of global warming continue to increase, being able to predict forest response to climate changes, such as expected rise of temperature and precipitation, will be vital for maintaining the sustainability and productivity of forests. To map forest species redistribution by climate change scenario has been successful, however, most species redistribution maps lack mechanistic understanding to explain why trees grow under the novel conditions of chaining climate. Distributional map is only capable of predicting under the equilibrium assumption that the communities would exist following a prolonged period under the new climate. In this context, forest NPP as a surrogate for growth rate, the most important facet that determines stand dynamics, can lead to valid prediction on the transition stage to new vegetation-climate equilibrium as it represents changes in structure of forest reflecting site conditions and climate factors. The objective of this study is to develop forest growth map using regression tree analysis by extracting large-scale non-linear structures from both field-based FIA and remotely sensed MODIS data set. The major issue addressed in this approach is non-linear spatial patterns of forest attributes. Forest inventory data showed complex spatial patterns that reflect environmental states and processes that originate at different spatial scales. At broad scales, non-linear spatial trends in forest attributes and mixture of continuous and discrete types of environmental variables make traditional statistical (multivariate regression) and geostatistical (kriging) models inefficient. It calls into question some traditional underlying assumptions of spatial trends that uncritically accepted in forest data. To solve the controversy surrounding the suitability of forest data, regression tree analysis are performed using Software See5 and Cubist. Four publicly available data sets were obtained: First, field-based Forest Inventory and Analysis (USDA

  6. A new earthquake catalogue for seismic hazard assessment of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia, site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Csicsay, Kristian; Cipciar, Andrej; Srbecky, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safety Guide No. SSG-9, an earthquake catalogue should comprise all information on pre-historical, historical and seismometrically recorded earthquakes in the region which should cover geographic area not smaller than a circle with radius of 300 km around the site. Jaslovske Bohunice is an important economic site. Several nuclear facilities are located in Jaslovske Bohunice - either in operation (NPP V2, national radioactive waste repository) or in decommissioning (NPP A1, NPP V1). Moreover, a new reactor unit is being planned for the site. Jaslovske Bohunice site is not far from the Dobra Voda seismic source zone which has been the most active seismic zone at territory of Slovakia since the beginning of 20th century. Relatively small distances to Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovak capital Bratislava make the site a prominent priority in terms of seismic hazard assessment. We compiled a new earthquake catalogue for the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice region following the recommendations of the IAEA Safety Guide. The region includes parts of the territories of Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic and Poland, and it partly extends up to Germany, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The catalogue is based on data from six national earthquake catalogues, two regional earthquake catalogues (ACORN, CENEC) and a catalogue from the local NPP network. The primarily compiled catalogue for the time period 350 - 2011 consists of 9 142 events. We then homogenized and declustered the catalogue. Eventually we checked the catalogue for time completeness. For homogenization, we divided the catalogue into preseismometric (350 - 1900) and seismometric (1901-2011) periods. For earthquakes characterized by the epicentral intensity and local magnitude we adopted relations proposed for homogenization of the CENEC catalogue (Grünthal et al. 2009). Instead of assuming the equivalency between local magnitudes reported by the

  7. NPP Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

  8. BOREAS TE-6 NPP For The Tower Flux, Carbon Evaluation, and Auxiliary Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-6 team collected several data sets to examine the influence of vegetation, climate, and their interactions on the major carbon fluxes for boreal forest species. This data set contains estimates of the biomass produced by the plant species at the TF, CEV, and AUX sites in the SSA and NSA for a given year. Temporally, the data cover the years of 1985 to 1995. The plant biomass production (i.e., aboveground, belowground, understory, litterfall), spatial coverage, and temporal nature of measurements varied between the TF, CEV, and AUX sites as deemed necessary by BOREAS principal investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  9. Resuspension of deposited radioactive material from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H.; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Schneider, Stephanie; Synal, Hans-Arno; Walther, Clemens; Christl, Marcus; Nanba, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-04-01

    Releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident are typically associated with the atmospheric discharges in the early phase of the accident in spring 2011. Analysis of weekly air filters, however, has revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors were stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations in the Minamisoma area north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). During this event, an air monitoring station in this previously scarcely contaminated area suddenly reported 137Cs activity levels that were 30-fold above the background. Together with atmospheric dispersion and deposition simulation, radionuclide analysis in soil indicated that debris removal operations conducted on the FDNPP site on August 19, 2013 are likely to be responsible for this late release of radionuclides. One soil sample in the center of the simulated plume exhibited a high 90Sr contamination (78 ± 8 Bq kg‑1) as well as a high 90Sr/137Cs ratio (0.04); both phenomena have usually been observed only in very close vicinity around the FDNPP. We estimate that through the resuspension of highly contaminated particles in the course of these earthmoving operations, gross 137Cs activity of ca. 2.8 × 1011 Bq has been released.

  10. 10 CFR 2.606 - Partial decision on site suitability issues in construction permit proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... site issue. Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability—Combined License Under 10 CFR Part 52 ... License To Construct Certain Utilization Facilities; and Advance Issuance of Limited Work Authorizations... partial decision should be issued or denied. (2) Following either the Commission (acting in the...

  11. Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava; Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei; Kornev, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m{sup 3} of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

  12. Base-flow measurements at partial-record sites on small streams in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Carroll

    1986-01-01

    This report contains site descriptions and base-flow data collected at 362 partial-record sites in South Carolina. These data include site name, site description, latitude, longitude, drainage area, instantaneous streamflow, and date of the streamflow measurement. The base-flow data can be used as an aid to estimate low flow characteristics at ungaged locations on streams in South Carolina. Partial record data collection sites were established in all physiographic provinces except the lower Coastal Plain. Data collection sites were not established in the lower Coastal Plain because of the widespread occurrence of zero during drought periods in all but the larger streams. (USGS)

  13. 77 FR 46111 - Public Land Order No. 7792; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 109; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... withdrawn for protection of water power values by Power Site Reserve No. 109. This order also opens the land... Bureau of land management Public Land Order No. 7792; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 109... withdrawal created by the Executive Order dated July 2, 1910, which established Power Site Reserve No....

  14. 77 FR 58867 - Public Land Order No. 7977; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 78; Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Forest System land withdrawn for protection of water power values designated as Power Site Reserve No. 78... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7977; Partial Revocation, Power Site Reserve No. 78... July 2, 1910, which established Power Site Reserve No. 78, is no longer needed for the purpose...

  15. NPP Prelaunch Webcast

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP Pre-Launch Webcast looks at NASA’s upcoming NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission. NPP represents a critical first step in building the next-generation of Earth-observing satellites. T...

  16. 10 CFR 2.627 - Partial decision on site suitability issues in combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... License To Construct Certain Utilization Facilities; and Advance Issuance of Limited Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.627 Partial... accordance with this subpart. A limited work authorization may not be issued under 10 CFR 50.10(e) and...

  17. Partial characterization of specific cantharidin binding sites in mouse tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, M.J.; Pessah, I.N.; Matsuzawa, M.; Casida, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    The mode of action of cantharidin, the natural vesicant of blister beetles, is examined by radioligand binding studies with mouse tissues. (3H)Cantharidin undergoes specific and saturable binding with the liver cytosol, which is characterized as follows: Kd and Bmax values of 30 nM and 1.8 pmol/mg of protein, respectively; linearity with respect to protein concentration; pH optimum of 6.5 to 7.5; association and dissociation half-times of 20 min and 12 hr, respectively; and 50% inhibition by Mg2+ at 70 microM, Ca2+ at 224 microM, pyrophosphate at 27 microM, and nucleotide triphosphates at 52-81 microM. The binding site undergoes a loss of activity at 45 degrees or higher. The toxicological relevance of this specific (3H)cantharidin binding site of mouse liver cytosol is established in three ways. First, the potency of 15 active cantharidin analogs for inhibiting (3H)cantharidin binding is correlated with their acute toxicity to mice (r = 0.829). Second, 26 related compounds that are inactive in inhibiting (3H)cantharidin binding are also of little or no toxicity to mice. Finally, the binding of (3H) cantharidin to liver cytosol from mice poisoned with increasing amounts of unlabeled cantharidin is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. (3H)Cantharidin also specifically binds to cytosol fractions of blood, brain, heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, skin, spleen, and stomach. The characteristics of the specific binding site in brain are very similar to those determined in liver with respect to Kd, Bmax, association/dissociation kinetics, and sensitivity to inhibitors. It therefore appears that the toxicity of cantharidin and related oxabicycloheptanes, including the herbicide endothal, is attributable to binding at a specific site in liver and possibly other tissues.

  18. Measurement of long-lived radionuclides in surface soil around F1NPP accident site by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    In March 2011, vast amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident. However, very little work has been done concerning accident-derived long-lived nuclides such as 129I (T1/2 = 1.57 × 107 year) and 36Cl (T1/2 = 3.01 × 105 year). 129I and 131I are both produced by 235U fission in nuclear reactors. Being isotopes of iodine, these nuclides are expected to behave similarly in the environment. This makes 129I useful for retrospective reconstruction of 131I distribution during the initial stages of the accident. On the other hand, 36Cl is generated during reactor operation via neutron capture reaction of 35Cl, an impurity in the coolant or reactor component. Resulting 36Cl/Cl ratio within the reactor is thus much higher compared to that in environment. Similar to 129I, 36Cl is expected to have leaked out during the accident and it is important to evaluate its effects. In this study, 129I concentrations were determined in several surface soil samples collected around F1NPP. Average 129I/131I ratio was estimated to be 26.1 ± 5.8 as of March 11, 2011, consistent with calculations using ORIGEN2 code and other published data. 36Cl/Cl ratios in some of the soil samples were likewise measured and ranged from 1.1 × 10-12 to 2.6 × 10-11. These are higher compared to ratios measured around F1NPP before the accident. A positive correlation between 36Cl and 129I concentration was observed.

  19. The Pontic-Shield: Partial Extraction Therapy for Ridge Preservation and Pontic Site Development.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Howard; Du Toit, Jonathan; Salama, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Augmentive ridge preservation techniques aim to manage the postextraction ridge. The partial extraction of teeth may better preserve the ridge form by maintaining the bundle bone-periodontal ligament apparatus. Root submergence has been demonstrated to retain the periodontal tissues and preserve the ridge beneath dentures or fixed prostheses. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results contributory to esthetic implant treatment. A retrospective 10-patient case series treating 14 partial extraction sites demonstrates how a modification of the socket-shield technique can successfully develop pontic sites and preserve the ridge. PMID:27100812

  20. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR 2.617(b)(2... 10 CFR 2.629....

  1. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR 2.617(b)(2... 10 CFR 2.629....

  2. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR 2.617(b)(2... 10 CFR 2.629....

  3. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR 2.617(b)(2... 10 CFR 2.629....

  4. 10 CFR 52.83 - Finality of referenced NRC approvals; partial initial decision on site suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.83 Finality of referenced NRC....145, and 52.171. (b) While a partial decision on site suitability is in effect under 10 CFR 2.617(b)(2... 10 CFR 2.629....

  5. 77 FR 58868 - Public Land Order No. 7798; Partial Modification of Power Site Classification No. 126; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... determined that a portion of the land classified under Power Site Classification No. 126 for water power... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7798; Partial Modification of Power Site Classification...: This order partially modifies a withdrawal which established Power Site Classification No. 126,...

  6. N site ordering effect on partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Nian; Wang Jianping

    2011-02-28

    Partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} thin films have been fabricated on Fe (001)-buffered GaAs (001) single-crystal substrates by a facing target sputtering process. The saturation magnetization has been systematically investigated as a function of N site ordering in partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} thin films, which is found to be increased monotonically with the increase in the N site ordering parameter, reaching up to 2.68 T at high ordering case. A model discussion is provided based on the partial localization of 3d electron states in this material system, which successfully rationalizes the formation of the giant saturation magnetization in chemically ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}. We further demonstrate that the average magnetic moment of partially ordered Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} sensitively depends on the special arrangement of Fe{sub 6}N clusters, which is the key to realize high magnetic moment in this material system.

  7. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52... in the decision regarding issuance of a combined license. Except as provided in 10 CFR 2.758, in...) Notwithstanding any provision in 10 CFR 50.109, while a partial decision on site suitability is in effect...

  8. Simultaneous Robot-Assisted Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy and Standard Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Hong Wook; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Song, Jae Mann; Chung, Byung Ha; Hong, Sung Joon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patients with urologic malignancies are treated with robot-assisted surgery and the expanded role of robot-assisted surgery includes even those patients with two concomitant primary urologic malignancies. In an effort to further reduce port site-related morbidity, robot-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (RLESS) has been developed. Therefore, we present herein our early experience and feasibility of simultaneous RLESS partial nephrectomy and standard robotrobot-assisted laparoendoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) on 3 patients with synchronous renal masses and prostate cancer. PMID:24532529

  9. Patterns of Failure After MammoSite Brachytherapy Partial Breast Irradiation: A Detailed Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sea Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael; Shah, Anand; Jokich, Peter; Solmos, Gene; Strauss, Jonathan; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz; Nguyen, Cam; Griem, Katherine

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a detailed analysis of treatment failures after MammoSite breast brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation from our single-institution experience. Methods and Materials: Between October 14, 2002 and October 23, 2006, 78 patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and accelerated partial breast irradiation using the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. We identified five treatment failures in the 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up. Pathologic data, breast imaging, and radiation treatment plans were reviewed. For in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, the doses delivered to the areas of recurrence by partial breast irradiation were calculated. Results: At a median follow-up time of 26.1 months, five treatment failures were identified. There were three in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, one failure directly adjacent to the original surgical bed, and one failure in the axilla with synchronous distant metastases. The crude failure rate was 7.1% (5 of 70), and the crude local failure rate was 5.7% (4 of 70). Estimated progression-free survival at 48 months was 89.8% (standard error 4.5%). Conclusions: Our case series of 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up and a median follow-up of 26 months is the largest single-institution report to date with detailed failure analysis associated with MammoSite brachytherapy. Our failure data emphasize the importance of patient selection when offering partial breast irradiation.

  10. Post-PKS Tailoring Steps of a Disaccharide-Containing Polyene NPP in Pseudonocardia autotrophica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kim, Min-Kyung; Lee, Mi-Jin; Won, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Si-Sun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A novel polyene compound NPP identified in a rare actinomycetes, Pseudonocardia autotrophica KCTC9441, was shown to contain an aglycone identical to nystatin but to harbor a unique di-sugar moiety, mycosaminyl-(α1-4)-N-acetyl-glucosamine, which led to higher solubility and reduced hemolytic activity. Although the nppDI was proved to be responsible for the transfer of first polyene sugar, mycosamine in NPP biosynthesis, the gene responsible for the second sugar extending glycosyltransferase (GT) as well as NPP post-PKS tailoring mechanism remained unknown. Here, we identified a NPP-specific second sugar extending GT gene named nppY, located at the edge of the NPP biosynthetic gene cluster. Targeted nppY gene deletion and its complementation proved that nppY is indeed responsible for the transfer of second sugar, N-acetyl-glucosamine in NPP biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis on nppY also revealed several amino acid residues critical for NppY GT function. Moreover, a combination of deletions and complementations of two GT genes (nppDI and nppY) and one P450 hydroxylase gene (nppL) involved in the NPP post-PKS biosynthesis revealed that NPP aglycone is sequentially modified by the two different GTs encoded by nppDI and nppY, respectively, followed by the nppL-driven regio-specific hydroxylation at the NPP C10 position. These results set the stage for the biotechnological application of sugar diversification for the biosynthesis of novel polyene compounds in actinomycetes. PMID:25849545

  11. Unbiased isotope equilibrium factors from partial isotope exchange experiments in 3-exchange site systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Javoy, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Two methods are available in order to evaluate the equilibrium isotope fractionation factors between exchange sites or phases from partial isotope exchange experiments. The first one developed by Northrop and Clayton (1966) is designed for isotope exchanges between two exchange sites (hereafter, the N&C method), the second one from Zheng et al. (1994) is a refinement of the first one to account for a third isotope exchanging site (hereafter, the Z method). In this paper, we use a simple model of isotope kinetic exchange for a 3-exchange site system (such as hydroxysilicates where oxygen occurs as OH and non-OH groups like in muscovite, chlorite, serpentine, or water or calcite) to explore the behavior of the N&C and Z methods. We show that these two methods lead to significant biases that cannot be detected with the usual graphical tests proposed by the authors. Our model shows that biases originate because isotopes are fractionated between all these exchanging sites. Actually, we point out that the variable mobility (or exchangeability) of isotopes in and between the exchange sites only controls the amplitude of the bias, but is not essential to the production of this bias as previously suggested. Setting a priori two of the three exchange sites at isotopic equilibrium remove the bias and thus is required for future partial exchange experiments to produce accurate and unbiased extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors. Our modeling applied to published partial oxygen isotope exchange experiments for 3-exchange site systems (the muscovite-calcite (Chacko et al., 1996), the chlorite-water (Cole and Ripley, 1998) and the serpentine-water (Saccocia et al., 2009)) shows that the extrapolated equilibrium fractionation factors (reported as 1000 ln(α)) using either the N&C or the Z methods lead to bias that may reach several δ per mil in a few cases. These problematic cases, may be because experiments were conducted at low temperature and did not reach high

  12. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Teskeviciene, Birute

    2008-01-15

    As a condition of accession into the European Union (EU), Lithuania is committed to the closure and decommissioning of Ignalina NPP comprising two RBMK-1500 reactor units (Fig. 1). It was agreed in a special protocol to the Accession Treaty that, in return for adequate EU financial assistance, Unit 1 would be closed before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009. The first unit was duly shut down on December 31, 2004. Lithuania, which has borders with Russia (Kaliningrad territory), Poland, Latvia and Belarus, spent fifty years as part of the Soviet Union and was deeply integrated into its economy and electrical infrastructure. At the break-up of the USSR, Lithuania inherited electricity generating capacity designed to supply the north-west region including ownership of Ignalina NPP located in the north-east of the country. Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was commissioned in 1983, Unit 2 in 1987; the planned lifespan of each unit was 30 years. Construction of a third unit was started but never completed. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, Ignalina NPP has typically contributed more than 70% of national power supply. The town of Visaginas (population approx. 30,000) was purpose built to serve the plant and staff were brought in from throughout the USSR. With 3200 direct employees, Ignalina NPP remains by far the largest employer. Although there are pockets of Russian-language speakers in communities throughout Lithuania, Visaginas is the only example on a whole-town scale. Thus closure of Ignalina NPP within the restricted timescale required by the EU Accession Treaty commitment set an exceptional challenge to Lithuania. However, since the preparatory phase of decommissioning started in 2000, notable progress has been made, experience gained and lessons learnt. At present Unit 1 remains partially fueled in a state of care and maintenance. Partly burnt fuel is being transferred from Unit 1 to Unit 2 for further irradiation in order to minimize the commitment of new fuel

  13. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Protein allostery is essential for vital activities. Allosteric regulation of human hemoglobin (HbA) with two quaternary states T and R has been a paradigm of allosteric structural regulation of proteins. It is widely accepted that oxygen molecules (O2) act as a “site-specific” homotropic effector, or the successive O2 binding to the heme brings about the quaternary regulation. However, here we show that the site-specific allosteric effect is not necessarily only a unique mechanism of O2 allostery. Our simulation results revealed that the solution environment of high O2 partial pressure enhances the quaternary change from T to R without binding to the heme, suggesting an additional “non-site-specific” allosteric effect of O2. The latter effect should play a complementary role in the quaternary change by affecting the intersubunit contacts. This analysis must become a milestone in comprehensive understanding of the allosteric regulation of HbA from the molecular point of view. PMID:24710521

  14. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  15. NPP Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animator's conception shows the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite orbiting the earth and interpreting weather data through it's myriad sensors. The Satellite is part of a bridge mission...

  16. Partial Extraction Therapies (PET) Part 1: Maintaining Alveolar Ridge Contour at Pontic and Immediate Implant Sites.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Howard; Salama, Maurice; Du Toit, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Buccopalatal collapse of the postextraction ridge is a significant challenge in restorative and implant dentistry. A variety of ridge preservation techniques using tissue and augmentative materials have been proposed in the literature. A slightly different approach is to use the tooth itself. Root submergence has been reported in the literature for more than 4 decades, and it has been demonstrated that the submerged tooth root retains the periodontal tissues and preserves the bone in pontic sites or below dentures to retain the ridge. The socket-shield technique entails preparing a tooth root section simultaneous to immediate implant placement and has demonstrated histologic and clinical results that are highly promising to esthetic implant treatment. The pontic shield technique preserves the alveolar ridge at sites intended for pontic development where the root submergence technique is not possible. The aforementioned techniques collectively may be termed partial extraction therapies (PET), a term newly introduced into the literature and clinical environment. This article is a review of these ridge preservation therapies, providing a classification and a guide to their application. PMID:27560672

  17. Obesity Is Not Associated with Increased Operative Complications in Single-Site Robotic Partial Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Koo, Kyo Chul; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Han, Woong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of high body mass index (BMI) on outcomes following robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS) robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Materials and Methods Data from 83 Korean patients who had undergone robotic partial nephrectomy from 2006 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were stratified into two groups according to WHO definitions for the Asian population, consisting of 56 normal range (BMI=18.5-24.99 kg/m2) and 27 obese (≥25 kg/m2) patients. Outcome measurements included Trifecta achievement and the perioperative and postoperative comparison between high and normal BMI series. The measurements were estimated and analyzed with SPSS version 17. Results Tumor's complexity characteristics (R.E.N.A.L. score, tumor size) of both groups were similar. No significant differences existed between the two groups with regard to operative time (p=0.27), warm ischemia time (p=0.35) estimated blood loss (p=0.42), transfusion rate (p=0.48) renal function following up for 1 year, positive margins (p=0.24) and postoperative complication rate (p=0.34). Trifecta was achieved in 5 (18.5%) obese and 19 (33.9%) normal weight patients, respectively (p=0.14). In multivariable analysis, only tumor size was significantly correlated with the possibility of Trifecta accomplishment. Conclusion Our findings suggest that R-LESS RPN can be effectively and safely performed in patients with increased BMI, since Trifecta rate, and perioperative and postoperative outcomes are not significantly different in comparison to normal weight subjects. PMID:25683985

  18. Site-specific integration of adeno-associated virus involves partial duplication of the target locus

    PubMed Central

    Henckaerts, Els; Dutheil, Nathalie; Zeltner, Nadja; Kattman, Steven; Kohlbrenner, Erik; Ward, Peter; Clément, Nathalie; Rebollo, Patricia; Kennedy, Marion; Keller, Gordon M.; Linden, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    A variety of viruses establish latency by integrating their genome into the host genome. The integration event generally occurs in a nonspecific manner, precluding the prediction of functional consequences from resulting disruptions of affected host genes. The nonpathogenic adeno-associated virus (AAV) is unique in its ability to stably integrate in a site-specific manner into the human MBS85 gene. To gain a better understanding of the integration mechanism and the consequences of MBS85 disruption, we analyzed the molecular structure of AAV integrants in various latently infected human cell lines. Our study led to the observation that AAV integration causes an extensive but partial duplication of the target gene. Intriguingly, the molecular organization of the integrant leaves the possibility that a functional copy of the disrupted target gene could potentially be preserved despite the resulting rearrangements. A latently infected, Mbs85-targeted mouse ES cell line was generated to study the functional consequences of the observed duplication-based integration mechanism. AAV-modified ES cell lines continued to self-renew, maintained their multilineage differentiation potential and contributed successfully to mouse development when injected into blastocysts. Thus, our study reveals a viral strategy for targeted genome addition with the apparent absence of functional consequences. PMID:19372372

  19. NPP and the Earth System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

  20. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), the Director of the Office of New Reactors or the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation... Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.629 Finality of partial decision on... combined license. Except as provided in 10 CFR 2.758, in making the findings required for issuance of...

  1. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), the Director of the Office of New Reactors or the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation... Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.629 Finality of partial decision on... combined license. Except as provided in 10 CFR 2.758, in making the findings required for issuance of...

  2. 10 CFR 2.629 - Finality of partial decision on site suitability issues in a combined license proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Director of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate, shall determine whether the... Work Authorizations Early Partial Decisions on Site Suitability-Combined License Under 10 Cfr Part 52... in the decision regarding issuance of a combined license. Except as provided in 10 CFR 2.758,...

  3. Crystal structure of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin with a partially depopulated primary chloride-binding site.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Madeleine; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2016-09-01

    The transmembrane pump halorhodopsin in halophilic archaea translocates chloride ions from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side upon illumination. In the ground state a tightly bound chloride ion occupies the primary chloride-binding site (CBS I) close to the protonated Schiff base that links the retinal chromophore to the protein. The light-triggered trans-cis isomerization of retinal causes structural changes in the protein associated with movement of the chloride ion. In reverse, chemical depletion of CBS I in Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) through deprotonation of the Schiff base results in conformational changes of the protein: a state thought to mimic late stages of the photocycle. Here, crystals of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin (HsHR) were soaked at high pH to provoke deprotonation of the Schiff base and loss of chloride. The crystals changed colour from purple to yellow and the occupancy of CBS I was reduced from 1 to about 0.5. In contrast to NpHR, this chloride depletion did not cause substantial conformational changes in the protein. Nevertheless, two observations indicate that chloride depletion could eventually result in structural changes similar to those found in NpHR. Firstly, the partially chloride-depleted form of HsHR has increased normalized B factors in the region of helix C that is close to CBS I and changes its conformation in NpHR. Secondly, prolonged soaking of HsHR crystals at high pH resulted in loss of diffraction. In conclusion, the conformation of the chloride-free protein may not be compatible with this crystal form of HsHR despite a packing arrangement that hardly restrains helices E and F that presumably move during ion transport. PMID:27599860

  4. Investigating the Role of Loop C Hydrophilic Residue ‘T244’ in the Binding Site of ρ1 GABAC Receptors via Site Mutation and Partial Agonism

    PubMed Central

    Naffaa, Moawiah M.; Absalom, Nathan; Solomon, V. Raja; Chebib, Mary; Hibbs, David E.; Hanrahan, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The loop C hydrophilic residue, threonine 244 lines the orthosteric binding site of ρ1 GABAC receptors was studied by point mutation into serine, alanine and cysteine, and tested with GABA, some representative partial agonists and antagonists. Thr244 has a hydroxyl group essential for GABA activity that is constrained by the threonine methyl group, orienting it toward the binding site. Significant decreases in activation effects of the studied ligands at ρ1 T244S mutant receptors, suggests a critical role for this residue. Results of aliphatic and heteroaromatic partial agonists demonstrate different pharmacological effects at ρ1 T244S mutant receptors when co-applied with GABA EC50 responses. ρ1 T244A and ρ1 T244C mutant receptors have minimal sensitivity to GABA at high mM concentrations, whereas, the ρ1 WT partial agonists, β-alanine and MTSEA demonstrate more efficacy and potency, respectively, than GABA at these mutant receptors. This study explores the role of Thr244 in the binding of agonists as an initial step during channel gating by moving loop C towards the ligand. PMID:27244450

  5. Site Fidelity and Individual Variation in Winter Location in Partially Migratory European Shags

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Hannah; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Nelson, Emily J.; Harris, Mike P.; Newell, Mark; Burthe, Sarah; Reid, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    In partially migratory populations, individuals from a single breeding area experience a range of environments during the non-breeding season. If individuals show high within- and among- year fidelity to specific locations, any annual environmental effect on individual life histories could be reinforced, causing substantial demographic heterogeneity. Quantifying within- and among- individual variation and repeatability in non-breeding season location is therefore key to predicting broad-scale environmental impacts on the dynamics of partially migratory populations. We used field resightings of colour-ringed adult European shags known to have bred on the Isle of May, Scotland, to quantify individual variation and repeatability in winter location within and among three consecutive winters. In total, 3797 resightings of 882 individuals were recorded over 622 km of coastline, including the Isle of May. These individuals comprised over 50% of the known breeding population, and encompassed representative distributions of ages and sexes. The distances from the Isle of May at which individuals were resighted during winter varied substantially, up to 486 km and 136 km north and south respectively and including the breeding colony on the Isle of May. However, resighting distances were highly repeatable within individuals; within- and among-winter repeatabilities were >0.72 and >0.59 respectively across the full September-March observation period, and >0.95 and >0.79 respectively across more restricted mid-winter periods. Repeatability did not differ significantly between males and females or among different age classes, either within or among winters. These data demonstrate that the focal shag population is partially migratory, and moreover that individuals show highly repeatable variation in winter location and hence migration strategy across consecutive winters. Such high among-individual variation and within-individual repeatability, both within and among winters, could

  6. Suomi Npp Products Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environment Data Records (EDRs) is generated from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) operational environmental satellite system. The products include atmospheric, ocean, land surface and cryospheric products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); atmospheric sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS); and ozone products from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). These EDRs undergo a rigorous validation process and algorithm updates to achieve a product maturity needed for end user applications. Since the successful launch of Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite in October 2011, significant progresses have been made on calibration and validation of the SNPP data products. By far all products were publicly available and most products were ready for operational evaluation. Most products also are expected to meet requirements and work is underway to reach validated maturity status and fully operational use. Further developments and improvements of the algorithms for J1 have been planned based on the JPSS requirements and lessons learned from SNPP. Sensitivity and impact studies are performed as sensor test data become available. For the majority of data products, no significant changes in sensor input and corresponding sensor degradation are expected. However, the J1 products will undergo the same rigorous calibration and validation process as the S-NPP products once the on-orbit data are available. The schedule for the maturity of the J1 data products however is expected to be accelerated compared to that for S-NPP as lessons learned from the S-NPP mission will be applied to the J1 satellite data. In the presentation, we will provide an overview of the latest SNPP data products' quality status and the plan forward for JPSS-1 algorithm updates.

  7. Interannual Variability in FPAR and NPP across California's Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Goulden, M. L.; Randerson, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    Quantifying the response of ecosystems to climate is particularly important for understanding California's regional carbon budget because of large year-to-year changes in precipitation and because of large changes in temperature and precipitation that are predicted to occur across the western U.S. during the 21st century. Here, we examined how net primary production (NPP) varies with precipitation and how this ecosystem process contributes to the changes in carbon storage on interannual timescales. We used FPAR derived from NOAA AVHRR satellite observations during 1982-2003 and from MODIS observations during 2000-2005 as inputs to the CASA biogeochemical model. We found that mean annual integrals of NDVI, FPAR, and NPP were closely linked with mean annual precipitation levels across the state. The sensitivity of NPP to interannual variability in precipitation depended on ecosystem type. Desert shrub and grassland ecosystems responded the most to interannual changes in precipitation, whereas forests showed little or no response. In semiarid ecosystems, the site-level temporal sensitivity of NPP to variations in precipitation was found to be lower than the sensitivity of NPP to precipitation derived from a spatial model, suggesting that other constraints such as plant structure or nitrogen availability may limit NPP responses to short-term precipitation transients.

  8. Bifunctional TaqII restriction endonuclease: redefining the prototype DNA recognition site and establishing the Fidelity Index for partial cleaving

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The TaqII enzyme is a member of the Thermus sp. enzyme family that we propounded previously within Type IIS restriction endonucleases, containing related thermophilic bifunctional endonucleases-methyltransferases from various Thermus sp.: TaqII, Tth111II, TthHB27I, TspGWI, TspDTI and TsoI. These enzymes show significant nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities, a rare phenomenon among restriction endonucleases, along with similarities in biochemical properties, molecular size, DNA recognition sequences and cleavage sites. They also feature some characteristics of Types I and III. Results Barker et al. reported the Type IIS/IIC restriction endonuclease TaqII as recognizing two distinct cognate site variants (5'-GACCGA-3' and 5'-CACCCA-3') while cleaving 11/9 nucleotides downstream. We used four independent methods, namely, shotgun cloning and sequencing, restriction pattern analysis, digestion of particular custom substrates and GeneScan analysis, to demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme recognizes only 5'-GACCGA-3' sites and cleaves 11/9 nucleotides downstream. We did not observe any 5'-CACCCA-3' cleavage under a variety of conditions and site arrangements tested. We also characterized the enzyme biochemically and established new digestion conditions optimal for practical enzyme applications. Finally, we developed and propose a new version of the Fidelity Index - the Fidelity Index for Partial Cleavage (FI-PC). Conclusions The DNA recognition sequence of the bifunctional prototype TaqII endonuclease-methyltransferase from Thermus aquaticus has been redefined as recognizing only 5'-GACCGA-3' cognate sites. The reaction conditions (pH and salt concentrations) were designed either to minimize (pH = 8.0 and 10 mM ammonium sulphate) or to enhance star activity (pH = 6.0 and no salt). Redefinition of the recognition site and reaction conditions makes this prototype endonuclease a useful tool for DNA manipulation; as yet, this enzyme has no practical

  9. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.

    2011-01-01

    NPP Instruments are: (1) well understood thanks to instrument comprehensive test, characterization and calibration programs. (2) Government team ready for October 25 launch followed by instrument activation and Intensive Calibration/Validation (ICV). NPP Data Products preliminary work includes: (1) JPSS Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) team ready to support NPP ICV and operational data products. (2) NASA NPP science team ready to support NPP ICV and EOS data continuity.

  10. Persistent seroma after intraoperative placement of MammoSite for accelerated partial breast irradiation: Incidence, pathologic anatomy, and contributing factors

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Suzanne B.; Kaufman, Seth A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Cardarelli, Gene; Dipetrillo, Thomas A.; Wazer, David E. . E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of, and possible factors associated with, seroma formation after intraoperative placement of the MammoSite catheter for accelerated partial breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: This study evaluated 38 patients who had undergone intraoperative MammoSite catheter placement at lumpectomy or reexcision followed by accelerated partial breast irradiation with 34 Gy in 10 fractions. Data were collected regarding dosimetric parameters, including the volume of tissue enclosed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose shells, dose homogeneity index, and maximal dose at the surface of the applicator. Clinical and treatment-related factors were analyzed, including patient age, patient weight, history of diabetes and smoking, use of reexcision, interval between surgery and radiotherapy, total duration of catheter placement, total excised specimen volume, and presence or absence of postprocedural infection. Seroma was verified by clinical examination, mammography, and/or ultrasonography. Persistent seroma was defined as seroma that was clinically detectable >6 months after radiotherapy completion. Results: After a median follow-up of 17 months, the overall rate of any detectable seroma was 76.3%. Persistent seroma (>6 months) occurred in 26 (68.4%) of 38 patients, of whom 46% experienced at least modest discomfort at some point during follow-up. Of these symptomatic patients, 3 required biopsy or complete cavity excision, revealing squamous metaplasia, foreign body giant cell reaction, fibroblasts, and active collagen deposition. Of the analyzed dosimetric, clinical, and treatment-related variables, only body weight correlated positively with the risk of seroma formation (p = 0.04). Postprocedural infection correlated significantly (p = 0.05) with a reduced risk of seroma formation. Seroma was associated with a suboptimal cosmetic outcome, because excellent scores were achieved in 61.5% of women with seroma compared with 83% without seroma

  11. Study of the transfer of 137Cs from fodder to cow milk in the region around Narora Atomic Power Station NPP Site, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Sharma, A K; Singh, B; Ravi, P M; Sarkar, P K

    2013-09-01

    Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the villages around Narora, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 17 y, is presented in this paper. In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, Fm, is an important parameter. The transfer coefficient value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Narora region, and the result ranged from 4.28E-03 to 3.30E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 1.15E-03 d l(-1). The highest and the lowest values were only below one order of magnitude different from the mean, regardless of the type of diet, milk yield and age of the cow. The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 6.92E-03 to 8.01E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 7.45E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large-area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Narora. The ingestion dose from fallout (137)Cs through milk intake for adult and child is also estimated. PMID:23535080

  12. Dosimetric effects of air pocket sizes in MammoSite treatment as accelerated partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y Jessica; Blough, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    MammoSite Brachytherapy System had been used as one of the Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) techniques since 2002. The clinical results from several clinical institutions had shown comparable treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity, to other APBI techniques. During MammoSite treatment, air cavities had been one of the primary issues causing treatment cancellation or delay. With the tolerance of the air volume less than 10% of the total Planning Target Volume (PTV) been set, there is still no data available to show the actual dose delivered to the breast tissue with the existence of the air pocket. In this paper, Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) was used to model a hypothesis MammoSite phantom with different sizes of air pockets, and compared to the calculation results from the treatment planning system (TPS) without heterogeneous corrections. It was found that without heterogeneous corrections, the difference between the TPS and MCNP5 calculations in the air cavity surface doses and PTV point doses can be up to 2.02% and 3.61%, respectively, with the balloon and air pocket size combinations calculated in this paper. Based on the distance from the point of interest to the balloon surface, an approximate dose can be calculated using the linear relationship found in this study. These equations provide a quick and simple way to predict the actual dose delivered to the breast soft tissue located within the PTV. With the equation applied to the dose from the TPS, the dose error caused by the air pocket during MammoSite treatment can be reduced to the minimum. PMID:20160678

  13. NPP4 is a procoagulant enzyme on the surface of vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Ronald A.; Chang, William C.; Robert, Donna; Ornstein, Deborah L.; Cao, Wenxiang; Liu, Lynn; Redick, Meredith E.; Young, J. Isaac; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2012-01-01

    Ap3A is a platelet-dense granule component released into the extracellular space during the second wave of platelet aggregation on activation. Here, we identify an uncharacterized enzyme, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-4 (NPP4), as a potent hydrolase of Ap3A capable of stimulating platelet aggregation and secretion. We demonstrate that NPP4 is present on the surface of vascular endothelium, where it hydrolyzes Ap3A into AMP and ADP, and Ap4A into AMP and ATP. Platelet aggregation assays with citrated platelet-rich plasma reveal that the primary and secondary waves of aggregation and dense granule release are strongly induced by nanomolar NPP4 in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of Ap3A, while Ap3A alone initiates a primary wave of aggregation followed by rapid disaggregation. NPP2 and an active site NPP4 mutant, neither of which appreciably hydrolyzes Ap3A, have no effect on platelet aggregation and secretion. Finally, by using ADP receptor blockade we confirm that NPP4 mediates platelet aggregation via release of ADP from Ap3A and activation of ADP receptors. Collectively, these studies define the biologic and enzymatic basis for NPP4 and Ap3A activity in platelet aggregation in vitro and suggest that NPP4 promotes hemostasis in vivo by augmenting ADP-mediated platelet aggregation at the site of vascular injury. PMID:22995898

  14. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution. PMID:24216671

  15. Brevetoxin derivatives act as partial agonists at neurotoxin site 5 on the voltage-gated Na+ channel.

    PubMed

    LePage, K T; Baden, D G; Murray, T F

    2003-01-01

    Brevetoxins (PbTx-1 to PbTx-10) are potent lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Karina brevis, an organism associated with 'red tide' blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. Ingestion of shellfish contaminated with K. brevis produces neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) in humans. NSP symptoms emanate from brevetoxin activation of neurotoxin site 5 on voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) [Toxicon 20 (1982) 457]. In primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGN), brevetoxins produce acute neuronal injury and death. The ability of a series of naturally occurring and synthetic brevetoxins to trigger Ca(2+) influx in CGN was explored in the present study. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was monitored in fluo-3-loaded CGN using a fluorescent laser imaging plate reader. The naturally occurring derivatives PbTx-1, PbTx-2 and PbTx-3 all produced a rapid and concentration-dependent increase in cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. The maximum response to PbTx-1 was approximately two-fold greater than that of either PbTx-2 or PbTx-3. Two synthetic derivatives of PbTx-3, alpha-naphthoyl-PbTx-3 and beta-naphthoyl-PbTx-3, were also tested. Both alpha- and beta-naphthoyl-PbTx-3 stimulated a rapid and concentration-dependent Ca(2+) influx that was, however, less efficacious than that of PbTx-3. These data indicate that, analogous to neurotoxin site 2 ligands, activators of neurotoxin site 5 display a range of efficacies, with PbTx-1 being a full agonist and other derivatives acting as partial agonists. PMID:12480165

  16. NPP: Why Another Earth-Observing Satellite?

    NASA Video Gallery

    NPP will soon be NASA's newest Earth-observing satellite. To showcase how NPP will be used for both understanding the health of our planet now -- as well as how things might change in the future --...

  17. A new partial temporal bone of a juvenile hominin from the site of Kromdraai B (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Braga, José; Thackeray, John Francis; Dumoncel, Jean; Descouens, Didier; Bruxelles, Laurent; Loubes, Jean-Michel; Kahn, Jean-Luc; Stampanoni, Marco; Bam, Lunga; Hoffman, Jakobus; de Beer, Frikkie; Spoor, Fred

    2013-10-01

    The site of Kromdraai B (KB) (Gauteng, South Africa) has yielded a minimum number of nine hominins including the type specimen of Paranthropus robustus (TM 1517), the only partial skeleton of this species known to date. Four of these individuals are juveniles, one is a subadult and four are young adults. They all occur with a macrofaunal assemblage spread across the succession of at least two time periods that occurred in South Africa approximately two million years ago. Here we report on an additional, newly discovered petrous temporal bone of a juvenile hominin, KB 6067. Following the description of KB 6067, we assess its affinities with Australopithecus africanus, P. robustus and early Homo. We discuss its developmental age and consider its association with other juvenile hominin specimens found at Kromdraai B. KB 6067 probably did not reach five years of age and in bony labyrinth morphology it is close to P. robustus, but also to StW 53, a specimen with uncertain affinities. However, its cochlear and oval window size are closer to some hominin specimens from Sterkfontein Member 4 and if KB 6067 is indeed P. robustus this may represent a condition that is evolutionarily less derived than that shown by TM 1517 and other conspecifics sampled so far. The ongoing fieldwork at KB, as well as the petrography and geochemistry of its deposits, will help to determine when the various KB breccias accumulated, and how time may be an important factor underlying the variation seen among KB 6067 and the rest of the fossil hominin sample from this site. PMID:24012253

  18. Multicenter Experience with Nonischemic Multiport Laparoscopic and Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy Utilizing Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation Coagulator

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Wassim M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.; Berkowitz, Jared; Atalah, Hany N.; Parekattil, Sijo; Derweesh, Ithaar H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate feasibility of multiport and laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) nonischemic laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (NI-LPN) utilizing bipolar radiofrequency coagulator. Methods. Multicenter retrospective review of 60 patients (46 multiport/14 LESS) undergoing NI-LPN between 4/2006 and 9/2009. Multiport and LESS NI-LPN utilized Habib 4X bipolar radiofrequency coagulator to form a hemostatic zone followed by nonischemic tumor excision and renorrhaphy. Demographics, tumor/perioperative characteristics, and outcomes were analyzed. Results. 59/60 (98.3%) successfully underwent NI-LPN. Mean tumor size was 2.35 cm. Mean operative time was 160.0 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 131.4 mL. Preoperative/postoperative creatinine (mg/dL) was 1.02/1.07 (P = .471). All had negative margins. 12 (20%) patients developed complications. 3 (5%) developed urine leaks. No differences between multiport and LESS-PN were noted as regards demographics, tumor size, outcomes, and complications. Conclusion. Initial experience demonstrates that nonischemic multiport and LESS-PN is safe and efficacious, with excellent short-term preservation of renal function. Long-term data are needed to confirm oncological efficacy. PMID:21747654

  19. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  20. Report on Partial Findings of an Ongoing Research: Social Networking Sites (SNS) as a Platform to Support Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bt. Ubaidullah, Nor Hasbiah; Samsuddin, Khairulanuar; Bt. Fabil, Norsikin; Bt. Mahadi, Norhayati

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the partial findings of a survey that was carried out in the analysis phase of an ongoing research for the development of a prototype of a Social Networking Site (SNS) to support teaching and learning in secondary schools. For the initial phase of the study, a quantitative research method was used based on a survey involving 383…

  1. Interim Letter Report - Verification Survey of Partial Grid E9, David Witherspoon, Inc. 1630 Site Knoxville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    P.C. Weaver

    2008-06-12

    Conduct verification surveys of available grids at the DWI 1630 in Knoxville, Tennessee. A representative with the Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification (IEAV) team from ORISE conducted a verification survey of a partial area within Grid E9.

  2. Site Redistribution, Partial Frozen-in Defect Chemistry, and Electrical Properties of Ba1-x(Zr,Pr)O3-δ.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Isabel; Mikhalev, Sergey; Mather, Glenn Christopher; Kharton, Vladislav Vadimovich; Figueiras, Fábio Gabriel; Alves, Adriana; Rodrigues, Joana; Correia, Maria Rosário; Frade, Jorge Ribeiro; Fagg, Duncan Paul

    2016-09-01

    Changes in nominal composition of the perovskite (ABO3) solid solution Ba1-x(Zr,Pr)O3-δ and adjusted firing conditions at very high temperatures were used to induce structural changes involving site redistribution and frozen-in point defects, as revealed by Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Complementary magnetic measurements allowed quantification of the reduced content of Pr. Weak dependence of oxygen stoichiometry with temperature was obtained by coulometric titration at temperatures below 1000 °C, consistent with a somewhat complex partial frozen-in defect chemistry. Electrical conductivity measurements combined with transport number and Seebeck coefficient measurements showed prevailing electronic transport and also indicated trends expected for partial frozen-in conditions. Nominal Ba deficiency and controlled firing at very high temperatures allows adjustment of structure and partial frozen-in defect chemistry, opening the way to engineer relevant properties for high-temperature electrochemical applications. PMID:27509311

  3. MODIS GPP/NPP for complex land use area: a case study of comparison between MODIS GPP/NPP and ground-based measurements over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)/Net Primary Productivity (NPP) has been widely used for the study on global terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle. The current MODIS product with ~ 1 km spatial resolution, however, has limitation on the information on local scale environment (< 1km), particularly on the regions with complex land-use types. Here we try to test the performance of MODIS annual GPP/NPP for a case of Korea, where the vegetation types are mostly heterogeneous within a size of MODIS products (~1km). We selected the sites where the ground/tower flux measurements and MODIS retrievals were simultaneously available and the land classification of sites agreed the forest type map (~71m) (1 site over Gwangneung flux tower (GDK) for 2006-2008 and 2 sites of ground measurements over Cheongju (CJ1 and CJ2) for 2011). The MODIS GPP are comparable to that of GDK (largely deciduous forest) within -6.3 ~ +2.3% of bias (-104.5 - 37.9 gCm-2yr-1). While the MODIS NPP of CJ1 at Cheongju (largely Larix leptolepis) underestimated NPP by 34% (-224.5 gCm-2yr-1), the MODIS NPP of CJ2 (largely Pinus densiflora) agreed well with -0.2% of bias (1.6 gCm-2yr-1). The fairly comparable values of the MODIS here however, cannot assure the quality of the MOD17 over the complex vegetation area of Korea since the ground measurements except the eddy covariance tower flux measurements are highly inconsistent. Therefore, the comprehensive experiments to represents GPP/NPP over diverse vegetation types for a comparable scale of MODIS with a consistent measurement technique are necessary in order to evaluate the MODIS vegetation productivity data over Korea, which contains a large portion of highly heterogeneous vegetation area.

  4. Does climate directly influence NPP globally?

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengjin; Bartlett, Megan; Wang, Youshi; He, Fangliang; Weiner, Jacob; Chave, Jérôme; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    The need for rigorous analyses of climate impacts has never been more crucial. Current textbooks state that climate directly influences ecosystem annual net primary productivity (NPP), emphasizing the urgent need to monitor the impacts of climate change. A recent paper challenged this consensus, arguing, based on an analysis of NPP for 1247 woody plant communities across global climate gradients, that temperature and precipitation have negligible direct effects on NPP and only perhaps have indirect effects by constraining total stand biomass (Mtot ) and stand age (a). The authors of that study concluded that the length of the growing season (lgs ) might have a minor influence on NPP, an effect they considered not to be directly related to climate. In this article, we describe flaws that affected that study's conclusions and present novel analyses to disentangle the effects of stand variables and climate in determining NPP. We re-analyzed the same database to partition the direct and indirect effects of climate on NPP, using three approaches: maximum-likelihood model selection, independent-effects analysis, and structural equation modeling. These new analyses showed that about half of the global variation in NPP could be explained by Mtot combined with climate variables and supported strong and direct influences of climate independently of Mtot , both for NPP and for net biomass change averaged across the known lifetime of the stands (ABC = average biomass change). We show that lgs is an important climate variable, intrinsically correlated with, and contributing to mean annual temperature and precipitation (Tann and Pann ), all important climatic drivers of NPP. Our analyses provide guidance for statistical and mechanistic analyses of climate drivers of ecosystem processes for predictive modeling and provide novel evidence supporting the strong, direct role of climate in determining vegetation productivity at the global scale. PMID:26442433

  5. Partial chemical characterization of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone) and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam) binding site: Differences

    SciTech Connect

    Zundel, J.L.; Blanchard, J.C.; Julou, L.

    1985-06-10

    Rat hippocampus membranes were treated with several protein modifying reagents (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, tetranitromethane and N-acetylimidazole). The effects of these treatments on the binding sites of cyclopyrrolones ((/sup 3/H) suriclone), a new chemical family of minor tranquilizers, and benzodiazepines ((/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam) were investigated. Here the authors show that both ligands are similarly sensitive to cysteine alkylation: (/sup 3/H) suriclone and (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding are reduced by iodoacetamide and slightly increased by N-ethylmaleimide. On the contrary they are clearly differentiated by tyrosine modification: (/sup 3/H) suriclone binding is not changed whereas (/sup 3/H) flunitrazepam binding is increased by tetranitromethane and decreased by N-acetylimidazole. The present findings and published evidence suggest cyclopyrrolones and benzodiazepines bind to distinct sites or to different allosteric forms of the benzodiazepine receptor. 28 references, 6 figures.

  6. Suomi NPP VIIRS Imagery evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillger, Donald; Seaman, Curtis; Liang, Calvin; Miller, Steven; Lindsey, Daniel; Kopp, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) combines the best aspects of both civilian and military heritage instrumentation. VIIRS has improved capabilities over its predecessors: a wider swath width and much higher spatial resolution at swath edge. The VIIRS day-night band (DNB) is sensitive to very low levels of visible light and is capable of detecting low clouds, land surface features, and sea ice at night, in addition to light emissions from both man-made and natural sources. Imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite has been in the checkout process since its launch on 28 October 2011. The ongoing evaluation of VIIRS Imagery helped resolve several imagery-related issues, including missing radiance measurements. In particular, near-constant contrast imagery, derived from the DNB, had a large number of issues to overcome, including numerous missing or blank-fill images and a stray light leakage problem that was only recently resolved via software fixes. In spite of various sensor issues, the VIIRS DNB has added tremendous operational and research value to Suomi NPP. Remarkably, it has been discovered to be sensitive enough to identify clouds even in very low light new moon conditions, using reflected light from the Earth's airglow layer. Impressive examples of the multispectral imaging capabilities are shown to demonstrate its applications for a wide range of operational users. Future members of the Joint Polar Satellite System constellation will also carry and extend the use of VIIRS. Imagery evaluation will continue with these satellites to ensure the quality of imagery for end users.

  7. Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

  8. A NMDA receptor glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, that simultaneously enhances LTP and reduces LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-lei; Sullivan, John A.; Moskal, Joseph R.; Stanton, Patric K.

    2008-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDAR) are a key route for Ca2+ influx into neurons important to both activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and, when uncontrolled, triggering events that cause neuronal degeneration and death. Among regulatory binding sites on the NMDAR complex is a glycine binding site, distinct from the glutamate binding site, which must be co-activated for NMDAR channel opening. We developed a novel glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, which is both nootropic and neuroprotective in vivo. Here, we assessed the effects of GLYX-13 on long-term synaptic plasticity and NMDAR transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices in vitro. GLYX-13 simultaneously enhanced the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission, while reducing long-term depression (LTD). GLYX-13 reduced NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons evoked by low-frequency Schaffer collateral stimulation, but enhanced NMDAR currents during high-frequency bursts of activity, and these actions were occluded by a saturating concentration of the glycine site agonist D-serine. Direct two-photon imaging of Schaffer collateral burst-evoked increases in [Ca2+] in individual dendritic spines revealed that GLYX-13 selectively enhanced burst-induced NMDAR-dependent spine Ca2+ influx. Examining the rate of MK-801 block of synaptic versus extrasynaptic NMDAR-gated channels revealed that GLYX-13 selectively enhanced activation of burst-driven extrasynaptic NMDARs, with an action that was blocked by the NR2B-selective NMDAR antagonist ifenprodil. Our data suggest that GLYX-13 may have unique therapeutic potential as a learning and memory enhancer because of its ability to simultaneously enhance LTP and suppress LTD. PMID:18796308

  9. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  10. [Specific Features of Scots Pine Seeds Formation in the Remote Period after the Chernobyl NPP Accident].

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, S A; Vasiliev, D V; Kuzmenkov, A G

    2015-01-01

    The results of long-term (2007-2011) observations on the quality of seed progeny in Scots pine populations inhabiting the sites within the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Formed under the chronic exposure seeds are characterized by a high interannual variability, which is largely determined by weather conditions. PMID:26863784

  11. NPP VIIRS geometric performance status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Wolfe, Robert E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2011-10-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite is scheduled for launch in October, 2011. It is to provide satellite measured radiance/reflectance data for both weather and climate applications. Along with radiometric calibration, geometric characterization and calibration of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) are crucial to the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithms and products which are used in numerical weather prediction (NWP). The instrument geometric performance includes: 1) sensor (detector) spatial response, parameterized by the dynamic field of view (DFOV) in the scan direction and instantaneous FOV (IFOV) in the track direction, modulation transfer function (MTF) for the 17 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), and horizontal spatial resolution (HSR) for the five imagery bands (I-bands); 2) matrices of band-to-band co-registration (BBR) from the corresponding detectors in all band pairs; and 3) pointing knowledge and stability characteristics that includes scan plane tilt, scan rate and scan start position variations, and thermally induced variations in pointing with respect to orbital position. They have been calibrated and characterized through ground testing under ambient and thermal vacuum conditions, numerical modeling and analysis. This paper summarizes the results, which are in general compliance with specifications, along with anomaly investigations, and describes paths forward for characterizing on-orbit BBR and spatial response, and for improving instrument on-orbit performance in pointing and geolocation.

  12. NPP VIIRS Geometric Performance Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Wolfe, Robert E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite is scheduled for launch in October, 2011. It is to provide satellite measured radiance/reflectance data for both weather and climate applications. Along with radiometric calibration, geometric characterization and calibration of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) are crucial to the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithms and products which are used in numerical weather prediction (NWP). The instrument geometric performance includes: 1) sensor (detector) spatial response, parameterized by the dynamic field of view (DFOV) in the scan direction and instantaneous FOV (IFOV) in the track direction, modulation transfer function (MTF) for the 17 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), and horizontal spatial resolution (HSR) for the five imagery bands (I-bands); 2) matrices of band-to-band co-registration (BBR) from the corresponding detectors in all band pairs; and 3) pointing knowledge and stability characteristics that includes scan plane tilt, scan rate and scan start position variations, and thermally induced variations in pointing with respect to orbital position. They have been calibrated and characterized through ground testing under ambient and thermal vacuum conditions, numerical modeling and analysis. This paper summarizes the results, which are in general compliance with specifications, along with anomaly investigations, and describes paths forward for characterizing on-orbit BBR and spatial response, and for improving instrument on-orbit performance in pointing and geolocation.

  13. Local network deployed around the Kozloduy NPP - a useful tool for seismological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena; Popova, Maria; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Radiation risks may transcend national borders, and international cooperation serves to promote and enhance safety globally by exchanging experience and by improving capabilities to control hazards, to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences. International safety standards provide support for states in meeting their obligations under general principles of international law, such as those relating to environmental protection. Seismic safety is a key element of NPP safe operation. Safety and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The Kozloduy NPP site is located in the stable part of the Moesian platform (area of about 50000 km2). From seismological point of view the Moesian platform is the most quite area on the territory of Bulgaria. There are neither historical nor instrumental earthquakes with M>4.5 occurred within the platform. The near region (area with radial extent of 30 km) of the NPP site is characterized with very low seismic activity. The strongest recorded quake is the 1987 earthquake МS=3.6, localized 22 km northwest of the Kozloduy NPP site on the territory of Romania. In line with international practice, the geological, geophysical and seismological characteristics of the region around the site have been investigated for the purpose of evaluating the seismic hazards at the NPP site. A local network (LSN) of sensitive seismographs having a recording capability for micro-earthquakes have been installed around Kozloduy NPP and operated since 1997. The operation and data processing, data interpretation, and reporting of the local micro-earthquake network are linked to the national seismic network (NOTSSI). A real-time data transfer from stations to National Data Center (in Sofia) was implemented using the VPN and MAN networks of the Bulgarian Telecommunication. Real-time and interactive data processing are performed by the Seismic Network Data

  14. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  15. Assessment of Hard-to-Detect Radionuclide Levels in Decommissioning Waste From the Bohunice NPP-A1, Slovakia, for Clearance and Disposal Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.; Stubna, M.

    2002-02-26

    For assessments of hard-to-detect radionuclides (HD-RN) contents in various type of radwastes at the NPP-A1, available empirical data referenced to 137Cs (actinides, 90Sr, 99Tc, 63Ni, 14C) and the theoretical assessment for the remaining HD-RN using calculated RN inventory and a simple model with effective relative (137Cs) spent fuel release fractions was applied. The analytical data of extended radiochemical analysis for the existing available operational radwaste forms have been reviewed for this purpose. 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am were set up as release markers for partial spent fuel release groups of HD-RNs within which the total fractions of HD-RN released to the operational radwastes were assumed to be constant. It was shown by the assessment carried out that 137Cs and HD-RNs 129I, 99Tc, and partly 79Se and 14C are the main contributors to the disposal dose limit for the radioactive concentrate at NPP A-1. In the case of the radioactive sludge from the operational radwaste system the role of predominant dose contributors belongs to actinides 239,240Pu and 241Am. In the case of clearance of radioactive material from the NPP-A1 site, only the reference radionuclide, 137Cs was predicted to be the most dominant dose contributor. In all of these cases the estimated contributions of other hard-to-detect radionuclides to respective disposal or release dose limit are lower by 2 and more orders of magnitude. As a lesson learned, the most attention is proposed to focus on the control and measurement of the critical HD-RNs indicated by the assessment. For the control of less important HD-RNs, the developed release coefficient method is sufficient to be applied.

  16. Key Features of the Deployed NPP/NPOESS Ground System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, G.; Grant, K. D.; Mulligan, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    operations for NPP. C3S transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility (NSOF) in Suitland Maryland in August 2007 and IDPS transitioned in July 2009. Both segments were involved with several compatibility tests with the NPP Satellite at the Ball Aerospace Technology Corporation (BATC) factory. The compatibility tests involved the spacecraft bus, the four sensors (VIIRS, ATMS, CrIS and OMPS), and both ground segments flowing data between the NSOF and BATC factory and flowing data from the polar ground station (Svalbard) over high-speed links back to the NSOF and the two IDP locations (NESDIS & AFWA). This presentation will describe the NPP/NPOESS ground architecture features & enhancements for the NPOESS era. These will include C3S-provided space-to-ground connectivity, reliable and secure data delivery and insight & oversight of the total operation. For NPOESS the ground architecture is extended to provide additional ground receptor sites to reduce data product delivery times to users and delivery of additional sensor data products from sensors similar to NPP and more NPOESS sensors. This architecture is also extended from two Centrals (NESDIS & AFWA) to two additional Centrals (FNMOC & NAVO). IDPS acts as a buffer minimizing changes in how users request and receive data products.

  17. NPP After Launch: Characterizing ATMS Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission is scheduled to launch in the fall of 2011. Although several teams from the government and the instrument contractor will be assessing and characterizing the performance of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) sounding suite, the NASA NPP Science Team will be paying particular attention to the aspects of these sensors that affect their utility for atmospheric and climate research. In this talk we discuss relevant aspects of ATMS and our post launch analysis approach.

  18. Suppression of spreading depolarization and stabilization of dendritic spines by GLYX-13, an NMDA receptor glycine-site functional partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Shuttleworth, C William; Moskal, Joseph R; Stanton, Patric K

    2015-11-01

    Cortical spreading depolarization (SD) is a slow self-propagating wave of mass cellular depolarization in brain tissue, thought to be the underlying cause of migraine scintillating scotoma and aura, and associated with stroke, traumatic brain injury, and termination of status epilepticus. The N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR), which gates influx of calcium and is an important trigger of long-term synaptic plasticity, is also a contributor to the initiation and propagation of SD. The current study tested the potential of pharmacological modulation of NMDAR activity through the obligatory co-agonist binding site, to suppress the initiation of SD, and modulate the effects of SD on dendritic spine morphology, in in vitro hippocampal slices. A novel NMDAR functional glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, sometimes completely prevented the induction of SD and consistently slowed its rate of propagation. The passage of SD through the hippocampal CA1 region produced a rapid retraction of dendritic spines which reversed after neuronal depolarization had recovered. GLYX-13 improved the rate and extent of return of dendritic spines to their original sizes and locations following SD, suggesting that NMDAR modulators can protect synaptic connections in the brain from structural alterations elicited by SD. These data indicate that NMDAR modulation to renormalize activity may be an effective new treatment strategy for suppression or amelioration of the contribution of SD to short and long-term symptoms of migraine attacks, as well as the effects of SD on tissue damaged by stroke or traumatic brain injury. PMID:26244282

  19. Valence states and metamagnetic phase transition in partially B -site-disordered perovskite EuMn0.5Co0.5O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A. N.; Volkova, O. S.; Lobanovskii, L. S.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Hu, Z.; Tjeng, L. H.; Khomskii, D. I.; Lin, H.-J.; Chen, C. T.; Tristan, N.; Kretzschmar, F.; Klingeler, R.; Büchner, B.

    2008-03-01

    The valence states of transition metals were studied by measuring the x-ray absorption spectra at both MnL2,3 and CoL2,3 edges of partially B -site-disordered perovskite EuMn0.5Co0.5O3 . By comparison with analogous spectra in various Co- and Mn-based compounds, the divalent state of the Co ions and the tetravalent state of the Mn ions were established analogous to Mn4+/Co2+ charge ordering found by Dass and Goodenough [Phys. Rev. B 67, 014401 (2003)] in LaMn0.5Co0.5O3 . The specific heat and magnetic susceptibility data indicate the formation of the magnetically ordered state at TC˜120K . The first-order metamagnetic transitions seen in EuMn0.5Co0.5O3 at T

  20. Comparison of S-NPP VIIRS and PLEIADES lunar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lachérade, Sophie; Aznay, Ouahid; Fougnie, Bertrand; Fulbright, Jon; Wang, Zhipeng

    2015-10-01

    The first VIIRS instrument was launched on-board the S-NPP satellite in October 2011. It has a total of 15 reflective solar bands (RSB), which include a day-night band (DNB). The VIIRS RSB are calibrated each orbit by an on-board solar diffuser and regularly scheduled lunar observations. With a few exceptions, regularly scheduled lunar observations have been made with the same phase angles from -51.5° to -50.5°. The PLEIADES system consists of two satellites, PLEIADES-1A and PLEIADES-1B, which were launched in December of 2011 and December of 2012, respectively. Each instrument has 5 RSB: four (blue, green, red and near-infrared) bands with a 2.8 m spatial resolution and one panchromatic band with a 70 cm vertical viewing resolution. PLEIADES RSB are calibrated using observations of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) and the Moon. Both PLEIADES-1A and PLEIADES-1B lunar observations have been made over a wide range of phase angles. In this paper we provide an overview of S-NPP VIIRS and PLEIADES lunar observations and an analysis to qualify their lunar calibration differences. Results derived from different inter-comparison methodologies (or approaches) are illustrated. Also discussed in this paper are the challenging issues, lessons, and future effort to further improve sensor lunar calibration inter-comparisons.

  1. Outcomes in Women Treated With MammoSite Brachytherapy or Whole Breast Irradiation Stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Zauls, A. Jason; Watkins, John M.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Brackett, N. Craig; Aguero, Eric G.; Baker, Megan K.; Jenrette, Joseph M.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Harper, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology published a Consensus Statement for accelerated partial breast irradiation identifying three groups: Suitable, Cautionary, and Unsuitable. The objective of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy (MB) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) after stratification into Statement groups. Methods: Eligible women had invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) {<=}3 cm, and {<=}3 lymph nodes positive. Women were stratified by radiation modality and Statement groups. Survival analysis methods including Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression, and competing risks analysis were used to assess overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), time to local failure (TTLF), and tumor bed failure (TBF). Results: A total of 459 (183 MB and 276 WBI) patients were treated from 2002 to 2009. After a median follow-up of 45 months, we found no statistical differences by stratification group or radiation modality with regard to OS and DFS. At 4 years TTLF or TBF were not statistically different between the cohorts. Univariate analysis in the MB cohort revealed that nodal positivity (pN1 vs. pN0) was related to TTLF (hazard ratio 6.39, p = 0.02). There was a suggestion that DCIS histology had an increased risk of failure when compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (hazard ratio 3.57, p = 0.06). Conclusions: MB and WBI patients stratified by Statement groups seem to combine women who will have similar outcomes regardless of radiation modality. Although outcomes were similar, we remain guarded in overinterpretation of these preliminary results until further analysis and long-term follow-up data become available. Caution should be used in treating women with DCIS or pN1 disease with MB.

  2. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Hughes, R.; Andreas, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. Given a launch date for the NPP spacecraft on the near horizon and the need for users to become familiar with NPP environmental products, this paper will provide an overview of all the products generated by the IDPS and provided to NOAA’s Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) for public distribution. It will discuss each of the 25 NPP EDRs in detail, including a description of the EDR, its size, coverage, measurement range, and expected uses.

  3. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  4. Monitoring NPP VIIRS on-orbit radiometric performance from TOA reflectance time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, A.; Xiong, X.; Cao, C.; Sun, C.

    2013-09-01

    The recently launched (October 28, 2011) Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite has been operating nominally to daily collect global data. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key NPP sensor onboard the spacecraft. Similar to the heritage sensor MODIS, VIIRS has on-board calibration components including a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB), a V-groove blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a space view (SV) port for background. This study examines VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration stability and performance using observed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance time series collected from two approaches. The first is from comparison with a well-calibrated Aqua MODIS and the second is from overpasses over the widely used Liby-4 desert site. The VIIRS and MODIS comparison data is obtained from simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) for their spectrally matched bands. The reflectance trends over the Libya-4 site are extracted from 16-day repeatable orbits so each data point has the same viewing geometry relative to the site. The impact due to the band spectral differences between the two instruments is corrected based on MODTRAN5 simulations. Results of this study provide useful information on NPP VIIRS post-launch calibration assessment and preliminary analysis of its calibration stability and consistency for the first 1.5 years.

  5. Application of the SASSI soil structure interaction method to CANDU 6 NPP seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuti, R.A.; Elgohary, M.; Usmani, S.A.

    1996-12-01

    The standard CANDU 6 NPP has been conservatively qualified for a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.2 g. Currently there are potential opportunities for siting the CANDU 6 at higher seismicity sites. In order to be able to extend the use of a standardized design for sites with higher seismicity than the standard plant, various design options, including the use of the SASSI Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis method, are being evaluated. This paper presents the results of a study to assess the potential benefits from utilization of the SASSI computer program and the use of more realistic damping ratios for the structures.

  6. A Model-based Approach to Scaling GPP and NPP in Support of MODIS Land Product Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. P.; Cohen, W. B.; Gower, S. T.; Ritts, W. D.

    2003-12-01

    Global products from the Earth-orbiting MODIS sensor include land cover, leaf area index (LAI), FPAR, 8-day gross primary production (GPP), and annual net primary production (NPP) at the 1 km spatial resolution. The BigFoot Project was designed specifically to validate MODIS land products, and has initiated ground measurements at 9 sites representing a wide array of vegetation types. An ecosystem process model (Biome-BGC) is used to generate estimates of GPP and NPP for each 5 km x 5 km BigFoot site. Model inputs include land cover and LAI (from Landsat ETM+), daily meteorological data (from a centrally located eddy covariance flux tower), and soil characteristics. Model derived outputs are validated against field-measured NPP and flux tower-derived GPP. The resulting GPP and NPP estimates are then aggregated to the 1 km resolution for direct spatial comparison with corresponding MODIS products. At the high latitude sites (tundra and boreal forest), the MODIS GPP phenology closely tracks the BigFoot GPP, but there is a high bias in the MODIS GPP. In the temperate zone sites, problems with the timing and magnitude of the MODIS FPAR introduce differences in MODIS GPP compared to the validation data at some sites. However, the MODIS LAI/FPAR data are currently being reprocessed (=Collection 4) and new comparisons will be made for 2002. The BigFoot scaling approach permits precise overlap in spatial and temporal resolution between the MODIS products and BigFoot products, and thus permits the evaluation of specific components of the MODIS NPP algorithm. These components include meteorological inputs from the NASA Data Assimilation Office, LAI and FPAR from other MODIS algorithms, and biome-specific parameters for base respiration rate and light use efficiency.

  7. Radioactive Waste Packaging of Conditioned Waste at Kozloduy NPP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Genchev, G.; Dimov, D.; Russev, K.

    2006-07-01

    An important part of Safety Management of conditioned low and intermediate level Radioactive Waste (RAW) is their packaging and containers for transport, storage and final disposal. A reinforced concrete container (RCC) has been developed to take cemented super compacted dry waste and cement solidified liquid waste at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The container is to be used as a packaging of transportation, storage and final disposal of RAW conditioned by cementation KNPP specialists constructed and performed tests on the container. These tests were possible thanks to a review of European Community States experience, USA experience and IAEA documents. The container was tested by a team of specialists from KNPP, project specialists, fabricator of the containers and from Bulgarian Regulatory Body under IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series, TECDOC, TRS and Bulgarian Standards. An expert from IAEA was a member of the testing group for RCC examinations. (authors)

  8. LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification.

  9. Epilepsy (partial)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiepileptic drugs after a single seizure; monotherapy for partial epilepsy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs for drug-resistant partial epilepsy (allopurinol, eslicarbazepine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, losigamone, oxcarbazepine, retigabine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide); antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with partial or

  10. Near Real Time Processing Chain for Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsorno, Roberto; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Costa, Armin; Mateescu, Gabriel; Ventura, Bartolomeo; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, the EURAC satellite receiving station, located at Corno del Renon, in a free obstacle site at 2260 m a.s.l., has been acquiring data from Aqua and Terra NASA satellites equipped with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The experience gained with this local ground segmenthas given the opportunity of adapting and modifying the processing chain for MODIS data to the Suomi NPP, the natural successor to Terra and Aqua satellites. The processing chain, initially implemented by mean of a proprietary system supplied by Seaspace and Advanced Computer System, was further developed by EURAC's Institute for Applied Remote Sensing engineers. Several algorithms have been developed using MODIS and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data to produce Snow Cover, Particulate Matter estimation and Meteo maps. These products are implemented on a common processor structure based on the use of configuration files and a generic processor. Data and products have then automatically delivered to the customers such as the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Civil Protection office. For the processing phase we defined two goals: i) the adaptation and implementation of the products already available for MODIS (and possibly new ones) to VIIRS, that is one of the sensors onboard Suomi NPP; ii) the use of an open source processing chain in order to process NPP data in Near Real Time, exploiting the knowledge we acquired on parallel computing. In order to achieve the second goal, the S-NPP data received and ingested are sent as input to RT-STPS (Real-time Software Telemetry Processing System) software developed by the NASA Direct Readout Laboratory 1 (DRL) that gives as output RDR files (Raw Data Record) for VIIRS, ATMS (Advanced Technology Micorwave Sounder) and CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder)sensors. RDR are then transferred to a server equipped with CSPP2 (Community Satellite Processing Package) software developed by the University of

  11. Partial gravity habitat study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.

  12. Principles on Radiological Characterization of the Unit 1 at Ignalina NPP for Decommissioning Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Zujus, R.; Drumstas, G.; Poskas, R.; Simonis, V.

    2008-07-01

    There is only one nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Ignalina NPP (INPP). The INPP operated two similar units with installed capacity of 1500 MW(each). They were commissioned in 12/1983 and 08/1987, and the original design lifetime was projected out to 2010 and 2015 respectively. But the first Unit of Ignalina NPP was shutdown December 31, 2004, and second Unit will be closed down before 2010 taking into consideration substantial long-term financial assistance from the EU, G7 and other states as well as international institutions. Implementation of dismantling activities requires detailed knowledge of the radiological situation at the Unit 1. General Programme of Radiological Survey for Ignalina NPP Unit 1 based on NUREG-1575 was prepared in 2005- 2006 by Consortium led by Lithuanian Energy Institute and approved by Regulatory Bodies. It includes such main steps as historical site assessment, scoping, characterization, remedial actions/decontamination support surveys and final status surveys. General Programme of Radiological Survey defines content and principles of the surveys, and preliminary survey considerations, including identification of the contaminants, establishment of the free release levels, principles on areas classification depending on contamination potential, identification of the final survey units, criteria for selection survey instrumentation, techniques and methods etc. So, in the paper information on these principles and the content of the different stages in General Programme of Radiological Survey is presented. (authors)

  13. Assessing Forest NPP: BIOME-BGC Predictions versus BEF Derived Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenauer, H.; Pietsch, S. A.; Petritsch, R.

    2007-05-01

    Forest productivity has always been a major issue within sustainable forest management. While in the past terrestrial forest inventory data have been the major source for assessing forest productivity, recent developments in ecosystem modeling offer an alternative approach using ecosystem models such as Biome-BGC to estimate Net Primary Production (NPP). In this study we compare two terrestrial driven approaches for assessing NPP: (i) estimates from a species specific adaptation of the biogeochemical ecosystem model BIOME-BGC calibrated for Alpine conditions; and (ii) NPP estimates derived from inventory data using biomass expansion factors (BEF). The forest inventory data come from 624 sample plots across Austria and consist of repeated individual tree observations and include growth as well as soil and humus information. These locations are covered with spruce, beech, oak, pine and larch stands, thus addressing the main Austrian forest types. 144 locations were previously used in a validating effort to produce species-specific parameter estimates of the ecosystem model. The remaining 480 sites are from the Austrian National Forest Soil Survey carried out at the Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW). By using diameter at breast height (dbh) and height (h) volume and subsequently biomass of individual trees were calculated, aggregated for the whole forest stand and compared with the model output. Regression analyses were performed for both volume and biomass estimates.

  14. Vicarious calibration of S-NPP/VIIRS day-night band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish

    2013-09-01

    The Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. In order to cover this extremely broad measurement range, the DNB employs four imaging arrays that comprise three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain values are determined by solar diffuser data. In operation, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the LGS gains by the medium gain stage (MGS)/LGS and high gain stage (HGS)/LGS gain ratios, respectively. This paper demonstrates a scheme of using DNB observation of ground vicarious sites under lunar illumination at night to independently verify the radiometric accuracy of HGS of DNB. We performed vicarious calibration of DNB when S-NPP flies above the vicarious site such as Dome C in Antarctic and Greenland in northern hemisphere at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than half moon. Lunar spectral irradiance model as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase is used to assist the determination of top-of-atmosphere reflectance at the vicarious site. Analysis of the vicariously-derived reflectance from DNB observations show agreement with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations of the vicarious sites.

  15. [Plutonium at the ecosystems of impact zone the Beloyarsk NPP].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlovskaia, L N; Molchanova, I V; Karavaeva, E N

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of the plutonium at the ecosystems of impact zone the Beloyarsk NPP was studied. Higher quantity of Pu (to 500 Bq/m2) was revealed in the bottom sediments of the Olkhovsk bog where low-level radioactive water of the Beloyarsk NPP have been discharged. The total amount of the radionuclide in a soil cover did not exceed 140 Bq/m2. The contribution of the Beloyarsk NPP to contamination of the investigated ecosystems was accounted with using ratio 238Pu/239.240Pu. It was 64.1-99.3% both in the bottom sediments and soils. PMID:17953434

  16. N-16 monitors: Almaraz NPP experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adrada, J.

    1997-02-01

    Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has installed N-16 monitors - one per steam generator - to control the leakage rate through the steam generator tubes after the application of leak before break (LBB) criteria for the top tube sheet (TTS). After several years of operation with the N-16 monitors, Almaraz NPP experience may be summarized as follows: N-16 monitors are very useful to follow the steam generator leak rate trend and to detect an incipient tube rupture; but they do not provide an exact absolute leak rate value, mainly when there are small leaks. The evolution of the measured N-16 leak rates varies along the fuel cycle, with the same trend for the 3 steam generators. This behaviour is associated with the primary water chemistry evolution along the cycle.

  17. The environmental constraint needs for design improvements to the Saligny I/LLW-repository near Cernavoda NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the new perspectives on the development of the L/ILW Final Repository Project which will be built near Cernavoda NPP. The Repository is designed to satisfy the main performance objectives in accordance to IAEA recommendation. Starting in October 1996, Romania became a country with an operating nuclear power plant. Reactor 2 reached the criticality on May 6, 2007 and it will be put in commercial operation in September 2007. The Ministry of Economy and Finance has decided to proceed with the commissioning of Units 3 and 4 of Cernavoda NPP till 2014. The Strategy for radioactive waste management was elaborated by National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD), the jurisdictional authority for definitive disposal and the coordination of nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste management (Order 844/2004) with attributions established by Governmental Decision (GO) 31/2006. The Strategy specifies the commissioning of the Saligny L/IL Radwaste Repository near Cernavoda NPP in 2014. When designing the L/IL Radwaste Repository, the following prerequisites have been taken into account: 1) Cernavoda NPP will be equipped with 4 Candu 6 units. 2) National Legislation in radwaste management will be reviewed and/or completed to harmonize with UE standards 3) The selected site is now in process of confirmation after a comprehensive set of interdisciplinary investigations. (author)

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Matejovic, Igor; Polak, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  19. Rapid photometric detection of thymine residues partially flipped out of double helix as a method for direct scanning of point mutations and apurinic DNA sites.

    PubMed

    Logvina, N A; Yakubovskaya, M G; Dolinnaya, N G

    2011-02-01

    A spectroscopic assay for detection of extrahelical thymine residues in DNA heteroduplexes under their modification by potassium permanganate has been developed. The assay is based on increase in absorbance at 420 nm due to accumulation of thymidine oxidation intermediates and soluble manganese dioxide. The analysis was carried out using a set of 19-bp DNA duplexes containing unpaired thymidines opposite tetrahydrofuranyl derivatives mimicking a widespread DNA damage (apurinic (AP) sites) and a library of 50-bp DNA duplexes containing all types of base mismatches in different surroundings. The relation between the selectivity of unpaired T oxidation and the thermal stability of DNA double helix was investigated. The method described here was shown to discriminate between DNA duplexes with one or two AP sites and to reveal thymine-containing mismatches and all noncanonical base pairs in AT-surroundings. Comparative results of CCM analysis and the rapid photometric assay for mismatch detection are demonstrated for the first time in the same model system. The chemical reactivity of target thymines was shown to correlate with local disturbance of double helix at the mismatch site. As the spectroscopic assay does not require the DNA cleavage reaction and gel electrophoresis, it can be easily automated and used for primary screening of somatic mutations. PMID:21568858

  20. MetEd Resources for Embracing Advances with S-NPP and JPSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2014-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu), a part of the UCAR Community Programs (UCP) at UCAR, receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. For many years COMET's satellite education programs have focused on developing self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. This presentation provides a tour of COMET's satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Over 90 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available on the of the MetEd Web site (http://www.meted.ucar.edu) via the "Education & Training", "Satellite" topic area. Quite a few polar-orbiting-related lessons are available in both English, Spanish, and French. Additionally, S-NPP and JPSS relevant information can also be found on the the Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC) Web site (www.meted.ucar.edu/esrc) that is maintained by COMET. The ESRC is a searchable, database-driven Web site that provides access to

  1. Simulator experiments: effects of NPP operator experience on performance

    SciTech Connect

    Beare, A.N.; Gray, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the FY83 research, a simulator experiment was conducted at the control room simulator for a GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) NPP. The research subjects were licensed operators undergoing requalification training and shift technical advisors (STAs). This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of senior reactor operator (SRO) experience, operating crew augmentation with an STA and practice, as a crew, upon crew and individual operator performance, in response to anticipated plant transients. Sixteen two-man crews of licensed operators were employed in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The SROs leading the crews were split into high and low experience groups on the basis of their years of experience as an SRO. One half of the high- and low-SRO experience groups were assisted by an STA. The crews responded to four simulated plant casualties. A five-variable set of content-referenced performance measures was derived from task analyses of the procedurally correct responses to the four casualties. System parameters and control manipulations were recorded by the computer controlling the simulator. Data on communications and procedure use were obtained from analysis of videotapes of the exercises. Questionnaires were used to collect subject biographical information and data on subjective workload during each simulated casualty. For four of the five performance measures, no significant differences were found between groups led by high (25 to 114 months) and low (1 to 17 months as an SRO) experience SROs. However, crews led by low experience SROs tended to have significantly shorter task performance times than crews led by high experience SROs. The presence of the STA had no significant effect on overall team performance in responding to the four simulated casualties. The FY84 experiments are a partial replication and extension of the FY83 experiment, but with PWR operators and simulator.

  2. Suomi Npp and Jpss Pre-Launch Test Data Collection and Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, M.; Ullman, R.; Guenther, B.; Kilcoyne, H.; Chandler, C.; Adameck, J.

    2012-12-01

    During the development of each Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) instrument, significant testing was performed, both in ambient and simulated orbital (thermal-vacuum) conditions, at the instrument factory, and again after integration with the spacecraft. The NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), and later the NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program Office, defined two primary objectives with respect to capturing instrument and spacecraft test data during these test events. The first objective was to disseminate test data and auxiliary documentation to an often distributed network of scientists to permit timely production of independent assessments of instrument performance, calibration, data quality, and test progress. The second goal was to preserve the data and documentation in a catalogued government archive for the life of the mission, to aid in the resolution of anomalies and to facilitate the comparison of on-orbit instrument operating characteristics to those observed prior to launch. In order to meet these objectives, Suomi NPP pre-launch test data collection, distribution, processing, and archive methods included adaptable support infrastructures to quickly and completely transfer test data and documentation from the instrument and spacecraft factories to sensor scientist teams on-site at the factory and around the country. These methods were unique, effective, and low in cost. These efforts supporting pre-launch instrument calibration permitted timely data quality assessments and technical feedback from contributing organizations within the government, academia, and industry, and were critical in supporting timely sensor development. Second, in parallel to data distribution to the sensor science teams, pre-launch test data were transferred and ingested into the central Suomi NPP calibration and validation (cal/val) system, known as the Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing, and Evaluation

  3. Adapting SAFT-γ perturbation theory to site-based molecular dynamics simulation. III. Molecules with partial charges at bulk phases, confined geometries and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2014-09-07

    In Paper I [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 139(23), 234104 (2013)], we showed that how a third-order Weeks–Chandler–Anderson (WCA) Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory and molecular simulation can be integrated to characterize the repulsive and dispersive contributions to the Helmholtz free energy for realistic molecular conformations. To this end, we focused on n-alkanes to develop a theory for fused and soft chains. In Paper II [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 141(2), 024708 (2014)], we adapted the classical Density Functional Theory and studied the microstructure of the realistic molecular fluids in confined geometries and vapor-liquid interfaces. We demonstrated that a detailed consistency between molecular simulation and theory can be achieved for both bulk and inhomogeneous phases. In this paper, we extend the methodology to molecules with partial charges such as carbon dioxide, water, 1-alkanols, nitriles, and ethers. We show that the electrostatic interactions can be captured via an effective association potential in the framework of Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT). Implementation of the resulting association contribution in assessing the properties of these molecules at confined geometries and interfaces presents satisfactory agreement with molecular simulation and experimental data. For example, the predicted surface tension deviates less than 4% comparing to full potential simulations. Also, the theory, referred to as SAFT-γ WCA, is able to reproduce the specific orientation of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail of 1-alkanols at the vapor-liquid interface of water.

  4. Adapting SAFT-γ perturbation theory to site-based molecular dynamics simulation. III. Molecules with partial charges at bulk phases, confined geometries and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

    2014-09-01

    In Paper I [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 139(23), 234104 (2013)], we showed that how a third-order Weeks-Chandler-Anderson (WCA) Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory and molecular simulation can be integrated to characterize the repulsive and dispersive contributions to the Helmholtz free energy for realistic molecular conformations. To this end, we focused on n-alkanes to develop a theory for fused and soft chains. In Paper II [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 141(2), 024708 (2014)], we adapted the classical Density Functional Theory and studied the microstructure of the realistic molecular fluids in confined geometries and vapor-liquid interfaces. We demonstrated that a detailed consistency between molecular simulation and theory can be achieved for both bulk and inhomogeneous phases. In this paper, we extend the methodology to molecules with partial charges such as carbon dioxide, water, 1-alkanols, nitriles, and ethers. We show that the electrostatic interactions can be captured via an effective association potential in the framework of Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT). Implementation of the resulting association contribution in assessing the properties of these molecules at confined geometries and interfaces presents satisfactory agreement with molecular simulation and experimental data. For example, the predicted surface tension deviates less than 4% comparing to full potential simulations. Also, the theory, referred to as SAFT-γ WCA, is able to reproduce the specific orientation of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail of 1-alkanols at the vapor-liquid interface of water.

  5. Radioactive Waste Storage Facility at the Armenian NPP - 12462

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A.; Gondakyan, Y.; Stepanyan, A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed contaminant transfer dynamics model for radionuclide in geosphere and biosphere medium. The model describes the transport of radionuclides using full equation for the processes of advection, diffusion, decay and sorption. The overall objective is to establish, from a post-closure radiological safety point of view, whether it is practical to convert an existing radioactive waste storage facility at Armenian NPP, to a waste disposal facility. The calculation includes: - Data sources for: the operational waste-source term; options for refurbishment and completion of the waste storage facility as a waste disposal facility; the site and its environs; - Development of an assessment context for the safety assessment, and identification of waste treatment options; - A description of the conceptual and mathematical models, and results calculated for the base case scenario relating to the release of contaminants via the groundwater pathway and also precipitation especially important for this site. The results of the calculations showed that the peak individual dose is < 7 E-8 Sv/y arising principally from I-129 after 700 years post closure. Other significant radionuclides, in terms of their contribution to the total dose are I-129, Tc-99 and in little C-14 (U- 234 and Po-210 are not relevant). The study does not explore all issues that might be expected to be presented in a safety case for a near surface disposal facility it mainly focuses on post- closure dose impacts. Most emphasis has been placed on the development of scenarios and conceptual models rather than the presentation and analyses of results and confidence building (only deterministic results are presented). The calculations suggest that, from a perspective the conversion of the waste-storage facility is feasible such that all the predicted doses are well below internationally recognized targets, as well as provisional Armenian regulatory objectives. This conclusion applies to the disposal

  6. Lessons learnt from Ignalina NPP decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    NAISSE, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is located in Lithuania, 130 km north of Vilnius, and consists of two 1500 MWe RBMK type units, commissioned respectively in December 1983 and August 1987. On the 1. of May 2004, the Republic of Lithuania became a member of the European Union. With the protocol on the Ignalina Nuclear Power in Lithuania which is annexed to the Accession Treaty, the Contracting Parties have agreed: - On Lithuanian side, to commit closure of unit 1 of INPP before 2005 and of Unit 2 by 31 December 2009; - On European Union side, to provide adequate additional Community assistance to the efforts of Lithuania to decommission INPP. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part describes how, starting from this agreement, the project was launched and organized, what is its present status and which activities are planned to reach the final ambitious objective of a green field. To give a global picture, the content of the different projects that were defined and the licensing process will also be presented. In the second part, the paper will focus on the lessons learnt. It will explain the difficulties encountered to define the decommissioning strategy, considering both immediate or differed dismantling options and why the first option was finally selected. The paper will mention other challenges and problems that the different actors of the project faced and how they were managed and solved. The paper will be written by representatives of the Ignalina NPP and of the Project Management Unit. (author)

  7. Moisture Separator Reheater for NPP Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Jun; Kasahara, Jiro

    This paper introduces the development of the current model Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) for nuclear power plant (NPP) turbines, commercially placed in service in the period 1984-1997, focusing on the mist separation performance of the MSR along with drainage from heat exchanger tubes. A method of predicting the mist separation performance was devised first based on the observation of mist separation behaviors under an air-water test. Then the method was developed for the application to predict under the steam conditions, followed by the verification in comparison with the actual results of a steam condition test. The instability of tube drainage associated with both sub-cooling and temperature oscillation might adversely affect the seal welding of tubes to tube sheet due to thermal fatigue. The instability was measured on an existing unit to clarify behaviors and the development of a method to suppress them. Both methods were applied to newly constructed units and the effectiveness of the methods was demonstrated.

  8. Fire Risk Analysis for Armenian NPP Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Poghosyan, Shahen; Malkhasyan, Albert; Bznuni, Surik; Amirjanyan, Armen

    2006-07-01

    Major fire occurred at Armenian NPP (ANPP) in October 1982 showed that fire-induced initiating events (IE) can have dominant contribution in overall risk of core damage. Probabilistic Safety Assessment study for fire-induced initiating events for ANPP was initiated in 2002. Analysis was performed for compartments fires in which could result in failure of components which are necessary for reactor cold shutdown. Analysis shows that main risk from fire at ANPP is conditioned by fire in cable tunnels 61-64. Meanwhile fire in confinement compartments don't have significant contribution to overall risk of core damage. The exception is so called 'confinement valves compartment' (room no.A-013/2) fire (more than 7.5% of CDF) in which fire could result in the loss of coolant accident with unavailability of primary makeup system, which directly leads to core damage. Detailed analysis of this problem that is common for typical WWER-440/230 reactors with no hermetic MCPs and recommendations for solution are presented in this paper. (authors)

  9. Acidosis Is a key regulator of osteoblast ecto‐nucleotidase pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) expression and activity

    PubMed Central

    Key, Michelle L.; Hajjawi, Mark O.R.; Millán, José L.; Arnett, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown that acidosis prevents bone nodule formation by osteoblasts in vitro by inhibiting mineralisation of the collagenous matrix. The ratio of phosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) in the bone microenvironment is a fundamental regulator of bone mineralisation. Both Pi and PPi, a potent inhibitor of mineralisation, are generated from extracellular nucleotides by the actions of ecto‐nucleotidases. This study investigated the expression and activity of ecto‐nucleotidases by osteoblasts under normal and acid conditions. We found that osteoblasts express mRNA for a number of ecto‐nucleotidases including NTPdase 1–6 (ecto‐nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) and NPP1‐3 (ecto‐nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase). The rank order of mRNA expression in differentiating rat osteoblasts (day 7) was Enpp1 > NTPdase 4 > NTPdase 6 > NTPdase 5 > alkaline phosphatase > ecto‐5‐nucleotidase > Enpp3 > NTPdase 1 > NTPdase 3 > Enpp2 > NTPdase 2. Acidosis (pH 6.9) upregulated NPP1 mRNA (2.8‐fold) and protein expression at all stages of osteoblast differentiation compared to physiological pH (pH 7.4); expression of other ecto‐nucleotidases was unaffected. Furthermore, total NPP activity was increased up to 53% in osteoblasts cultured in acid conditions (P < 0.001). Release of ATP, one of the key substrates for NPP1, from osteoblasts, was unaffected by acidosis. Further studies showed that mineralised bone formation by osteoblasts cultured from NPP1 knockout mice was increased compared with wildtypes (2.5‐fold, P < 0.001) and was partially resistant to the inhibitory effect of acidosis. These results indicate that increased NPP1 expression and activity might contribute to the decreased mineralisation observed when osteoblasts are exposed to acid conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 3049–3056, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  10. Modeling and statistical analysis of feedback between NPP (MODIS NPP) and temperature for forest area Yenisei River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukoba, Nikolay; Ivanova, Yulia; Saltykov, Mikhail

    Assimilation of carbon by green plants or net primary production (NPP) is one of the most important processes. It provide qualitative and quantitative estimates of the events occurring in the biosphere. Carbon assimilated by plants is used by them to increase their biomass and is a main process of food chains on Earth. NPP is highly variable in time and space. It may depend on physical factors such as temperature, humidity and concentration of nutrients in the soil, etc. And also depends on the types of vegetation (woody, herbaceous, coniferous, and deciduous, etc.). In this regard, it is very important to understand what kind of climate factor is a limiting factor of NPP in the given time and place. For this aim a statistical analysis of the feedback between NPP (MODIS NPP) and the temperature of the forest zone Yenisey River has been performed. We used the time series of NPP for studied territory between 2000 and 2012. The time series of temperature were calculated using the data from the satellite measurements (MODISTERRA) and the global network of weather stations. The considered territory is situated in the Yenisey River basin with diverse natural landscapes - from forest-tundra in the North to alpine meadows in the West Sayan Mountains in the South. This territory extends along the Yenisey River from north to south for about 2000 km. Plains and mountainous areas have been investigated separately. Mountain forests are located in the West Sayan and altitudinal zonation varies from 500 to 2000 m a.s.l. In order to investigate the causal relationships between temperature and NPP we applied the method of Convergent Cross-Mapping (CCM) (Sugihara et al., Science. 2012. V. 338. P. 496-500). This method in some case allows to determine what is a reason and what is consequence, that cannot be definded by simple correlation. It has been shown that the best results are obtained for the 8 -day composite satellite data during the growing season (MOD17A2, MOD11A2). By means

  11. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volmert, Ben; Pantelias, Manuel; Mutnuru, R. K.; Neukaeter, Erwin; Bitterli, Beat

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  12. COMET Program Training Offerings to Support S-NPP and JPSS Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.

    2015-12-01

    Are you up to speed on how to exploit new S-NPP capabilities and products? If not, don't worry, because UCAR's COMET program has self-paced online educational materials that highlight the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation operational polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites. The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) has long received funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. By partnering with experts from NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, the Naval Research Laboratory and others, COMET's self-paced training stimulates greater use of current and future satellite observations and products. Right now, over 70 satellite-focused, self-paced, online materials are freely available in English via the MetEd Web site at http://meted.ucar.edu/topics/satellite. Additionally, quite a few lessons are also available in Spanish and French making training more easily accessible to an international audience. This presentation will focus on COMET's latest satellite training and education offerings that are directly applicable to data and products from the S-NPP and JPSS satellite series. A recommended set of lessons for users who wish to learn more will be highlighted, including excerpts from the newest materials on the Suomi NPP VIIRS imager and its applications, as well as advances in nighttime visible observation with the VIIRS Day-Night Band. We'll show how the lessons introduce users to the advances these systems bring to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. Finally, new relevant training initiatives will also be presented.

  13. Multi-scale evaluation of ISIMIP biome models against NDVI and MODIS NPP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Rashad; Zhao, Fang; Zeng, Ning; Asrar, Ghassem; Reyer, Christopher; Ostberg, Sebastian; Francois, Louis; Tian, Hanqin; Chnag, Jinfeng; Nishina, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) is commonly used for understanding the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and their role in carbon cycle. The global NPP, highly variable over space and time, cannot be directly observed, therefore, satellite based observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are used as a proxy to understand and monitor the NPP dynamics. In this study, we used a combination of most recent NDVI and modeled NPP data for the period 1982-2012, to study the role of terrestrial ecosystems in carbon cycle under the prevailing climate conditions. We found that in general there is good agreement between the spatial patterns and global seasonal cycles between observed NDVI and modeled NPP values. Simulated NPP values also generally agree with MODIS NPP spatially, and temporally, MODIS NPP falls within the model spread of NPP values. Despite of the general agreement in the trends of global total NDVI, MODIS NPP and modeled NPP, considerable spatial differences are found, and the ensemble mean of the models often agrees better with the spatial patterns of observed NDVI and MODIS NPP than individual models.

  14. Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

  15. Five-Year Analysis of Treatment Efficacy and Cosmesis by the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank; Beitsch, Peter; Quiet, Coral; Gittleman, Mark; Zannis, Vic; Fine, Ricky; Whitworth, Pat; Kuerer, Henry; Haffty, Bruce; Lyden, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To present 5-year data on treatment efficacy, cosmetic results, and toxicities for patients enrolled on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite breast brachytherapy registry trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 patients (1449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer receiving breast-conserving therapy were treated with the MammoSite device to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Of 1449 cases, 1255 (87%) had invasive breast cancer (IBC) (median size, 10 mm) and 194 (13%) had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (median size, 8 mm). Median follow-up was 54 months. Results: Thirty-seven cases (2.6%) developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.80% (3.86% for IBC and 3.39% for DCIS). Negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.0011) was the only clinical, pathologic, or treatment-related variable associated with IBTR for patients with IBC and young age (<50 years; p = 0.0096) and positive margin status (p = 0.0126) in those with DCIS. The percentage of breasts with good/excellent cosmetic results at 60 months (n = 371) was 90.6%. Symptomatic breast seromas were reported in 13.0% of cases, and 2.3% developed fat necrosis. A subset analysis of the first 400 consecutive cases enrolled was performed (352 with IBC, 48 DCIS). With a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 3.04%. Conclusion: Treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity 5 years after treatment with APBI using the MammoSite device are good and similar to those reported with other forms of APBI with similar follow-up.

  16. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Joint Polar Satellite System satellite will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the Joint Polar Satellite System is known as the Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Department of Defense processing centers operated by the United States government. The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Environmental Data Records beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System programs. Under the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental

  17. Calibration/Validation of S-NPP/VIIRS Day-Night Band using Moon Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Cao, C.; Uprety, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Day Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard S-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB of the VIIRS sensor utilizes a backside-illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) for sensing of radiances spanning 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band (RSB). In order to cover this extremely broad measurement range, the DNB employs four imaging arrays that comprise three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain values are determined by solar diffuser data. In operations, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the LGS gains by the medium gain stage (MGS)/LGS and high gain stage (HGS)/LGS gain ratios, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate the radiometric calibration of DNB using moon light. This is performed by selecting events when S-NPP flies above the vicarious sites such as Dome C in Antarctic and Greenland in northern hemisphere at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than half moon. This helps to independently verify the radiometric accuracy of HGS of DNB. The calibration of DNB is performed using a lunar spectral irradiance model as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase to determine the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at vicarious sites. Analysis of the vicariously-derived reflectance from DNB observations show general agreement with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations of the vicarious sites. The stability of DNB is further verified from reflectance derived from observation of deep convective cloud with lunar illumination.

  18. Software to Compare NPP HDF5 Data Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, Chiu P.; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Ruley, LaMont T.

    2013-01-01

    This software was developed for the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Data Segment. The purpose of this software is to compare HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format) files specific to NPP and report whether the HDF5 files are identical. If the HDF5 files are different, users have the option of printing out the list of differences in the HDF5 data files. The user provides paths to two directories containing a list of HDF5 files to compare. The tool would select matching HDF5 file names from the two directories and run the comparison on each file. The user can also select from three levels of detail. Level 0 is the basic level, which simply states whether the files match or not. Level 1 is the intermediate level, which lists the differences between the files. Level 2 lists all the details regarding the comparison, such as which objects were compared, and how and where they are different. The HDF5 tool is written specifically for the NPP project. As such, it ignores certain attributes (such as creation_date, creation_ time, etc.) in the HDF5 files. This is because even though two HDF5 files could represent exactly the same granule, if they are created at different times, the creation date and time would be different. This tool is smart enough to ignore differences that are not relevant to NPP users.

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  20. Nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues as selective inhibitors of human NPP1: a combined computational/experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lecka, Joanna; Ben-David, Gal; Simhaev, Luba; Eliahu, Shay; Oscar, Jocelyn; Luyindula, Patrick; Pelletier, Julie; Fischer, Bilha; Senderowitz, Hanoch; Sévigny, Jean

    2013-11-14

    Elevated nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (NPP1) activity is implicated in health disorders including pathological calcification. Specific NPP1 inhibitors would therefore be valuable for studying this enzyme and as potential therapeutic agents. Here we present a combined computational/experimental study characterizing 13 nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues as selective human NPP1 inhibitors. All analogues at 100 μM inhibited (66-99%) the hydrolysis of pnp-TMP by both recombinant NPP1 and cell surface NPP1 activity of osteocarcinoma (HTB-85) cells. These analogues only slightly altered the activity of other ectonucleotidases, NPP3 and NTPDases. The Ki,app values of the seven most potent and selective inhibitors were in the range of 0.5-56 μM, all with mixed type inhibition, predominantly competitive. Those molecules were docked into a newly developed homology model of human NPP1. All adopted ATP-like binding modes, suggesting competitive inhibition with the endogenous ligand. NPP1 selectivity versus NPP3 could be explained in terms of the electrostatic potential of the two proteins that of NPP1 favoring negatively charged ligands. Inhibitor 2 that had the lowest Ki,app (0.5 μM) was also inactive toward P2Y receptors. Overall, analogue 2 is the most potent and selective NPP1 inhibitor described so far. PMID:24083941

  1. Mutations Conferring Resistance to SCH6, a Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor: Reduced DNA Replication Fitness and Partial Rescue by Second-Site Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, MinKyung; Tong, Xiao; Skelton, Angela; Chase, Robert; Chen, Tong; Prongay, Andrew; Bogen, Stephane L.; Saksena, Anil K.; Njoroge, F. George; Veselenak, Ronald L.; Pyles, Richard B.; Bourne, Nigel; Malcolm, Bruce A.; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2008-06-30

    Drug resistance is a major issue in the development and use of specific antiviral therapies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of hepatitis C virus RNA replicons resistant to a novel ketoamide inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease, SCH6 (originally SCH446211). Resistant replicon RNAs were generated by G418 selection in the presence of SCH6 in a dose-dependent fashion, with the emergence of resistance reduced at higher SCH6 concentrations. Sequencing demonstrated remarkable consistency in the mutations conferring SCH6 resistance in genotype 1b replicons derived from two different strains of hepatitis C virus, A156T/A156V and R109K. R109K, a novel mutation not reported previously to cause resistance to NS3/4A inhibitors, conferred moderate resistance only to SCH6. Structural analysis indicated that this reflects unique interactions of SCH6 with P{prime}-side residues in the protease active site. In contrast, A156T conferred high level resistance to SCH6 and a related ketoamide, SCH503034, as well as BILN 2061 and VX-950. Unlike R109K, which had minimal impact on NS3/4A enzymatic function, A156T significantly reduced NS3/4A catalytic efficiency, polyprotein processing, and replicon fitness. However, three separate second-site mutations, P89L, Q86R, and G162R, were capable of partially reversing A156T-associated defects in polyprotein processing and/or replicon fitness, without significantly reducing resistance to the protease inhibitor.

  2. Synthetic Constraint of Ecosystem C Models Using Radiocarbon and Net Primary Production (NPP) in New Zealand Grazing Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, W. T.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series radiocarbon measurements have substantial ability to constrain the size and residence time of the soil C pools commonly represented in ecosystem models. Radiocarbon remains unique in the ability to constrain the large stabilized C pool with decadal residence times. Radiocarbon also contributes usefully to constraining the size and turnover rate of the passive pool, but typically struggles to constrain pools with residence times less than a few years. Overall, the number of pools and associated turnover rates that can be constrained depends upon the number of time-series samples available, the appropriateness of chemical or physical fractions to isolate unequivocal pools, and the utility of additional C flux data to provide additional constraints. In New Zealand pasture soils, we demonstrate the ability to constrain decadal turnover times with in a few years for the stabilized pool and reasonably constrain the passive fraction. Good constraint is obtained with two time-series samples spaced 10 or more years apart after 1970. Three or more time-series samples further improve the level of constraint. Work within this context shows that a two-pool model does explain soil radiocarbon data for the most detailed profiles available (11 time-series samples), and identifies clear and consistent differences in rates of C turnover and passive fraction in Andisols vs Non-Andisols. Furthermore, samples from multiple horizons can commonly be combined, yielding consistent residence times and passive fraction estimates that are stable with, or increase with, depth in different sites. Radiocarbon generally fails to quantify rapid C turnover, however. Given that the strength of radiocarbon is estimating the size and turnover of the stabilized (decadal) and passive (millennial) pools, the magnitude of fast cycling pool(s) can be estimated by subtracting the radiocarbon-based estimates of turnover within stabilized and passive pools from total estimates of NPP. In grazing

  3. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-10-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.

  5. Mapping and analysing cropland use intensity from a NPP perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedertscheider, Maria; Kastner, Thomas; Fetzel, Tamara; Haberl, Helmut; Kroisleitner, Christine; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Meeting expected surges in global biomass demand while protecting pristine ecosystems likely requires intensification of current croplands. Yet many uncertainties relate to the potentials for cropland intensification, mainly because conceptualizing and measuring land use intensity is intricate, particularly at the global scale. We present a spatially explicit analysis of global cropland use intensity, following an ecological energy flow perspective. We analyze (a) changes of net primary production (NPP) from the potential system (i.e. assuming undisturbed vegetation) to croplands around 2000 and relate these changes to (b) inputs of (N) fertilizer and irrigation and (c) to biomass outputs, allowing for a three dimensional focus on intensification. Globally the actual NPP of croplands, expressed as per cent of their potential NPP (NPPact%), amounts to 77%. A mix of socio-economic and natural factors explains the high spatial variation which ranges from 22.6% to 416.0% within the inner 95 percentiles. NPPact% is well below NPPpot in many developing, (Sub-) Tropical regions, while it massively surpasses NPPpot on irrigated drylands and in many industrialized temperate regions. The interrelations of NPP losses (i.e. the difference between NPPact and NPPpot), agricultural inputs and biomass harvest differ substantially between biogeographical regions. Maintaining NPPpot was particularly N-intensive in forest biomes, as compared to cropland in natural grassland biomes. However, much higher levels of biomass harvest occur in forest biomes. We show that fertilization loads correlate with NPPact% linearly, but the relation gets increasingly blurred beyond a level of 125 kgN ha-1. Thus, large potentials exist to improve N-efficiency at the global scale, as only 10% of global croplands are above this level. Reallocating surplus N could substantially reduce NPP losses by up to 80% below current levels and at the same time increase biomass harvest by almost 30%. However, we

  6. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  7. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67. ...

  8. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  9. Performance of the NPP CrIS Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emch, P. G.; Farrow, S. V.; Gu, D.; Wang, C.; Hagan, D. E.; Sabet-Peyman, F.

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the first Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flight instrument and its data product performance. Together with ATMS, the CrIS sensor is a critical payload for National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) providing temperature and moisture profiles, and will first fly on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission, the risk reduction flight for NPOESS. NPOESS is the next generation weather and climate monitoring system for the Department of Defense and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), being developed under contract by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. The NPP flight sensor has recently completed thermal vacuum, electro-magnetic interference, and vibration testing. By the time of the presentation, the sensor sell-off is expected to have been completed as well. An overview of the sensor, the FM1 measurement performance, and details of the retrieval algorithms will be provided in this presentation.

  10. Novel technology for hydrothermal treatment of NPP evaporator concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Avramenko, Valentin; Dobrzhansky, Vitaly; Marinin, Dmitry; Sergienko, Valentin; Shmatko, Sergey

    2007-07-01

    A novel technology was developed for treatment of evaporator concentrates produced as a result of operation of evaporation devices comprising the main component of special water purification systems of nuclear power plants (NPP). The developed technology includes a hydrothermal (T=250-300 deg. C and P=80-120 bar) processing of evaporator concentrates in oxidation medium in order to destruct stable organic complexes of cobalt radionuclides and remove these radionuclides by oxide materials formed during such a processing. The cesium radionuclides contained in evaporator concentrates are removed by a conventional method-through application of one of the developed composite sorbents with ferrocyanides of transition metals used as active agents. Extensive laboratory studies of the processes occurring in evaporator concentrates under hydrothermal conditions were performed. It was shown that hydrothermal oxidation of evaporator concentrates has a number of advantages as compared to traditional oxidation methods (ozonization, photo-catalytic, electrochemical and plasma oxidation). A laboratory installation was built for the flow-type hydrothermal oxidation of NPP evaporator concentrates. The obtained experimental results showed good prospects for the developed method application. On the basis of the results obtained, a pilot installation of productivity up to 15 l/hour was developed and built in order to work out the technology of evaporator concentrates hydrothermal treatment. The pilot tests of the hydrothermal technology for evaporator concentrates hydrothermal treatment were performed for 6 months in 2006 at the 1. reactor unit of the Novovoronezhskaya NPP (Voronezh Region, Russia). Optimal technological regimes were determined, and estimations of the economic soundness of the technology were made. The advantages of the presented technology in terms of management of concentrated liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at nuclear cycle facilities, as compared to other methods

  11. Radioecological Investigations of the Area around the Belene NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Hristov, Hr.; Balabanov, N.; Marinova, S.; Zaprianova, P.; Nedeva, P.; Blagoeva, E.; Philipov, M.; Gustova, M.; Maslov, O.

    2010-01-21

    The report presents the results from research of contents of U and Th in soil samples from the region of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The report presents the investigations for sorption of U in the system soil-water from region. The report presents similarly the results for the natural radiation background--about 0,14 muSv/h, for the investigated region.

  12. Modular vault dry storage at Paks NPP technology and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, C.C.F.; Szabo, B.

    1995-12-31

    Paks NPP in Hungary, with its four VVER440 reactors, generates 50% of Hungary`s electricity. In 1990, it was faced with an uncertain future due to the changing political situation in Eastern Europe. The fuel storage ponds were rapidly filling up, with no secure route for disposal. The paper outlines the Paks approach to resolving the problem and the background to its chosen solution, concluding with a review of the experience of other applications of the system.

  13. Preparation for Early Termination of Ignalina NPP Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Poskas, R.

    2003-02-26

    Seimas (Parliament of Lithuania) approved updated National Energy strategy where it is indicated that first Unit will be shutdown before the year 2005 and second Unit in 2009 if funding for decommissioning is available from EU and other donors. In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until year 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, o n the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned activities, licensing requirements for decommissioning, progress in preparation of the Final Decommissioning Plan is discussed.

  14. Commissioning and Operation of a Robotic Arm for Waste Retrieval at Trawsfynydd NPP, North Wales - 12091

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Alan L.; Cabrera, David L.

    2012-07-01

    Trawsfynydd is one of the UK's first generation Magnox nuclear power plants. It started operation in 1965 and ceased generation in 1991. Before the site can enter the 'care and maintenance' phase a number of wet and dry waste stores around the site must be emptied and their contents made safe. Wet wastes include sludges and resins produced during the operating life of the NPP. The sludges and resins are stored in a number of different tanks that vary significantly in terms of size, shape, internal features and access. A dexterous long reach manipulator arm has been designed and built to facilitate tank clearance. Commissioning of the arm was carried out in parallel with Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) at the manufacturer's site in Colorado, USA. In addition to basic functional testing this work included a full range of task based testing to ensure that the arm, tools, control system and support equipment were thoroughly exercised in representative conditions. Trawsfynydd is one of the lead sites in the UK's program for nuclear plant decommissioning. As such the lessons learned, both in terms of technology and process, will be applicable across the remainder of the fleet. (authors)

  15. Integrating the Clearance in NPP Residual Material Management

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bermejo, R.; Lamela, B.

    2008-01-15

    Previous Experiences in decommissioning projects are being used to optimize the residual material management in NPP, metallic scrap usually. The approach is based in the availability of a materials Clearance MARSSIM-based methodology developed and licensed in Spain. A typical project includes the integration of segregation, decontamination, clearance, quality control and quality assurance activities. The design is based in the clearance methodology features translating them into standard operational procedures. In terms of ecological taxes and final disposal costs, significant amounts of money could be saved with this type of approaches. The last clearance project managed a total amount of 405 tons scrap metal and a similar amount of other residual materials occupying a volume of 1500 m{sup 3}. After less than a year of field works 251 tons were finally recycled in a non-licensed smelting facility. The balance was disposed as LILW. In the planning phase the estimated cost savings were 4.5 Meuro. However, today a VLLW option is available in European countries so, the estimated cost savings are reduced to 1.2 Meuro. In conclusion: the application of materials clearance in NPP decommissioning lessons learnt to the NPP residual material management is an interesting management option. This practice is currently going on in Spanish NPP and, in a preliminary view, is consistent with the new MARSAME Draft. An interesting parameter is the cost of 1 m3 of recyclable scrap. The above estimates are very project specific because in the segregation process other residual materials were involved. If the effect of this other materials is removed the estimated Unit Cost were in this project around 1700 euro/m{sup 3}, this figure is clearly below the above VLLW disposal cost of 2600 euro. In a future project it appears feasible to descend to 839 euro/m{sup 3} and if it became routine values and is used in big Decommissioning projects, around 600 euro/m{sup 3} or below possibly could

  16. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Global pattern and differentiation by major biomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kicklighter, D.W.; Bondeau, A.; Schloss, A.L.; Kaduk, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Annual and seasonal net primary productivity estimates (NPP) of 15 global models across latitudinal zones and biomes are compared. The models simulated NPP for contemporary climate using common, spatially explicit data sets for climate, soil texture, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Differences among NPP estimates varied over space and time. The largest differences occur during the summer months in boreal forests (50??to 60??N) and during the dry seasons of tropical evergreen forests. Differences in NPP estimates are related to model assumptions about vegetation structure, model parameterizations, and input data sets.

  17. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  18. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Beitsch, Peter D.; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Doug; Haffty, Bruce G.; Wazer, David E.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Lyden, Maureen; Chen, Peter Y.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  19. The anticonvulsant and behavioural profile of L-687,414, a partial agonist acting at the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Tricklebank, M D; Bristow, L J; Hutson, P H; Leeson, P D; Rowley, M; Saywell, K; Singh, L; Tattersall, F D; Thorn, L; Williams, B J

    1994-11-01

    1. The anticonvulsant and behavioural effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, L-687,414 (R(+)-cis-beta-methyl-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) have been investigated in rodents. 2. L-687,414 dose-dependently antagonized seizures induced by N-methyl-D,L- aspartic acid (NMDLA, ED50 = 19.7 mg kg-1), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, ED50 = 13.0 mg kg-1) and electroshock (ED50 = 26.1 mg kg-1) when given intravenously 15 min before test, in male Swiss Webster mice but was most potent against audiogenic seizures induced by a 120 dB bell in DBA/2 mice (ED50 = 5.1 mg kg-1, i.p., 30 min before test). 3. L-687,414 also induced impairments of performance in a rotarod test in both Swiss Webster and DBA/2 mice and the ratio [rotarod MED:anticonvulsant ED50] varied between 0.9 and 5, depending on the convulsant used. 4. Similar behaviours to those seen after administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (head weaving, body rolling, hyperlocomotion) were seen in the mouse after giving L-687,414, although the peak effect occurred at a dose (100 mg kg-1) which was 5-20 times the anticonvulsant ED50S, depending on the convulsant used. Unlike MK-801, however, doses of L-687,414 that were behaviourally stimulant did not increase dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. 5. Consistent with the interaction of L-687,414 with the glycine/NMDA receptor, the anticonvulsant, ataxic and motor stimulant effects of the compound were significantly attenuated by the glycine/NMDA receptor agonist, D-serine (10-100 micrograms per mouse, i.c.v.). 6. The results show that L-687,414 is a potent, orally active anticonvulsant with a more benign pharmacological profile than antagonists acting at the ion channel of the NMDA receptor complex. The compound is a useful tool with which to probe the functional role of the glycine co-agonist site in vivo. PMID:7858861

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Siting Guideline for Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Ir. Mohd Noh; Abbas, Ahmad Rosly; Ismail, Mohd Nadzari; Yapandi, Md Fauzan Kamal Mohd; Mohd Siam, Mohd Fadzil; Setu, Anita; Othman, Nor Azura; Saleh, Syafiqa Mohd

    2010-06-22

    Due to current issues, necessary measures must be taken to face the likely of adopting nuclear energy. However, as time goes by, fewer sites are available and suitable for NPP development. Necessary steps must be taken now to identify and secure potential NPP sites.Thus, a study was jointly undertaken by TNBR and MNA to identify the various attributes and overall relative importance that will influence the suitability of potential NPP development sites in Peninsular Malaysia. A series of workshops were organized by MNA and TNBR, where a list of mandatory and rejection criteria were identified and used in producing the guideline. From this study, eight parameters were found to have profound effects on the ranking of potential NPP sites. For each parameter, various relevant sub-parameters and relative weightage were further listed out. Upon completion of this study, other siting related activities such as site identification, site screening and feasibility study can thus be undertaken immediately.The main purpose of this paper is to share the findings from this study.

  1. Suomi NPP VIIRS spectral characterization: understanding multiple RSR releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; McIntire, Jeff; Schwarting, Tom; Moyer, Dave; Costa, Juliette

    2012-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was successfully launched on October 28, 2011, beginning the on-orbit era of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). In support of atlaunch readiness, VIIRS underwent a rigorous pre-launch test program to characterize its spatial, radiometric, and spectral performance. Spectral measurements, the subject of this paper, were collected during instrument level testing at Raytheon Corp. (summer 2009), and then again in a special spectral test for VisNIR bands during spacecraft level testing at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. (spring 2010). These spectral performance measurements were analyzed by industry (Northrop Grumman, NG) and by the Relative Spectral Response (RSR) subgroup of the Government team, (NASA, Aerospace Corp., MIT/Lincoln Lab, Univ. Wisconsin) leading to releases of the S-NPP VIIRS RSR characterization by both NG and the Government team. The NG RSR analysis was planned to populate the Look-Up-Tables (LUTs) that support the various VIIRS operational products, while the Government team analysis was initially intended as a verification of the NG RSR product as well as an early release RSR characterization for the science community's pre-launch application. While the Government team deemed the NG December 2010 RSR release as acceptable for the "at-launch" RSR characterization during the pre-launch phase, the Government team has now (post-launch checkout phase) recommended for using the NG October 2011 RSR release as an update for the LUTs used in VIIRS SDR and EDR operational processing. Meanwhile the Government team RSR releases remain available to the community for their investigative interests, and may evolve if new understanding of VIIRS spectral performance is revealed in the S-NPP post-launch era.

  2. NPP/NPOESS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Route, G.; Grant, K. D.; Hughes, R.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes both NPP and NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the Environmental Data Records (EDRs), including their quality aspects. As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent NPOESS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity.

  3. Status of steam generator tubing integrity at Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Cepcek, S.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator represents one of the most important component of nuclear power plants. Especially, loss of tubing integrity of steam generators can lead to the primary coolant leak to secondary circuit and in worse cases to the unit shut down or to the PTS events occurrence. Therefore, to ensure the steam generator tubing integrity and the current knowledge about tube degradation propagation and development is of the highest importance. In this paper the present status of steam generator tubing integrity in operated NPP in Slovak Republic is presented.

  4. Physics of Partially Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Figures; Preface; 1. Partially ionized plasmas here and everywhere; 2. Multifluid description of partially ionized plasmas; 3. Equilibrium of partially ionized plasmas; 4. Waves in partially ionized plasmas; 5. Advanced topics in partially ionized plasmas; 6. Research problems in partially ionized plasmas; Supplementary matter; Index.

  5. Multilevel modeling of NPP change and impacts of water resources in the Lower Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haiming; Zhan, Jinyan; Jiang, Qun'ou; Yuan, Yongwei; Li, Zhihui

    Net primary productivity (NPP) lays the foundation for provision of various ecosystem services, and understanding the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP is of great significance to formulating appropriate management measures to guarantee the sustainable provision of essential ecosystem services. This study analyzed the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP in the lower Heihe River Basin, a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. First, NPP was estimated with the C-FIX model, and then the multilevel model was used to analyze the impacts of potential influencing factors on NPP during 2000-2008. Finally decomposition analysis was used to further analyze the contribution of influencing factors to NPP change during 2000-2008. The average NPP increased by approximately 9.07% during 2000-2008, and results of the multilevel model indicate that both the socioeconomic variables and demographic variables are useful in explaining NPP change. In particular, coefficients of rainfall and evapotranspiration which represent the water availability reached 0.0456 and 0.2956, respectively. Results of decomposition analysis suggested that the water availability played an important role in increasing NPP, with a contribution rate of 44.17%, and it is necessary to carry out some policies that can promote the water use efficiency to increase NPP under the background of climate change and intensified human activities. There are some uncertainties in the results of this study, but these results still can provide valuable reference information for the water resource management to increase the ecosystem service supply in the lower Heihe River Basin.

  6. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  7. Why arthroscopic partial meniscectomy?

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey

    2015-09-01

    "Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy versus Sham Surgery for a Degenerative Meniscal Tear" published in the New England Journal of Medicine on December 26, 2013 draws the conclusion that arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy provides no significant benefit over sham surgery in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear and no knee osteoarthritis. This result argues against the current practice of performing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear. Since the number of APM performed has been increasing, the information provided by this study should lead to a change in clinical care of patients with a degenerative meniscus tear. PMID:26488013

  8. Possible satellite oceanography on coastal waters during the NPP stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Asanuma, I.; Zhao, C.; Huang, B.

    2007-09-01

    Ocean color monitoring on the coastal water is still under study because of an incomplete atmospheric correction over the turbid water like over the coastal water along the China main land. Currently available sensors for science as MODIS on Terra or Aqua will terminate their service in the near future and the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be the next satellite to support the satellite oceanography on the coastal water. The Tokyo University of Information Sciences (TUIS) has updated the MODIS receiving system to capture and ingest the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data from NPP, which will be launched in 2008. Data processing software from the Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL), such as the Real-time Software Telemetry Processing (RT-STPS), Simulcast, and DB algorithms, will be core programs in our system. VIIRS has seven bands in VIS&NIR, which are for ocean color research. The spatial resolution is 0.742×0.259 meters at nadir. While the MODIS spatial resolution of the nine ocean color bands is 1000m. The higher spatial resolution MODIS data (250 meters) is used to illustrate the advantage of the higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as data from VIIRS. In this study, we propose to combine the higher spatial resolution data with the traditional products of chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature in the low resolution so as to extract further information on the coastal ocean.

  9. Lessons Learned in Decommissioning of NPP A-1 After Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Prazska, M.; Rezbarik, J.; Majersky, D.; Sekely, S.; Solcanyi, S.

    2002-02-25

    Decommissioning of the NPP A-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice is encountered with great variation of the problems connected primarily with the high radiation fields and the high activity of the contaminated materials. Decontamination of the contaminated objects and the thorough radiological protection of decontamination workers are therefore the tasks of top priority. The successful realization of these jobs is based on the experience, good working practice and the utilization of all proven methods together with the newly developed ones. Since 1996, AllDeco Ltd. has applied the decontamination methods and processes in a wide scale in the decommissioning and dismantling of the NPP A-1 in the cooperation with SE-VYZ Inc. The monitoring of the radiation situation and the investigation of the type and character of the radioactive waste were first steps in the decontamination of all objects. For this works, remote controlled mechanical manipulators and remote controlled electrical carriage equipped with instruments recording the levels of dose rates and with telemetric data transmission system were used. The recorded data were used for the modeling and 3D visualization of the radiation fields and for following planning and preparation of the decontamination projects or ''working programs'' based on the ALARA principle. The minimization of the radioactive waste was also taken into consideration. A lot of time and energy was spent on the preparation and training of the staff including non-active trials of planned procedures. The gained experience was evaluated and lessons learned were given in the final reports.

  10. FEASIBILITY AND EXPEDIENCE TO VITRIFY NPP OPERATIONAL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    LIFANOV, F.A.; OJOVAN, M.I.; STEFANOVSKY, S.V.; BURCL, R.

    2003-02-27

    Operational radioactive waste is generated during routine operation of NPP. Process waste is mainly generated by treatment of water from reactor or ancillaries including spent fuel storage pools and some decontamination operations. Typical process wastes of pressurized water reactors (PWR or WWER) are borated water concentrates, whereas typical process wastes of boiling and RBMK type reactors are water concentrates with no boron content. NPP operational wastes are classified as low and intermediate level waste (LILW). NPP operational waste must be solidified in order to ensure safe conditions of storage and disposal. Currently the most promising solidification method for this waste is the vitrification technology. Vitrification of NPP operational waste is a relative new option being developed for last years. Nevertheless there is already accumulated operational experience on vitrifying low and intermediate level waste in Russian Federation at Moscow SIA ''Radon'' vitrification plant. This plant uses the most advanced type induction high frequency melters that facilitate the melting process and significantly reduce the generation of secondary waste and henceforth the overall cost. The plant was put into operation by the end of 1999. It has three operating cold crucible melters with the overall capacity up to 75 kg/h. The vitrification technology comprises a few stages, starting with evaporation of excess water from liquid radioactive waste, followed by batch preparation, glass melting, and ending with vitrified waste blocks and some relative small amounts of secondary waste. First of all since the original waste contain as main component water, this water is removed from waste through evaporation. Then the remaining salt concentrate is mixed with necessary technological additives, thus a glass-forming batch is formed. The batch is fed into melters where the glass melting occurs. From here there are two streams: one is the glass melt containing the most part of

  11. Radiometric performance assessment of Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR Band (2.25 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong

    2015-09-01

    Suomi NPP VIIRS SWIR band M11 (2.25 μm) has larger radiometric uncertainty compared to the rest of the reflective solar bands. This is due to a number of reasons including prelaunch calibration uncertainties. One of the most commonly used technique to verify the radiometric stability and accuracy of VIIRS is by intercomparing it with other well calibrated radiometers such as MODIS. However one of the limitations of using MODIS is that VIIRS band M11 RSR doesn't overlap with MODIS bands at all. Thus the accuracy of intercomparison relies completely on how well the spectral differences are analyzed over the given target. Since desert sites have higher reflectance and more flat spectra, this study uses desert sites to analyze M11 radiometric performance. In order to better match the RSR between instruments, we have chosen Landsat 8 OLI SWIR band 2 (2.20 μm) to perform intercomparison. This is mainly because OLI SWIR band 2 fully covers the VIIRS band M11 even though OLI has much wider RSR compared to VIIRS. The study suggests that there exists large radiometric inconsistency between VIIRS M11 and OLI, on the order of 5%. The impact due to spectral differences is estimated and accounted for using EO-1 Hyperion observations and MODTRAN.

  12. Twisted partially pure spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Rafael; Tellez, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the relationship between orthogonal complex structures and pure spinors, we define twisted partially pure spinors in order to characterize spinorially subspaces of Euclidean space endowed with a complex structure.

  13. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  14. Partial knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Most people recover quickly and have much less pain than they did before surgery. People who have a partial knee replacement recover faster than those who have a total knee replacement. Many people are able to walk ...

  15. PARTIAL TORUS INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie

    2010-07-20

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  16. Change of outlook for the forest productivity estimated with remote sensing using the new Collection 6 GPP/NPP MODIS product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjanović, Hrvoje; Kern, Anikó; Anić, Mislav; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Balenović, Ivan; Alberti, Giorgio; Kovač, Goran; Barcza, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of forest productivity from remote sensing data, such as the MOD17 GPP and NPP values derived from MODIS data, are becoming increasingly important tools for monitoring forest productivity in light of the climate change. Hence, small sensor degradation, like the one in the case of MODIS sensor on-board satellite Terra could lead so significant bias in results and false conclusions of the path that the ecosystem is on. In new Collection 6 (C6) of the MOD17 product, the sensor degradation problem has been addressed compared to the previous version Collection 5.5 (C5.5) products, offering a new outlook on the trends in forest productivity. In our work we compared the C5.5 and C6 for MOD17 GPP and NPP products against estimates from eddy covariance and field measurements ('ground truth') at young Pedunculate oak site in Jastrebarsko forest. In order to assess the outlook of forest productivity at larger scale we intersected in GIS maps of forest areas under management and MODIS pixels with 1km spatial resolution. After selecting only those pixels that have at least 90% forest coverage according to the management plans, we analysed the temporal trends and variability in MODIS derived GPP and NPP both from C5.5 and C6 products. Analysis was performed for four main forests classes according to the dominant tree species (Pedunculate oak, Sessile oak, Common beech and Silver fir).

  17. Small Break LOCA Analysis of ACR-700 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Limin Zheng; Sen Shen; Wright, David

    2006-07-01

    A small break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) analysis to assess a preliminary conceptual design of the ACR-700 PHWR nuclear power plant (NPP) developed by AECL has been performed with CATHENA MOD 3.5d, a PHWR system thermal-hydraulic analysis code. The limiting break size has been found by performing a sensitivity study for three different break locations [i.e. reactor inlet header (RIH), HTS pump suction (PS) pipe and reactor outlet head (ROH)] under the limiting case (i.e. SB-LOCA with subsequent loss of class IV power with all safety systems available). The analysis results indicate that the SB-LOCA acceptance criteria are satisfied. (authors)

  18. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  19. NPP VIIRS Early On-Orbit Geometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Lin, Guoqing; Nishihama, Masahiro; Tewari, Krishna; Montano, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite was launched in October, 2011. The instrument geometric performance includes sensor spatial response, band-to-band co-registration (BBR), and geolocation accuracy and precision. The geometric performance is an important aspect of sensor data record (SDR) calibration and validation. In this paper we will discuss geometric performance parameter characterization using the first seven-month of VIIRS' earth and lunar data, and compare with the at-launch performance using ground testing data and analysis of numerical modeling results as the first step in on-orbit geometric calibration and validation.

  20. Partial spread OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elghariani, Ali; Zoltowski, Michael D.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, partial spread OFDM system has been presented and its performance has been studied when different detection techniques are employed, such as minimum mean square error (MMSE), grouped Maximum Likelihood (ML) and approximated integer quadratic programming (IQP) techniques . The performance study also includes applying two different spreading matrices, Hadamard and Vandermonde. Extensive computer simulation have been implemented and important results show that partial spread OFDM system improves the BER performance and the frequency diversity of OFDM compared to both non spread and full spread systems. The results from this paper also show that partial spreading technique combined with suboptimal detector could be a better solution for applications that require low receiver complexity and high information detectability.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  6. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  7. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  8. Transfer of fallout radionuclides by Fukushima NPP accident from tree crown to forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Wakahara, T.; Kawamori, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The total deposition of radioactive materials in fallout samples for 137Cs ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200-600k Bq/m2. We established 3 forest sites: broad leaf tree forest and two Japanese cedar forest plantation (young and mature). In each site we installed towers of 8-12 meters. Using these towers, we sampled tree leaves, and measure Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the laboratory, and also we have measure Cs-137, Cs-134 content at various height in each forest using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Ortech; Detective-EX). We also measured the throughfall, stem flow and litter fall inside of the forest. In each site, we establish the 20 m x 20 m plot to monitor the changes of fallout radionuclides through time with the portable HPGe detector. The monitoring is now ongoing but we found significant amount of Cs-134 and Cs-137 has been trapped by cedar forest plantations especially young trees, but not so much in broad leaf trees. The trapped Cs-137 and Cs-134 is then washed by rainfall and found into throughfall. Therefore, in forest ecosystems, the fallout has been still ongoing, and and effective remediation method in forested area (especially cedar plantation) can be removing the trees.

  9. Nightfire: Sub-pixel Pyrometry of Nighttime Combustion Sources with Suomi NPP and Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Hsu, F. C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth Observation Group at NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center has an active program on nocturnal remote sensing of combustion sources. Spectral bands designed for daytime imaging are particularly useful for detecting and characterizing fires, flares and industrial heat sources. By measuring combustion source emitted radiances across a range of wavelengths, the nightfire algorithm is able to model the Planck curve, which makes it possible to estimate temperature, size, and radiant heat of subpixel combustion sources. The algorithm fits two Planck curves for the sub-pixel fire and the background in a detected pixel and estimates the fire temperature, area and radiative power. Combining one day of data from the Suomi NPP VIIRS sensor, the Nightfire algorithm can detect and characterize more than 10,000 fires on the night side of the Earth with temperatures ranging from 500 K to 2,500 K and active burn areas down to several square meters. The temperature histogram for the detected fires has two distinct peaks discriminating gas flares from biomass burning. The Nightfire algorithm has been successfully applied to nighttime scenes from the Landsat 8 OLI sensor which has 30 m spatial resolution and higher dynamic range than VIIRS. Global Nightfire detection products are produced daily and are available from the NOAA NGDC web site.

  10. Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H.; Jinbo, Y.; Ishido, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

  11. Partial Participation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; Baumgart, Diane

    1991-01-01

    This article reanalyzes the principle of partial participation in integrated educational programing for students with severe or profound disabilities. The article presents four "error patterns" in how the concept has been used, some reasons why such error patterns have occurred, and strategies for avoiding these errors. (Author/JDD)

  12. The kinetics of aerosol particle formation and removal in NPP severe accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatevakhin, Mikhail A.; Arefiev, Valentin K.; Semashko, Sergey E.; Dolganov, Rostislav A.

    2016-06-01

    Severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accidents are accompanied by release of a massive amount of energy, radioactive products and hydrogen into the atmosphere of the NPP containment. A valid estimation of consequences of such accidents can only be carried out through the use of the integrated codes comprising a description of the basic processes which determine the consequences. A brief description of a coupled aerosol and thermal-hydraulic code to be used for the calculation of the aerosol kinetics within the NPP containment in case of a severe accident is given. The code comprises a KIN aerosol unit integrated into the KUPOL-M thermal-hydraulic code. Some features of aerosol behavior in severe NPP accidents are briefly described.

  13. Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Guilin, L.; Defu, L.; Huajun, L.; Fengqing, W.; Tao, Z.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

  14. An Overview of NPP VIIRS Pre-Launch and On-Orbit Calibration and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Jim; Gleason, Jim; Xiong, Jack; Chang, Vincent; Lee, Shih Yan

    2011-01-01

    NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) test program at the instrument and observatory level is complete and has provided an extensive amount of high quality data to enable the assessment of sensor performance.

  15. The dry season intensity as a key driver of NPP trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Tortarolo, Guillermo; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Fletcher, Imogen; Mueller, Brigitte; Greve, Peter; Anav, Alessandro; Liu, Yi; Ahlström, Anders; Huntingford, Chris; Levis, Sam; Levy, Peter; Lomas, Mark; Poulter, Benjamin; Viovy, Nicholas; Zaehle, Sonke; Zeng, Ning

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the impacts of changing dry season length and intensity on vegetation productivity and biomass. Our results show a wetness asymmetry in dry ecosystems, with dry seasons becoming drier and wet seasons becoming wetter, likely caused by climate change. The increasingly intense dry seasons were consistently correlated with a decreasing trend in net primary productivity (NPP) and biomass from different products and could potentially mean a reduction of 10-13% in NPP by 2100. We found that annual NPP in dry ecosystems is particularly sensitive to the intensity of the dry season, whereas an increase in precipitation during the wet season has a smaller effect. We conclude that changes in water availability over the dry season affect vegetation throughout the whole year, driving changes in regional NPP. Moreover, these results suggest that usage of seasonal water fluxes is necessary to improve our understanding of the link between water availability and the land carbon cycle.

  16. Assessment of NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Products: Hope and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Gene; Barnes, Robert A.; Franz, Bryan; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne d.; McClain, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) provided substantial scientific input to the NPP project regarding the use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to create science quality ocean color data products. This work has culminated into an assessment of the NPP project and the VIIRS instrument's capability to produce science quality Ocean Color data products. The VOST concluded that many characteristics were similar to earlier instruments, including SeaWiFS or MODIS Aqua. Though instrument performance and calibration risks do exist, it was concluded that programmatic and algorithm issues dominate concerns. Keywords: NPP, VIIRS, Ocean Color, satellite remote sensing, climate data record.

  17. Assessment of CO2 fluxes and forest productivity (NPP/GPP) estimates from eddy covariance measurement and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anić, Mislav; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Barcza, Zoltán; Večenaj, Željko

    2016-04-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) measurements were carried out at the Jastrebarsko site, Croatia, in lowland forest dominated by pedunculate oak. For validation of CO2 fluxes measured with EC method bi-weekly field measurements of increment of 640 trees in 24 plots set in a 100m x 100m grid, height increment and litterfall have been used. In our work we compared annual productivity (GPP and NPP) assessments from EC measurements with field measurements. The comparison was made on a seven year dataset of measurements, spanning from 2008 to 2014. Also, flux dependence on groundwater level has been investigated. Results are showing that forest productivity estimates with EC method are in good agreement with the estimates from field measurements in the dry years. Agreement is slightly lower for years with high precipitation.

  18. Consistency of CERES Radiances and Fluxes from Aqua and Suomi-NPP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Lusheng; Miller, Walter; Su, Wenying; Loeb, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP have been providing data products critical to advancing our understanding of the effects of clouds and aerosols on radiative energy within the Earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instrument consists of a threechannel broadband scanning radiometer. The scanning radiometer measures radiances in shortwave (SW, 0.3-5 micron), window (WN, 8-12 micron), and total (0.3-200 micron) channels. The longwave (LW) component is derived as the difference between total and SW channels. These measured radiances at a given sun-Earthsatellite geometry are converted to outgoing reflected solar and emitted thermal TOA radiative fluxes by using CERES scene-type dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). The CERES instruments must remain radiometrically stable and correctly inter-calibrated to accurately capture changes in Earth"s radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales. This presentation will focus on comparisons between collocated radiance measurements from CERES instruments on Aqua and on Suomi-NPP. As we do not have a set of ADMs that is constructed specifically for the CERES instrument on Suomi-NPP, CERES Aqua ADMs are used to invert fluxes from radiance measurements on Suomi-NPP. But the CERES Aqua footprint size is smaller than the CERES Suomi-NPP footprint size and the scene identifications provided by MODIS and VIIRS can also be different from each other. Will using Aqua ADMs for Suomi-NPP flux inversion increase the flux uncertainty? We will examine the deseasonalized flux anomaly time series using Aqua data alone and using combined Aqua and Suomi-NPP data. We will also present a simulation study to assess the Suomi-NPP flux uncertainty from using Aqua ADMs for the flux inversion.

  19. Fruit development, not GPP, drives seasonal variation in NPP in a tropical palm plantation.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M N V; Jourdan, C; Sileye, T; Braconnier, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Saint-Andre, L; Dauzat, J; Nouvellon, Y; Epron, D; Bonnefond, J M; Berbigier, P; Rouziere, A; Bouillet, J P; Roupsard, O

    2008-11-01

    We monitored seasonal variations in net primary production (NPP), estimated by allometric equations from organ dimensions, gross primary production (GPP), estimated by the eddy covariance method, autotrophic respiration (R(a)), estimated by a model, and fruit production in a coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plantation located in the sub-tropical South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu. Net primary production of the vegetative compartments of the trees accumulated steadily throughout the year. Fruits accounted for 46% of tree NPP and showed large seasonal variations. On an annual basis, the sum of estimated NPP (16.1 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) and R(a) (24.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) for the ecosystem (coconut trees and herbaceous understory) closely matched GPP (39.0 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)), suggesting adequate cross-validation of annual C budget methods. However, seasonal variations in NPP + R(a) were smaller than the seasonal variations in GPP, and maximum tree NPP occurred 6 months after the midsummer peak in GPP and solar radiation. We propose that this discrepancy reflects seasonal variation in the allocation of dry mass to carbon reserves and new plant tissue, thus affecting the allometric relationships used for estimating NPP. PMID:18765371

  20. Towards remote sensing of Arctic ice roads and associated human activities using SUOMI NPP night light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M.; Smith, L. C.; Stephenson, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ice roads are often the only cost-effective means of transporting goods and supplies to communities, mines, and other sites in remote parts of the Arctic. Yet, there is no global dataset for Arctic ice roads. However, remotely sensed images from the SUOMI NPP day/night band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) may allow for the construction of such a dataset. The DNB's high sensitivity to low-level light suggests that while it is not feasible to view ice roads at night per se, other prominent features associated with ice roads can serve as proxies. Using a time series of images taken in winter 2012, 2013, and 2014, SUOMI NPP images are compared with Landsat 8 images and an existing map of the Tibbitt to Contwoyto ice road in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada. First results reveal that while the ice road's exact path cannot be discerned, key points of human activity along the way can be made out. This bodes well for future applications of DNB imagery to detect ice roads in places like the Russian Federation, for which there is a dearth of publicly available maps. Knowing the location of ice roads is important for two reasons. First, these data can signal sites of natural resource extraction in places for which information is not widely disseminated, such as in the Russian Far East. Second, new geospatial datasets for ice roads can be combined with models assessing impacts of climate change on circumpolar land accessibility (Stephenson et al. 2011) in order to understand where the structural integrity of ice roads may be at risk. As warming temperatures threaten to shorten the season for ice roads, communities and mines alike will need to prepare for changes to their transportation infrastructure, made out of the changing landscape itself.

  1. Phase I/II Study Evaluating Early Tolerance in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Treated With the MammoSite Balloon Breast Brachytherapy Catheter Using a 2-Day Dose Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Michelle; Martinez, Alvaro; Mitchell, Christina; Chen, Peter Y.; Ghilezan, Mihai; Benitez, Pamela; Brown, Eric; Vicini, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Initial Phase I/II results using balloon brachytherapy to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in 2 days in patients with early-stage breast cancer are presented. Materials and Methods: Between March 2004 and August 2007, 45 patients received adjuvant radiation therapy after lumpectomy with balloon brachytherapy in a Phase I/II trial delivering 2800 cGy in four fractions of 700 cGy. Toxicities were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 scale and cosmesis was documented at >=6 months. Results: The median age was 66 years (range, 48-83) and median skin spacing was 12 mm (range, 8-24). The median follow-up was 11.4 months (5.4-48 months) with 21 patients (47%) followed >=1 year, 11 (24%) >=2 years, and 7 (16%) >=3 years. At <6 months (n = 45), Grade II toxicity rates were 9% radiation dermatitis, 13% breast pain, 2% edema, and 2% hyperpigmentation. Grade III breast pain was reported in 13% (n = 6). At >=6 months (n = 43), Grade II toxicity rates were: 2% radiation dermatitis, 2% induration, and 2% hypopigmentation. Grade III breast pain was reported in 2%. Infection was 13% (n = 6) at <6 months and 5% (n = 2) at >=6 months. Persistent seroma >=6 months was 30% (n = 13). Fat necrosis developed in 4 cases (2 symptomatic). Rib fractures were seen in 4% (n = 2). Cosmesis was good/excellent in 96% of cases. Conclusions: Treatment with balloon brachytherapy using a 2-day dose schedule resulted acceptable rates of Grade II/III chronic toxicity rates and similar cosmetic results observed with a standard 5-day accelerated partial breast irradiation schedule.

  2. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-03-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  3. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  4. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    PubMed Central

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080

  5. Partial quantum logics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetterlein, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras (PBAs) were introduced by Kochen and Specker as an algebraic model reflecting the mutual relationships among quantum-physical yes-no tests. The fact that not all pairs of tests are compatible was taken into special account. In this paper, we review PBAs from two sides. First, we generalise the concept, taking into account also those yes-no tests which are based on unsharp measurements. Namely, we introduce partial MV-algebras, and we define a corresponding logic. Second, we turn to the representation theory of PBAs. In analogy to the case of orthomodular lattices, we give conditions for a PBA to be isomorphic to the PBA of closed subspaces of a complex Hilbert space. Hereby, we do not restrict ourselves to purely algebraic statements; we rather give preference to conditions involving automorphisms of a PBA. We conclude by outlining a critical view on the logico-algebraic approach to the foundational problem of quantum physics.

  6. Initial Assessment of NPP/VIIRS Aerosol Environmental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Remer, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The aerosol environment data records (EDR) derived from the measurements of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite are the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), aerosol particle size parameter (APSP, characterized in terms of the Angstrom Exponent, AE), and suspended matter (SM). These EDRs go through various evaluations to assess their level of maturity, which are defined by a set of criteria. This presentation provides an overview of the work and results the NPP/JPSS Calibration/Validation Team has performed for the first of the maturity levels, Beta. For this level, the VIIRS AOT and APSP products have been compared with aerosol products derived from MODIS observations onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite (Aqua), and with AERONET products and observations. SM has been compared with CALIPSO products. All comparisons have been applied to a uniform time sample (2 May 2012 to 2 June 2012). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the VIIRS aerosol EDRs indicate that AOT both over land and ocean, and APSP over ocean have reached Beta maturity. However, neither APSP over land, nor SM qualifies for Beta level at this time. Qualitatively, one standard deviation of VIIRS AOT EDR products fall within ±0.09 ±10% of collocated MODIS retrievals over land and ±0.02 ±10% over ocean. The same VIIRS product falls within ±0.13 ±15% of collocated AERONET over land and ±0.04 ±5% over ocean. In all cases, the VIIRS AOT over land product is biased high (0.07 to 0.15) against comparable products in a global sense. The VIIRS Angstrom Exponent EDR product over ocean shows correlation when compared with MODIS, but is biased high. Preliminary AERONET analysis at coastal stations shows APSP falling within approximately ±0.40 of AERONET. Preliminary AERONET analysis at coastal stations shows APSP falling within approximately ±0.40 of AERONET. VIIRS Angstrom Exponent

  7. Operational Applications from the Suomi Npp and Jpss Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.; Furgerson, J.; Sjoberg, W.; Weng, F.; Csiszar, I. A.; Kilcoyne, H.; Gleason, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the SUOMI National Polar Partnership (NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. JPSS provides critical data for key NOAA product and services, which the Nation depends on. These products and services include: Weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. Environmental monitoring - data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS, CERES and TSIS will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long-term observation of the environment; the records and products are critical to climate modelers, scientists, and decision makers concerned with advancing climate change understanding, prediction, mitigation and adaptation strategies, and policies. Data collection - JPSS satellites continue the POES data collection instruments that relay in situ data and observations from remote transmitters. These instruments relay data from remote, unmanned stations including wind, temperature and salinity readings from ocean buoys, which allow for the monitoring of the ocean. These instruments are also used to track wildlife. Search and rescue - JPSS will continue the search and rescue instruments on POES that

  8. Modeling of temporal and spatial coherency of net primary production (MODIS NPP) in the mountain forests of South Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Yulia; Soukhovolsky, Vlad

    Net primary production (NPP) of mountain forest is very variable and depends on a variety of external modifying factors such as intensity and spectrum of solar radiation, climatic conditions in the area. Less studied are features of long-term NPP dynamics associated with self-regulation processes of tree growth in a forest. Mountain forests are a convenient object for analysis and modeling of long-term NPP changes that do not depend on climatic factors, since in mountain forests climatic conditions are uniquely determined by altitude Temporal and spatial coherence of mean annual NPP time series (Yrs. 2000 - 2012) was studied according to data from satellite observations of MODIS/TERRA. Mean annual NPP estimates' series were examined for different altitudinal zones in the Sayan Mountains (South of Central Siberia). Altitudes ranged from 600 to 1.800 meters above sea level. This area is lengthful vertically and has well-marked mountain-belt vegetation complexes, where mixed forests, fir and pine coniferous forests, alpine meadows and alpine tundra successively come one after another. Spatial and temporal coherence of NPP time series for different habitats is analyzed. The analysis showed that variations in annual NPP values of the fir (Abies sibirica) at different altitudes (450-1700 m) are synchronized. These variations in NPP values are described by the AR(2) model. Such behavior of studied NPP time series suggests a lag in growth of woody plants. In this case, the current NPP is influenced by the NPP values of the two previous years. At higher altitudes, where the density of the trees decreases and herbaceous plants become dominant, the range and synchronization of NPP variations decrease.

  9. Spatio-temporal variability of the deposited radioactive materials in forest environments after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Komatsu, Y.; Yoda, H.

    2012-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. Study site have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. The total deposition of radioactive materials at the study site ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. The mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf stands were selected as experimental site for the monitoring of spatio-temporal variability of the deposited radionuclides after the accidental release of radioactive materials. In order to measure the vertical distribution of radioactivity in forest, a tower with the same height of tree have been established at each experimental site. The measurement of radioactivity by using a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100, Ortec) and radionuclide analysis of leaf samples at different height revealed that a large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest were trapped by canopies of the cedar forests. In contrast, in the broad-leaf forest highest radioactivity was found at the forest floor. Furthermore, spatio-temporal variability of radioactivity at the forest floor indicated that huge amount of caesium still remains on the canopy of coniferous forest, and subsequently transfers to forest floor in association with throughfall, stemflow, and litter fall.

  10. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, R. J.; Warren, J. M.; Iversen, C. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; McMurtrie, R. E.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  11. Nitrogen Limitation is Reducing the Enhancement of NPP by Elevated CO2 in a Deciduous Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Warren, Jeffrey; Iversen, Colleen M; Medlyn, Belinda; McMurtrie, Ross; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2008-01-01

    Accurate model representation of the long-term response of forested ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) is important for predictions of future concentrations of CO2. For biogeochemical models that predict the response of net primary productivity (NPP) to eCO2, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide the only source of data for comparison. A synthesis of forest FACE experiments reported a 23% increase in NPP in eCO2, and this result has been used as a model benchmark. Here, we provide new evidence from a FACE experiment in a deciduous forest in Tennessee that N limitation has significantly reduced the stimulation of NPP by eCO2, consistent with predictions from ecosystem and global models that incorporate N feedbacks. The Liquidambar styraciflua stand has been exposed to current ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998. Results from the first 6 years of the experiment indicated that NPP was significantly enhanced by eCO2 and that this was a consistent and sustained response. Now, with 10 years of data, our analysis must be revised. The response of NPP to eCO2 has declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2007. The diminishing response to eCO2 since 2004 coincides with declining NPP in ambient CO2 plots. Productivity of this forest stand is limited by N availability, and the steady decline in forest NPP is closely related to changes in the N economy, as evidenced by declining foliar N concentrations. There is a strong linear relationship between foliar [N] and NPP, and the steeper slope in eCO2 indicates that the NPP response to eCO2 should diminish as foliar N declines. Increased fine-root production and root proliferation deeper in the soil have sustained N uptake, but not to an extent sufficient to benefit aboveground production. The mechanistic basis of the N effect on NPP resides in the photosynthetic machinery. The linear relationships between Jmax and Vcmax with foliar [N] did not change from 1998

  12. Estimating cropland NPP using national crop inventory and MODIS derived crop specific parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, V.; West, T. O.; Ricciuto, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of cropland net primary production (NPP) are needed as input for estimates of carbon flux and carbon stock changes. Cropland NPP is currently estimated using terrestrial ecosystem models, satellite remote sensing, or inventory data. All three of these methods have benefits and problems. Terrestrial ecosystem models are often better suited for prognostic estimates rather than diagnostic estimates. Satellite-based NPP estimates often underestimate productivity on intensely managed croplands and are also limited to a few broad crop categories. Inventory-based estimates are consistent with nationally collected data on crop yields, but they lack sub-county spatial resolution. Integrating these methods will allow for spatial resolution consistent with current land cover and land use, while also maintaining total biomass quantities recorded in national inventory data. The main objective of this study was to improve cropland NPP estimates by using a modification of the CASA NPP model with individual crop biophysical parameters partly derived from inventory data and MODIS 8day 250m EVI product. The study was conducted for corn and soybean crops in Iowa and Illinois for years 2006 and 2007. We used EVI as a linear function for fPAR, and used crop land cover data (56m spatial resolution) to extract individual crop EVI pixels. First, we separated mixed pixels of both corn and soybean that occur when MODIS 250m pixel contains more than one crop. Second, we substituted mixed EVI pixels with nearest pure pixel values of the same crop within 1km radius. To get more accurate photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), we applied the Mountain Climate Simulator (MTCLIM) algorithm with the use of temperature and precipitation data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) to generate shortwave radiation data. Finally, county specific light use efficiency (LUE) values of each crop for years 2006 to 2007 were determined by application of mean county inventory

  13. S-NPP OMPS Nadir In-Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; Flynn, L. E.; Niu, J.; Grotenhuis, M.; Beck, C. T.; Beach, E.; Zhang, Z.; Tolea, A.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation describes the results of in-flight characterization of the S-NPP Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) charge-coupled device (CCD) performance during the first nearly three years of the OMPS mission in orbit. Data from OMPS's three two-dimension CCD arrays have been collected to characterize in-flight detector behaviors. Our results show that offset, gain, and dark current rate trends remain within sensor requirement limits. System linearity performance trends are stable. The distribution of individual pixel dark rates is slowly growing as expected from pre-launch analyses. The current in-flight dark and linearity calibration corrections provide Sensor Data Records (SDRs) with insignificant error after correction of less than an average of ~0.1% in the Earth radiance retrieval. The instrument optics is less stable than predicted leading to intra-orbit wavelength scale variations as the temperature gradients vary across the instrument. Measurement-based estimates of these effects are as large a ±0.02 nm and are used to make corrections to within +-0.005 nm on a granule by granule basis. Examination of reflectivity, aerosol and ozone EDRs provide evidence of absolute calibration errors with a significant cross track variation. A soft calibration adjustment is under development to remove them.

  14. Suomi NPP VIIRS Striping Analysis using Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Cao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Modern satellite radiometers such as VIIRS have many detectors with slightly different relative spectral response (RSR). These differences can introduce artifacts such as striping in the imagery. In recent studies we have analyzed the striping pattern related to the detector level RSR difference in VIIRS Thermal Emissive Bands (TEB) M15 and M16, which includes line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) detector level response study and onboard detector stability evaluation using the solar diffuser. Now we extend these analysis to the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) using MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM) for detector level radiance simulation. Previous studies analyzed the striping pattern in the images of VIIRS ocean color and reflectance in RSB, further studies about the root cause for striping are still needed. In this study, we will use the MODTRAN model at spectral resolution of 1 cm^-1 under different atmospheric conditions for VIIRS RSB, for example band M1 centered at 410nm which is used for Ocean Color product retrieval. The impact of detector level RSR difference, atmospheric dependency, and solar geometry on the striping in VIIRS SDR imagery will be investigated. The cumulative histogram method used successfully for the TEB striping analysis will be used to quantify the striping. These analysis help S-NPP and J1 to better understand the root cause for VIIRS image artifacts and reduce the uncertainties in geophysical retrievals to meet the user needs.

  15. Derived Land Surface Emissivity From Suomi NPP CrIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Presented here is the land surface IR spectral emissivity retrieved from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) measurements. The CrIS is aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite launched on October 28, 2011. We describe the retrieval algorithm, demonstrate the surface emissivity retrieved with CrIS measurements, and inter-comparison with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) emissivity. We also demonstrate that surface emissivity from satellite measurements can be used in assistance of monitoring global surface climate change, as a long-term measurement of IASI and CrIS will be provided by the series of EUMETSAT MetOp and US Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites. Monthly mean surface properties are produced using last 5-year IASI measurements. A temporal variation indicates seasonal diversity and El Nino/La Nina effects not only shown on the water but also on the land. Surface spectral emissivity and skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth's environment. CrIS spectral emissivity are retrieved and compared with IASI. The difference is small and could be within expected retrieval error; however it is under investigation.

  16. Paleoseismology of the Hluboká Fault in the near-region of the NPP Temelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschegg, Dana; Popotnig, Ankelika; Porpaczy, Clemens; Lomax, Johanna; Decker, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    Temelin is located in the Bohemian Massif, a Variscan basement unit characterized by very low historical/instrumental seismicity. Previous seismic hazard assessments for the site revealed very low hazard (PGA<0.1g) for a non-exceedance probability of 10-4 per year. The assessments are based on historical/instrumental earthquake data of the Bohemian Massif that cover the time period since about 1800 and 1903, respectively. In this study we assess the late Variscan Hluboká fault in the vicinity of the site, which was repeatedly re-activated in Mesozoic, Miocene and Pliocene times. The fault is part of the several tens of kilometres long NW-striking Jáchymov (Joachimsthal) Fault zone. It is located about 10 to 20 km south of the NPP. Geological, geophysical, and structural data characterize the fault as a dextral strike-slip fault system. Reflection seismic shows an up to a few hundred meters wide zone with steeply dipping faults that are supposed to merge into a common master fault at depth. The fault is characterized by fault bends defining a restraining and a releasing segment. The latter coincides with a pronounced morphological scarp. Recent uplift of the footwall of the fault at this releasing bend is indicated by previously published geodetic data (P. Vyskočil, 1973) and geomorphological data comparing the tectonic morphology of the fault scarp near Hluboká nad Vltavou with slopes, which are not fault controlled. All analysed geomorphological indices characterize the Hluboká scarp as a unique morphological feature, which results from Quaternary uplift of the footwall of the Hluboká Fault with respect to its hanging wall. The assessment of the youngest tectonic history of the fault further uses correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River across the fault. We established a new Late Pleistocene stratigraphy of fluvial terraces using field and borehole data combined with OSL/IRSL age dating. The results show terrace staircases in the hanging wall

  17. Impact of climate aggregation over different scales on regional NPP modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Model input data aggregation methods and data aggregation across spatial scales affect various model outputs, e.g. Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The scale at which data is collected is of great importance. In ecosystem modelling studies we often see soil and climate data collected at coarse scale being used in models to predict ecosystem responses e.g. NPP in dependency of these parameters at finer scale. Outputs of these models are impacted by the way the data is aggregated or dis-aggregated to the spatial scale. Up to know there are very few studies which quantified the impact of scaling on the simulation results. In this study, we quantify the impact of climate data aggregation using five different resolutions, to simulate NPP by 11 different crop and biogeochemical models for the same study area. The aggregation effect is investigated for wheat and maize cropping systems in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The simulation results are analysed for NPP averaged over growing seasons of a 30 year period at different spatial resolutions as well as for annual NPP during growing season. While there is only a minor impact of input data aggregation on NPP on 30 year averages, the annual data show differences in NPP up to 9.4 % and 13.6 % between the different resolutions for wheat and maize, respectively. The scale effect differ between the models and shows higher impacts for extreme years. This is tested by selecting years with extreme dry conditions based on a drought index, which showed stronger scale effects of up to 12.8 % and 15.5 % for wheat and maize, respectively.

  18. General classification of partially polarized partially coherent beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma; Mejias, Pedro M.

    2003-05-01

    The behavior of the so-called generalized degree of polarization of partially coherent partially polarized beams upon free propagation is investigated. On the basis of this parameter a general classification scheme of partially polarized beams is proposed. The results are applied to certain classes of fields of special interest.

  19. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  20. The anticonvulsant and behavioural profile of L-687,414, a partial agonist acting at the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tricklebank, M D; Bristow, L J; Hutson, P H; Leeson, P D; Rowley, M; Saywell, K; Singh, L; Tattersall, F D; Thorn, L; Williams, B J

    1994-01-01

    1. The anticonvulsant and behavioural effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, L-687,414 (R(+)-cis-beta-methyl-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) have been investigated in rodents. 2. L-687,414 dose-dependently antagonized seizures induced by N-methyl-D,L- aspartic acid (NMDLA, ED50 = 19.7 mg kg-1), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, ED50 = 13.0 mg kg-1) and electroshock (ED50 = 26.1 mg kg-1) when given intravenously 15 min before test, in male Swiss Webster mice but was most potent against audiogenic seizures induced by a 120 dB bell in DBA/2 mice (ED50 = 5.1 mg kg-1, i.p., 30 min before test). 3. L-687,414 also induced impairments of performance in a rotarod test in both Swiss Webster and DBA/2 mice and the ratio [rotarod MED:anticonvulsant ED50] varied between 0.9 and 5, depending on the convulsant used. 4. Similar behaviours to those seen after administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (head weaving, body rolling, hyperlocomotion) were seen in the mouse after giving L-687,414, although the peak effect occurred at a dose (100 mg kg-1) which was 5-20 times the anticonvulsant ED50S, depending on the convulsant used. Unlike MK-801, however, doses of L-687,414 that were behaviourally stimulant did not increase dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. 5. Consistent with the interaction of L-687,414 with the glycine/NMDA receptor, the anticonvulsant, ataxic and motor stimulant effects of the compound were significantly attenuated by the glycine/NMDA receptor agonist, D-serine (10-100 micrograms per mouse, i.c.v.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858861

  1. Global space-based inter-calibration system reflective solar calibration reference: from Aqua MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Butler, James; Cao, Changyong; Doelling, David; Wu, Aisheng; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-05-01

    The MODIS has successfully operated on-board the NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. MODIS instrument was designed with stringent calibration requirements and comprehensive on-board calibration capability. In the reflective solar spectral region, Aqua MODIS has performed better than Terra MODIS and, therefore, has been chosen by the Global Space-based Inter- Calibration System (GSICS) operational community as the calibration reference sensor in cross-sensor calibration and calibration inter-comparisons. For the same reason, it has also been used by a number of earth-observing sensors as their calibration reference. Considering that Aqua MODIS has already operated for nearly 14 years, it is essential to transfer its calibration to a follow-on reference sensor with a similar calibration capability and stable performance. The VIIRS is a follow-on instrument to MODIS and has many similar design features as MODIS, including their on-board calibrators (OBC). As a result, VIIRS is an ideal candidate to replace MODIS to serve as the future GSICS reference sensor. Since launch, the S-NPP VIIRS has already operated for more than 4 years and its overall performance has been extensively characterized and demonstrated to meet its overall design requirements. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration methodologies and strategies, traceability, and their on-orbit performance. It describes and illustrates different methods and approaches that can be used to facilitate the calibration reference transfer, including the use of desert and Antarctic sites, deep convective clouds (DCC), and the lunar observations.

  2. A GeoServices Infrastructure for Near-Real-Time Access to Suomi NPP Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Valente, E. G.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S.

    2012-12-01

    The new Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite extends NASA's moderate-resolution, multispectral observations with a suite of powerful imagers and sounders to support a broad array of research and applications. However, NPP data products consist of a complex set of data and metadata files in highly specialized formats; which NPP's operational ground segment delivers to users only with several hours' delay. This severely limits their use in critical applications such as weather forecasting, emergency / disaster response, search and rescue, and other activities that require near-real-time access to satellite observations. Alternative approaches, based on distributed Direct Broadcast facilities, can reduce the delay in NPP data delivery from hours to minutes, and can make products more directly usable by practitioners in the field. To assess and fulfill this potential, we are developing a suite of software that couples Direct Broadcast data feeds with a streamlined, scalable processing chain and geospatial Web services, so as to permit many more time-sensitive applications to use NPP data. The resulting geoservices infrastructure links a variety of end-user tools and applications to NPP data from different sources, and to other rapidly-changing geospatial data. By using well-known, standard software interfaces (such as OGC Web Services or OPeNDAP), this infrastructure serves a variety of end-user analysis and visualization tools, giving them access into datasets of arbitrary size and resolution and allowing them to request and receive tailored products on demand. The standards-based approach may also streamline data sharing among independent satellite receiving facilities, thus helping them to interoperate in providing frequent, composite views of continent-scale or global regions. To enable others to build similar or derived systems, the service components we are developing (based in part on the Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP) from

  3. Temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at seasonal and interannual time scales in a temperate beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campioli, M.; Gielen, B.; Göckede, M.; Papale, D.; Bouriaud, O.; Granier, A.

    2011-09-01

    The allocation of carbon (C) taken up by the tree canopy for respiration and production of tree organs with different construction and maintenance costs, life span and decomposition rate, crucially affects the residence time of C in forests and their C cycling rate. The carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. In this study, we extend the current knowledge on the NPP-GPP ratio in forests by assessing the temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at interannual (for 8 years) and seasonal (for 1 year) scales for a young temperate beech stand, reporting dynamics for both leaves and woody organs, in particular stems. NPP was determined with biometric methods/litter traps, whereas the GPP was estimated via the eddy covariance micrometeorological technique. The interannual variability of the proportion of C allocated to leaf NPP, wood NPP and leaf plus wood NPP (on average 11% yr-1, 29% yr-1 and 39% yr-1, respectively) was significant among years with up to 12% yr-1 variation in NPP-GPP ratio. Studies focusing on the comparison of NPP-GPP ratio among forests and models using fixed allocation schemes should take into account the possibility of such relevant interannual variability. Multiple linear regressions indicated that the NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and wood significantly correlated with environmental conditions. Previous year drought and air temperature explained about half of the NPP-GPP variability of leaves and wood, respectively, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio was not decreased by severe drought, with large NPP-GPP ratio on 2003 due mainly to low GPP. During the period between early May and mid June, the majority of GPP was allocated to leaf and stem NPP, whereas these sinks were of little importance later on. Improved estimation of seasonal GPP and of the contribution of previous-year reserves to stem growth, as well as reduction

  4. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  5. Radiation exposure to marine biota around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The dose rates for six marine organisms, pelagic fish, benthic fish, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and polychaete worms, representative in marine ecosystems, have been predicted by the equilibrium model with the measured seawater activity concentrations at three locations around the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plant after the accident on March 11, 2011. Model prediction showed that total dose rates for the biota in the costal sea reached 4.8E4 μGy/d for pelagic fish, 3.6E6 μGy/d for crustaceans, 3.8E6 μGy/d for benthic fish, 5.2E6 μGy/d for macroalgae, 6.6E6 μGy/d for mollusks, and 8.0E6 μGy/d for polychaete worms. The predicted total dose rates remained above the UNSCEAR's (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) benchmark level (1.0E4 μGy/d for an individual aquatic organism), for only the initial short period, which seems to be insufficiently long to bring about any detrimental effect on the marine biota at the population level. Furthermore, the total dose rates for benthic fish and crustaceans approximated using the measured activity concentration of the biota and bottom sediment was well below the benchmark level. From these results, it may be concluded that the impact of the ionizing radiation on the marine biota around the Fukushima NPP as a consequence of the accident would be insignificant. PMID:24374805

  6. An Overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS Calibration Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Robert A.; Patt, Frederick S.; Sun, Junqiang; Chiang, Kwofu

    2012-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was successfully launched on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft on October 28, 2011. Suomi NPP VIIRS observations are made in 22 spectral bands, from the visible (VIS) to the long-wave infrared (LWIR), and are used to produce 22 Environmental Data Records (EDRs) with a broad range of scientific applications. The quality of these VIIRS EDRs strongly depends on the quality of its calibrated and geo-located Sensor Date Records (SDRs). Built with a strong heritage to the NASA's EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, the VIIRS is calibrated on-orbit using a similar set of on-board calibrators (OBC), including a solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and a blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). On-orbit maneuvers of the SNPP spacecraft provide additional calibration and characterization data from the VIIRS instrument which cannot be obtained pre-launch and are required to produce the highest quality SDRs. These include multi-orbit yaw maneuvers for the characterization of SD and SDSM screen transmission, quasi-monthly roll maneuvers to acquire lunar observations to track sensor degradation in the visible through shortwave infrared, and a driven pitch-over maneuver to acquire multiple scans of deep space to determine TEB response versus scan angle (RVS). This paper pro-vides an overview of these three SNPP calibration maneuvers. Discussions are focused on their potential calibration and science benefits, pre-launch planning activities, and on-orbit scheduling and implementation strategies. Results from calibration maneuvers performed during the Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) period for the VIIRS sensor are illustrated. Also presented in this paper are lessons learned regarding the implementation of calibration spacecraft maneuvers on follow

  7. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  8. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  9. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for a NPP in the Upper Rhine Graben, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Christophe; Chartier, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Baize, Stéphane; Scotti, Oona; Cushing, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The southern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) straddling the border between eastern France and western Germany, presents a relatively important seismic activity for an intraplate area. A magnitude 5 or greater shakes the URG every 25 years and in 1356 a magnitude greater than 6.5 struck the city of Basel. Several potentially active faults have been identified in the area and documented in the French Active Fault Database (web site in construction). These faults are located along the Graben boundaries and also inside the Graben itself, beneath heavily populated areas and critical facilities (including the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant). These faults are prone to produce earthquakes with magnitude 6 and above. Published regional models and preliminary geomorphological investigations provided provisional assessment of slip rates for the individual faults (0.1-0.001 mm/a) resulting in recurrence time of 10 000 years or greater for magnitude 6+ earthquakes. Using a fault model, ground motion response spectra are calculated for annual frequencies of exceedance (AFE) ranging from 10-4 to 10-8 per year, typical for design basis and probabilistic safety analyses of NPPs. A logic tree is implemented to evaluate uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment. The choice of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and range of slip rate uncertainty are the main sources of seismic hazard variability at the NPP site. In fact, the hazard for AFE lower than 10-4 is mostly controlled by the potentially active nearby Rhine River fault. Compared with areal source zone models, a fault model localizes the hazard around the active faults and changes the shape of the Uniform Hazard Spectrum at the site. Seismic hazard deaggregations are performed to identify the earthquake scenarios (including magnitude, distance and the number of standard deviations from the median ground motion as predicted by GMPEs) that contribute to the exceedance of spectral acceleration for the different AFE

  11. Nuclear power plant maintenance personnel reliability prediction (NPP/MPRP) effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors committed during maintenance activities are potentially a major contribution to the overall risk associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP). An NRC-sponsored program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is attempting to develop a quantitative predictive technique to evaluate the contribution of maintenance errors to the overall NPP risk. The current work includes a survey of the requirements of potential users to ascertain the need for and content of the proposed quantitative model, plus an initial job/task analysis to determine the scope and applicability of various maintenance tasks. In addition, existing human reliability prediction models are being reviewed and assessed with respect to their applicability to NPP maintenance tasks. This paper discusses the status of the program and summarizes the results to date.

  12. Satellite EDR Evaluation with First Suomi NPP Cal/Val Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D. K.; Liu, X.; Larar, A. M.; Tian, J.; Smith, W. L.; Wu, W.; Kizer, S.; Goldberg, M.; Liu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite ultraspectral infrared sensors provide key data records essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite Environmental Data Records (EDRs) are retrieved from calibrated ultraspectral radiance or Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Understand the accuracy of retrieved EDRs is critical. The first Suomi NPP Calibration/Validation Campaign was conducted during May 2013. The NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft carrying ultraspectral interferometer sounders such as the National Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) flew under the Suomi NPP satellite that carries the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). Here, we inter-compare the EDRs produced with different retrieval algorithms from SDRs measured from satellite and aircraft. The available dropsonde and radiosonde measurements together with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis are used to assess the results of this experiment.

  13. Decreased expression of ectonucleotidase E-NPP1 in leukocytes from subjects with severe asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Montaño, L M; Vargas, M H; Díaz-Hernández, V; De Ita, M; Kazakova, R; Barajas-López, C

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest that ATP and related nucleotides play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the functionality of ectonucleotidases in this disease has been scantly investigated. We studied total ectonucleotidase activity in leukocytes from patients suffering from asthma exacerbation and explored the expression of E-NTPDase 1, 2, 3, and 8, and E-NPP1, 2, and 3, in their polymorphonuclear cells by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Leukocytes from patients with mild or moderate asthma exacerbation had similar ectonucleotidase activity than leukocytes from healthy subjects, while in patients with severe asthma exacerbation, this activity was lower. Of the ectonucleotidases studied, only E-NPP1 displayed diminished immunofluorescence and a significant decrease in its mRNA expression, both in patients with severe asthma exacerbation. This reduced E-NPP1 expression could be responsible for increased amounts of ATP or other nucleotides, capable of worsening asthma exacerbation, and warranting further investigation. PMID:26405014

  14. On the majority carrier collection in p+pn+ and n+pp+ silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. N.; Kotnala, R. K.; Jain, G. C.

    The spectral responses of a few bifacial n+pp+ silicon solar cells of different thicknesses were measured to investigate the possibility of majority carrier collection in n+pp+ back surface field (BSF) and p+pn+ front surface field (FSF) silicon solar cells. It has been found out that under low level conditions, any appreciable collection of photogenerated majority carriers has to be field aided. Therefore, under low level conditions, a substantial contribution of hole collection to the photocurrent density of a p+pn+ or n+pp+ cell may come from the p+ or p region provided not only the concentration of photogenerated holes in that region is substantially large but there also exists an aiding built in electric field due to an impurity gradient. For high level conditions, however, holes can be collected from the uniformly doped p-base region with or without the help of an aiding electric field.

  15. Counter-regulatory phosphatases TNAP and NPP1 temporally regulate tooth root cementogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zweifler, Laura E; Patel, Mudita K; Nociti, Francisco H; Wimer, Helen F; Millán, Jose L; Somerman, Martha J; Foster, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Cementum is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth root. Several aspects of cementogenesis remain unclear, including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. Biomineralization is regulated by the ratio of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to mineral inhibitor pyrophosphate (PPi), where local Pi and PPi concentrations are controlled by phosphatases including tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1). The focus of this study was to define the roles of these phosphatases in cementogenesis. TNAP was associated with earliest cementoblasts near forming acellular and cellular cementum. With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, albeit as hypomineralized cementoid. In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum. Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. Developmental patterns were recapitulated in a mouse model for acellular cementum regeneration, with early TNAP expression and later NPP1 expression. In vitro, cementoblasts expressed Alpl gene/protein early, whereas Enpp1 gene/protein expression was significantly induced only under mineralization conditions. These patterns were confirmed in human teeth, including widespread TNAP, and NPP1 restricted to cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. These studies suggest that early TNAP expression creates a low PPi environment promoting acellular cementum initiation, while later NPP1 expression increases PPi, restricting acellular cementum apposition. Alterations in PPi have little effect on cellular cementum formation, though matrix mineralization is affected. PMID:25504209

  16. Comparing the impacts of 2003 and 2010 heatwaves in NPP over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Running, S. W.

    2013-10-01

    In the last decade, Europe was stricken by two outstanding heatwaves, the 2003 event in Western Europe and the recent 2010 episode over Russia. Both extreme events were characterised by record-breaking temperatures, and widespread socio-economic impacts, including significant increments on mortality rates, decreases in crop production and in hydroelectric production. This work aims to assess the influence of both mega-heatwaves on vegetation carbon uptake, using yearly Net Primary Production (NPP) and monthly Net Photosynthesis (PsN) data derived from satellite imagery obtained from MODIS for the period 2000-2011. In 2010, markedly low productivity was observed over a very large area in Russia, at monthly, seasonal and yearly scales, falling below 50% of average NPP. This decrease in NPP in 2010 was far more intense than the one affecting Western Europe in 2003, which corresponded to 20-30% of the average, and affected a~much larger extent. Total NPP anomalies reached -19 Tg C for the selected regions in France during 2003 and -94 Tg C for western Russia in 2010, which corresponds almost to the magnitude of total NPP anomaly during 2010 for the whole Europe. Overall, the widespread negative PsN anomalies in both regions match the patterns of very high temperature values preceded by a long period of below-average precipitation, leading to strong soil moisture deficits, stressing the role of soil-atmosphere coupling. In the case of 2003 heatwave, results indicate a strong influence of moisture deficits coupled with high temperatures in the response of vegetation, while for the 2010 event very high temperatures appear to be the main driver of very low NPP.

  17. Improvement of Radwaste Management System at Bilibinskaya NPP in the Far North Conditions - 13456

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Denis; Adamovich, Dmitry; Savkin, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Since 2009 Bilibinskaya NPP is getting started to prepare to the decommissioning in the Far North conditions. Bilibinskaya NPP is located in the Far North of Russian Federation in Chukotka region. Since 1974 it operates 4 units EGP-6 with the capacity of 48 MW each. According to the contract, SIA Radon has performed the following works: - LLRW disposal safety analysis, - The technology of spent ion-exchanger and salt residue solidification is proposed, - Expected radwaste (till 2027) management economical analysis, - Technical proposals for LLRW and IRW management. (authors)

  18. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  19. The change of global terrestrial ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) and its response to climate change in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suosuo; Lü, Shihua; Zhang, Yongjun; Liu, Yuanpu; Gao, Yanhong; Ao, Yinhuan

    2015-07-01

    Using global terrestrial ecosystem observation and proxy data for net primary productivity (NPP), leaf area index (LAI), and climate data, we compared simulated NPP, LAI, and major climatic factors and explored the relationship between their variations in historical scenarios of ten Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. The results showed that global spatial patterns of the simulated terrestrial ecosystem and climate are consistent with proxy data, but the values have some differences for each model. Based on statistical analysis, the simulated climatic factors were found to be better than terrestrial ecosystem NPP and LAI, and the multi-model ensemble (MME) results were better than every single model. For the terrestrial ecosystem, air temperature (Ta) was found to be the major affecting factor, followed by precipitation, meaning the terrestrial ecosystem NPP and LAI are more related to Ta than precipitation. Meanwhile, surface downwelling shortwave radiation (Rsds) was found to inhibit the terrestrial ecosystem in almost all regions of the world. Between 1976 and 2005, precipitation had a slight increasing trend, Ta an obvious increasing trend, and Rsds a slight decreasing trend. The changes of precipitation, air temperature, and Rsds were favorable for the terrestrial ecosystem and for plant growth. Therefore, LAI and NPP showed an obvious increasing temporal trend, and the terrestrial ecosystem showed a positive response to climate change. All the model results showed NPP had an increasing temporal trend in the past 150 years, which also indicated that the terrestrial ecosystem has shown a positive response to climate change in that time period. In terms of the global average, the simulated NPP varied from 21.5 to 69.3 Pg C year-1, and the MME NPP is about 50.6, which was almost consistent with the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) NPP result of 55.1 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP results of 60.5 Pg

  20. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  1. Partial hepatectomy in mice.

    PubMed

    Nevzorova, Y A; Tolba, R; Trautwein, C; Liedtke, C

    2015-04-01

    The surgical procedure of two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) in rodents was first described more than 80 years ago by Higgins and Anderson. Nevertheless, this technique is still a state-of-the-art method for the community of liver researchers as it allows the in-depth analysis of signalling pathways involved in liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis. The importance of PH as a key method in experimental hepatology has even increased in the last decade due to the increasing availability of genetically-modified mouse strains. Here, we propose a standard operating procedure (SOP) for the implementation of PH in mice, which is based on our experience of more than 10 years. In particular, the SOP offers all relevant background information on the PH model and provides comprehensive guidelines for planning and performing PH experiments. We provide established recommendations regarding optimal age and gender of animals, use of appropriate anaesthesia and biometric calculation of the experiments. We finally present an easy-to-follow step-by-step description of the complete surgical procedure including required materials, critical steps and postoperative management. This SOP especially takes into account the latest changes in animal welfare rules in the European Union but is still in agreement with current international regulations. In summary, this article provides comprehensive information for the legal application, design and implementation of PH experiments. PMID:25835741

  2. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can

  3. Ageing management of french NPP civil work structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the

  4. Current Status of Suomi NPP VIIRS Aerosol Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.; Liu, H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, J.; Remer, L. A.; Ciren, P.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched on October 28, 2011. It provides Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at two different spatial resolutions: a pixel level (~750 m at nadir) product called the Intermediate Product (IP) and an aggregated (~6 km at nadir) product called the Environmental Data Record (EDR). The VIIRS AOT is expected to provide continuity to the 10-km Aqua and Terra MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOT products that the air quality and public health community has been using. The VIIRS aerosol product suite also includes less mature products such as Suspended Matter (SM) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP). An extensive validation of VIIRS best quality aerosol products with ground based L1.5 AERONET data shows that the AOT EDR product has an accuracy/precision of -0.01/0.11 and 0.01/0.08 over land and ocean respectively. Globally, VIIRS mean AOT EDR (0.20) is similar to Aqua MODIS (0.16) with some important regional and seasonal differences. Analysis of SM shows that the algorithm predominantly picks smoke both over land and ocean which is not in agreement with retrievals from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Space Observations (CALIPSO). Similarly, the Angstrom Exponent (AE) retrieval used as a proxy for particle size has no skill over land and only a marginal skill over ocean when compared to AERONET; although a bias of ~0.2 for over ocean retrievals meets specification (0.3), the correlation is low and the standard deviation is ~0.6 and does not meet specification (0.3). This evaluation places the VIIRS AOT product at the provisional maturity level (product is validated, may contain some errors, and ready for operational evaluation). However, several algorithm updates which include a better approach to retrieve surface reflectance are forthcoming. Current status of the aerosol

  5. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    SciTech Connect

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  6. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  7. Partial lipodystrophy in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, D; O'Mahony, S; Whelton, M J; McKiernan, J

    1990-01-01

    The association of coeliac disease and partial lipodystrophy is described. The patient also had deficiencies of serum IgA and C3 complement (the latter associated with partial lipodystrophy). In addition, there was subclinical dermatitis herpetiformis confirmed by skin biopsy. The facial wasting of fully developed partial lipodystrophy may be misinterpreted as a sign of malabsorption but the facial, upper limb, and truncal lipodystrophy contrasts with normal pelvic and lower limb appearances. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2379878

  8. Trigonometric Integrals via Partial Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, H.; Fulford, M.

    2005-01-01

    Parametric differentiation is used to derive the partial fractions decompositions of certain rational functions. Those decompositions enable us to integrate some new combinations of trigonometric functions.

  9. Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

  10. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  11. Mid-Pacific Ground-Truth Data For Validation of the CrIMSS Sensor Suite Aboard Suomi-NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollner, A. K.; Wessel, J.; Gaab, K. M.; Cardoza, D. M.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Karuza, P.; Caponi, D.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Nalli, N. R.; Reale, T.; Divakarla, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Maddy, E. S.; Tan, C.; Xiong, X.; Porter, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Aerospace Transportable Lidar System 2 (ATLS-2) provides ground truth humidity and temperature data for the testing and evaluation of instruments aboard environmental satellites. The Aerospace ground-truth data consist of collocated state-of-the art lidar and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). The lidar system consists of a pulsed UV transmitter, 36-inch collection telescope, and detection channels for water Raman, nitrogen Raman, and Rayleigh/Mie scattering. All channels are separated into two altitude bins to improve the dynamic range of the system. Dedicated balloon-borne radiosondes are Vaisala RS-92, processed with the current version of the Digicora-III software. The synergy between the Raman lidar data and radiosonde data produce high accuracy, quality-controlled vertical profiles of humidity (0 - 20 km) and temperature (0 - 60 km). Starting in May 2012, The Aerospace Corporation has exercised ATLS-2 to collect dedicated ground truth data sets in support of calibration and validation (cal/val) efforts for the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) aboard the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Data sets are collected from the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) on the west coast of Kauai and are timed to be coincident with S-NPP overpasses. The Aerospace PMRF datasets complement the ensemble of similar datasets collected from DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NOAA Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) sites, which are compared to CrIMSS Environmental Data Records (EDRs) by the NOAA/NESDIS/STAR cal/val team for validation of algorithm performance and algorithm improvement. In addition to providing the only dedicated CrIMSS data in the mid-pacific, The Aerospace Corporation was the first site to provide ground truth data to the EDR cal/val team. As a result, ATLS-2 data sets served as the initial benchmarks for EDR performance testing. Details of the ATLS-2 system and data products as well

  12. Simulation of Hydrogen Distribution in Ignalina NPP ALS Compartments During BDBA

    SciTech Connect

    Babilas, Egidijus; Urbonavicius, Egidijus; Rimkevicius, Sigitas

    2006-07-01

    Accident Localisation System (ALS) of Ignalina NPP is a 'pressure suppression' type confinement, which protects the population, employees and environment from the radiation hazards. According to the Safety Analysis Report for Ignalina NPP {approx}110 m{sup 3} of hydrogen is released to ALS compartments during the Maximum Design Basis Accident. However in case of beyond design basis accident, when the oxidation of zirconium starts, the amount of generated hydrogen could be significantly higher. If the volume concentration of hydrogen in the compartment reaches 4%, there is a possibility for a combustible mixture to appear. To prevent the possible hydrogen accumulation in the ALS of the Ignalina NPP during an accident the H{sub 2} control system is installed. The results of the performed analysis derived the places of the possible H{sub 2} accumulation in the ALS compartments during the transient processes and assessed the mixture combustibility in these places for a beyond design basis accident scenario. Such analysis of H{sub 2} distribution in the ALS of Ignalina NPP in case of BDBA was not performed before. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  14. Deficiency of the bone mineralization inhibitor NPP1 protects mice against obesity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huesa, Carmen; Zhu, Dongxing; Glover, James D.; Ferron, Mathieu; Karsenty, Gerard; Milne, Elspeth M.; Millan, José Luis; Ahmed, S. Faisal; Farquharson, Colin; Morton, Nicholas M.; MacRae, Vicky E.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bone as an endocrine regulator has prompted a re-evaluation of the role of bone mineralization factors in the development of metabolic disease. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (NPP1) controls bone mineralization through the generation of pyrophosphate, and levels of NPP1 are elevated both in dermal fibroblast cultures and muscle of individuals with insulin resistance. We investigated the metabolic phenotype associated with impaired bone metabolism in mice lacking the gene that encodes NPP1 (Enpp1−/− mice). Enpp1−/− mice exhibited mildly improved glucose homeostasis on a normal diet but showed a pronounced resistance to obesity and insulin resistance in response to chronic high-fat feeding. Enpp1−/− mice had increased levels of the insulin-sensitizing bone-derived hormone osteocalcin but unchanged insulin signalling within osteoblasts. A fuller understanding of the pathways of NPP1 could inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating insulin resistance. PMID:25368121

  15. Post-Launch Calibration Support for VIIRS Onboard NASA NPP Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxion; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Schwaller, Matthew; Butler, James

    2011-01-01

    The NPP Instrument Calibration Support Element (NICSE) is one of the elements within the NASA NPP Science Data Segment (SDS). The primary responsibility of NICSE is to independently monitor and evaluate on-orbit radiometric and geometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument and to validate its Sensor Data Record (SDR) [1]. The NICSE interacts and works closely with other SDS Product Evaluation and Analysis Tools Elements (PEATE) and the NPP Science Team (ST) and supports their on-orbit data product calibration and validation efforts. The NICSE also works closely with the NPP Instrument Calibration Support Team (NICST) during sensor pre-launch testing in ambient and thermal vacuum environment [2]. This paper provides an overview of NICSE VIIRS sensor post-launch calibration support with a focus on the use of sensor on-board calibrators (OBC) for the radiometric calibration and characterization. It presents the current status of NICSE post-launch radiometric calibration tool development effort based on its design requirements

  16. The sensitivity of NPP to climate controls in northern China estimated by CLM model coupled with RS and GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei; Slusser, James R.; Pan, Xiaoling; Ma, Yingjun

    2003-07-01

    The continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 is considered as a main cause of the future changes in global climate. Predicted climate changes include an increase in mean annual air temperature and alterations in precipitation pattern and cloud cover. Net primary productivity (NPP) measures products of major economic and social importance, such as agricultural crop yield and forest production. It is important to understand the response of vegetation to the possible climate changes. While the Global NPP is hard to be measured directly, its global spatial and temporal dynamics can be investigated by a combination of ecosystem process modeling and monitoring by remote sensing (RS). NPP has been linked to climatic patterns by approaches ranging from simple correlations to sophisticated simulation models. This study was conducted in a range where the productivity and climate exist along an east-west transect in northern China. We used modified Common Land Surface Model (CLM) to simulate the NPP combined with satellite data and assessed the response of NPP under different climate change controls with different land surface vegetation types in study areas. The feasibility of the CLM model was tested and parameterized based on the ecological characteristics. The response of NPP to increased temperature was more sensitive to the doubled CO2 climate because the temperature is the limited factor to vegetation growth in study areas. The responses of NPP to different climate controls were also influenced by different vegetation types and ecological characteristics.

  17. Are Electron Partial Waves Real

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenen, O.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2005-05-01

    Experiments determining the partial wave content of electrons are uncommon. The standard approach to partial wave expansion of the wavefunction of electrons often ignores their spin. In this non-relativistic approximation the partial waves are labeled by their orbital angular momentum quantum number, e.g. d-waves. As our previous work has shown, this non-relativistic approximation usually fails for photoelectrons. Partial waves should be further specified by their total angular momentum. With d-waves for example, one would need to distinguish between d3/2 and d5/2 partial waves. Although energetically degenerate, fully relativistic d3/2 and d5/2 partial waves of photoelectrons have fundamentally different angular distributions. Using experimental and theoretical methods we have developed, we obtain partial wave probabilities of photoelectrons from polarization measurements of ionic fluorescence. We found that for selected states of the residual ion, there are energy regions where the photoelectron is in a single partial wave with predictable angular distributions.

  18. Decontamination of the Shaft no.1 and cleaning container of 2. block NPP Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcha, Jan; Mala, Zuzana; Tilky, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by contamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container. As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1. Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documentation according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1 in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decontamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory experiments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were tested, and most effective practices were selected. Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft. (authors)

  19. Update of the tectonic model for the Pannonian basin: a contribution to the seismic hazard reassessment of the Paks NPP (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Ferenc; Tóth, Tamás; Wórum, Géza; Koroknai, Balázs; Kádi, Zoltán; Kovács, Gábor; Balázs, Attila; Visnovitz, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The planned construction of two new units at the site of the Paks NPP requires a comprehensive site investigation including complete reassessment of the seismic hazard according to the Hungarian as well as international standards. Following the regulations of the Specific Safety Guide no. 9 (IAEA 2010), the approved Hungarian Geological Investigation Program (HGIP) includes integrated geological-geophysical studies at different scales. The regional study aims at to elaborate a new synthesis of all published data for the whole Pannonian basin. This task is nearly completed and the main outcomes have already been published (Horváth et al. 2015). The near regional study is in progress and addresses the construction of a new tectonic model for the circular area with 50 km radius around the NPP using a wealth of unpublished oil company seismic and borehole data. The site vicinity study has also been started with a core activity of 300 km² 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation assisted by a series of additional geophysical surveys, new drillings and geological mapping. This lecture will present a few important results of the near regional study, which sheds new light on the intricate tectonic evolution of the Mid-Hungarian Fault Zone (MHFZ), which is a strongly deformed belt between the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia megatectonic units. The nuclear power plant is located at the margin of the Tisza unit near to the southern edge of the MHFZ. Reassessment of seismic hazard at the site of the NPP requires better understanding of the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of this region in the central part of the Pannonian basin. Early to Middle Miocene was a period of rifting with formation of 1 to 3 km deep half-grabens filled with terrestrial to marine deposits and large amount of rift-related volcanic material. Graben fill became strongly deformed as a consequence of juxtaposition of the two megatectonic units leading to strong compression and development of

  20. Thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one derivatives: Structure-activity relationships of selective nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 (NPP1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Perotti, Arianna; De Jonghe, Steven; Herdewijn, Piet; Hanck, Theodor; Müller, Christa E

    2016-07-15

    Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 (NPP1) is the most important member of the NPP family, which consists of seven closely related proteins (NPP1-NPP7). This glycoprotein is a membrane-associated or secreted enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide range of phosphodiester bonds, e.g., in nucleoside triphosphates, dinucleotides and nucleotide sugars. NPP1 plays a crucial role in various physiological functions including bone mineralization, soft-tissue calcification, and insulin receptor signaling. Recently, an upregulated expression of NPP1 has been observed in astrocytic brain cancers. Therefore, NPP1 has been proposed as a novel drug target for the treatment of glioblastoma. Despite their therapeutic potential, only few NPP1 inhibitors have been reported to date, which are in most cases non- or only moderately selective. The best investigated NPP1 inhibitors so far are nucleotide derivatives and analogs, however they are not orally bioavailable due to their high polarity. We identified thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one derivatives as a new class of NPP1 inhibitors with drug-like properties. Among the 25 derivatives investigated in the present study, 2-[(5-iodo-2-furanyl)methylene]thiazolo[3,2-a]benzimidazol-3(2H)-one (17) was found to be the most potent NPP1 inhibitor with a Ki value of 467nM versus ATP as a substrate and an un-competitive mechanism of inhibition. Compound 17 did not inhibit other human ecto-nucleotidases, including NTPDase1 (CD39), NTPDases2-3, NPP2, NPP3, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN, CD73), and is thus highly selective for NPP1. PMID:27265686

  1. High Productivity Implantation ''PARTIAL IMPLANT''

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

    2008-11-03

    The patterned ion implantation 'PARTIAL IMPLANT' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is 'DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT', that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is 'RING PARTIAL IMPLANT' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

  2. Computer copings for partial coverage.

    PubMed

    Denissen, H; van der Zel, J; Reisig, J; Vlaar, S; de Ruiter, W; van Waas, R

    1999-04-01

    Partial coverage posterior tooth preparations are very complex surfaces for computer surface digitization, computer design, and manufacture of ceramic copings. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the Computer Integrated Crown Reconstruction (Cicero) system was compatible with a proposed partial coverage preparation design and capable of producing ceramic copings. Posterior teeth were prepared for partial coverage copings with deep gingival chamfers in the proximal boxes and around the functional cusps (buccal of mandibular and lingual of maxillary posterior teeth). The nonfunctional cusps (lingual of mandibular and buccal of maxillary posterior teeth) were prepared with broad bevels following the inclined occlusal plane pattern. Optical impressions were taken of stone dies by means of a fast laser-line scanning method that measured the three-dimensional geometry of the partial coverage preparation. Computers digitized the images, and designed and produced the ceramic copings. The Cicero system digitized the partial coverage preparation surfaces precisely with a minor coefficient of variance of 0.2%. The accuracy of the surface digitization, the design, and the computer aided milling showed that the system was capable of producing partial coverage copings with a mean marginal gap of 74 microns. This value was obtained before optimizing the marginal fit by means of porcelain veneering. In summary, Cicero computer technology, i.e., surface digitization, coping design, and manufacture, was compatible with the described partial coverage preparations for posterior teeth. PMID:11351490

  3. Coherent-mode decomposition of partially polarized, partially coherent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Franco; Santarsiero, Massimo; Simon, Raja; Piquero, Gemma; Borghi, Riccardo; Guattari, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that any partially polarized, partially coherent source can be expressed in terms of a suitable superposition of transverse coherent modes with orthogonal polarization states. Such modes are determined through the solution of a system of two coupled integral equations. An example, for which the modal decomposition is obtained in closed form in terms of fully linearly polarized Hermite Gaussian modes, is given.

  4. Coherent-mode decomposition of partially polarized, partially coherent sources.

    PubMed

    Gori, Franco; Santarsiero, Massimo; Simon, Raja; Piquero, Gemma; Borghi, Riccardo; Guattari, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that any partially polarized, partially coherent source can be expressed in terms of a suitable superposition of transverse coherent modes with orthogonal polarization states. Such modes are determined through the solution of a system of two coupled integral equations. An example, for which the modal decomposition is obtained in closed form in terms of fully linearly polarized Hermite Gaussian modes, is given. PMID:12542320

  5. Vicarious Validation of Suomi-NPP/VIIRS Day /Night Band using DOME-C and Greenland under moon-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, S.; Shao, X.; Cao, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. DNB covers almost 7 orders of magnitude in its dynamic range from full sunlight to quarter moon. To achieve this large dynamic range, it uses four charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays in three gain stages. The low gain stage (LGS) gain is calibrated using the solar diffuser. In operations, the medium and high gain stage values are determined by multiplying the gain ratios between the medium gain stage (MGS), and LGS, and high gain stage (HGS) and LGS, respectively. This work focuses on independently verifying the radiometric accuracy and stability of DNB HGS using DNB observation of ground vicarious sites under lunar illumination at night. Dome C in Antarctic and Greenland in northern hemisphere are chosen as the vicarious sites. Nadir observations of these high latitude regions by VIIRS are selected during perpetual night season, i.e. from April to August for Dome C and from Nov. to Jan. for Greenland over the year 2012 to 2013. Additional selection criteria such as lunar phase being more than half moon and no influence of straylight effects are also applied in data selection. Lunar spectral irradiance model, as a function of Sun-Earth-Moon distances and lunar phase, is used to determine the top-of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance at the vicarious site. The vicariously-derived long-term reflectance from DNB observations agrees with the reflectance derived from Hyperion observations. The vicarious trending of DNB radiometric performance using DOME-C and Greenland under moon light shows that the DNB HGS radiometric variability (relative accuracy to lunar irradiance model and Hyperion observation) is within 10%. Residue variability and future work are also discussed.

  6. Radioactive Spent Ion-Exchange Resins Conditioning by the Hot Supercompaction Process at Tihange NPP - Early Experience - 12200

    SciTech Connect

    Braet, Johan; Charpentier, David; Centner, Baudouin; Vanderperre, Serge

    2012-07-01

    costs. Tractebel Engineering has managed the construction of a new application of this process in Belgium at Tihange NPP. Several developments were required to adapt the reference process and equipment to PWR spent ion-exchange bead resins and Belgian radioactive waste acceptance criteria. The chosen method of conditioning (draining, drying and compaction of the spent resins followed by grouting of the pellets in a 400 litres drum) immobilizes the spent resins under the form of a solid, compact, stable, and non dispersible block free of interstitial water. The various series of inactive tests which were conducted at Tihange NPP, helped among others to determine the best design of the compactable drum and lid and to set the value of critical parameters such as vapour temperature at the end of drying, speed, force and duration of compaction. In an environment of very limited space for interim storage and in the absence of an operational final repository site, or in the case of high final disposal costs, the process exhibits the following key advantages: - Achieving a Volume Reduction Factor (VRF) close to 1 (overpack included) for the interim storage instead of increased volumes observed with other currently available processes; - Achieving a water free end product; - Creating a flexible waste product for interim storage (pellet), which can be retrieved and routed into alternative types of package later, if not initially grouted; - Using well proven standard technologies like drying and compaction; - Flexible use of the system components for the supercompaction of other operational solid waste streams when not conducting resins conditioning campaigns. (authors)

  7. [The main radionuclides and dose formation in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Kaglian, A E; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Klenus, V G

    2008-01-01

    The results of the researches of spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, of 137Cs and of transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analysed. The data of estimations of absorbed doze rate from incorporated radionuclides for pray fish and predatory species are given. For the fish from the lake of the left-bank floodplain of the Pripyat River the increase of 90Sr specific activity is registered which is presumably connected with the dynamics of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water bodies from the catchment basin. Now about 90% of internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone is caused by 90Sr incorporation. PMID:18666579

  8. Laparoscopic total and partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin R

    2002-01-01

    Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy has established its role as a standard of care for the management of renal neoplasms. Long term follow-up has demonstrated laparoscopic radical nephrectomy has shorter patient hospitalization and effective cancer control, with no significant difference in survival compared with open radical nephrectomy. For renal masses less than 4cm, partial nephrectomy is indicated for patients with a solitary kidney or who demonstrate impairment of contralateral renal function. The major technical issue for success of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is bleeding control and several techniques have been developed to achieve better hemostatic control. Development of new laparoscopic techniques for partial nephrectomy can be divided into 2 categories: hilar control and warm ischemia vs. no hilar control. Development of a laparoscopic Satinsky clamp has achieved en bloc control of the renal hilum in order to allow cold knife excision of the mass, with laparoscopic repair of the collecting system, if needed. Combination of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with ablative techniques has achieved successful excision of renal masses with adequate hemostasis without hilar clamping. Other techniques without hilar control have been investigated and included the use of a microwave tissue coagulator. In conclusion, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma has clearly demonstrated low morbidity and equivalent cancer control. The rates for local recurrences and metastatic spread are low and actuarial survival high. Furthermore, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy has demonstrated to be technically feasible, with low morbidity. With short term outcomes demonstrating laparoscopic partial nephrectomy as an efficacious procedure, the role of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy should continue to increase. PMID:15748397

  9. Land, Cryosphere, and Nighttime Environmental Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP: http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/). VIIRS was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA and NOAA funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and derived products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the former National Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper will present to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS Land and Cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization (http://viirsland.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html). The paper will also discuss new capabilities being developed at NASA's Land Product Evaluation and Test Element (http://landweb.nascom.nasa.gov/NPP_QA/); including downstream data and products derived from the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB).

  10. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) System Architecture: Suomi-NPP to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furgerson, J.; Layns, A.; Feeley, J. H.; Griffin, A.; Trumbower, G.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). NOAA has overall responsibility for the system including funding and requirements while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched on 28 October, 2011, and is a pathfinder for JPSS and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system. S-NPP and the follow-on JPSS satellites will operate in the 1330 LTAN orbit. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in early 2017. NASA is developing the Common Ground System which will process JPSS data and has the flexibility to process data from other satellites. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for S-NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes S-NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to U.S. and international partners as well as remote terminal users throughout the world.