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Sample records for nrt gadolinium tagging

  1. Convection enhanced delivery of different molecular weight tracers of gadolinium-tagged polylysine.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Peter A; Keeley, Dan; Schorn, Greg; Forman, Eric; Ai, Yi; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Zhang, Zhiming; Bradley, Luke H

    2013-09-30

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a powerful method of circumventing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver therapeutic compounds directly to the CNS. While inferring the CED distribution of a therapeutic compound by imaging a magnetic resonance (MR)-sensitive tracer has many advantages, however how the compound distribution is affected by the features of the delivery system, its target tissue, and its molecular properties, such as its binding characteristics, charge, and molecular weight (MW) are not fully understood. We used MR imaging of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-tagged polylysine compounds of various MW, in vitro and in vivo, to measure the dependence of compounds MW on CED distribution. For the in vitro studies, the correlation between volume of distribution (Vd) as a function of MW was determined by measuring the T1 of the infused tracers, into 0.6% agarose gels through a multiport catheter. The compounds distributed in the gels inversely proportional to their MW, consistent with convection and unobstructed diffusion through a porous media. For the in vivo studies, Gd-DTPA tagged compounds were infused into the non-human primate putamen, via an implanted multiport catheter connected to a MedStream™ pump, programmed to deliver a predetermined volume with alternating on-off periods to take advantage of the convective and diffusive contributions to Vd. Unlike the gel studies, the higher MW polylysine-tracer infusions did not freely distribute from the multiport catheter in the putamen, suggesting that distribution was impeded by other properties that should also be considered in future tracer design and CED infusion protocols. PMID:23912025

  2. MI2TC_CMV_HDF_NRT

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-08

    MI2TC_CMV_HDF_NRT MISR Level 2 Cloud Motion Vectors product in near real time as HDF format files Project Title:  MISR Discipline:  ... 1 session (10-50 minutes) File Format:  HDF Tools:  HTTP Access: Data Pool Search and Order:  ...

  3. The Nitrate Transporter (NRT) Gene Family in Poplar

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Euring, Dejuan; Volmer, Katharina; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate is an important nutrient required for plant growth. It also acts as a signal regulating plant development. Nitrate is actively taken up and transported by nitrate transporters (NRT), which form a large family with many members and distinct functions. In contrast to Arabidopsis and rice there is little information about the NRT family in woody plants such as Populus. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus NRT family was performed. Sixty-eight PtNRT1/PTR, 6 PtNRT2, and 5 PtNRT3 genes were identified in the P. trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the genes of the NRT family are divided into three clades: NRT1/PTR with four subclades, NRT2, and NRT3. Topological analysis indicated that all members of PtNRT1/PTR and PtNRT2 have 8 to 12 trans-membrane domains, whereas the PtNRT3 proteins have no or up to two trans-membrane domains. Four PtNRT3 members were predicted as secreted proteins. Microarray analyses revealed tissue-specific expression patterns of PtNRT genes with distinct clusters of NRTs for roots, for the elongation zone of the apical stem segment and the developing xylem and a further cluster for leaves, bark and wood. A comparison of different poplar species (P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, P. euphratica, P. fremontii x P. angustifolia, and P. x canescens) showed that the tissue-specific patterns of the NRT genes varied to some extent with species. Bioinformatic analysis of putative cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of PtNRT family retrieved motifs suggesting the regulation of the NRT genes by N metabolism, by energy and carbon metabolism, and by phytohormones and stress. Multivariate analysis suggested that the combination and abundance of motifs in distinct promoters may lead to tissue-specificity. Our genome wide analysis of the PtNRT genes provides a valuable basis for functional analysis towards understanding the role of nitrate transporters for tree growth. PMID:23977227

  4. Aspergillus oryzae nrtA affects kojic acid production.

    PubMed

    Sano, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the role of the nitrate transporter-encoding gene (nrtA) of Aspergillus oryzae by gene disruption. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that homologous recombination occurred at the resident nrtA locus. Real-time PCR showed that the nrtA gene was strongly inducible by NaNO3. The nrtA disruptant did not exhibit normal growth when nitrate was available as the sole nitrogen source. These results indicate that NrtA is essential for nitrate uptake in A. oryzae. Kojic acid (KA) production was inhibited by the addition of a small amount of sodium nitrate. The nrtA-disrupted strain was deficient in the uptake of nitrate. As a result, KA production in this strain was not considerably affected by the presence of nitrate. PMID:27108780

  5. Informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities: Lessons learned from NASA's Land Atmosphere NRT capability for EOS (LANCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery from Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3 hours from satellite observation, to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes the architecture of the LANCE and outlines the modifications made to achieve the 3-hour latency requirement with a view to informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities. It also describes how latency is determined. LANCE is a distributed system that builds on the existing EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) capabilities. To achieve the NRT latency requirement, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems have been made more efficient without compromising the quality of science data processing. The EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) processes the NRT stream with higher priority than the science data stream in order to minimize latency. In addition to expediting transfer times, the key difference between the NRT Level 0 products and those for standard science processing is the data used to determine the precise location and tilt of the satellite. Standard products use definitive geo-location (attitude and ephemeris) data provided daily, whereas NRT products use predicted geo-location provided by the instrument Global Positioning System (GPS) or approximation of navigational data (depending on platform). Level 0 data are processed in to higher-level products at designated Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). The processes used by LANCE have been streamlined and adapted to work with datasets as soon as they are downlinked from satellites or transmitted from ground stations. Level 2 products that require ancillary data have modified production rules to relax the requirements for ancillary data so reducing processing times. Looking to the future, experience gained from LANCE can provide valuable lessons on

  6. High-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters NrtA and NrtB of Aspergillus nidulans exhibit high specificity and different inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naureen; Karabika, Eugenia; Kinghorn, James R; Glass, Anthony D M; Unkles, Shiela E; Rouch, Duncan A

    2015-07-01

    The NrtA and NrtB nitrate transporters are paralogous members of the major facilitator superfamily in Aspergillus nidulans. The availability of loss-of-function mutations allowed individual investigation of the specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of both NrtA and NrtB. In this study, growth response tests were carried out at a growth-limiting concentration of nitrate (1 mM) as the sole nitrogen source, in the presence of a number of potential nitrate analogues at various concentrations, to evaluate their effect on nitrate transport. Both chlorate and chlorite inhibited fungal growth, with chlorite exerting the greater inhibition. The main transporter of nitrate, NrtA, proved to be more sensitive to chlorate than the minor transporter, NrtB. Similarly, the cation caesium was shown to exert differential effects, strongly inhibiting the activity of NrtB, but not NrtA. In contrast, no inhibition of nitrate uptake by NrtA or NrtB transporters was observed in either growth tests or uptake assays in the presence of bicarbonate, formate, malonate or oxalate (sulphite could not be tested in uptake assays owing to its reaction with nitrate), indicating significant specificity of nitrate transport. Kinetic analyses of nitrate uptake revealed that both chlorate and chlorite inhibited NrtA competitively, while these same inhibitors inhibited NrtB in a non-competitive fashion. The caesium ion appeared to inhibit NrtA in a non-competitive fashion, while NrtB was inhibited uncompetitively. The results provide further evidence of the distinctly different characteristics as well as the high specificity of nitrate uptake by these two transporters. PMID:25855763

  7. High-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters NrtA and NrtB of Aspergillus nidulans exhibit high specificity and different inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naureen; Karabika, Eugenia; Kinghorn, James R.; Glass, Anthony D.M.; Unkles, Shiela E.

    2015-01-01

    The NrtA and NrtB nitrate transporters are paralogous members of the major facilitator superfamily in Aspergillus nidulans. The availability of loss-of-function mutations allowed individual investigation of the specificity and inhibitor sensitivity of both NrtA and NrtB. In this study, growth response tests were carried out at a growth-limiting concentration of nitrate (1 mM) as the sole nitrogen source, in the presence of a number of potential nitrate analogues at various concentrations, to evaluate their effect on nitrate transport. Both chlorate and chlorite inhibited fungal growth, with chlorite exerting the greater inhibition. The main transporter of nitrate, NrtA, proved to be more sensitive to chlorate than the minor transporter, NrtB. Similarly, the cation caesium was shown to exert differential effects, strongly inhibiting the activity of NrtB, but not NrtA. In contrast, no inhibition of nitrate uptake by NrtA or NrtB transporters was observed in either growth tests or uptake assays in the presence of bicarbonate, formate, malonate or oxalate (sulphite could not be tested in uptake assays owing to its reaction with nitrate), indicating significant specificity of nitrate transport. Kinetic analyses of nitrate uptake revealed that both chlorate and chlorite inhibited NrtA competitively, while these same inhibitors inhibited NrtB in a non-competitive fashion. The caesium ion appeared to inhibit NrtA in a non-competitive fashion, while NrtB was inhibited uncompetitively. The results provide further evidence of the distinctly different characteristics as well as the high specificity of nitrate uptake by these two transporters. PMID:25855763

  8. NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, Brandon Lee; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2015-10-01

    This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.

  9. Cloning of chrysanthemum high-affinity nitrate transporter family (CmNRT2) and characterization of CmNRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Haibin; Li, Ting; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    The family of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2 (NRT2) proteins belongs to the high affinity transport system (HATS) proteins which acts at low nitrate concentrations. The relevant gene content of the chrysanthemum genome was explored here by isolating the full length sequences of six distinct CmNRT2 genes. One of these (CmNRT2.1) was investigated at the functional level. Its transcription level was inducible by low concentrations of both nitrate and ammonium. A yeast two hybrid assay showed that CmNRT2.1 interacts with CmNAR2, while a BiFC assay demonstrated that the interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2.1 displayed an enhanced rate of labeled nitrogen uptake, suggesting that CmNRT2.1 represents a high affinity root nitrate transporter. PMID:27004464

  10. Cloning of chrysanthemum high-affinity nitrate transporter family (CmNRT2) and characterization of CmNRT2.1

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Haibin; Li, Ting; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2016-01-01

    The family of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 2 (NRT2) proteins belongs to the high affinity transport system (HATS) proteins which acts at low nitrate concentrations. The relevant gene content of the chrysanthemum genome was explored here by isolating the full length sequences of six distinct CmNRT2 genes. One of these (CmNRT2.1) was investigated at the functional level. Its transcription level was inducible by low concentrations of both nitrate and ammonium. A yeast two hybrid assay showed that CmNRT2.1 interacts with CmNAR2, while a BiFC assay demonstrated that the interaction occurs at the plasma membrane. Arabidopsis thaliana plants heterologously expressing CmNRT2.1 displayed an enhanced rate of labeled nitrogen uptake, suggesting that CmNRT2.1 represents a high affinity root nitrate transporter. PMID:27004464

  11. Gadolinium photoionization process

    DOEpatents

    Paisner, J.A.; Comaskey, B.J.; Haynam, C.A.; Eggert, J.H.

    1993-04-13

    A method is provided for selective photoionization of the odd-numbered atomic mass gadolinium isotopes 155 and 157. The selective photoionization is accomplished by circular or linear parallel polarized laser beam energy effecting a three-step photoionization pathway.

  12. Gadolinium photoionization process

    DOEpatents

    Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Haynam, Christopher A.; Eggert, Jon H.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for selective photoionization of the odd-numbered atomic mass gadolinium isotopes 155 and 157. The selective photoionization is accomplished by circular or linear parallel polarized laser beam energy effecting a three-step photoionization pathway.

  13. Characterization of the Nrt2.6 Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana: A Link with Plant Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dechorgnat, Julie; Patrit, Oriane; Krapp, Anne; Fagard, Mathilde; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    The high affinity nitrate transport system in Arabidopsis thaliana involves one gene and potentially seven genes from the NRT1 and NRT2 family, respectively. Among them, NRT2.1, NRT2.2, NRT2.4 and NRT2.7 proteins have been shown to transport nitrate and are localized on the plasmalemma or the tonoplast membranes. NRT2.1, NRT2.2 and NRT2.4 play a role in nitrate uptake from soil solution by root cells while NRT2.7 is responsible for nitrate loading in the seed vacuole. We have undertaken the functional characterization of a third member of the family, the NRT2.6 gene. NRT2.6 was weakly expressed in most plant organs and its expression was higher in vegetative organs than in reproductive organs. Contrary to other NRT2 members, NRT2.6 expression was not induced by limiting but rather by high nitrogen levels, and no nitrate-related phenotype was found in the nrt2.6-1 mutant. Consistently, the over-expression of the gene failed to complement the nitrate uptake defect of an nrt2.1-nrt2.2 double mutant. The NRT2.6 expression is induced after inoculation of Arabidopsis thaliana by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. Interestingly, plants with a decreased NRT2.6 expression showed a lower tolerance to pathogen attack. A correlation was found between NRT2.6 expression and ROS species accumulation in response to infection by E. amylovora and treatment with the redox-active herbicide methyl viologen, suggesting a probable link between NRT2.6 activity and the production of ROS in response to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:22880003

  14. Isolation and characterization of the Chrysanthemum nitrate transporter CmNRT1.

    PubMed

    Gu, C S; Zhang, X X; Chen, S M; Li, T; Chen, Y; Jiang, J F; Chen, F D

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the nitrate transporter gene CmNRT1 was isolated from the chrysanthemum variety 'Nannongxuefeng'. The full-length cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1761 bp encoding 587 residues. Using qRT-PCR, we found that CmNRT1 was induced by 10 mM NO3(-) in roots and shoots. Two Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic plants expressing CmNRT1 were selected for functional analyses. Root (15)N influx in wild-type and transgenic A. thaliana lines under 10 or 0.2 mM (15)NO3 was tested. Our results indicate that CmNRT1 encodes a constitutive component for a low-affinity transporter. PMID:26909921

  15. Arabidopsis NRT1.5 Is Another Essential Component in the Regulation of Nitrate Reallocation and Stress Tolerance1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Zhu; Lv, Xin-Fang; Li, Jian-Yong; Yi, Hong-Ying; Gong, Ji-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate reallocation to plant roots occurs frequently under adverse conditions and was recently characterized to be actively regulated by Nitrate Transporter1.8 (NRT1.8) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and implicated as a common response to stresses. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be determined. In this study, characterization of NRT1.5, a xylem nitrate-loading transporter, showed that the mRNA level of NRT1.5 is down-regulated by salt, drought, and cadmium treatments. Functional disruption of NRT1.5 enhanced tolerance to salt, drought, and cadmium stresses. Further analyses showed that nitrate, as well as Na+ and Cd2+ levels, were significantly increased in nrt1.5 roots. Important genes including Na+/H+ exchanger1, Salt overly sensitive1, Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase1, Responsive to desiccation29A, Phytochelatin synthase1, and NRT1.8 in stress response pathways are steadily up-regulated in nrt1.5 mutant plants. Interestingly, altered accumulation of metabolites, including proline and malondialdehyde, was also observed in nrt1.5 plants. These data suggest that NRT1.5 is involved in nitrate allocation to roots and the consequent tolerance to several stresses, in a mechanism probably shared with NRT1.8. PMID:22685171

  16. Arabidopsis NRT1.5 Mediates the Suppression of Nitrate Starvation-Induced Leaf Senescence by Modulating Foliar Potassium Level.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shuan; Peng, Jia-Shi; He, Ya-Ni; Zhang, Guo-Bin; Yi, Hong-Ying; Fu, Yan-Lei; Gong, Ji-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen deficiency induces leaf senescence. However, whether or how nitrate might affect this process remains to be investigated. Here, we report an interesting finding that nitrate-instead of nitrogen-starvation induced early leaf senescence in nrt1.5 mutant, and present genetic and physiological data demonstrating that nitrate starvation-induced leaf senescence is suppressed by NRT1.5. NRT1.5 suppresses the senescence process dependent on its function from roots, but not the nitrate transport function. Further analyses using nrt1.5 single and nia1 nia2 nrt1.5-4 triple mutant showed a negative correlation between nitrate concentration and senescence rate in leaves. Moreover, when exposed to nitrate starvation, foliar potassium level decreased in nrt1.5, but adding potassium could essentially restore the early leaf senescence phenotype of nrt1.5 plants. Nitrate starvation also downregulated the expression of HAK5, RAP2.11, and ANN1 in nrt1.5 roots, and appeared to alter potassium level in xylem sap from nrt1.5. These data suggest that NRT1.5 likely perceives nitrate starvation-derived signals to prevent leaf senescence by facilitating foliar potassium accumulation. PMID:26732494

  17. About a Gadolinium-doped Water Cherenkov LAGUNA Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Labarga, Luis

    2010-11-24

    Water Cherenkov (wC) detectors are extremely powerful apparatuses for scientific research. Nevertheless they lack of neutron tagging capabilities, which translates, mainly, into an inability to identify the anti-matter nature of the reacting incoming anti-neutrino particles. A solution was proposed by R. Beacon and M. Vagins back in 2004: by dissolving in the water a compound with nucleus with very large cross section for neutron capture like the Gadolinium, with a corresponding emission of photons of enough energy to be detected, they can tag thermal neutrons with an efficiency larger than 80%. In this talk we detail the technique and its implications in the measurement capabilities and, as well, the new backgrounds induced. We discuss the improvement on their physics program, also for the case of LAGUNA type detectors. We comment shortly the status of the pioneering R and D program of the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration towards dissolving a Gadolinium compound in its water.

  18. About a Gadolinium-doped Water Cherenkov LAGUNA Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labarga, Luis

    2010-11-01

    Water Cherenkov (wC) detectors are extremely powerful apparatuses for scientific research. Nevertheless they lack of neutron tagging capabilities, which translates, mainly, into an inability to identify the anti-matter nature of the reacting incoming anti-neutrino particles. A solution was proposed by R. Beacon and M. Vagins back in 2004: by dissolving in the water a compound with nucleus with very large cross section for neutron capture like the Gadolinium, with a corresponding emission of photons of enough energy to be detected, they can tag thermal neutrons with an efficiency larger than 80%. In this talk we detail the technique and its implications in the measurement capabilities and, as well, the new backgrounds induced. We discuss the improvement on their physics program, also for the case of LAGUNA type detectors. We comment shortly the status of the pioneering R&D program of the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration towards dissolving a Gadolinium compound in its water.

  19. Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Todd, Derrick J; Kay, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF. PMID:26768242

  20. Crystal structure of the plant dual-affinity nitrate transporter NRT1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ji; Bankston, John R.; Payandeh, Jian; Hinds, Thomas R.; Zagotta, William N.; Zheng, Ning

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate is a primary nutrient for plant growth, but its levels in soil can fluctuate by several orders of magnitude. Previous studies have identified Arabidopsis NRT1.1 as a dual-affinity nitrate transporter that can take up nitrate over a wide range of concentrations. The mode of action of NRT1.1 is controlled by phosphorylation of a key residue, Thr 101 however, how this post-translational modification switches the transporter between two affinity states remains unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of unphosphorylated NRT1.1, which reveals an unexpected homodimer in the inward-facing conformation. In this low-affinity state, the Thr 101 phosphorylation site is embedded in a pocket immediately adjacent to the dimer interface, linking the phosphorylation status of the transporter to its oligomeric state. Using a cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we show that functional NRT1.1 dimerizes in the cell membrane and that the phosphomimetic mutation of Thr 101 converts the protein into a monophasic high-affinity transporter by structurally decoupling the dimer. Together with analyses of the substrate transport tunnel, our results establish a phosphorylation-controlled dimerization switch that allows NRT1.1 to uptake nitrate with two distinct affinity modes.

  1. Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Plant NRT1.1 Dual-Affinity Nitrate Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ji; Zheng, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3−) is one of the most important sources of mineral nitrogen, which also serves as a key signaling molecule for plant growth and development. To cope with nitrate fluctuation in soil that varies by up to four orders of magnitude, plants have evolved high- and low-affinity nitrate transporter systems, consisting of distinct families of transporters. Interestingly, the first cloned nitrate transporter in Arabidopsis, NRT1.1 functions as a dual-affinity transporter, which can change its affinity for nitrate in response to substrate availability. Phosphorylation of a threonine residue, Thr101, switches NRT1.1 from low- to high-affinity state. Recent structural studies have unveiled that the unmodified NRT1.1 transporter works as homodimers with Thr101 located in close proximity to the dimer interface. Modification on the Thr101 residue is shown to not only decouple the dimer configuration, but also increase structural flexibility, thereby, altering the substrate affinity of NRT1.1. The structure of NRT1.1 helps establish a novel paradigm in which protein oligomerzation and posttranslational modification can synergistically expand the functional capacity of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters. PMID:26733879

  2. A primer on gadolinium chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, A. Dean; Caravan, Peter; Lenkinski, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Gadolinium is widely known by all practitioners of MRI but few appreciate the basic solution chemistry of this trivalent lanthanide ion. Given the recent linkage between gadolinium contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, some basic chemistry of this ion must be more widely understood. This short primer on gadolinium chemistry is intended to provide the reader the background principles necessary to understand the basics of chelation chemistry, water hydration numbers, and the differences between thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability or inertness. We illustrate the fundamental importance of kinetic dissociation rates in determining gadolinium toxicity in vivo by presenting new data for a novel europium DOTA-tetraamide complex that is relatively unstable thermodynamically yet extraordinarily inert kinetically and also quite non-toxic. This, plus other literature evidence forms the basis of the fundamental axiom that it is the kinetic stability of a gadolinium complex, not its thermodynamic stability, that determines its in vivo toxicity. PMID:19938036

  3. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: An inherited tendency to have this facial feature A genetic syndrome that includes having these pits or tags A sinus tract problem (an abnormal connection between the skin and tissue underneath) When to Contact a Medical Professional Your provider will usually find the skin tag ...

  4. Evaluation of NRT and behavioral measures for MAPping elderly cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Pedley, Karen; Psarros, Colleen; Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Parker, Alison; Purdy, Suzanne C; Dawson, Pam; Plant, Kerrie

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the acceptability of electrophysiologically derived MAPs and the effect of these MAPs on speech perception in elderly adults using Nucleus 24 cochlear implants. Eight implant recipients aged 75 years or older trialed an electrophysiologically derived MAP and a behavioral MAP. The electrophysiologically derived MAP was based on the threshold and maximum comfort level for electrode 10 and evoked compound action potential thresholds measured on six electrodes using neural response telemetry (NRT). Word perception at 55 dB SPL and sentence perception in noise at 70 dB SPL were assessed after six weeks take-home experience and again after an additional two weeks of experience. During the final two weeks of take-home experience participants indicated their preferred MAP for different listening situations. The NRT derived MAP estimated behavioral T levels well, but underestimated behavioral C levels for apical electrodes in some subjects. Speech perception with NRT derived MAPs was comparable to speech perception with behaviorally measured MAPs. MAPs estimated from NRT data provided good speech perception outcomes for elderly implant recipients and were well tolerated. PMID:17487673

  5. Validation of satellite precipitation product GSMaP/NRT with ground rain gauges in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Ohta, Tetsu; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    The Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Near Real Time data (GSMaP/NRT) is one of the satellite precipitation datasets which is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency with time resolution of 1 hour and spatial resolution of 0.1 degrees. Since it is published approximately 4 hours after the observation, it is expected to contribute to the early warning of floods and water resource management in developing countries as well which have poor ground observation network. Our target area, Cambodia in the Indochina Peninsula, is one of such countries. However, there had been few ground rain gauges so that it had been impossible to validate GSMaP/NRT. Thus, the accuracy of GSMaP/NRT in this area had been unclear. One of the major characteristics of this area is that it has a vast lake area with water surface temperature of more than 30 degrees all year round. With this lake surface, it has been relieved that a unique local atmospheric circulation and its associated precipitation occur in this area. In order to validate the rainfall amount in this area, we rehabilitated and newly installed rain gauges. As a result, we have 34 automatic rain-gauges now and data is available from September 2009. Using this data as well as hourly rainfall amount from GSMaP/NRT and brightness temperature (TB) from Multi-functional Transport Satellite Infrared 1 channel (MTSAT/IR1), we analyzed the error tendency of the GSMaP/NRT product. The analysis showed that the relationship between rain gauges and GSMaP/NRT were very poor. Especially, strong rainfall events in full-monsoon season over land with 208K < TB < 253K and those in post-monsoon season over the lake with TB < 208K were very much underestimated by GSMaP/NRT. The results suggest that it is still difficult to use GSMaP/NRT data for hydrological applications to get soil moisture distribution and river discharge in this area, especially at small river basins. In addition, although many rainfall events were produced by GSMaP/NRT

  6. Laserspektroskopie Gadoliniums Fingerabdruck

    SciTech Connect

    Blaum, Klaus; Bushaw, Bruce A.; Nortershauser, Wilfried

    2003-05-31

    The minimum energy that is required to remove the first electron from e neutral atom, one call ionization energy E1. It is not only for every element of the periodic table but also even for every nuclide characteristic and therefore belongs to the most basic atomic properties. The ionization energy is important for the determination of a ‘row’ of properties, from the chemical reactivity to the color light absorbed and emitted from an atom. The value of E1 depends on the stationary state that the farthest electron originally occupies. If the electron finds itself, however, in the first excited stat, only 3.4 eV is required. Previously the ionization energy could be determined with high accuracy in the range of 10-8 by means of laser spectroscopy only for atoms with one or two valence electrons, whereby the most accurate to date result from measurements on Hydrogen. We could now, for the first time in a rare earth element, reach that kind of accuracy. Motivation for these investigations was the development of an analysis method for the ultra-trace detection of Gadolinium in tissue- and meteorite samples.

  7. NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE): Changing patterns in the use of NRT satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D.; Michael, K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Harrison, S.; Ding, F.; Durbin, P. B.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Rinsland, P. L.; Ye, G.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery approximately 3 hours from satellite observation, to monitor natural events globally and to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes LANCE, and how the use of NRT data and imagery has evolved. Since 2010 there has been a four-fold increase in both the volume of data and the number of files downloaded. Over the last year there has been a marked shift in the way in which users are accessing NRT imagery; users are gravitating towards Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and away from MODIS Rapid Response, in part due to the increased exposure through social media. In turn this is leading to a broader range of users viewing NASA NRT imagery. This article also describes new, and planned, product enhancements to LANCE. Over the last year, LANCE has expanded to support NRT products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). LANCE elements are also planning to ingest and process NRT data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and the advanced Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite in the near future.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Lukashenko, G.M.; Polotskaya, R.I.

    1986-11-01

    The authors determine the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, formation heat, and other thermodynamic properties of gadolinium disilicide by measuring the electromotive force in the 830-960 K temperature range in electrolytes consisting of molten tin and various chlorides. The relationship of these properties to crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  9. A putative 6-transmembrane nitrate transporter OsNRT1.1b plays a key role in rice under low nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaorong; Feng, Huimin; Tan, Yawen; Xu, Yanling; Miao, Qisong; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-01

    OsNRT1.1a is a low-affinity nitrate (NO3 (-) ) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a-expressing oocytes accumulated (15) N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes treated with 0.25 mM NO3 (-) confirmed (15) N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild-type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared to the WT in 1.25 mM NH4 NO3 and 2.5 mM NO3 (-) or NH4 (+) treatments, but not in 0.125 mM NH4 NO3 . However, OsNRT1.1b overexpression lines increased total N accumulation in all N treatments, including 0.125 mM NH4 NO3 , suggesting that under low N condition, OsNRT1.1b would accumulate more N in plants and improve rice growth, but also that OsNRT1.1a had no such function in rice plants. PMID:26220694

  10. The Arabidopsis transposable element Tag1 is widely distributed among Arabidopsis ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Frank, M J; Preuss, D; Mack, A; Kuhlmann, T C; Crawford, N M

    1998-02-01

    Tag1 is an autonomous transposable element (3.3 kb in length) first identified as an insertion in the CHL1 (NRT1) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Tag1 has been found in the Landsberg erecta ecotype of A. thaliana but not in Columbia or WS. In this paper, 41 additional ecotypes were examined for the presence of Tag1. Using an internal Tag1 fragment as probe, we found that DNA form 19 of the 41 ecotypes strongly hybridized to Tag1. Almost all of the Tag1-containing ecotypes had only one or two copies of Tag1 per haploid genome, as determined by Southern blot analysis. The only exception, Bf-1 from Bretagny-sur-Orge, France, had four copies. Two ecotypes, Di-G and S96, gave identical Southern blot patterns to that of Landsberg erecta and were subsequently shown to contain Tag1 at the same two positions found in Landsberg erecta (loci designated as Tag1-2 and Tag1-3). Two other ecotypes, Ag-0 and Lo-1, had a Tag1 element located at Tag1-2 but not at Tag1-3. The distance between these two loci was determined to be 0.37 cM. Analysis of DNA from two related species, A. griffithiana and A. pumila, showed that both species contain sequences that hybridize to Tag1 and that could be amplified with an oligonucleotide specific to the terminal inverted repeats of Tag1. These results show that Tag1 and related elements are present, and may be useful for insertional mutagenesis, in many A. thaliana ecotypes and several Arabidopsis species. PMID:9529529

  11. Tumor growth suppression by gadolinium-neutron capture therapy using gadolinium-entrapped liposome as gadolinium delivery agent.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Zhu, Haito; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sekino, Masaki; Sakurai, Yuriko; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Nagasaki, Takeshi; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nagasaki, Yukio; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising non-invasive cancer therapy approach and some recent NCT research has focused on using compounds containing gadolinium as an alternative to currently used boron-10 considering several advantages that gadolinium offers compared to those of boron. In this study, we evaluated gadolinium-entrapped liposome compound as neutron capture therapy agent by in vivo experiment on colon-26 tumor-bearing mice. Gadolinium compound were injected intravenously via tail vein and allowed to accumulate into tumor site. Tumor samples were taken for quantitative analysis by ICP-MS at 2, 12, and 24 h after gadolinium compound injection. Highest gadolinium concentration was observed at about 2 h after gadolinium compound injection with an average of 40.3 μg/g of wet tumor tissue. We performed neutron irradiation at JRR-4 reactor facility of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in Tokaimura with average neutron fluence of 2×10¹² n/cm². The experimental results showed that the tumor growth suppression of gadolinium-injected irradiated group was revealed until about four times higher compared to the control group, and no significant weight loss were observed after treatment suggesting low systemic toxicity of this compound. The gadolinium-entrapped liposome will become one of the candidates for Gd delivery system on NCT. PMID:23743325

  12. Shark Tagging Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current: The Journal of Marine Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    In this group activity, children learn about the purpose of tagging and how scientists tag a shark. Using a cut-out of a shark, students identify, measure, record data, read coordinates, and tag a shark. Includes introductory information about the purpose of tagging and the procedure, a data sheet showing original tagging data from Tampa Bay, and…

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOR071C encodes the high affinity nicotinamide riboside transporter Nrt1.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Peter A; Moga, Tiberiu G; Brenner, Charles

    2008-03-28

    NAD(+) is an essential coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD(+)-consuming enzymes. Nicotinamide riboside is a recently discovered eukaryotic NAD(+) precursor converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway and by nucleosidase activity and nicotinamide salvage. Nicotinamide riboside supplementation of yeast extends replicative life span on high glucose medium. The molecular basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake was unknown in any eukaryote. Here, we show that deletion of a single gene, YOR071C, abrogates nicotinamide riboside uptake without altering nicotinic acid or nicotinamide import. The gene, which is negatively regulated by Sum1, Hst1, and Rfm1, fully restores nicotinamide riboside import and utilization when resupplied to mutant yeast cells. The encoded polypeptide, Nrt1, is a predicted deca-spanning membrane protein related to the thiamine transporter, which functions as a pH-dependent facilitator with a K(m) for nicotinamide riboside of 22 microm. Nrt1-related molecules are conserved in particular fungi, suggesting a similar basis for nicotinamide riboside uptake. PMID:18258590

  14. GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S

    2008-01-30

    Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

  15. High-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporter genes (Nrt2) in Tisochrysis lutea: identification and expression analyses reveal some interesting specificities of Haptophyta microalgae.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Aurélie; Bérard, Jean-Baptiste; Bougaran, Gaël; Carrier, Grégory; Lukomska, Ewa; Schreiber, Nathalie; Fournier, Flora; Charrier, Aurélie F; Rouxel, Catherine; Garnier, Matthieu; Cadoret, Jean-Paul; Saint-Jean, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae have a diversity of industrial applications such as feed, food ingredients, depuration processes and energy. However, microalgal production costs could be substantially improved by controlling nutrient intake. Accordingly, a better understanding of microalgal nitrogen metabolism is essential. Using in silico analysis from transcriptomic data concerning the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea, four genes encoding putative high-affinity nitrate/nitrite transporters (TlNrt2) were identified. Unlike most of the land plants and microalgae, cloning of genomic sequences and their alignment with complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences did not reveal the presence of introns in all TlNrt2 genes. The deduced TlNRT2 protein sequences showed similarities to NRT2 proteins of other phyla such as land plants and green algae. However, some interesting specificities only known among Haptophyta were also revealed, especially an additional sequence of 100 amino acids forming an atypical extracellular loop located between transmembrane domains 9 and 10 and the function of which remains to be elucidated. Analyses of individual TlNrt2 gene expression with different nitrogen sources and concentrations were performed. TlNrt2.1 and TlNrt2.3 were strongly induced by low NO3 (-) concentration and repressed by NH4 (+) substrate and were classified as inducible genes. TlNrt2.2 was characterized by a constitutive pattern whatever the substrate. Finally, TlNrt2.4 displayed an atypical response that was not reported earlier in literature. Interestingly, expression of TlNrt2.4 was rather related to internal nitrogen quota level than external nitrogen concentration. This first study on nitrogen metabolism of T. lutea opens avenues for future investigations on the function of these genes and their implication for industrial applications. PMID:25640753

  16. Dual regulation of root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporins by plant nitrate accumulation and high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The water status and mineral nutrition of plants critically determine their growth and development. Nitrate (NO3(-)), the primary nitrogen source of higher plants, is known to impact the water transport capacity of roots (root hydraulic conductivity, Lpr). To explore the effects and mode of action of NO3(-) on Lpr, we used an extended set of NO3(-) transport (nrt1.1, nrt1.2, nrt1.5 and nrt2.1), signaling (nrt1.1 and nrt2.1) and metabolism (nia) mutants in Arabidopsis, grown under various NO3(-) conditions. First, a strong positive relationship between Lpr and NO3(-) accumulation, in shoots rather than in roots, was revealed. Secondly, a specific 30% reduction of Lpr in nrt2.1 plants unraveled a major role for the high-affinity NO3(-) transporter NRT2.1 in increasing Lpr These results indicate that NO3(-)signaling rather than nitrogen assimilation products governs Lpr in Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to investigate the effects of NO3(-) availability on plasma membrane aquaporin (plasma membrane intrinsic protein; PIP) expression. Whereas PIP regulation mostly occurs at the post-translational level in wild-type plants, a regulation of PIPs at both the transcriptional and translational levels was uncovered in nrt2.1 plants. In conclusion, this work reveals that control of Arabidopsis Lpr and PIP functions by NO3(-) involves novel shoot to root signaling and NRT2.1-dependent functions. PMID:26823528

  17. Metals Fact Sheet: Gadolinium GD

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    Gadolinium is a silvery-white, malleable, ductile metallic element used to improve the high-temperature characteristics of iron, chromium, and related metallic alloys. It was named after the French chemist, Gadolin, discoverer of yttrium. This article discusses sources of the element, the world supply and demand, and also a number of applications. With the largest thermal neutron absorption cross section of any element, one of these applications is as a burnable poison in reactors and as neutron absorbers in other nuclear devices.

  18. NRT Atmospheric Water Vapour Retrieval on the Area of Poland at IGG WUELS AC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplon, Jan; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Sierny, Jan; Hadas, Tomasz; Rohm, Witold; Wilgan, Karina; Ryczywolski, Marcin; Oruba, Artur; Kroszczynski, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are designed for positioning, navigation and amongst other possible applications it can also be used to derive information about the state of the atmosphere. Continuous observations from GNSS receivers provide an excellent tool for studying the neutral atmosphere, currently in near real-time. The Near Real-Time (NRT) neutral atmosphere and water vapour distribution models are currently obtained with high resolution from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS), where reference stations are equipped with GNSS and meteorological sensors. The Poland territory is covered by dense network of GNSS stations in the frame of GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). This system was established in year 2008 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in the frame of the EUPOS project (www.eupos.org) for providing positioning services. The GNSS data are available from 130 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, airports meteorological stations (METAR messages stations), and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (IGG) of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences had created permanent NRT service of ZTD (Zenith Total Delay) estimation for the area of Poland from GPS observations called IGGHZG. The first part of the paper presents the methodology of NRT GNSS data processing for ASG-EUPOS stations for ZTD estimation and its comparison to the results coming from EPN ACs and Military University of Technology in Warsaw AC (MUT AC). Second part covers the procedure of IWV (atmospheric Integrated Water Vapour content) estimation at IGG from IGGHZG product and ZHD (Zenith Hydrostatic Delay) derived from Saastamoinen formula (1972

  19. Agronomic nitrogen-use efficiency of rice can be increased by driving OsNRT2.1 expression with the OsNAR2.1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingguang; Zhang, Yong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Longlong; Xu, Guohua; Fan, Xiaorong

    2016-08-01

    The importance of the nitrate (NO3-) transporter for yield and nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) in rice was previously demonstrated using map-based cloning. In this study, we enhanced the expression of the OsNRT2.1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity NO3- transporter, using a ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter and the NO3--inducible promoter of the OsNAR2.1 gene to drive OsNRT2.1 expression in transgenic rice plants. Transgenic lines expressing pUbi:OsNRT2.1 or pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 constructs exhibited the increased total biomass including yields of approximately 21% and 38% compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The agricultural NUE (ANUE) of the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines decreased to 83% of that of the WT plants, while the ANUE of the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines increased to 128% of that of the WT plants. The dry matter transfer into grain decreased by 68% in the pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines and increased by 46% in the pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines relative to the WT. The expression of OsNRT2.1 in shoot and grain showed that Ubi enhanced OsNRT2.1 expression by 7.5-fold averagely and OsNAR2.1 promoters increased by about 80% higher than the WT. Interestingly, we found that the OsNAR2.1 was expressed higher in all the organs of pUbi:OsNRT2.1 lines; however, for pOsNAR2.1:OsNRT2.1 lines, OsNAR2.1 expression was only increased in root, leaf sheaths and internodes. We show that increased expression of OsNRT2.1, especially driven by OsNAR2.1 promoter, can improve the yield and NUE in rice. PMID:26826052

  20. The Arabidopsis NRT1.1 transporter participates in the signaling pathway triggering root colonization of nitrate-rich patches

    PubMed Central

    Remans, Tony; Nacry, Philippe; Pervent, Marjorie; Filleur, Sophie; Diatloff, Eugene; Mounier, Emmanuelle; Tillard, Pascal; Forde, Brian G.; Gojon, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Localized proliferation of lateral roots in NO3−-rich patches is a striking example of the nutrient-induced plasticity of root development. In Arabidopsis, NO3− stimulation of lateral root elongation is apparently under the control of a NO3−-signaling pathway involving the ANR1 transcription factor. ANR1 is thought to transduce the NO3− signal internally, but the upstream NO3− sensing system is unknown. Here, we show that mutants of the NRT1.1 nitrate transporter display a strongly decreased root colonization of NO3−-rich patches, resulting from reduced lateral root elongation. This phenotype is not due to lower specific NO3− uptake activity in the mutants and is not suppressed when the NO3−-rich patch is supplemented with an alternative N source but is associated with dramatically decreased ANR1 expression. These results show that NRT1.1 promotes localized root proliferation independently of any nutritional effect and indicate a role in the ANR1-dependent NO3− signaling pathway, either as a NO3− sensor or as a facilitator of NO3− influx into NO3−-sensing cells. Consistent with this model, the NRT1.1 and ANR1 promoters both directed reporter gene expression in root primordia and root tips. The inability of NRT1.1-deficient mutants to promote increased lateral root proliferation in the NO3−-rich zone impairs the efficient acquisition of NO3− and leads to slower plant growth. We conclude that NRT1.1, which is localized at the forefront of soil exploration by the roots, is a key component of the NO3−-sensing system that enables the plant to detect and exploit NO3−-rich soil patches. PMID:17148611

  1. Polyamine Resistance Is Increased by Mutations in a Nitrate Transporter Gene NRT1.3 (AtNPF6.4) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Wurina; Imai, Akihiro; Tabata, Ryo; Shigenobu, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Yamada, Masashi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Sawa, Shinichiro; Motose, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines are small basic compounds present in all living organisms and act in a variety of biological processes. However, the mechanism of polyamine sensing, signaling and response in relation to other metabolic pathways remains to be fully addressed in plant cells. As one approach, we isolated Arabidopsis mutants that show increased resistance to spermine in terms of chlorosis. We show here that two of the mutants have a point mutation in a nitrate transporter gene of the NRT1/PTR family (NPF), NRT1.3 (AtNPF6.4). These mutants also exhibit increased resistance to putrescine and spermidine while loss-of-function mutants of the two closest homologs of NRT1.3, root-specific NRT1.1 (AtNPF6.3) and petiole-specific NRT1.4 (AtNPF6.2), were shown to have a normal sensitivity to polyamines. When the GUS reporter gene was expressed under the control of the NRT1.3 promoter, GUS staining was observed in leaf mesophyll cells and stem cortex cells but not in the epidermis, suggesting that NRT1.3 specifically functions in parenchymal tissues. We further found that the aerial part of the mutant seedling has normal levels of polyamines but shows reduced uptake of norspermidine compared with the wild type. These results suggest that polyamine transport or metabolism is associated with nitrate transport in the parenchymal tissue of the shoot. PMID:27379127

  2. The Arabidopsis Ethylene/Jasmonic Acid-NRT Signaling Module Coordinates Nitrate Reallocation and the Trade-Off between Growth and Environmental Adaptation[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Bin; Yi, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Stresses decouple nitrate assimilation and photosynthesis through stress-initiated nitrate allocation to roots (SINAR), which is mediated by the nitrate transporters NRT1.8 and NRT1.5 and functions to promote stress tolerance. However, how SINAR communicates with the environment remains unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence demonstrating that in Arabidopsis thaliana, ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) affect the crosstalk between SINAR and the environment. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that ethylene response factors (ERFs), including OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59, bind to the GCC boxes in the NRT1.8 promoter region, while ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) binds to the EIN3 binding site motifs in the NRT1.5 promoter. Genetic assays showed that cadmium and sodium stresses initiated ET/JA signaling, which converged at EIN3/EIN3-Like1 (EIL1) to modulate ERF expression and hence to upregulate NRT1.8. By contrast, ET and JA signaling mediated the downregulation of NRT1.5 via EIN3/EIL1 and other, unknown component(s). SINAR enhanced stress tolerance and decreased plant growth under nonstressed conditions through the ET/JA-NRT1.5/NRT1.8 signaling module. Interestingly, when nitrate reductase was impaired, SINAR failed to affect either stress tolerance or plant growth. These data suggest that SINAR responds to environmental conditions through the ET/JA-NRT signaling module, which further modulates stress tolerance and plant growth in a nitrate reductase-dependent manner. PMID:25326291

  3. Toxicity of Gadolinium to Some Aquatic Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-01-24

    The toxicity of gadolinium to algae and bacteria was determined as part of an effort to develop a biological process to purify drums containing spent nuclear reactor heavy water moderator (D2O). This water was contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Nuclear reactors were operated for approximately 30 years at the SRS to produce nuclear weapons materials for national defense. Throughout this period, a heavy water solution of gadolinium nitrate was utilized in a standby emergency shutdown system that could inject this chemical into the reactor moderator coolant water. The chemical was used for this purpose because the high neutron absorption cross sections of some gadolinium isotopes make gadolinium salts such as GdNO3 effective in controlling nuclear activity in aqueous systems (Gilbert et al. 1985; Rodenas et al. 1990). The use of this practice resulted in a large inventory of this degraded heavy water containing gadolinium nitrate. Microbiological and chemical studies were initiated to evaluate the potential use of bacteria and algae for water purification of the drums. Since metals are often toxic to microbes when present at concentrations substantially higher than natural environmental levels, it was hypothesized that Gd may be toxic to selected microorganisms (algae and bacteria) at the very high concentrations (average 80,000 mg/L, maximum 259,000 mg/L) present in most of the drums. Two principal components of the study included: (1) chemical and microbiological characterization of representative drums, and (2) an evaluation of the toxicity of gadolinium to selected species of algae. In addition to wastewater from nuclear production reactor operations, gadolinium waste is also generated from medical applications, especially MRI, and various electronic components including CD disks. Despite growing and widespread

  4. Biodistribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents, including gadolinium deposition

    PubMed Central

    Aime, Silvio; Caravan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The biodistribution of approved gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents (GBCA) is reviewed. After intravenous injection GBCA distribute in the blood and the extracellular space and transiently through the excretory organs. Preclinical animal studies and the available clinical literature indicate that all these compounds are excreted intact. Elimination tends to be rapid and for the most part, complete. In renally insufficient patients the plasma elimination half-life increases substantially from hours to days depending on renal function. In patients with impaired renal function and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), the agents gadodiamide, gadoversetamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine have been shown to result in Gd deposition in the skin and internal organs. In these cases, it is likely that the Gd is no longer present as the GBCA, but this has still not been definitively shown. In preclinical models very small amounts of Gd are retained in the bone and liver, and the amount retained correlates with the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of the GBCA with respect to Gd release in vitro. The pattern of residual Gd deposition in NSF subjects may be different than that observed in preclinical rodent models. GBCA are designed to be used via intravenous administration. Altering the route of administration and/or the formulation of the GBCA can dramatically alter the biodistribution of the GBCA and can increase the likelihood of Gd deposition. PMID:19938038

  5. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  6. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  7. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  8. Prevalence of NRT Use and Associated Nicotine Intake in Smokers, Recent Ex-Smokers and Longer-Term Ex-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shahab, Lion; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is used by smokers wanting to reduce their smoking and to quit. However, there are very little data on nicotine intake associated with NRT use in representative population samples. This study aimed to provide estimates for NRT use and associated nicotine exposure among smokers, recent and longer-term ex-smokers in England, a country with a permissive regulatory regime for nicotine substitution. Methods In the Smoking Toolkit Study, a monthly series of representative household surveys of adults aged 16+ in England, current and recent ex-smokers who agreed to be re-contacted were followed up 6 months later and standard socio-demographic and smoking characteristics assessed (N = 5,467, response rate 25.1%). A random sub-sample (N = 1,614; 29.5%) also provided saliva, analysed for cotinine. Results The sample followed up was broadly representative of the original sample. At follow-up, 11.8% (95%CI 10.9–12.8, N = 565) of current smokers, 34.8% (95%CI 28.9–41.3, N = 77) of recent (≤3 months) ex-smokers, and 7.8% (95%CI 5.6–10.6, N = 36) of longer-term (>3 months) ex-smokers reported using NRT. Smokers who used NRT had similar saliva cotinine concentrations to smokers who did not use NRT (mean ± sd  = 356.0±198.6 ng/ml vs. 313.1±178.4 ng/ml). Recent ex-smokers who used NRT had levels that were somewhat lower, but not significantly so, than current smokers (216.7±179.3 ng/ml). Longer-term ex-smokers using NRT had still lower levels (157.3±227.1 ng/ml), which differed significantly from smokers using NRT (p = 0.024). Conclusions Concurrent use of nicotine replacement therapy while smoking is relatively uncommon and is not associated with higher levels of nicotine intake. Among ex-smokers, NRT use is common in the short but not longer-term and among longer-term users is associated with lower nicotine intake than in smokers. PMID:25405343

  9. Evaluation of absorbed dose in Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaeva, Gayane; Djuraeva, Gulnara; Kim, Andrey; Koblik, Yuriy; Kulabdullaev, Gairatulla; Rakhmonov, Turdimukhammad; Saytjanov, Shavkat

    2015-02-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) is used for treatment of radioresistant malignant tumors. The absorbed dose in GdNCT can be divided into four primary dose components: thermal neutron, fast neutron, photon and natural gadolinium doses. The most significant is the dose created by natural gadolinium. The amount of gadolinium at the irradiated region is changeable and depends on the gadolinium delivery agent and on the structure of the location where the agent is injected. To de- fine the time dependence of the gadolinium concentration ρ(t) in the irradiated region the pharmacokinetics of gadolinium delivery agent (Magnevist) was studied at intratumoral injection in mice and intramuscular injection in rats. A polynomial approximation was applied to the experimental data and the influence of ρ(t) on the relative change of the absorbed dose of gadolinium was studied.

  10. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of gadolinium sesquioxide nanobars synthesized via thermal decomposition of gadolinium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Giribabu, K.; Suresh, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The cubic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobars are synthesized by decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 20}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 22}. • The nanoparticles are rectangular bar shape with high porous surface. • The combination of magnetic and optical properties within a single particle. • The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobars have tailorable nanostructure, wide bandgap and are paramagnetic. - Abstract: Gadolinium oxide nanobars were obtained by thermal decomposition of gadolinium oxalate, which was synthesized by the chemical precipitation method along with glycerol. The functional group analysis and formation of gadolinium oxide from gadolinium oxalate were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analyzer. The crystal structure, average crystallite size, and lattice parameter were analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Moreover, Raman shifts, elemental composition and morphology of the gadolinium oxide was widely investigated by the laser Raman microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FE-SEM-EDAX and HR-TEM, respectively. Furthermore, the optical properties like band gap, absorbance measurement of the gadolinium oxide were extensively examined. In addition, the paramagnetic property of gadolinium oxide nanobars was explored by the vibrating sample magnetometer.

  11. Enhancement of the electron electric dipole moment in gadolinium garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedjanov, T.N.; Dzuba, V.A.; Sushkov, O.P.

    2003-10-01

    Effects caused by the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) in gadolinium garnets are considered. Experimental studies of these effects could improve the current upper limit on the electron EDM by several orders of magnitude. We suggest a consistent theoretical model and perform calculations of observable effects in gadolinium gallium garnet and gadolinium iron garnet. Our calculation accounts for both direct and exchange diagrams.

  12. Neutron autoradiography of trace amounts of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.L.A.; Brugger, R.M. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that application of gadolinium in neutron capture therapy is under evaluation. Crucial to development of this therapy is an imaging technique that would show the distribution and concentration of parts-per-million amounts of {sup 157}Gd in sliced samples. A technique that utilizes the principles of autoradiography and neutron radiography has been tried. The images taken with this method display the gadolinium distribution and its relative concentration in samples. Concentrations of {sup 157}Gd ranging from {approximately}20 to 500 ppm can be determined. The intrinsic spatial resolution of the system used in the Missouri University Research Reactor is 70 {mu}m.

  13. Major Alterations of the Regulation of Root NO3− Uptake Are Associated with the Mutation of Nrt2.1 and Nrt2.2 Genes in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Miguel; Tillard, Pascal; Filleur, Sophie; Muños, Stéphane; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; Gojon, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The role of AtNrt2.1 and AtNrt2.2 genes, encoding putative NO3− transporters in Arabidopsis, in the regulation of high-affinity NO3− uptake has been investigated in the atnrt2 mutant, where these two genes are deleted. Our initial analysis of the atnrt2 mutant (S. Filleur, M.F. Dorbe, M. Cerezo, M. Orsel, F. Granier, A. Gojon, F. Daniel-Vedele [2001] FEBS Lett 489: 220–224) demonstrated that root NO3− uptake is affected in this mutant due to the alteration of the high-affinity transport system (HATS), but not of the low-affinity transport system. In the present work, we show that the residual HATS activity in atnrt2 plants is not inducible by NO3−, indicating that the mutant is more specifically impaired in the inducible component of the HATS. Thus, high-affinity NO3− uptake in this genotype is likely to be due to the constitutive HATS. Root 15NO3− influx in the atnrt2 mutant is no more derepressed by nitrogen starvation or decrease in the external NO3− availability. Moreover, the mutant also lacks the usual compensatory up-regulation of NO3− uptake in NO3−-fed roots, in response to nitrogen deprivation of another portion of the root system. Finally, exogenous supply of NH4+ in the nutrient solution fails to inhibit 15NO3− influx in the mutant, whereas it strongly decreases that in the wild type. This is not explained by a reduced activity of NH4+ uptake systems in the mutant. These results collectively indicate that AtNrt2.1 and/or AtNrt2.2 genes play a key role in the regulation of the high-affinity NO3− uptake, and in the adaptative responses of the plant to both spatial and temporal changes in nitrogen availability in the environment. PMID:11553754

  14. Establishment of a NRT service at DLR for supporting sea ice and iceberg monitoring for the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Kathrin; Eichler, Karolin; Diedrich, Erhard; Lehner, Susanne; Frost, Anja; Ressel, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The navigation of a ship through a defined area between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula will be facilitated by an uninterrupted monitoring of sea ice in near real time. To this end, DLR will develop an NRT processing chain over the next few years that will be installed at GARS O'Higgins, the DLR Antarctic station. At the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has been running GARS O'Higgins since 1991, and has kept it manned year-round since 2010. High-resolution radar data provides the foundation for this project. The data is received at GARS O'Higgins and processed on location within a short period of time, thereby generating pertinent and reliable information products about sea ice coverage, iceberg recognition, wind fields and wave movements. Ultimately, this vital information will be distributed to customers as a service in near real time (NRT). The challenge lies in adapting the existing processors developed by DLR to the specific demands of the Antarctic region, and then further developing them as needed. Upon installation with the customer, special consideration should be given to achieve and maintain the near real time capacity of the product. This involves the optimization of the process chain and of the information format, which will be tailor-made for the customer. Currently, this is a R&D activity at DLR. It may be enlarged to an operational service in future. Initially, the potential of this service needs to be broadly demonstrated. If possible, the pilot users of the NRT service, as well as the secondary use of this data in demonstration pilot projects and case studies will be assessed. Aside from the acquisition of data from the German satellite TerraSAR-X, additional data from the Sentinel-1 and/or Radarsat-2 satellites will also be evaluated.

  15. Gadolinium: Central Metal of the Lanthanoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of gadolinium are compared with those of the other lanthanoids. Some properties are intermediate between those of lanthanum and lutetium; some between those of barium and hafnium; and others (unexpectedly) between those of ytterbium and lutetium. Both the remarkably high molar heat capacity of the metal and the…

  16. A toxicological study of gadolinium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show gadolinium nitrate to have potential sensitizing properties. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated that it was cutaneously a severe irritant. This material was considered an irritant in the rabbit eye application studies. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  18. Spiral MR myocardial tagging.

    PubMed

    Ryf, Salome; Kissinger, Kraig V; Spiegel, Marcus A; Börnert, Peter; Manning, Warren J; Boesiger, Peter; Stuber, Matthias

    2004-02-01

    In the present study, complementary spatial modulation of magnetization (CSPAMM) myocardial tagging was extended with an interleaved spiral imaging sequence. The use of a spiral sequence enables the acquisition of grid-tagged images with a tagline distance as low as 4 mm in a single breath-hold. Alternatively, a high temporal resolution of 77 frames per second was obtained with 8-mm grid spacing. Ten healthy adult subjects were studied. With this new approach, high-quality images can be obtained and the tags persist throughout the entire cardiac cycle. PMID:14755646

  19. Gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tapan Kumar; Ichikawa, Hideki; Fukumori, Yoshinobu

    2006-12-11

    In order to provide a suitable device that would contain water-soluble drugs, highly water-soluble gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid-loaded chitosan microspheres (CMS-Gd-DTPA) were prepared by the emulsion method using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker and Span 80 as a surfactant for gadolinium neutron-capture therapy of cancer. The gadolinium content and the mass median diameter of CMS-Gd-DTPA were estimated. The size and morphology of the CMS-Gd-DTPA were strongly influenced by the initial applied weight ratio of Gd-DTPA:chitosan. FTIR spectra showed that the electrostatic interaction between chitosan and Gd-DTPA accelerated the formation of gadolinium-enriched chitosan microspheres. Sufficient amounts of glutaraldehyde and Span 80 were necessary for producing discrete CMS-Gd-DTPA. The CMS-Gd-DTPA having a mass median diameter 11.7microm and 11.6% of gadolinium could be used in Gd-NCT following intratumoral injection. PMID:17045253

  20. Method of separating and purifying gadolinium-153

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A [Richland, WA; Corneillie, Todd M [Davis, CA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the method of separating and purifying gadolinium from a mixture of gadolinium and europium having the steps of (a) dissolving the mixture in an acid; (b) reducing europium+3 to europium+2; and (c) precipitating the europium+2 with a sulfate ion in a superstoichiometric amount; wherein the improvement is achieved by using one or more of the following: (i) the acid is an anoic acid; (ii) the reducing is with zinc metal in the absence of a second metal or with an amount of the second metal that is ineffective in the reducing; (iii) adding a group IIA element after step (c) for precipitating the excess sulfate prior to repeating step (c); (iv) the sulfate is a sulfate salt with a monovalent cation; (v) adding cold europium+3 prior to repeating step (c).

  1. Progress Towards Laser Cooling and Trapping Gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Upendra; Simien, Clayton

    2016-05-01

    Lanthanide elements are of interest because of their potential for investigating next generation optical clock transitions, novel non-S ground state ultracold collisions, and the physics of quantum degenerate dipolar gases. We present our progress towards laser cooling and trapping atomic Gadolinium (Gd). A magneto-optical trap is the first step towards precision measurements, ultracold collision studies, and for probing dipolar physics of Gd. The design, construction, and performance of the apparatus will be presented.

  2. TAG Advertisement Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    LaRc SI Material Overall photograph showing the material specimens, the graphite composite, the gold composite and the molded gears on a black background. These photos were used for the TAG CO-OP Public Relations and promotions

  3. Emerging concepts for myocardial late gadolinium enhancement MRI.

    PubMed

    Doltra, Adelina; Amundsen, Brage Hoyem; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Kelle, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement is a useful tool for scar detection, based on differences in the volume of distribution of gadolinium, an extracellular agent. The presence of fibrosis in the myocardium amenable to be detected with late gadolinium enhancement MRI is found not only in ischemic cardiomyopathy, in which it offers information regarding viability and prognosis, but also in a wide variety of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. In the following review we will discuss the methodological aspects of gadolinium-based imaging, as well as its applications and anticipated future developments. PMID:23909638

  4. Facets: Ersatz, Resource and Tag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frické, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Faceted classification appears to be of utmost importance. Ersatz facets, resource faceting and tag faceting: The distinctions are drawn between facets and ersatz facets, and between faceted resources and faceted tags. Single tag resource faceting and multiple tag information object faceting: The basic features are explored of single…

  5. Status of the Super-Kamiokande gadolinium project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takaaki

    2013-12-01

    The diffuse flux of neutrinos released from all past supernova explosions in the universe is known as the supernova relic neutrinos (SRN). Super-Kamiokande (SK) has conducted searches for these SRN events via their inverse beta decay interactions in the detector, in the process establishing the world's best limits on this still unobserved flux. These limits are within about a factor of two of the theoretically predicted fluxes. But these searches are background limited, and without some major improvement further progress will be difficult. The addition of gadolinium (Gd) compound into the SK detector was proposed to reduce background. Gd has the largest thermal neutron capture cross-section among all stable nuclei and emits an 8 MeV γ cascade following the capture. By coincidental tagging of positrons with the γ rays from Gd neutron capture, we can identify the dominant SRN signal in SK: inverse beta decay. This Gd-loading technique should allow SK to make the world's first observation of a SRN signal. We will demonstrate the principle of a Gd-doped water Cherenkov detector (transparency of the Gd-doped water, Gd-doped water circulation method, neutron capture efficiency, etc) with a dedicated test facility named EGADS. EGADS consists of a 200 ton water Cherenkov detector, a Gd dissolving pre-treatment device, a Gd-capable water circulation system, and a custom-built water transparency measurement device. We have evaluated Gd-doped water circulation using the main EGADS water system since 2012. The evaluation of the overall performance of EGADS will start in 2013 after PMT installation.

  6. Resonance parameter measurements and analysis of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Leinweber, G.; Barry, D. P.; Trbovich, M. J.; Burke, J. A.; Drindak, N. J.; Knox, H. D.; Ballad, R. V.; Block, R. C.; Danon, Y.; Severnyak, L. I.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to measure the neutron cross sections of gadolinium accurately. Gd has the highest thermal absorption cross section of any natural element. Therefore it is an important element for thermal reactor applications Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Gd samples. The liquid samples were isotopically-enriched in either {sup 155}Gd or {sup 157}Gd. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a sodium iodide detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15- and 25-m flight stations with {sup 6}Li glass scintillation detectors. The multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY was used to extract resonance parameters. The results of the thermal region analysis are significant. Resonance parameters for the low energy doublet, at 0.025 and 0.032 eV, are presented. The thermal (2200 m/s) capture cross section of {sup 157}Gd has been measured to be 11% smaller than that calculated from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 8. Thermal capture cross sections and capture resonance integrals for each isotope as well as elemental gadolinium are presented. In the epithermal region, natural metal samples were measured in capture and transmission. Neutron interaction data up to 300 eV have been analyzed. Substantial improvement to the understanding of gadolinium cross sections is presented, particularly above 180 eV where the ENDF resolved region for {sup 155}Gd ends. (authors)

  7. Extraction-chromatographic affinage in gadolinium-153 preparation production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Melnik, M.I.; Karelin, E.A.; Kuznetsov, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The gadolinium 153 preparation is used for production of medical gamma-sources which are applicable in bone densimeters for early diagnostics of osteoporosis. This preparation must meet strict requirements with respect to the content of europium radionuclides and specific activity. In The Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) the gadolinium 153 is produced by neutron irradiation of Europium 151. This process is described.

  8. Light deflection in gadolinium molybdate ferroelastic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniorowski, Piotr; Bornarel, Jean

    2000-02-01

    The deflection of a He-Ne light beam by polydomain gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystals has been studied with respect to incidence angle icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i on the sample at room temperature. The A and B deflected beams do not cross each other during the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i variation, in contrast to results and calculations previously published. The model using the Fresnel equation confirms this result. The model presented is more accurate for numerical calculation than that using the Huygens construction.

  9. Towards modeling gadolinium-lead-borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Rada, S.; Ristoiu, T.; Rada, M.; Coroiu, I.; Maties, V.; Culea, E.

    2010-01-15

    Infrared spectra of gadolinium-lead-borate glasses of the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(100 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] system, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35 and 50 mol.%, have been recorded to explore the role of content of gadolinium ions behaving as glass modifier. The FTIR spectroscopy data for the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] glasses show the structural role of lead ions as a network-formers and of the gadolinium ions network modifiers. Adding of the rare earth ion up to 35 mol.% into the glass matrix, the IR bands characteristic to the studied glasses become sharper and more pronounced. Structural changes, as recognized by analyzing band shapes of IR spectra, revealed that Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} causes a change from the continuous borate network to the continuous lead-borate network interconnected through Pb-O-B and B-O-B bridges and the transformation of some tetrahedral [BO{sub 4}] units into trigonal [BO{sub 3}] units. Then, gadolinium ions have affinity towards [BO{sub 3}] structural units which contain non-bridging oxygens necessary for the charge compensation because the more electronegative [BO{sub 3}] structural units were implied in the formation of B-O-Gd bonds and the transformation of glass network into a glass ceramic. We propose a possible structural model of building blocks for the formation of continuous random 3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO network glass used by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations show that lead atoms occupy three different sites in the proposed model. The first is coordinated with six oxygen atoms forming distorted octahedral geometries. The second lead atom has an octahedral oxygen environment and the five longer Pb-O bonds are considered as participating in the metal coordination scheme. The third lead atom has ionic character. In agreement with the results offered by the experimental FTIR data, the theoretical IR data confirm that our proposed structure is highly possible.

  10. A Reliable Tag Anti-Collision Algorithm for Mobile Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaodong; Rong, Mengtian; Liu, Tao

    As RFID technology is being more widely adopted, it is fairly common to read mobile tags using RFID systems, such as packages on conveyer belt and unit loads on pallet jack or forklift truck. In RFID systems, multiple tags use a shared medium for communicating with a reader. It is quite possible that tags will exit the reading area without being read, which results in tag leaking. In this letter, a reliable tag anti-collision algorithm for mobile tags is proposed. It reliably estimates the expectation of the number of tags arriving during a time slot when new tags continually enter the reader's reading area and no tag leaves without being read. In addition, it gives priority to tags that arrived early among read cycles and applies the expectation of the number of tags arriving during a time slot to the determination of the number of slots in the initial inventory round of the next read cycle. Simulation results show that the reliability of the proposed algorithm is close to that of DFSA algorithm when the expectation of the number of tags entering the reading area during a time slot is a given, and is better than that of DFSA algorithm when the number of time slots in the initial inventory round of next read cycle is set to 1 assuming that the number of tags arriving during a time slot follows Poisson distribution.

  11. Tag Completion for Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Jin, Rong; Jain, Anil K

    2013-03-01

    Many social image search engines are based on keyword/tag matching. This is because tag-based image retrieval (TBIR) is not only efficient but also effective. The performance of TBIR is highly dependent on the availability and quality of manual tags. Recent studies have shown that manual tags are often unreliable and inconsistent. In addition, since many users tend to choose general and ambiguous tags in order to minimize their efforts in choosing appropriate words, tags that are specific to the visual content of images tend to be missing or noisy, leading to a limited performance of TBIR. To address this challenge, we study the problem of tag completion, where the goal is to automatically fill in the missing tags as well as correct noisy tags for given images. We represent the image-tag relation by a tag matrix, and search for the optimal tag matrix consistent with both the observed tags and the visual similarity. We propose a new algorithm for solving this optimization problem. Extensive empirical studies show that the proposed algorithm is significantly more effective than the state-of-the-art algorithms. Our studies also verify that the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and scales well to large databases. PMID:22641703

  12. Project 8 Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Burrows, Michele

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes 8 Tags, a project that she used with her eighth-grade studio art students to encourage them to come up with original and creative solutions to an assignment. She also wanted to incorporate their knowledge of the elements of art and principles of design. In this project, students were challenged to create an…

  13. Ontologies and tag-statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2012-05-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of collaborative tagging systems, the research on tagged networks, hypergraphs, ontologies, folksonomies and other related concepts is becoming an important interdisciplinary area with great potential and relevance for practical applications. In most collaborative tagging systems the tagging by the users is completely ‘flat’, while in some cases they are allowed to define a shallow hierarchy for their own tags. However, usually no overall hierarchical organization of the tags is given, and one of the interesting challenges of this area is to provide an algorithm generating the ontology of the tags from the available data. In contrast, there are also other types of tagged networks available for research, where the tags are already organized into a directed acyclic graph (DAG), encapsulating the ‘is a sub-category of’ type of hierarchy between each other. In this paper, we study how this DAG affects the statistical distribution of tags on the nodes marked by the tags in various real networks. The motivation for this research was the fact that understanding the tagging based on a known hierarchy can help in revealing the hidden hierarchy of tags in collaborative tagging systems. We analyse the relation between the tag-frequency and the position of the tag in the DAG in two large sub-networks of the English Wikipedia and a protein-protein interaction network. We also study the tag co-occurrence statistics by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) tag-distance distribution preserving both the difference in the levels and the absolute distance in the DAG for the co-occurring pairs of tags. Our most interesting finding is that the local relevance of tags in the DAG (i.e. their rank or significance as characterized by, e.g., the length of the branches starting from them) is much more important than their global distance from the root. Furthermore, we also introduce a simple tagging model based on random walks on the DAG, capable of

  14. From GNSS and meteorological data to NRT 4D water vapour distribution - GNSS meteorology activities at WUELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Rohm, Witold; Sierny, Jan; Wilgan, Karina; Hadas, Tomasz; Hordyniec, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    The GNSS and Meteo group at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (WUELS), Poland is continuously working on GNSS meteorology since 2010. Currently group maintain real-time (RT) service collecting GNSS and meteorological data and near real-time (NRT) services for estimation of Zenith Troposphere Delay (ZTD), Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and GNSS tomography over the territory of Poland. Data are obtained with high resolution from EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations and Ground Base Augmentation System (GBAS) called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). The GNSS data are available from 124 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries, with the average 70km distance between stations. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from: ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), airport meteorological stations (METAR messages stations) and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). The first part of the paper presents the methodology of ASG-EUPOS GNSS data processing for NRT ZTD and ZTD horizontal gradients estimation in double-differenced mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.0) as well as new results from PPP mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.2) and their validation with respect to Rapid and Final troposphere products. The second part is describing the quality assessment of meteorological parameters interpolation methods for determination of ZHD at GNSS sites performed on GNSS stations equipped with meteorological sensors. The third part concerns on the comparisons of ZTD from GNSS data and meteorological parameters from SYNOP stations with data from COAMPS numerical weather prediction system (NWP) and IWV calculation. The fourth part presents the development of GNSS tomography model TOMO2. The last part describes methods of above products validation and visualization over the

  15. Ligand effects due to resonance character in LAuCCH(-) (L = F, Cl, Br, I, CCH) complexes: an NBO/NRT analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Wang, Hui; Yue, Huanjing; Li, Hong; Zhang, Shengnan; Fu, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The organogold complexes of LAuCCH(-) (L = F, Cl, Br, I, CCH) were investigated using natural bond orbital/natural resonance theory (NBO/NRT) methods. The NBO/NRT results strongly support the general resonance-type three-center-four-electron (3c/4e) picture of LAuCCH: L(-): Au-CCH ↔ L-Au :CCH(-), arising from hyperconjugation interactions. The sums of ionic and covalent contributions to both L-Au and Au-CCH bonds are all slightly larger than that due to the additional π-back bonding within the 3c/4e hyperbonded triad. This complementary relationship between L-Au and Au-CCH bond orders implies a competing relationship between the ancillary ligand and CCH around the gold atom. We discuss the ligand effects in the LAuCCH(-) series on the basis of this competing relationship. PMID:26026301

  16. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  17. Gadolinium enrichment technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Conway, John; Eggert, Jon; Glaser, Joseph; Ng, Edmund W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Solarz, Richard W.; Worden, Earl F.

    1993-05-01

    A method based on polarization selectivity and three step laser photoionization is presented for separation of the odd isotopes of gadolinium. Measurements of the spectroscopic parameters needed to quantify the excitation pathway are discussed. Model results are presented for the efficiency of photoionization. The vapor properties of electron beam vaporized gadolinium are presented which show dramatic cooling during the expansion of the hot dense vapor into a vacuum. This results in a significant increase in the efficiency of conversion of natural feed into enriched product in the AVLIS process. Production of enriched gadolinium for use in commercial power reactors appears to be economically viable using technology in use at LLNL.

  18. The Arabidopsis nitrate transporter NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is involved in lateral root development under potassium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Drechsler, Navina; Rausch, Christine; Kunze, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    Plants have evolved a large array of transporters and channels that are responsible for uptake, source-to-sink distribution, homeostasis and signaling of nitrate (NO3(-)), which is for most plants the primary nitrogen source and a growth-limiting macronutrient. To optimize NO3(-) uptake in response to changing NO3(-) concentrations in the soil, plants are able to modify their root architecture. Potassium is another macronutrient that influences the root architecture. We recently demonstrated that the Arabidopsis NO3(-) transporter NPF7.3/NRT1.5, which drives root-to-shoot transport of NO3(-), is also involved in root-to-shoot translocation of K(+) under low NO3(-) nutrition. Here, we show that K(+) shortage, but not limiting NO3(-) supply, causes in nrt1.5 mutant plants an altered root architecture with conspicuously reduced lateral root density. Since lateral root development is influenced by auxin, we discuss a possible involvement of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 in auxin homeostasis in roots under K(+) deprivation. PMID:27089248

  19. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  20. Nrt1 and Tna1-independent export of NAD+ precursor vitamins promotes NAD+ homeostasis and allows engineering of vitamin production.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Peter; Stebbins, Rebecca; Bogan, Katrina L; Evans, Charles R; Brenner, Charles

    2011-01-01

    NAD(+) is both a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD(+) consuming enzymes. NAD(+) biosynthesis is required for two different regimens that extend lifespan in yeast. NAD(+) is synthesized from tryptophan and the three vitamin precursors of NAD(+): nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and nicotinamide riboside. Supplementation of yeast cells with NAD(+) precursors increases intracellular NAD(+) levels and extends replicative lifespan. Here we show that both nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid are not only vitamins but are also exported metabolites. We found that the deletion of the nicotinamide riboside transporter, Nrt1, leads to increased export of nicotinamide riboside. This discovery was exploited to engineer a strain to produce high levels of extracellular nicotinamide riboside, which was recovered in purified form. We further demonstrate that extracellular nicotinamide is readily converted to extracellular nicotinic acid in a manner that requires intracellular nicotinamidase activity. Like nicotinamide riboside, export of nicotinic acid is elevated by the deletion of the nicotinic acid transporter, Tna1. The data indicate that NAD(+) metabolism has a critical extracellular element in the yeast system and suggest that cells regulate intracellular NAD(+) metabolism by balancing import and export of NAD(+) precursor vitamins. PMID:21589930

  1. Social Tagging Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Leandro Balby; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars; Jäschke, Robert; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd; Symeonidis, Panagiotis

    The new generation of Web applications known as (STS) is successfully established and poised for continued growth. STS are open and inherently social; features that have been proven to encourage participation. But while STS bring new opportunities, they revive old problems, such as information overload. Recommender Systems are well known applications for increasing the level of relevant content over the "noise" that continuously grows as more and more content becomes available online. In STS however, we face new challenges. Users are interested in finding not only content, but also tags and even other users. Moreover, while traditional recommender systems usually operate over 2-way data arrays, STS data is represented as a third-order tensor or a hypergraph with hyperedges denoting (user, resource, tag) triples. In this chapter, we survey the most recent and state-of-the-art work about a whole new generation of recommender systems built to serve STS.We describe (a) novel facets of recommenders for STS, such as user, resource, and tag recommenders, (b) new approaches and algorithms for dealing with the ternary nature of STS data, and (c) recommender systems deployed in real world STS. Moreover, a concise comparison between existing works is presented, through which we identify and point out new research directions.

  2. Synthesis of gadolinium oxide magnetoliposomes for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Danielle; Zhu, Weibe L.; Frommen, Christoph M.; Rosenzweig, Zeev

    2000-05-01

    A method for the synthesis of gadolinium oxide magnetoliposomes, i.e., nanosized gadolinium oxide magnetic particles coated by a phospholipid membrane, is presented. Magnetoliposomes were prepared by reacting lauric acid coated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes prepared using a direct injection method. The gadolinium oxide magnetoliposomes were characterized using transmission electron microscopy imaging, x-ray diffraction, and fluorescence. The magnetic properties of the magnetoliposomes were investigated with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Our results indicate that the magnetoliposomes contain approximately spherical nanoparticles averaging 20 nm in diameter. The occurrence of a phospholipid bilayer surrounding the magnetic particles is confirmed both by transmission electron micrographs of samples negatively stained with uranyl acetate and by digital fluorescence imaging microscopy measurements of magnetoliposomes labeled with fluorescein. The particles are paramagnetic at room temperature. NMR measurements show that the ratio between the relaxivities of the particles depends largely on their preparation.

  3. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; Pyrzak, Guy; Vaughn, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  4. Towards an "Intelligent" Tagging Tool for Blogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Juraj; Motschnig, Renate; Homola, Martin

    Tagging allows people to effectively organize web resources such as images, bookmarks or blog articles. Things are found easier by browsing tag clouds relying on the tags that have been assigned before. The success is by large determined by the quality and relevance of tags assigned to content - and so it is dependent on people who do the tagging. We investigate mental processes that underlie tagging. In order to improve quality of tagging, we provide guidelines for users of tagging systems and in addition we suggest features that an "intelligent" tagging tool should bear in order to facilitate the tagging process.

  5. Gene Expression of the NO3– Transporter NRT1.1 and the Nitrate Reductase NIA1 Is Repressed in Arabidopsis Roots by NO2–, the Product of NO3– Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Loqué, Dominique; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Lepetit, Marc

    2003-01-01

    NRT1.1 and NIA1 genes, which encode a nitrate (NO3–) transporter and the minor isoform of NO3– reductase (NR), respectively, are overexpressed in roots of NR-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis grown on nutrient solution containing NO3– and reduced N. The overexpression is found only in mutants with reduced NIA2 activity, and disruption of the NIA1 gene alone has no effect on NRT1.1 expression. Because the up-regulation of NRT1.1 and NIA1 is observed in N-sufficient NR mutant plants, it cannot be related to a release of the general feedback repression exerted by the N status of the plant. Our data do not support the hypothesis of overinduction of these genes by an increased concentration of NO3– in tissues. Furthermore, although a control by external pH might contribute to the regulation of NRT1.1, changes in external pH due to lack of NR activity cannot alone explain the up-regulation of both genes. The stimulation of NRT1.1 and NIA1 in NR mutants in these conditions suggests that NR activity is able to repress directly the expression of both genes independently of the availability of reduced N metabolites in wild-type plants. Accordingly, nitrite (NO2–) strongly represses NRT1.1 and NIA1 transcript accumulation in the roots. This effect is rapid, specific, and reversible. Furthermore, transport studies on plants exposed to NO2– show that down-regulation of the NRT1.1 gene is associated with a decrease in NO3– influx. These results indicate that feedback regulation of genes of NO3– assimilation relies not only on the repression exerted by reduced N metabolites, such as NH4+ or amino acids, but may also involve the action of NO2– as a regulatory signal. PMID:12805624

  6. Gadolinium-153 as a brachytherapy isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enger, Shirin A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to present the fundamental dosimetric characteristics of a hypothetical 153Gd brachytherapy source using the AAPM TG-43U1 dose-calculation formalism. Gadolinium-153 is an intermediate-energy isotope that emits 40-100 keV photons with a half-life of 242 days. The rationale for considering 153Gd as a brachytherapy source is for its potential of patient specific shielding and to enable reduced personnel shielding requirements relative to 192Ir, and as an isotope for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT). A hypothetical 153Gd brachytherapy source with an active core of 0.84 mm diameter, 10 mm length and specific activity of 5.55 TBq of 153Gd per gram of Gd was simulated with Geant4. The encapsulation material was stainless steel with a thickness of 0.08 mm. The radial dose function, anisotropy function and photon spectrum in water were calculated for the 153Gd source. The simulated 153Gd source had an activity of 242 GBq and a dose rate in water 1 cm off axis of 13.12 Gy h-1, indicating that it would be suitable as a low-dose-rate or pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The beta particles emitted have low enough energies to be absorbed in the source encapsulation. Gadolinium-153 has an increasing radial dose function due to multiple scatter of low-energy photons. Scattered photon dose takes over with distance from the source and contributes to the majority of the absorbed dose. The anisotropy function of the 153Gd source decreases at low polar angles, as a result of the long active core. The source is less anisotropic at polar angles away from the longitudinal axes. The anisotropy function increases with increasing distance. The 153Gd source considered would be suitable as an intermediate-energy low-dose-rate or pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The source could provide a means for I-RSBT delivery and enable brachytherapy treatments with patient specific shielding and reduced personnel shielding requirements relative to

  7. Gadolinium-153 as a brachytherapy isotope.

    PubMed

    Enger, Shirin A; Fisher, Darrell R; Flynn, Ryan T

    2013-02-21

    The purpose of this work was to present the fundamental dosimetric characteristics of a hypothetical (153)Gd brachytherapy source using the AAPM TG-43U1 dose-calculation formalism. Gadolinium-153 is an intermediate-energy isotope that emits 40-100 keV photons with a half-life of 242 days. The rationale for considering (153)Gd as a brachytherapy source is for its potential of patient specific shielding and to enable reduced personnel shielding requirements relative to (192)Ir, and as an isotope for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT). A hypothetical (153)Gd brachytherapy source with an active core of 0.84 mm diameter, 10 mm length and specific activity of 5.55 TBq of (153)Gd per gram of Gd was simulated with Geant4. The encapsulation material was stainless steel with a thickness of 0.08 mm. The radial dose function, anisotropy function and photon spectrum in water were calculated for the (153)Gd source. The simulated (153)Gd source had an activity of 242 GBq and a dose rate in water 1 cm off axis of 13.12 Gy h(-1), indicating that it would be suitable as a low-dose-rate or pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The beta particles emitted have low enough energies to be absorbed in the source encapsulation. Gadolinium-153 has an increasing radial dose function due to multiple scatter of low-energy photons. Scattered photon dose takes over with distance from the source and contributes to the majority of the absorbed dose. The anisotropy function of the (153)Gd source decreases at low polar angles, as a result of the long active core. The source is less anisotropic at polar angles away from the longitudinal axes. The anisotropy function increases with increasing distance. The (153)Gd source considered would be suitable as an intermediate-energy low-dose-rate or pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The source could provide a means for I-RSBT delivery and enable brachytherapy treatments with patient specific shielding and reduced personnel

  8. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  9. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer; Deland, Sharon M.

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  10. Studies of narrow autoionizing resonances in gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Bushaw, Bruce A.; Nortershauser, W.; Blaum, K.; Wendt, Klaus

    2003-06-30

    The autoionization (AI) spectrum of gadolinium between the first and second limits has been investigated by triple-resonance excitation with high-resolution cw lasers. A large number of narrow AI resonances have been observed and assigned total angular momentum J values. The resonances are further divided into members of AI Rydberg series converging to the second limit or other ''interloping'' levels. Fine structure in the Rydberg series has been identified and interpreted in terms of Jc j coupling. A number of detailed studies have been performed on the interloping resonances: These include lifetime determination by lineshape analysis, isotope shifts, hyperfine structure, and photoionization saturation parameters. The electronic structure of the interloping levels is discussed in terms of these studies. Linewidths generally decrease with increasing total angular momentum and the J = 7 resonances are extremely narrow with Lorentzian widths ranging from < 1 MHz up to 157 MHz. The strongest resonances are found to have cross-sections of {approx}10-12 cm{sup 2} and photoionization can be saturated with powers available from cw diode lasers.

  11. Distribution profile of gadolinium in gadolinium chelate-treated renally-impaired rats: role of pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Fretellier, Nathalie; Salhi, Mariem; Schroeder, Josef; Siegmund, Heiko; Chevalier, Thibaut; Bruneval, Patrick; Jestin-Mayer, Gaëlle; Delaloge, Francette; Factor, Cécile; Mayer, Jean-François; Fabicki, Jean-Michel; Robic, Caroline; Bonnemain, Bruno; Idée, Jean-Marc; Corot, Claire

    2015-05-25

    While not acutely toxic, chronic hepatic effect of certain gadolinium chelates (GC), used as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging, might represent a risk in renally-impaired patients due to free gadolinium accumulation in the liver. To answer this question, this study investigated the consequences of the presence of small amounts of either a soluble gadolinium salt ("free" Gd) or low-stability chelating impurity in the pharmaceutical solution of gadoteric acid, a macrocyclic GC with high thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities, were investigated in renally-impaired rats. Renal failure was induced by adding 0.75% adenine in the diet for three weeks. The pharmaceutical and commercial solution of gadoteric acid was administered (5 daily intravenous injections of 2.5 mmol Gd/kg) either alone or after being spiked with either "free" gadolinium (i.e., 0.04% w/v) or low-stability impurity (i.e., 0.06 w/v). Another GC, gadodiamide (low thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities) was given as its commercial solution at a similar dose. Non-chelated gadolinium was tested at two doses (0.005 and 0.01 mmol Gd/kg) as acetate salt. Gadodiamide induced systemic toxicity (mortality, severe epidermal and dermal lesions) and substantial tissue Gd retention. The addition of very low amounts of "free", non-chelated gadolinium or low thermodynamic stability impurity to the pharmaceutical solution of the thermodynamically stable GC gadoteric acid resulted in substantial capture of metal by the liver, similar to what was observed in "free" gadolinium salt-treated rats. Relaxometry studies strongly suggested the presence of free and soluble gadolinium in the liver. Electron microscopy examinations revealed the presence of free and insoluble gadolinium deposits in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of rats treated with gadoteric acid solution spiked with low-stability impurity, free gadolinium and gadodiamide, but not in rats treated with the pharmaceutical solution of gadoteric acid. The

  12. Nitrate-Dependent Control of Shoot K Homeostasis by the Nitrate Transporter1/Peptide Transporter Family Member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 and the Stelar K+ Outward Rectifier SKOR in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Navina; Zheng, Yue; Nobmann, Barbara; Rausch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Root-to-shoot translocation and shoot homeostasis of potassium (K) determine nutrient balance, growth, and stress tolerance of vascular plants. To maintain the cation-anion balance, xylem loading of K+ in the roots relies on the concomitant loading of counteranions, like nitrate (NO3−). However, the coregulation of these loading steps is unclear. Here, we show that the bidirectional, low-affinity Nitrate Transporter1 (NRT1)/Peptide Transporter (PTR) family member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is important for the NO3−-dependent K+ translocation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lack of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 resulted in K deficiency in shoots under low NO3− nutrition, whereas the root elemental composition was unchanged. Gene expression data corroborated K deficiency in the nrt1.5-5 shoot, whereas the root responded with a differential expression of genes involved in cation-anion balance. A grafting experiment confirmed that the presence of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 in the root is a prerequisite for proper root-to-shoot translocation of K+ under low NO3− supply. Because the depolarization-activated Stelar K+ Outward Rectifier (SKOR) has previously been described as a major contributor for root-to-shoot translocation of K+ in Arabidopsis, we addressed the hypothesis that NPF7.3/NRT1.5-mediated NO3− translocation might affect xylem loading and root-to-shoot K+ translocation through SKOR. Indeed, growth of nrt1.5-5 and skor-2 single and double mutants under different K/NO3− regimes revealed that both proteins contribute to K+ translocation from root to shoot. SKOR activity dominates under high NO3− and low K+ supply, whereas NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is required under low NO3− availability. This study unravels nutritional conditions as a critical factor for the joint activity of SKOR and NPF7.3/NRT1.5 for shoot K homeostasis. PMID:26508776

  13. An Overview of Social Tagging and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manish; Li, Rui; Yin, Zhijun; Han, Jiawei

    Social tagging on online portals has become a trend now. It has emerged as one of the best ways of associating metadata with web objects. With the increase in the kinds of web objects becoming available, collaborative tagging of such objects is also developing along new dimensions. This popularity has led to a vast literature on social tagging. In this survey paper, we would like to summarize different techniques employed to study various aspects of tagging. Broadly, we would discuss about properties of tag streams, tagging models, tag semantics, generating recommendations using tags, visualizations of tags, applications of tags, integration of different tagging systems and problems associated with tagging usage. We would discuss topics like why people tag, what influences the choice of tags, how to model the tagging process, kinds of tags, different power laws observed in tagging domain, how tags are created and how to choose the right tags for recommendation. Metadata generated in the form of tags can be efficiently used to improve web search, for web object classification, for generating ontologies, for enhanced browsing etc. We would discuss these applications and conclude with thoughts on future work in the area.

  14. PARTITIONING OF GADOLINIUM IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Best, D.; Stone, M.; Click, D.

    2011-04-27

    A combination of short-term beaker tests and longer-duration Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) simulations were performed to investigate the relative partitioning behaviors of gadolinium and iron under conditions applicable to the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The testing was performed utilizing non-radioactive simple Fe-Gd slurries, non-radioactive Sludge Batch 6 simulant slurries, and a radioactive real-waste slurry representative of Sludge Batch 7 material. The testing focused on the following range of conditions: (a) Fe:Gd ratios of 25-100; (b) pH values of 2-6; (c) acidification via addition of nitric, formic, and glycolic acids; (d) temperatures of {approx}93 C and {approx}22 C; and (e) oxalate concentrations of <100 mg/kg and {approx}10,000 mg/kg. The purpose of the testing was to provide data for assessing the potential use of gadolinium as a supplemental neutron poison when dispositioning excess plutonium. Understanding of the partitioning behavior of gadolinium in the CPC was the first step in assessing gadolinium's potential applicability. Significant fractions of gadolinium partitioned to the liquid-phase at pH values of 4.0 and below, regardless of the Fe:Gd ratio. In SRAT simulations targeting nitric and formic acid additions of 150% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.5-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were both {approx}20%. In contrast, in a SRAT simulation utilizing a nitric and formic acid addition under atypical conditions (due to an anomalously low insoluble solids content), the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.7, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were {approx}60% and {approx}70%, respectively. When glycolic acid was used in combination with nitric and formic acids at 100% acid stoichiometry, the pH dropped to a minimum of 3.6-4.0, and the maximum fractions of gadolinium and iron partitioning to solution were 60-80% and 3-5%, respectively

  15. Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent Accumulation and Toxicity: An Update.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, J; Semelka, R C; Ramalho, M; Nunes, R H; AlObaidy, M; Castillo, M

    2016-07-01

    In current practice, gadolinium-based contrast agents have been considered safe when used at clinically recommended doses in patients without severe renal insufficiency. The causal relationship between gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal insufficiency resulted in new policies regarding the administration of these agents. After an effective screening of patients with renal disease by performing either unenhanced or reduced-dose-enhanced studies in these patients and by using the most stable contrast agents, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis has been largely eliminated since 2009. Evidence of in vivo gadolinium deposition in bone tissue in patients with normal renal function is well-established, but recent literature showing that gadolinium might also deposit in the brain in patients with intact blood-brain barriers caught many individuals in the imaging community by surprise. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature on gadolinium-based contrast agents, tying together information on agent stability and animal and human studies, and to emphasize that low-stability agents are the ones most often associated with brain deposition. PMID:26659341

  16. Semiotic dynamics and collaborative tagging.

    PubMed

    Cattuto, Ciro; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

    2007-01-30

    Collaborative tagging has been quickly gaining ground because of its ability to recruit the activity of web users into effectively organizing and sharing vast amounts of information. Here we collect data from a popular system and investigate the statistical properties of tag cooccurrence. We introduce a stochastic model of user behavior embodying two main aspects of collaborative tagging: (i) a frequency-bias mechanism related to the idea that users are exposed to each other's tagging activity; (ii) a notion of memory, or aging of resources, in the form of a heavy-tailed access to the past state of the system. Remarkably, our simple modeling is able to account quantitatively for the observed experimental features with a surprisingly high accuracy. This points in the direction of a universal behavior of users who, despite the complexity of their own cognitive processes and the uncoordinated and selfish nature of their tagging activity, appear to follow simple activity patterns. PMID:17244704

  17. Semiotic dynamics and collaborative tagging

    PubMed Central

    Cattuto, Ciro; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative tagging has been quickly gaining ground because of its ability to recruit the activity of web users into effectively organizing and sharing vast amounts of information. Here we collect data from a popular system and investigate the statistical properties of tag cooccurrence. We introduce a stochastic model of user behavior embodying two main aspects of collaborative tagging: (i) a frequency-bias mechanism related to the idea that users are exposed to each other's tagging activity; (ii) a notion of memory, or aging of resources, in the form of a heavy-tailed access to the past state of the system. Remarkably, our simple modeling is able to account quantitatively for the observed experimental features with a surprisingly high accuracy. This points in the direction of a universal behavior of users who, despite the complexity of their own cognitive processes and the uncoordinated and selfish nature of their tagging activity, appear to follow simple activity patterns. PMID:17244704

  18. Gadolinium metallo nanocongregates as potential magnetosensors for detecting early stage cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Ranu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2015-04-27

    Gadolinium chelates and gadolinium based inorganic nanoparticles have been extensively studied, because of the high magnetic moment of gadolinium. Here, metallic gadolinium nanocongregates have been developed. Upon injecting these nanoparticles in the mice, they initially circulate in the blood stream and are localized at the cancer site, which could be visualized upon application of magnetic field hence acting as small magnetic nanosensors searching for even small cancers, detecting cancers at a very early stage.

  19. Growth of bulk gadolinium pyrosilicate single crystals for scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasymov, I.; Sidletskiy, O.; Neicheva, S.; Grinyov, B.; Baumer, V.; Galenin, E.; Katrunov, K.; Tkachenko, S.; Voloshina, O.; Zhukov, A.

    2011-03-01

    Ce, Pr, and La-doped gadolinium pyrosilicate Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski and Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) techniques for the first time. Formation conditions of different pyrosilicate phases were determined. X-ray luminescence integral intensity of Ce-doped GPS is about one order of magnitude higher in comparison with gadolinium oxyorthosilicate Gd2SiO5:Ce (GSO:Ce). All samples demonstrate temperature stability of luminescence yield up to 400 K.

  20. D-TAG: erasing the tag of gang membership.

    PubMed

    Gurke, B; Armstrong, M L

    1997-04-01

    Gangs are noted for establishing their territory, flaunting gang affiliation, intimidating nonmembers, and documenting their "services performed." These examples are a few reasons for the practice of "tagging," the labeling of an area, person, or object with gang-related graffiti or markings, such as tattoos. This article describes a school nurse's response to gang "tagging" and her efforts to assist former gang members who request removal of their tattoos, to get them removed-in essence to D-TAG themselves from their gang affiliation. D-TAG is a volunteer rehabilitation program utilizing family and community interaction to support gang tattoo removal and direct activities away from gang affiliations toward alternative educational programs and life styles. PMID:9146217

  1. Tagging insulin in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobeck, Michael; Nelson, Ronald S.

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the exact subcellular sites of action of insulin in the body has the potential to give basic science investigators a basis from which a cause and cure for this disease can be approached. The goal of this project is to create a test reagent that can be used to visualize these subcellular sites. The unique microgravity environment of the Shuttle will allow the creation of a reagent that has the possibility of elucidating the subcellular sites of action of insulin. Several techniques have been used in an attempt to isolate the sites of action of items such as insulin. One of these is autoradiography in which the test item is obtained from animals fed radioactive materials. What is clearly needed is to visualize individual insulin molecules at their sites of action. The insulin tagging process to be used on G-399 involves the conjugation of insulin molecules with ferritin molecules to create a reagent that will be used back on Earth in an attempt to elucidate the sites of action of insulin.

  2. Quantum tagging for tags containing secret classical data

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Adrian

    2011-08-15

    Various authors have considered schemes for quantum tagging, that is, authenticating the classical location of a classical tagging device by sending and receiving quantum signals from suitably located distant sites, in an environment controlled by an adversary whose quantum information processing and transmitting power is potentially unbounded. All of the schemes proposed elsewhere in the literature assume that the adversary is able to inspect the interior of the tagging device. All of these schemes have been shown to be breakable if the adversary has unbounded predistributed entanglement. We consider here the case in which the tagging device contains a finite key string shared with distant sites but kept secret from the adversary, and show this allows the location of the tagging device to be authenticated securely and indefinitely. Our protocol relies on quantum key distribution between the tagging device and at least one distant site, and demonstrates a new practical application of quantum key distribution. It also illustrates that the attainable security in position-based cryptography can depend crucially on apparently subtle details in the security scenario considered.

  3. Cellular tagging as a neural network mechanism for behavioural tagging

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Masanori; Ohkawa, Noriaki; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Yokose, Jun; Suzuki, Akinobu; Matsuo, Mina; Tsujimura, Shuhei; Takahashi, Yukari; Nagase, Masashi; Watabe, Ayako M.; Kato, Fusao; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural tagging is the transformation of a short-term memory, induced by a weak experience, into a long-term memory (LTM) due to the temporal association with a novel experience. The mechanism by which neuronal ensembles, each carrying a memory engram of one of the experiences, interact to achieve behavioural tagging is unknown. Here we show that retrieval of a LTM formed by behavioural tagging of a weak experience depends on the degree of overlap with the neuronal ensemble corresponding to a novel experience. The numbers of neurons activated by weak training in a novel object recognition (NOR) task and by a novel context exploration (NCE) task, denoted as overlapping neurons, increases in the hippocampal CA1 when behavioural tagging is successfully achieved. Optical silencing of an NCE-related ensemble suppresses NOR–LTM retrieval. Thus, a population of cells recruited by NOR is tagged and then preferentially incorporated into the memory trace for NCE to achieve behavioural tagging. PMID:27477539

  4. Behavioral tagging of extinction learning.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Benetti, Fernando; Izquierdo, Iván

    2013-01-15

    Extinction of contextual fear in rats is enhanced by exposure to a novel environment at 1-2 h before or 1 h after extinction training. This effect is antagonized by administration of protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and rapamycin into the hippocampus, but not into the amygdala, immediately after either novelty or extinction training, as well as by the gene expression blocker 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole administered after novelty training, but not after extinction training. Thus, this effect can be attributed to a mechanism similar to synaptic tagging, through which long-term potentiation can be enhanced by other long-term potentiations or by exposure to a novel environment in a protein synthesis-dependent fashion. Extinction learning produces a tag at the appropriate synapses, whereas novelty learning causes the synthesis of plasticity-related proteins that are captured by the tag, strengthening the synapses that generated this tag. PMID:23277583

  5. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). PMID:26096503

  6. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  7. Development of gadolinium based nanoparticles having an affinity towards melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlieras, Jessica; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Roux, Amandine; Heinrich-Balard, Laurence; Cohen, Richard; Tarrit, Sébastien; Truillet, Charles; Mignot, Anna; Hachani, Roxanne; Kryza, David; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Perriat, Pascal; Janier, Marc; Sancey, Lucie; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Small Rigid Platforms (SRPs) are sub-5 nanometre gadolinium based nanoparticles that have been developed for multimodal imaging and theranostic applications. They are composed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates. A covalent coupling with quinoxaline derivatives has been performed. Such derivatives have proven their affinity for melanin frequently expressed in primary melanoma cases. Three different quinoxaline derivatives have been synthesised and coupled to the nanoparticles. The affinity of the grafted nanoparticles for melanin has then been shown in vitro by surface plasmon resonance on a homemade melanin grafted gold chip.Small Rigid Platforms (SRPs) are sub-5 nanometre gadolinium based nanoparticles that have been developed for multimodal imaging and theranostic applications. They are composed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates. A covalent coupling with quinoxaline derivatives has been performed. Such derivatives have proven their affinity for melanin frequently expressed in primary melanoma cases. Three different quinoxaline derivatives have been synthesised and coupled to the nanoparticles. The affinity of the grafted nanoparticles for melanin has then been shown in vitro by surface plasmon resonance on a homemade melanin grafted gold chip. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33457g

  8. Discovery of samarium, europium, gadolinium, and terbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    May, E.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-four samarium, thirty-four europium, thirty-one gadolinium, and thirty-one terbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in gadolinium under high pressures and low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-11-07

    High pressure structural transition studies have been carried out on rare earth metal gadolinium in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to 169 GPa. Gadolinium has been compressed to 38% of its initial volume at this pressure. With increasing pressure, a crystal structure sequence of hcp → Smtype→ dhcp → fcc → dfcc → monoclinic has been observed in our studies on gadolinium. The measured equation of state of gadolinium is presented to 169 GPa at ambient temperature. Magnetic ordering temperature of gadolinium has been studied using designer diamond anvils to a pressure of 25 GP and a temperature of 10 K. The magnetic ordering temperature has been determined from the four-point electrical resistivity measurements carried out on gadolinium. Furthermore, our experiments show that the magnetic transition temperature decreases with increasing pressure to 19 GPa and then increases when gadolinium is subjected to higher pressures.

  10. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in gadolinium under high pressures and low temperatures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-11-07

    High pressure structural transition studies have been carried out on rare earth metal gadolinium in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to 169 GPa. Gadolinium has been compressed to 38% of its initial volume at this pressure. With increasing pressure, a crystal structure sequence of hcp → Smtype→ dhcp → fcc → dfcc → monoclinic has been observed in our studies on gadolinium. The measured equation of state of gadolinium is presented to 169 GPa at ambient temperature. Magnetic ordering temperature of gadolinium has been studied using designer diamond anvils to a pressure of 25 GP and a temperaturemore » of 10 K. The magnetic ordering temperature has been determined from the four-point electrical resistivity measurements carried out on gadolinium. Furthermore, our experiments show that the magnetic transition temperature decreases with increasing pressure to 19 GPa and then increases when gadolinium is subjected to higher pressures.« less

  11. Linear Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Are Associated With Brain Gadolinium Retention in Healthy Rats

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Philippe; Violas, Xavier; Grand, Sylvie; Lehericy, Stéphane; Idée, Jean-Marc; Ballet, Sébastien; Corot, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate Gd retention in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) compared with a macrocyclic contrast agent. Materials and Methods The brain tissue retention of Gd of 3 linear GBCAs (gadobenate dimeglumine, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide) and a macrocyclic GBCA (gadoterate meglumine) was compared in healthy rats (n = 8 per group) that received 20 intravenous injections of 0.6 mmol Gd/kg (4 injections per week for 5 weeks). An additional control group with saline was included. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before injection and once a week during the 5 weeks of injections and for another 4 additional weeks after contrast period. Total gadolinium concentration was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blinded qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the T1 signal intensity in DCN were performed, as well as a statistical analysis on quantitative data. Results At completion of the injection period, all the linear contrast agents (gadobenate dimeglumine, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide) induced a significant increase in signal intensity in DCN, unlike the macrocyclic GBCA (gadoterate meglumine) or saline. The T1 hypersignal enhancement kinetic was fast for gadodiamide. Total Gd concentrations for the 3 linear GBCAs groups at week 10 were significantly higher in the cerebellum (1.21 ± 0.48, 1.67 ± 0.17, and 3.75 ± 0.18 nmol/g for gadobenate dimeglumine, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide, respectively) than with the gadoterate meglumine (0.27 ± 0.16 nmol/g, P < 0.05) and saline (0.09 ± 0.12 nmol/g, P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the macrocyclic agent and saline. Conclusions Repeated administrations of the linear GBCAs gadodiamide, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadopentetate dimeglumine to healthy rats were associated with progressive and significant T1 signal hyperintensity in the

  12. 9 CFR 2.54 - Lost tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... locate and reapply the tag to the proper animal. If the lost tag is not located, the dealer or exhibitor shall affix another official tag to the animal in the manner prescribed in § 2.50, and record the tag... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lost tags. 2.54 Section 2.54...

  13. 9 CFR 2.54 - Lost tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... locate and reapply the tag to the proper animal. If the lost tag is not located, the dealer or exhibitor shall affix another official tag to the animal in the manner prescribed in § 2.50, and record the tag... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lost tags. 2.54 Section 2.54...

  14. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Sondek, John

    2004-09-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, and for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:18429272

  15. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Brill, Allison L; Pasker, Renee L

    2013-01-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, as well as for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:24510596

  16. Social image tagging with diverse semantics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xueming; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Yuan Yan; Mei, Tao

    2014-12-01

    We have witnessed the popularity of image-sharing websites for sharing personal experiences through photos on the Web. These websites allow users describing the content of their uploaded images with a set of tags. Those user-annotated tags are often noisy and biased. Social image tagging aims at removing noisy tags and suggests new relevant tags. However, most existing tag enrichment approaches predominantly focus on tag relevance and overlook tag diversity problem. How to make the top-ranked tags covering a wide range of semantic is still an opening, yet challenging, issue. In this paper, we propose an approach to retag social images with diverse semantics. Both the relevance of a tag to image as well as its semantic compensations to the already determined tags are fused to determine the final tag list for a given image. Different from existing image tagging approaches, the top-ranked tags are not only highly relevant to the image but also have significant semantic compensations with each other. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25415950

  17. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  18. WebTag: Web Browsing into Sensor Tags over NFC

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Álvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm. PMID:23012511

  19. WebTag: Web browsing into sensor tags over NFC.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Juan Jose; Ruiz-de-Garibay, Jonathan; Legarda, Jon; Alvarez, Maite; Ayerbe, Ana; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) continue to overcome many of the challenges related to wireless sensor monitoring, such as for example the design of smarter embedded processors, the improvement of the network architectures, the development of efficient communication protocols or the maximization of the life cycle autonomy. This work tries to improve the communication link of the data transmission in wireless sensor monitoring. The upstream communication link is usually based on standard IP technologies, but the downstream side is always masked with the proprietary protocols used for the wireless link (like ZigBee, Bluetooth, RFID, etc.). This work presents a novel solution (WebTag) for a direct IP based access to a sensor tag over the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology for secure applications. WebTag allows a direct web access to the sensor tag by means of a standard web browser, it reads the sensor data, configures the sampling rate and implements IP based security policies. It is, definitely, a new step towards the evolution of the Internet of Things paradigm. PMID:23012511

  20. A laboratory evaluation of tagging-related mortality and tag loss in juvenile humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Persons, William R.; Young, Kirk; Stone, Dennis M.; Van Haverbeke, Randy; Knight, William R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified tag retention, survival, and growth in juvenile, captive-reared Humpback Chub Gila cypha marked with three different tag types: (1) Biomark 12.5-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected into the body cavity with a 12-gauge needle; (2) Biomark 8.4-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected with a 16-gauge needle; and (3) Northwest Marine Technology visible implant elastomer (VIE) tags injected under the skin with a 29-gauge needle. Estimates of tag loss, tagging-induced mortality, and growth were evaluated for 60 d with each tag type for four different size-groups of fish: 40–49 mm, 50–59 mm, 60–69 mm, and 70–79 mm TL. Total length was a significant predictor of the probability of PIT tag retention and mortality for both 8-mm and 12-mm PIT tags, and the smallest fish had the highest rates of tag loss (12.5–30.0%) and mortality (7.5–20.0%). Humpback Chub of sizes 40–49 mm TL and tagged with VIE tags had no mortality but did have a 17.5% tag loss. Growth rates of all tagged fish were similar to controls. Our data indicate Humpback Chub can be effectively tagged using either 8-mm or 12-mm PIT tags with little tag loss or mortality at sizes as low as 65 mm TL.

  1. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in brain death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchtmann, M.; Beuing, O.; Skalej, M.; Kohl, J.; Serowy, S.; Bernarding, J.; Firsching, R.

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of brain death in addition to clinical findings may shorten observation time required in some countries and may add certainty to the diagnosis under specific circumstances. The practicability of Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to confirm cerebral circulatory arrest was assessed after the diagnosis of brain death in 15 patients using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. In all 15 patients extracranial blood flow distal to the external carotid arteries was undisturbed. In 14 patients no contrast medium was noted within intracerebral vessels above the proximal level of the intracerebral arteries. In one patient more distal segments of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (A3 and M3) were filled with contrast medium. Gadolinium-enhanced MRA may be considered conclusive evidence of cerebral circulatory arrest, when major intracranial vessels fail to fill with contrast medium while extracranial vessels show normal blood flow.

  2. An organic electroluminescent device made from a gadolinium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D.-Q.; Huang, C.-H.; Ibrahim, K.; Liu, F.-Q.

    2002-01-01

    A gadolinium ternary complex, tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone) (phenanthroline) gadolinium [Gd(PMIP) 3(Phen)] was synthesized and used as a light emitting material in the organic electroluminescent (EL) devices. The triple layer device with a structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/ N, N'-diphenyl- N, N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) (20 nm)/Gd(PMIP) 3(Phen) (80 nm)/2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine or BCP) (20 nm)/Mg: Ag(200 nm)/Ag(100 nm) exhibited green emission peaking at 535 nm. A maximum luminance of 230 cd/m 2 at 17 V and a peak power efficiency of 0.02 lm/w at 9 V were obtained.

  3. Growth and scintillation properties of gadolinium and yttrium orthovanadate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshina, O. V.; Baumer, V. N.; Bondar, V. G.; Kurtsev, D. A.; Gorbacheva, T. E.; Zenya, I. M.; Zhukov, A. V.; Sidletskiy, O. Ts.

    2012-02-01

    Aiming to explore the possibility of using the undoped rare-earth orthovanadates as scintillation materials, we developed the procedure for growth of gadolinium (GdVO 4) and yttrium (YVO 4) orthovanadate single crystals by Czochralski method, and determined the optimal conditions of their after-growth annealing. Optical, luminescent, and scintillation properties of YVO 4 and GdVO 4 were discussed versus known literature data. Scintillation characteristics of GdVO 4 were determined for the first time.

  4. Solid-state gadolinium{endash}magnesium hydride optical switch

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, R.; Rubin, M.; Richardson, T.; OBrien, N.; Chen, Y.

    1999-09-01

    The optical switching properties of gadolinium{endash}magnesium hydride have been demonstrated in a solid-state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35{percent} with virtually zero transmission, while with negative polarization, the visible transmission exceeds 25{percent} at 650 nm. The switching is reversible, with intermediate optical properties between the transparent and reflecting states. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Magnons as a Bose-Einstein Condensate in Nanocrystalline Gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S. N.; Mathew, S. P.

    2011-06-17

    The recent observation [S. P. Mathew et al., J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 200, 072047 (2010)] of the anomalous softening of spin-wave modes at low temperatures in nanocrystalline gadolinium is interpreted as a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons. A self-consistent calculation, based on the BEC picture, is shown to closely reproduce the observed temperature variations of magnetization and specific heat at constant magnetic fields.

  6. Type of MRI contrast, tissue gadolinium, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Do, Catherine; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Tan, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    It has been presupposed that the thermodynamic stability constant (Ktherm) of gadolinium-based MRI chelates relate to the risk of precipitating nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The present study compared low-Ktherm gadodiamide with high-Ktherm gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor-β production, and expression of activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein α-smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiamide treatment led to greater skin fibrosis and dermal cellularity than gadoteridol. In the kidney, both contrast agents led to proximal tubule vacuolization and increased fibronectin accumulation. Despite large detectable gadolinium signals in the spleen, skin, muscle, and liver from the gadodiamide-treated group, contrast-induced fibrosis appeared to be limited to the skin and kidney. These findings support the hypothesis that low-Ktherm chelates have a greater propensity to elicit nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and demonstrate that certain tissues are resistant to these effects. PMID:25100280

  7. Type of MRI contrast, tissue gadolinium, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Do, Catherine; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Tan, Chunyan; Wagner, Brent

    2014-10-01

    It has been presupposed that the thermodynamic stability constant (K(therm)) of gadolinium-based MRI chelates relate to the risk of precipitating nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The present study compared low-K(therm) gadodiamide with high-K(therm) gadoteridol in cultured fibroblasts and rats with uninephrectomies. Gadolinium content was assessed using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in paraffin-embedded tissues. In vitro, fibroblasts demonstrated dose-dependent fibronectin generation, transforming growth factor-β production, and expression of activated myofibroblast stress fiber protein α-smooth muscle actin. There were negligible differences with respect to toxicity or proliferation between the two contrast agents. In the rodent model, gadodiamide treatment led to greater skin fibrosis and dermal cellularity than gadoteridol. In the kidney, both contrast agents led to proximal tubule vacuolization and increased fibronectin accumulation. Despite large detectable gadolinium signals in the spleen, skin, muscle, and liver from the gadodiamide-treated group, contrast-induced fibrosis appeared to be limited to the skin and kidney. These findings support the hypothesis that low-K(therm) chelates have a greater propensity to elicit nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and demonstrate that certain tissues are resistant to these effects. PMID:25100280

  8. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2009-04-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  9. Gadolinium nitride films deposited using a PEALD based process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ziwen; Williams, Paul A.; Odedra, Rajesh; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Potter, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Gadolinium nitride films have been deposited on Si(100) using a plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) based process. The deposition was carried out using tris(methylcyclopentadienyl)gadolinium {Gd(MeCp) 3} and remote nitrogen plasma, separated by argon pulses. Films were deposited at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C and capped with tantalum nitride to prevent post-deposition oxidation. Film composition was initially assessed using EDX and selected samples were subsequently depth profiled using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) or AES. X-ray diffraction appears to show that the films are effectively amorphous. Films deposited at 200 °C were found to have a Gd:N ratio close to 1:1 and a low oxygen incorporation (˜5%). Although the growth was affected by partial thermal decomposition of the Gd(MeCp) 3, it was still possible to obtain smooth (Ra.=˜0.7 nm) films with good thickness uniformity (97%). Less successful attempts to deposit gadolinium nitride using thermal ALD with ammonia or mono-methyl-hydrazine are also reported.

  10. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2009-04-19

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  11. What Do Tag Games Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belka, David

    2006-01-01

    Tag games have been described as "Chasing, fleeing, and dodging" type activities. Most "fleeing" activities involve dramatic play, use of movement concepts (such as quick and light), or movement changes without a partner, while many of the chasing and dodging activities utilize dodging concepts between partners or within small groups and are…

  12. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-06-15

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It?s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  13. Gadolinium-based contrast agents: did we miss something in the last 25 years?

    PubMed

    Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Errante, Yuri; Grasso, Rosario Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last 24 months, several clinical and experimental studies, suggested first and demonstrated later, a progressive concentration of Gadolinium in the brain of normal renal function patients, following repeated injections of some of the commercially approved Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents. Although, till now, Gadolinium brain deposits have not been associated to any kind of neurological signs or symptoms, they oblige the radiology community to modify the actual approach in using Gadolinium contrast media in daily practice, to reduce unknown possible risks for patients. PMID:26706453

  14. 50 CFR 635.33 - Archival tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Implantation report. Any person affixing or implanting an archival tag into a regulated species must obtain... catch, possess, retain, and land an Atlantic HMS in which an archival tag has been implanted or...

  15. 50 CFR 635.33 - Archival tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Implantation report. Any person affixing or implanting an archival tag into a regulated species must obtain... catch, possess, retain, and land an Atlantic HMS in which an archival tag has been implanted or...

  16. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  17. Method for designing gas tag compositions

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1995-01-01

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags such as employed in a nuclear reactor gas tagging failure detection system, a method for designing gas tagging compositions utilizes an analytical approach wherein the final composition of a first canister of tag gas as measured by a mass spectrometer is designated as node #1. Lattice locations of tag nodes in multi-dimensional space are then used in calculating the compositions of a node #2 and each subsequent node so as to maximize the distance of each node from any combination of tag components which might be indistinguishable from another tag composition in a reactor fuel assembly. Alternatively, the measured compositions of tag gas numbers 1 and 2 may be used to fix the locations of nodes 1 and 2, with the locations of nodes 3-N then calculated for optimum tag gas composition. A single sphere defining the lattice locations of the tag nodes may be used to define approximately 20 tag nodes, while concentric spheres can extend the number of tag nodes to several hundred.

  18. 9 CFR 2.54 - Lost tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lost tags. 2.54 Section 2.54 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.54 Lost tags. Each dealer or exhibitor shall be held accountable for all official tags acquired. In...

  19. Method for designing gas tag compositions

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1995-04-11

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags such as employed in a nuclear reactor gas tagging failure detection system, a method for designing gas tagging compositions utilizes an analytical approach wherein the final composition of a first canister of tag gas as measured by a mass spectrometer is designated as node No. 1. Lattice locations of tag nodes in multi-dimensional space are then used in calculating the compositions of a node No. 2 and each subsequent node so as to maximize the distance of each node from any combination of tag components which might be indistinguishable from another tag composition in a reactor fuel assembly. Alternatively, the measured compositions of tag gas numbers 1 and 2 may be used to fix the locations of nodes 1 and 2, with the locations of nodes 3-N then calculated for optimum tag gas composition. A single sphere defining the lattice locations of the tag nodes may be used to define approximately 20 tag nodes, while concentric spheres can extend the number of tag nodes to several hundred. 5 figures.

  20. 50 CFR 635.33 - Archival tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Archival tags. 635.33 Section 635.33..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.33 Archival tags. (a) Implantation report. Any person affixing or implanting an archival tag into a regulated species must...

  1. Tagging as a Social Literacy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Curwen, Margaret Sauceda

    2007-01-01

    Tagging is not simply an act of vandalism or violence; it is a social practice with its own rules and codes--a literacy practice imbued with intent and meaning. Three aspects of tagging reflect its nature as a literate practice: (1) The purpose of tagging to achieve particular social goals and group affiliations; (2) The role of talent to be…

  2. Electronic Tag and Position Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    The intent of this study phase program was to adequately define the Electronic Tag and Position Sensor chip so as to be able to price and schedule the full design and development culminating in a silicon IC. Therefore, even though Hughes Aircraft Company feels that the approach submitted in this document is what should be developed, it is still considered preliminary and could change as the full design is developed.

  3. Infrared tag and track technique

    DOEpatents

    Partin, Judy K.; Stone, Mark L.; Slater, John; Davidson, James R.

    2007-12-04

    A method of covertly tagging an object for later tracking includes providing a material capable of at least one of being applied to the object and being included in the object, which material includes deuterium; and performing at least one of applying the material to the object and including the material in the object in a manner in which in the appearance of the object is not changed, to the naked eye.

  4. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  5. Use of Gadolinium as a Primary Criticality Control in Disposing Waste Containing Plutonium at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Vincent

    2005-01-04

    Use of gadolinium as a neutron poison has been proposed for disposing of several metric tons of excess plutonium at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The plutonium will first be dissolved in nitric acid in small batches. Gadolinium nitrate will then be added to the plutonium nitrate solution. The Gd-poisoned plutonium solution will be neutralized and transferred to large under-ground tanks. The pH of small batches of neutralized plutonium solution will be adjusted prior to addition of the glass frit for eventual production as glass logs. The use of gadolinium as the neutron poison would minimize the number of glass logs generated from this disposition. The primary criticality safety concerns regarding the disposal process are: (1) maintaining neutron moderation under all processing conditions since gadolinium has a very large absorption cross section for thermal neutrons, (2) characteristics of plutonium and gadolinium precipitation during the neutralization process, (3) mixing characteristics of the precipitate to ensure that plutonium would remain homogeneously mixed with gadolinium, and (4) potential separation of plutonium and gadolinium during nitric and formic acids addition. A number of experiments were conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to study the behavior of plutonium and gadolinium at various stages of the disposition process.

  6. Gadolinium-based contrast agent toxicity: a review of known and proposed mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rogosnitzky, Moshe; Branch, Stacy

    2016-06-01

    Gadolinium chelates are widely used as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging. The approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have historically been considered safe and well tolerated when used at recommended dosing levels. However, for nearly a decade, an association between GBCA administration and the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been recognized in patients with severe renal impairment. This has led to modifications in clinical practices aimed at reducing the potential and incidence of NSF development. Newer reports have emerged regarding the accumulation of gadolinium in various tissues of patients who do not have renal impairment, including bone, brain, and kidneys. Despite the observations of gadolinium accumulation in tissues regardless of renal function, very limited clinical data regarding the potential for and mechanisms of toxicity is available. This significant gap in knowledge warrants retrospective cohort study efforts, as well as prospective studies that involve gadolinium ion (Gd(3+)) testing in patients exposed to GBCA. This review examines the potential biochemical and molecular basis of gadolinium toxicity, possible clinical significance of gadolinium tissue retention and accumulation, and methods that can limit gadolinium body burden. PMID:27053146

  7. Dual-Energy X-Radiography With Gadolinium Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutt, Brian

    1987-01-01

    Image resolution increased, and cost reduced. Proposed dual-energy x-ray imaging system, continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum from x-ray tube filtered by foil of nonradioactive gadolinium or another rare-earth metal to form two-peaked energy spectrum. After passing through patient or object under examination, filtered radiation detected by array of energy-discriminating, photon-counting detectors. Detector outputs processed to form x-ray image for each peak and possibly enhanced image based on data taken at both peaks.

  8. Studies of MRI relaxivities of gadolinium-labeled dendrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongmu; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2011-05-01

    In cancer detection, imaging techniques have a great importance in early diagnosis. The more sensitive the imaging technique and the earlier the tumor can be detected. Contrast agents have the capability to increase the sensitivity in imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Until now, gadolinium-based contrast agents are mainly used for MRI, and show good enhancement. But improvement is needed for detection of smaller tumors at the earliest stage possible. The dendrons complexed with Gd(DOTA) were synthesized and evaluated as a new MRI contrast agent. The longitudinal and transverse relaxation effects were tested and compared with commercial drug Magnevist, Gd(DTPA).

  9. Electrical and optical properties of gadolinium doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A. Banerjee, M. Basu, S.; Pal, M.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BFO) and gadolinium (Gd) doped bismuth ferrite had been synthesized by a sol-gel method. Particle size had been estimated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found to decrease with Gd doping. We studied the temperature and frequency dependence of impedance and electric modulus and calculated the grain and grain boundary resistance and capacitance of the investigated samples. We observed that electrical activation energy increases for all the doped samples. Optical band gap also increases for the doped samples which can be used in photocatalytic application of BFO.

  10. Ascorbate and endocytosed Motexafin gadolinium induce lysosomal rupture.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Carsten; Kurz, Tino; Bannenberg, Sarah; Jacob, Ralf; Holmgren, Arne; Brunk, Ulf T

    2011-08-28

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) sensitizes malignant cells to ionizing radiation, although the underlying mechanisms for uptake and sensitization are both unclear. Here we show that MGd is endocytosed by the clathrin-dependent pathway with ensuing lysosomal membrane permeabilization, most likely via formation of reactive oxygen species involving redox-active metabolites, such as ascorbate. We propose that subsequent apoptosis is a synergistic effect of irradiation and high MGd concentrations in malignant cells due to their pronounced endocytic activity. The results provide novel insights into the mode of action of this promising anti-cancer drug, which is currently under clinical trials. PMID:21492999

  11. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles for theranostic MRI-radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Lux, François; Sancey, Lucie; Bianchi, Andrea; Crémillieux, Yannick; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    A rapid development of gadolinium-based nanoparticles is observed due to their attractive properties as MRI-positive contrast agents. Indeed, they display high relaxivity, adapted biodistribution and passive uptake in the tumor thanks to enhanced permeability and retention effect. In addition to these imaging properties, it has been recently shown that they can act as effective radiosensitizers under different types of irradiation (radiotherapy, neutron therapy or hadron therapy). These new therapeutic modalities pave the way to therapy guided by imaging and to personalized medicine. PMID:25715316

  12. Magnetoresistance of polycrystalline gadolinium with varying grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravorty, Manotosh Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we report a study of evolution of low field magnetoresistance (MR) of Gadolinium as the grain size in the sample is changed from few microns (∼4 μm) to the nanoscopic regime (∼35 nm). The low field MR has a clear effect on varying grain size. In large grain sample (few μm), the magnetic domains are controlled by local anisotropy field determined mainly by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The low field MR clearly reflects the temperature dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. For decreasing gain size, the contribution of spin disorder at the grain boundary increases and enhances the local anisotropy field.

  13. Gadolinium Thin Foils in a Plasma Panel Sensor as an Alternative to 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Varner Jr, Robert L; Beene, James R; Friedman, Dr. Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Gadolinium has long been investigated as a detector for neutrons. It has a thermal neutron capture cross-section that is unparalleled among stable elements, because of the isotopes $^{155,157}$Gd. As a replacement for $^3$He, gadolinium has a significant defect, it produces many gamma-rays with an energy sum of 8 MeV. It also produces conversion electrons, mostly 29 keV in energy. The key to replacing $^3$He with gadolinium is using a gamma-blind electron detector to detect the conversion electrons. We suggest that coupling a layer of gadolinium to a Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS) can provide highly efficient, nearly gamma-blind detection of the conversion. The PPS is a proposed detector under development as a dense array of avalanche counters based on plasma display technology. We will present simulations of the response of prototypes of this detector and considerations of the use of gadolinium in the PPS.

  14. Tag retention, growth, and survival of red swamp crayfish marked with a visible implant tag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Stockett, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Eighty juvenile (means: 42.4 mm total length, 1.6 g) red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii were implanted with sequentially numbered visible implant tags and held in the laboratory. Tags were injected transversely into the musculature just beneath the exoskeleton of the third abdominal segment from the cephalothorax; tags were visible upon inspection. An additional 20 crayfish were left untagged and served as controls. After 150 d, tag retention was 80% and all tags were readable. No tagged crayfish died during the study, and no differences in total length or weight were detected between tagged and control crayfish. All individuals molted at least three times during the 150-d study, and some individuals molted up to six times, suggesting that most tags would be permanently retained. The readability in the field without specialized equipment makes the visible implant tag ideal for studies of crayfish ecology, management, and culture.

  15. The preparation of organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium (III) and its optical and structural characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li-bin; Ji, Rong-bin; Song, Li-yuan; Chen, Xue-mei; Ma, Yu; Wang, Yi-feng; Qian, Ming; Song, Lei; Su, Hai-ying; Zhuang, Ji-sheng; Yang, Rui-yu

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the species of organic infrared semiconductor, we synthesized organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium by using o-phthalodinitrile and GdCl3 as reactants, ammonium molybdate as catalyzer. Under light and dark field modes of microscope, the translucency emerald-like powder of phthalocyanine gadolinium has been observed, the size of the small grain for the sample is around 5μm in diameter, the size of larger grain may reach to several tens of microns. The main vibrational peaks in FT-IR spectrum and Raman spectrum have been assigned. Elementary analysis shows that the experimental data of phthalocyanine gadolinium in the main agree with those of calculated data. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the sample indicates the sandwich-like structure of phthalocyanine gadolinium. The organic infrared semiconductor phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate has been prepared with our synthesized powdered sample by using solution method. The characterizations of XRD and UV-Vis-NIR absorption have been carried out for the phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate, XRD shows that phthalocyanine gadolinium diffractions occur at 2θ=6.851,8.290 and 8.820 degrees, the corresponding plane spacings (d) for the diffraction peaks are 12.8921, 10.6570, and 10.0176Å.The diffraction peaks locate at low diffraction angle, suggesting that the molecular size of the phthalocyanine gadolinium is big that causes the large spacing of crystal planes. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption of phthalocyanine gadolinium thin film on quartz substrate implies that within near infrared band there is a absorption in the 1.3~2.0μm wavelength range peaked at ca. 1.75μm, indicating the important potential application value of phthalocyanine gadolinium in the field of organic infrared optoelectronics.

  16. Directional Radio-Frequency Identification Tag Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John D.; Henderson, John J.

    2004-01-01

    A directional radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag reader has been designed to facilitate finding a specific object among many objects in a crowded room. The device could be an adjunct to an electronic inventory system that tracks RFID-tagged objects as they move through reader-equipped doorways. Whereas commercial RFID-tag readers do not measure directions to tagged objects, the device is equipped with a phased-array antenna and a received signal-strength indicator (RSSI) circuit for measuring direction. At the beginning of operation, it is set to address only the RFID tag of interest. It then continuously transmits a signal to interrogate that tag while varying the radiation pattern of the antenna. It identifies the direction to the tag as the radiation pattern direction of peak strength of the signal returned by the tag. An approximate distance to the tag is calculated from the peak signal strength. The direction and distance can be displayed on a screen. A prototype containing a Yagi antenna was found to be capable of detecting a 915.5-MHz tag at a distance of approximately equal to 15 ft (approximately equal to 4.6 m).

  17. Undersampled Cine 3D tagging for rapid assessment of cardiac motion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CMR allows investigating cardiac contraction, rotation and torsion non-invasively by the use of tagging sequences. Three-dimensional tagging has been proposed to cover the whole-heart but data acquisition requires three consecutive breath holds and hence demands considerable patient cooperation. In this study we have implemented and studied k-t undersampled cine 3D tagging in conjunction with k-t PCA reconstruction to potentially permit for single breath-hold acquisitions. Methods The performance of undersampled cine 3D tagging was investigated using computer simulations and in-vivo measurements in 8 healthy subjects and 5 patients with myocardial infarction. Fully sampled data was obtained and compared to retrospectively and prospectively undersampled acquisitions. Fully sampled data was acquired in three consecutive breath holds. Prospectively undersampled data was obtained within a single breath hold. Based on harmonic phase (HARP) analysis, circumferential shortening, rotation and torsion were compared between fully sampled and undersampled data using Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis. Results In computer simulations, the error for circumferential shortening was 2.8 ± 2.3% and 2.7 ± 2.1% for undersampling rates of R = 3 and 4 respectively. Errors in ventricular rotation were 2.5 ± 1.9% and 3.0 ± 2.2% for R = 3 and 4. Comparison of results from fully sampled in-vivo data acquired with prospectively undersampled acquisitions showed a mean difference in circumferential shortening of −0.14 ± 5.18% and 0.71 ± 6.16% for R = 3 and 4. The mean differences in rotation were 0.44 ± 1.8° and 0.73 ± 1.67° for R = 3 and 4, respectively. In patients peak, circumferential shortening was significantly reduced (p < 0.002 for all patients) in regions with late gadolinium enhancement. Conclusion Undersampled cine 3D tagging enables significant reduction in scan time of whole-heart tagging and

  18. The relationship between thermodynamics and the toxicity of gadolinium complexes.

    PubMed

    Cacheris, W P; Quay, S C; Rocklage, S M

    1990-01-01

    The suitability of gadolinium complexes as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents depends on a number of factors. A thermodynamic relationship to toxicity exists if one assumes that the chemotoxicity of the intact complex is minimal but that the toxicity of the components of the complex (free metal and uncomplexed ligands) is substantial. Release of Gd3+ from the complex is responsible for the toxicity associated with gadolinium complexes; this release appears to be a consequence of Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ca2+ transmetallation in vivo. This hypothesis is supported by acute toxicity experiments, which demonstrate that despite a 50-fold range of LD50 values for four Gd complexes, all become lethally toxic when they release precisely the same quantity of Gd3+, and by subchronic rodent toxicity experiments, which demonstrate a set of gross and microscopic findings similar to those known to be caused by Zn2+ deficiency. Finally, this hypothesis predicts that subtle changes in formulation can further enhance the intrinsic safety of these complexes. PMID:2118207

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by different concentrations of gadolinium ion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Jian-Cheng; Yuan, Lian; He, Huan; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Yang, Xiao-Gang; Dai, Jie; Liu, Yi

    2014-04-01

    Gadolinium-based compounds are the most widely used paramagnetic contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging on the world. But the tricationic gadolinium ion (Gd(3+)) could induce cell apoptosis probably because of its effects on mitochondria. Until now, the mechanism about how Gd(3+) interacts with mitochondria is not well elucidated. In this work, mitochondrial swelling, collapsed transmembrane potential and decreased membrane fluidity were observed to be important factors for mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) opening induced by Gd(3+). The protection effect of CsA (Cyclosporin A) could confirm high concentration of Gd(3+) (500 μM) would trigger mtPTP opening. Moreover, mitochondrial outer membrane breakdown and volume expansion observed clearly by transmission electron microscopy and the release of Cyt c (Cytochrome c) could explain the mtPTP opening from another aspect. In addition, MBM(+) (monobromobimane(+)) and DTT (dithiothreitol) could protect thiol (-SH) groups from oxidation so that the toxicity of Gd(3+) might be resulted from the chelation of -SH of membrane proteins by free Gd(3+). Gd(3+) could inhibit the initiation of mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, so it might interact with anionic lipids too. These findings will highly contribute to the safe applications of Gd-based agents. PMID:24321333

  20. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  1. Magnetic Surfactants and Polymers with Gadolinium Counterions for Protein Separations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Bromberg, Lev; Rial-Hermida, M Isabel; Wasbrough, Matthew; Hatton, T Alan; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-01-26

    New magnetic surfactants, (cationic hexadecyltrimethlyammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (CTAG), decyltrimethylammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (DTAG), and a magnetic polymer (poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium tetrachlorogadolinate (APTAG)) have been synthesized by the simple mixing of the corresponding surfactants and polymer with gadolinium metal ions. A magnetic anionic surfactant, gadolinium tri(1,4-bis(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate) (Gd(AOT)3), was synthesized via metathesis. Both routes enable facile preparation of magnetically responsive magnetic polymers and surfactants without the need to rely on nanocomposites or organic frameworks with polyradicals. Electrical conductivity, surface tensiometry, SQUID magnetometry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) demonstrate surface activity and self-aggregation behavior of the magnetic surfactants similar to their magnetically inert parent analogues but with added magnetic properties. The binding of the magnetic surfactants to proteins enables efficient separations under low-strength (0.33 T) magnetic fields in a new, nanoparticle-free approach to magnetophoretic protein separations and extractions. Importantly, the toxicity of the magnetic surfactants and polymers is, in some cases, lower than that of their halide analogues. PMID:26725503

  2. Dielectric and magnetic properties of some gadolinium silica nanoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coroiu, I. Pascuta, P. Bosca, M. Culea, E.

    2013-11-13

    Some nanostructure gadolinium silica glass-ceramics were obtained undergoing a sol gel method and a heat-treatment at 1000°C about two hours. The magnetic and dielectric properties of these samples were studied. The magnetic properties were evidenced performing susceptibility measurements in the 80-300K temperature range. A Curie-Weiss behavior has acquired. The values estimated for paramagnetic Curie temperature being small and positive suggest the presence of weak ferromagnetic interactions between Gd{sup 3+} ions. The dielectric properties were evaluated from dielectric permittivity (ε{sub r}) and dielectric loss (tanδ) measurements at the frequency 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz, in the 25-225°C temperature range and dielectric dispersion at room temperature for 79.5 kHz - 1GHz frequency area. The dielectric properties suggest that the main polarization mechanism corresponds to interfacial polarization, characteristic for polycrystalline-structured dielectrics. The polycrystalline structure of the samples is due to the polymorphous transformations of the nanostructure silica crystallites in the presence of gadolinium oxide. They were highlighted by SEM micrographs.

  3. Hepatobiliary MR Imaging with Gadolinium Based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Frydrychowicz, Alex; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brown, Jeffrey J.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Nagle, Scott K.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of gadolinium-based “hepatobiliary” contrast agents offers new opportunities for diagnostic MRI and has triggered a great interest for innovative imaging approaches to the liver and bile ducts. In this review article we will discuss the imaging properties of the two gadolinium-based hepatobiliary contrast agents currently available in the USA, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid, as well as important pharmacokinetic differences that affect their diagnostic performance. We will review potential applications, protocol optimization strategies, as well as diagnostic pitfalls. A variety of illustrative case examples will be used to demonstrate the role of these agents in detection and characterization of liver lesions as well as for imaging the biliary system. Changes in MR protocols geared towards optimizing workflow and imaging quality will also be discussed. It is our aim that the information provided in this article will facilitate the optimal utilization of these agents, and will stimulate the reader‘s pursuit of new applications for future benefit. PMID:22334493

  4. Tagged-weak {pi} method

    SciTech Connect

    Margaryan, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S.; Tang, L.

    2011-02-15

    A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.

  5. Not All Sequence Tags Are Created Equal: Designing and Validating Sequence Identification Tags Robust to Indels

    PubMed Central

    Faircloth, Brant C.; Glenn, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Ligating adapters with unique synthetic oligonucleotide sequences (sequence tags) onto individual DNA samples before massively parallel sequencing is a popular and efficient way to obtain sequence data from many individual samples. Tag sequences should be numerous and sufficiently different to ensure sequencing, replication, and oligonucleotide synthesis errors do not cause tags to be unrecoverable or confused. However, many design approaches only protect against substitution errors during sequencing and extant tag sets contain too few tag sequences. We developed an open-source software package to validate sequence tags for conformance to two distance metrics and design sequence tags robust to indel and substitution errors. We use this software package to evaluate several commercial and non-commercial sequence tag sets, design several large sets (maxcount = 7,198) of edit metric sequence tags having different lengths and degrees of error correction, and integrate a subset of these edit metric tags to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and sequencing adapters. We validate a subset of these edit metric tagged PCR primers and sequencing adapters by sequencing on several platforms and subsequent comparison to commercially available alternatives. We find that several commonly used sets of sequence tags or design methodologies used to produce sequence tags do not meet the minimum expectations of their underlying distance metric, and we find that PCR primers and sequencing adapters incorporating edit metric sequence tags designed by our software package perform as well as their commercial counterparts. We suggest that researchers evaluate sequence tags prior to use or evaluate tags that they have been using. The sequence tag sets we design improve on extant sets because they are large, valid across the set, and robust to the suite of substitution, insertion, and deletion errors affecting massively parallel sequencing workflows on all currently used platforms

  6. Understanding why users tag: A survey of tagging motivation literature and results from an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Strohmaier, Markus; Körner, Christian; Kern, Roman

    2012-01-01

    While recent progress has been achieved in understanding the structure and dynamics of social tagging systems, we know little about the underlying user motivations for tagging, and how they influence resulting folksonomies and tags. This paper addresses three issues related to this question. (1) What distinctions of user motivations are identified by previous research, and in what ways are the motivations of users amenable to quantitative analysis? (2) To what extent does tagging motivation vary across different social tagging systems? (3) How does variability in user motivation influence resulting tags and folksonomies? In this paper, we present measures to detect whether a tagger is primarily motivated by categorizing or describing resources, and apply these measures to datasets from seven different tagging systems. Our results show that (a) users’ motivation for tagging varies not only across, but also within tagging systems, and that (b) tag agreement among users who are motivated by categorizing resources is significantly lower than among users who are motivated by describing resources. Our findings are relevant for (1) the development of tag-based user interfaces, (2) the analysis of tag semantics and (3) the design of search algorithms for social tagging systems. PMID:23471473

  7. Affinity purification of heme-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Asher, Wesley B; Bren, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Protein affinity purification techniques are widely used for isolating pure target proteins for biochemical and structural characterization. Herein, we describe the protocol for affinity-based purification of proteins expressed in Escherichia coli that uses the coordination of a peptide tag covalently modified with heme c, known as a heme-tag, to an L-histidine immobilized Sepharose resin. This approach provides an affinity purification tag visible to the eye, facilitating tracking of the protein. In addition, we describe methods for specifically detecting heme-tagged proteins in SDS-PAGE gels using a heme-staining procedure and for quantifying the proteins using a pyridine hemochrome assay. PMID:24943311

  8. Sensor-based material tagging system

    SciTech Connect

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C. . Science and Technology Center)

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system.

  9. Sensor-based material tagging system

    SciTech Connect

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-12-31

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system.

  10. Growth Control in Colon Epithelial Cells: Gadolinium Enhances Calcium-Mediated Growth Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Attili, Durga; Jenkins, Brian; Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Dame, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Gadolinium, a member of the lanthanoid family of transition metals, interacts with calcium-binding sites on proteins and other biological molecules. The overall goal of the present investigation was to determine if gadolinium could enhance calcium-induced epithelial cell growth inhibition in the colon. Gadolinium at concentrations as low as 1–5 µM combined with calcium inhibits proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells more effectively than calcium alone. Gadolinium had no detectable effect on calcium-induced differentiation in the same cells based on change in cell morphology, induction of E-cadherin synthesis, and translocation of E-cadherin from the cytosol to the cell surface. When the colon epithelial cells were treated with gadolinium and then exposed to increased calcium concentrations, movement of extracellular calcium into the cell was suppressed. In contrast, gadolinium treatment had no effect on ionomycin-induced release of stored intracellular calcium into the cytoplasm. Whether these in vitro observations can be translated into an approach for reducing abnormal proliferation in the colonic mucosa (including polyp formation) is not known. These results do, however, provide an explanation for our recent findings that a multi-mineral supplement containing all of the naturally occurring lanthanoid metals including gadolinium are more effective than calcium alone in preventing colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet. PMID:23008064

  11. Gadolinium nanoparticles and contrast agent as radiation sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Taupin, Florence; Flaender, Mélanie; Delorme, Rachel; Brochard, Thierry; Mayol, Jean-François; Arnaud, Josiane; Perriat, Pascal; Sancey, Lucie; Lux, François; Barth, Rolf F; Carrière, Marie; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Elleaume, Hélène

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate and compare the radiosensitizing properties of gadolinium nanoparticles (NPs) with the gadolinium contrast agent (GdCA) Magnevist(®) in order to better understand the mechanisms by which they act as radiation sensitizers. This was determined following either low energy synchrotron irradiation or high energy gamma irradiation of F98 rat glioma cells exposed to ultrasmall gadolinium NPs (GdNPs, hydrodynamic diameter of 3 nm) or GdCA. Clonogenic assays were used to quantify cell survival after irradiation in the presence of Gd using monochromatic x-rays with energies in the 25 keV-80 keV range from a synchrotron and 1.25 MeV gamma photons from a cobalt-60 source. Radiosensitization was demonstrated with both agents in combination with X-irradiation. At the same concentration (2.1 mg mL(-1)), GdNPS had a greater effect than GdCA. The maximum sensitization-enhancement ratio at 4 Gy (SER4Gy) was observed at an energy of 65 keV for both the nanoparticles and the contrast agent (2.44   ±   0.33 and 1.50   ±   0.20, for GdNPs and GdCA, respectively). At a higher energy (1.25 MeV), radiosensitization only was observed with GdNPs (1.66   ±   0.17 and 1.01   ±   0.11, for GdNPs and GdCA, respectively). The radiation dose enhancements were highly 'energy dependent' for both agents. Secondary-electron-emission generated after photoelectric events appeared to be the primary mechanism by which Gd contrast agents functioned as radiosensitizers. On the other hand, other biological mechanisms, such as alterations in the cell cycle may explain the enhanced radiosensitizing properties of GdNPs. PMID:25988839

  12. Gadolinium nanoparticles and contrast agent as radiation sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taupin, Florence; Flaender, Mélanie; Delorme, Rachel; Brochard, Thierry; Mayol, Jean-François; Arnaud, Josiane; Perriat, Pascal; Sancey, Lucie; Lux, François; Barth, Rolf F.; Carrière, Marie; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Elleaume, Hélène

    2015-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate and compare the radiosensitizing properties of gadolinium nanoparticles (NPs) with the gadolinium contrast agent (GdCA) Magnevist® in order to better understand the mechanisms by which they act as radiation sensitizers. This was determined following either low energy synchrotron irradiation or high energy gamma irradiation of F98 rat glioma cells exposed to ultrasmall gadolinium NPs (GdNPs, hydrodynamic diameter of 3 nm) or GdCA. Clonogenic assays were used to quantify cell survival after irradiation in the presence of Gd using monochromatic x-rays with energies in the 25 keV-80 keV range from a synchrotron and 1.25 MeV gamma photons from a cobalt-60 source. Radiosensitization was demonstrated with both agents in combination with X-irradiation. At the same concentration (2.1 mg mL-1), GdNPS had a greater effect than GdCA. The maximum sensitization-enhancement ratio at 4 Gy (SER4Gy) was observed at an energy of 65 keV for both the nanoparticles and the contrast agent (2.44   ±   0.33 and 1.50   ±   0.20, for GdNPs and GdCA, respectively). At a higher energy (1.25 MeV), radiosensitization only was observed with GdNPs (1.66   ±   0.17 and 1.01   ±   0.11, for GdNPs and GdCA, respectively). The radiation dose enhancements were highly ‘energy dependent’ for both agents. Secondary-electron-emission generated after photoelectric events appeared to be the primary mechanism by which Gd contrast agents functioned as radiosensitizers. On the other hand, other biological mechanisms, such as alterations in the cell cycle may explain the enhanced radiosensitizing properties of GdNPs.

  13. Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake in Wheat Is Controlled by N Status at Flowering, with a Putative Major Role of Root Nitrate Transporter NRT2.1

    PubMed Central

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the simultaneous improvement of both yield and grain protein is difficult because of the strong negative relationship between these two traits. However, some genotypes deviate positively from this relationship and this has been linked to their ability to take up nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period, regardless of their N status at flowering. The physiological and genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake relating to N satiety are poorly understood. This study uses semi-hydroponic culture of cv. Récital under controlled conditions to explore these controls. The first objective was to record the effects of contrasting N status at flowering on post-flowering nitrate (NO3-) uptake under non-limiting NO3- conditions, while following the expression of key genes involved in NO3- uptake and assimilation. We found that post-flowering NO3- uptake was strongly influenced by plant N status at flowering during the first 300–400 degree-days after flowering, overlapping with a probable regulation of nitrate uptake exerted by N demand for growth. The uptake of NO3- correlated well with the expression of the gene TaNRT2.1, coding for a root NO3- transporter, which seems to play a major role in post-flowering NO3- uptake. These results provide a useful knowledge base for future investigation of genetic variability in post-flowering N uptake and may lead to concomitant gains in both grain yield and grain protein in wheat. PMID:25798624

  14. To tag or not to tag: animal welfare, conservation and stakeholder considerations in fish tracking studies that use electronic tags

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Steven J.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Murchie, Karen J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Hinch, Scott G.; Brown, Richard S.; Fisk, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The advent and widespread adoption of electronic tags (including biotelemetry and biologging devices) for tracking animals has provided unprecedented information on the biology, management, and conservation of fish in the world’s oceans and inland waters. However, use of these tools is not without controversy. Even when scientific and management objectives may best be achieved using electronic tags, it is increasingly important to further consider other factors such as the welfare of tagged animals (i.e., the role of training and science-based surgical guidelines, anesthetic use, inability to maintain sterile conditions in field environments), the ethics of tagging threatened species vs. using surrogates, stakeholder perspectives on tagging (including aboriginals), as well as use of data emanating from such studies (e.g., by fishers to facilitate exploitation). Failure to do so will have the potential to create conflict and undermine scientific, management and public confidence in the use of this powerful tool. Indeed, there are already a number of examples of where tracking studies using electronic tags have been halted based on concerns raised by researchers, authorities, or stakeholders. Here we present a candid evaluation of several factors that should be considered when determining when to tag or not to tag fish with electronic devices. It is not our objective to judge the merit of previous studies. Rather, we hope to stimulate debate and discussion regarding the use of electronic tags to study fish. Relatedly, there is a need for more research to address these questions (e.g., what level of cleanliness is needed when conducting surgeries, what type of training should be required for fish surgery) including human dimensions studies to understand perspectives of different actors including society as a whole with respect to tagging and tracking studies.

  15. Engineering the ATLAS TAG Browser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qizhi; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    ELSSI is a web-based event metadata (TAG) browser and event-level selection service for ATLAS. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges encountered in the process of developing ELSSI, and the software engineering strategies adopted to address those challenges. Approaches to management of access to data, browsing, data rendering, query building, query validation, execution, connection management, and communication with auxiliary services are discussed. We also describe strategies for dealing with data that may vary over time, such as run-dependent trigger decision decoding. Along with examples, we illustrate how programming techniques in multiple languages (PHP, JAVASCRIPT, XML, AJAX, and PL/SQL) have been blended to achieve the required results. Finally, we evaluate features of the ELSSI service in terms of functionality, scalability, and performance.

  16. Expressed sequence tags: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, John; Blaxter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are fragments of mRNA sequences derived through single sequencing reactions performed on randomly selected clones from cDNA libraries. To date, over 45 million ESTs have been generated from over 1400 different species of eukaryotes. For the most part, EST projects are used to either complement existing genome projects or serve as low-cost alternatives for purposes of gene discovery. However, with improvements in accuracy and coverage, they are beginning to find application in fields such as phylogenetics, transcript profiling and proteomics. This volume provides practical details on the generation and analysis of ESTs. Chapters are presented which cover creation of cDNA libraries; generation and processing of sequence data; bioinformatics analysis of ESTs; and their application to phylogenetics and transcript profiling. PMID:19277571

  17. Extracellular gadolinium-based contrast media: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bellin, Marie-France; Van Der Molen, Aart J

    2008-05-01

    Increasing use is made of extracellular MRI contrast agents that alter the image contrast following intravenous administration; they predominantly shorten the T1 relaxation time of tissues. The degree and location of these changes provide substantial diagnostic information. However gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CA) are not inert drugs. They may cause acute non-renal adverse reactions (e.g. anaphylactoid reactions), acute renal adverse reactions (e.g. contrast induced nephropathy), delayed adverse reactions (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) and problems at the site of injection (e.g. local necrosis). This review describes the current status of Gd-CA, their mechanism of action, chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, dosage, elimination, nephrotoxicity and adverse events. PMID:18358659

  18. Mechanism of inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase with motexafin gadolinium (MGd)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahedi Avval, Farnaz; Berndt, Carsten; Pramanik, Aladdin; Holmgren, Arne

    2009-02-13

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is an expanded porphyrin anticancer agent which selectively targets tumor cells and works as a radiation enhancer, with promising results in clinical trials. Its mechanism of action is oxidation of intracellular reducing molecules and acting as a direct inhibitor of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). This paper focuses on the mechanism of inhibition of RNR by MGd. Our experimental data present at least two pathways for inhibition of RNR; one precluding subunits oligomerization and the other direct inhibition of the large catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Co-localization of MGd and RNR in the cytoplasm particularly in the S-phase may account for its inhibitory properties. These data can elucidate an important effect of MGd on the cancer cells with overproduction of RNR and its efficacy as an anticancer agent and not only as a general radiosensitizer.

  19. Defect induced mobility enhancement: Gadolinium oxide (100) on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaputra, W.; Tsu, R.

    2012-11-26

    Growth of predominantly single crystal (100)-oriented gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a p-type Si(100) and growth of a polycrystal with a predominant Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100) crystallite on a n-type Si(100) was performed using molecular beam epitaxy. Despite a poorer crystal structure than Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}(110), an enhancement in carrier mobility can be found only from the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100)/n-type Si(100) interface. The mobility of 1715-1780 cm{sup 2}/V {center_dot} s was observed at room temperature, for carrier concentration >10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. This accumulation of the electrons and the mobility enhancement may arise from the two-dimensional confinement due to charge transfer across the interface similar to transfer doping.

  20. The structural response of gadolinium phosphate to pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heffernan, Karina M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Spencer, Elinor C.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-06-16

    In this study, accurate elastic constants for gadolinium phosphate (GdPO4) have been measured by single-crystal high-pressure diffraction methods. The bulk modulus of GdPO4 determined under hydrostatic conditions, 128.1(8) GPa (K'=5.8(2)), is markedly different from that obtained with GdPO4 under non-hydrostatic conditions (160(2) GPa), which indicates the importance of shear stresses on the elastic response of this phosphate. Finally, high pressure Raman and diffraction analysis indicate that the PO4 tetrahedra behave as rigid units in response to pressure and that contraction of the GdPO4 structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd–O–P links that result in increased distortion in the GdO9more » polyhedra.« less

  1. The structural response of gadolinium phosphate to pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Karina M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Spencer, Elinor C.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate elastic constants for gadolinium phosphate (GdPO4) have been measured by single-crystal high-pressure diffraction methods. The bulk modulus of GdPO4 determined under hydrostatic conditions, 128.1(8) GPa (Kʹ=5.8(2)), is markedly different from that obtained with GdPO4 under non-hydrostatic conditions (160(2) GPa), which indicates the importance of shear stresses on the elastic response of this phosphate. High pressure Raman and diffraction analysis indicate that the PO4 tetrahedra behave as rigid units in response to pressure and that contraction of the GdPO4 structure is facilitated by bending/twisting of the Gd-O-P links that result in increased distortion in the GdO9 polyhedra.

  2. Strategies for the preparation of bifunctional gadolinium(III) chelators

    PubMed Central

    Frullano, Luca; Caravan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The development of gadolinium chelators that can be easily and readily linked to various substrates is of primary importance for the development high relaxation efficiency and/or targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Over the last 25 years a large number of bifunctional chelators have been prepared. For the most part, these compounds are based on ligands that are already used in clinically approved contrast agents. More recently, new bifunctional chelators have been reported based on complexes that show a more potent relaxation effect, faster complexation kinetics and in some cases simpler synthetic procedures. This review provides an overview of the synthetic strategies used for the preparation of bifunctional chelators for MRI applications. PMID:22375102

  3. Sintering and mechanical properties of gadolinium-doped ceria ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Uemura, K.; Shiota, T.

    2012-01-01

    Gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) ceramics were made by sintering at various temperatures from 1000°C to 1400°C in air. The true density and apparent density were measured to calculate the relative density of GDC ceramics. The change in relative density revealed that densification of GDC ceramics increased up to 1200°C, and thereafter turned downward. It was suggested that pores were formed at 1300°C and 1400°C due to non-stoichiometry of ceria. JIS-type specimens were cut from the sintered body and tested by 4-point bending. Young's modulus and bending strength decreased with increasing the sintering temperature from 1200°C to 1400°C, corresponding to the change in the relative density.

  4. Transposon tagging in diploid strawberry.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Richard E; Mills, Kerri P; Baxter, Aaron J; Upham, Kendall T; Ferguson, Tammy J; Holt, Sarah Hudson; Lu, Nan; Ruiz-Rojas, Juan J; Pantazis, Christopher J; Davis, Cherish M; Lindsay, Robert C; Powell, Frankie L; Dan, Yinghui; Dickerman, Allan W; Oosumi, Teruko; Shulaev, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    Fragaria vesca was transformed with a transposon tagging construct harbouring amino terminally deleted maize transposase and EGFP (Ac element), NPTII, CaMV 35S promoter (P35S) driving transposase and mannopine synthase promoter (Pmas) driving EGFP (Ds element). Of 180 primary transgenics, 48 were potential launch pads, 72 were multiple insertions or chimaeras, and 60 exhibited somatic transposition. T₁ progeny of 32 putative launch pads were screened by multiplex PCR for transposition. Evidence of germ-line transposition occurred in 13 putative launch pads; however, the transposition frequency was too low in three for efficient recovery of transposants. The transposition frequency in the remaining launch pads ranged from 16% to 40%. After self-pollination of the T₀ launch pads, putative transposants in the T₁ generation were identified by multiplex PCR. Sequencing of hiTAIL-PCR products derived from nested primers within the Ds end sequences (either P35S at the left border or the inverted repeat at the right border) of T₁ plants revealed transposition of the Ds element to distant sites in the strawberry genome. From more than 2400 T₁ plants screened, 103 unique transposants have been identified, among which 17 were somatic transpositions observed in the T₀ generation. Ds insertion sites were dispersed among various gene elements [exons (15%), introns (23%), promoters (30%), 3' UTRs (17%) as well as intergenically (15%)]. Three-primer (one on either side of the Ds insertion and one within the Ds T-DNA) PCR could be used to identify homozygous T₂ transposon-tagged plants. The mutant collection has been catalogued in an on-line database. PMID:22845757

  5. Non-Elimination Tag: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, J. Scott; Mohr, Derek J.; Waronsky, Clint; Grana, Mario M.

    2006-01-01

    The activity of tag may be one of the most widely played games in elementary physical education programs. It comes in many shapes and sizes and can be morphed to meet many needs. For example, tag is used as a general body warm-up for young children (Rosengard, Mckenzie, & Short, 2000), to teach chasing, dodging, and fleeing skills (Graham,…

  6. Automated Grammatical Tagging of Child Language Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channell, Ron W.; Johnson, Bonnie W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of automated methods of grammatical categorization ("tagging") of transcribed conversational language samples from 30 normally developing children. On a word-by-word basis, automated accuracy levels averaged 95.1%; accuracy of tagging whole utterances averaged 77.7%. Results suggest that further improvement of…

  7. A Radio Tag for Big Whales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Radio tags to track wildlife have been used for years. However, such tagging of whales has been more complicated and less successful. This article explores the latest technology that is designed to give information over a long period of time. (MA)

  8. Baggage Tags for Learning Out of Doors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Lib

    The manual provides teachers with not only educational outdoor activities, but also with activities that can be provided on an individual level. The only equipment needed for most of these activities is a bought or homemade "baggage tag". These tags are used for a variety of purposes such as plant and animal identification, nature quiz games, and…

  9. 50 CFR 20.81 - Tagging requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.81 Tagging requirement. No migratory bird preservation facility shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds unless such birds are tagged as required by § 20.36....

  10. 50 CFR 20.81 - Tagging requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.81 Tagging requirement. No migratory bird preservation facility shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds unless such birds are tagged as required by § 20.36....

  11. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  12. 50 CFR 20.81 - Tagging requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.81 Tagging requirement. No migratory bird preservation facility shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds unless such birds are tagged as required by § 20.36....

  13. 50 CFR 20.81 - Tagging requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.81 Tagging requirement. No migratory bird preservation facility shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds unless such birds are tagged as required by § 20.36....

  14. 50 CFR 20.81 - Tagging requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.81 Tagging requirement. No migratory bird preservation facility shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds unless such birds are tagged as required by § 20.36....

  15. 9 CFR 2.54 - Lost tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lost tags. 2.54 Section 2.54 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.54 Lost tags. Each dealer or exhibitor shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 2.54 - Lost tags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lost tags. 2.54 Section 2.54 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Identification of Animals § 2.54 Lost tags. Each dealer or exhibitor shall be...

  17. TAG (Teaching Active Games) for the Holidays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Bachtel, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Holidays present the perfect opportunity for physical educators to utilize creative TAG (Teaching Active Games) games to offer maximum physical activity opportunities for their students. The TAG ideas in this article offer physical education teachers quick, instant activities that involve very little equipment, time management, or instruction. At…

  18. Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Laug, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases.

  19. Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1996-12-17

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases. 4 figs.

  20. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only

  1. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag`s unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  2. Recombineering BAC transgenes for protein tagging.

    PubMed

    Ciotta, Giovanni; Hofemeister, Helmut; Maresca, Marcello; Fu, Jun; Sarov, Mihail; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A Francis

    2011-02-01

    Protein tagging offers many advantages for proteomic and regulomic research, particularly due to the use of generic and highly sensitive methods that can be applied with reasonable throughput. Ideally, protein tagging is equivalent to having a high affinity antibody for every chosen protein. However, these advantages are compromised if the tagged protein is overexpressed, which is usually the case from cDNA expression vectors. BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenes present a way to express a chosen protein at physiological levels with all regulatory elements in their native configurations, including cell cycle, alternative splicing and microRNA regulation. Recombineering has become the method of choice for modifying large constructs like BACs. Here, we present a method for protein tagging by recombineering BACs, transfecting cells and evaluating tagged protein expression. PMID:20868752

  3. A Monoclonal Antibody That Discriminates Between SNAP-Tagged and CLIP-Tagged Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bialon, Magdalena; Grezella, Clara; Friesen, Ludmila; Sieben, Thorsten; Pham, Anh-Tuan; Fischer, Rainer; Barth, Stefan; Püttmann, Christiane; Stein, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    SNAP-tag technology allows recombinant proteins to be covalently labeled to O(6)-benzylguanine (BG)-modified substrates with 1:1 stoichiometry. By attaching according fluorophores, this method is ideally suited for in vitro and in vivo imaging, as well as protein interaction analyses. Fluorophores modified with BG react with the SNAP-tag, whereas those modified with O(2)-benzylcytosine (BC) conjugate to a more recent derivative known as the CLIP-tag. The orthogonal substrate specificity of the SNAP- and CLIP-tags extends the range of applications by allowing double labeling. We previously developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes both tags. In this study, we describe a new mAb, which is specific for the SNAP-tag alone. Therefore, this mAb allows discrimination between SNAP- and CLIP-tags within a broad range of immunological methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. PMID:27187007

  4. Safety profiles of gadolinium chelates in juvenile rats differ according to the risk of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Fretellier, Nathalie; Maazouz, Meryam; Luseau, Alexandrine; Baudimont, Fannie; Jestin-Mayer, Gaëlle; Bourgery, Simon; Rasschaert, Marlène; Bruneval, Patrick; Factor, Cécile; Mecieb, Fatiha; Idée, Jean-Marc; Corot, Claire

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to compare the safety of two gadolinium chelates (GCs), used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in juvenile rats. Juvenile rats received five intravenous administrations (between postnatal day [PND] 4 and 18) of gadoteric acid (macrocyclic ionic GC), gadodiamide (linear nonionic GC) or saline, and sacrificed at PND 25. Gadodiamide induced mortality, alopecia and hyperpigmentation of dorsal skin. Two gadodiamide-treated rats presented severe epidermal and dermal lesions. No abnormal signs were detected following administration of gadoteric acid. Higher tissue gadolinium concentrations were found in the gadodiamide group compared to the gadoteric acid group. Dissociation of gadodiamide was observed in skin and liver, with the presence of dissociated and soluble gadolinium. In conclusion, repeated administration of gadoteric acid was well tolerated by juvenile rats. In contrast, gadodiamide induced significant toxicity and more marked tissue gadolinium retention (at least partly in the dissociated and soluble form). PMID:25462783

  5. Insights into the use of gadolinium and gadolinium/boron-based agents in imaging-guided neutron capture therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Deagostino, Annamaria; Protti, Nicoletta; Alberti, Diego; Boggio, Paolo; Bortolussi, Silva; Altieri, Saverio; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is currently under development as an alternative approach for cancer therapy. All of the clinical experience to date with NCT is done with (10)B, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a binary treatment combining neutron irradiation with the delivery of boron-containing compounds to tumors. Currently, the use of Gd for NCT has been getting more attention because of its highest neutron cross-section. Although Gd-NCT was first proposed many years ago, its development has suffered due to lack of appropriate tumor-selective Gd agents. This review aims to highlight the recent advances for the design, synthesis and biological testing of new Gd- and B-Gd-containing compounds with the task of finding the best systems able to improve the NCT clinical outcome. PMID:27195428

  6. Density of Gadolinium Nitrate Solutions for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Lee, Denise L

    2009-05-01

    In late 1992, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was planning to switch the solution contained in the poison injection tank from cadmium nitrate to gadolinium nitrate. The poison injection system is an emergency system used to shut down the reactor by adding a neutron poison to the cooling water. This system must be able to supply a minimum of 69 pounds of gadolinium to the reactor coolant system in order to guarantee that the reactor would become subcritical. A graph of the density of gadolinium nitrate solutions over a concentration range of 5 to 30 wt% and a temperature range of 15 to 40{sup o}C was prepared. Routine density measurements of the solution in the poison injection tank are made by HFIR personnel, and an adaptation of the original graph is used to determine the gadolinium nitrate concentration. In late 2008, HFIR personnel decided that the heat tracing that was present on the piping for the poison injection system could be removed without any danger of freezing the solution; however, the gadolinium nitrate solution might get as cold as 5{sup o}C. This was outside the range of the current density-concentration correlation, so the range needed to be expanded. This report supplies a new density-concentration correlation that covers the extended temperature range. The correlation is given in new units, which greatly simplifies the calculation that is required to determine the pounds of gadolinium in the tank solution. The procedure for calculating the amount of gadolinium in the HFIR poison injection system is as follows: (1) Calculate the usable volume in the system; (2) Measure the density of the solution; (3) Calculate the gadolinium concentration using the following equation: Gd(lb/ft{sup 3}) = measured density (g/mL) x 34.681 - 34.785; (4) Calculate the amount of gadolinium in the system using the following equation: Amount of Gd(lb) = Gd concentration (lb/ft{sup 3}) x usable volume (ft{sup 3}). The equation in step 3 is exact for a temperature of

  7. Gadolinium Use in Spine Pain Management Procedures for Patients with Contrast Allergies: Results in 527 Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Safriel, Yair Ang, Roberto; Ali, Muhammed

    2008-03-15

    Introduction. To review the safety and efficacy of gadolinium in spine pain management procedures in patients at high risk for a contrast reaction and who are not suitable candidates for the use of standard non-ionic contrast. Methods. We reviewed records over a 61-month period of all image-guided spinal pain management procedures where patients had allergies making them unsuitable candidates for standard non-ionic contrast and where gadolinium was used to confirm needle tip placement prior to injection of medication. Results. Three hundred and four outpatients underwent 527 procedures. A spinal needle was used in all but 41 procedures. Gadolinium was visualized using portable C-arm fluoroscopy in vivo allowing for confirmation of needle tip location. The gadolinium dose ranged from 0.2 to 10 ml per level. The highest dose received by one patient was 15.83 ml intradiscally during a three-level discogram. Three hundred and one patients were discharged without complication or known delayed complications. One patient had documented intrathecal injection but without sequelae and 2 patients who underwent cervical procedures experienced seizures requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Both the latter patients were discharged without any further complications. Conclusion. Based on our experience we recommend using gadolinium judiciously for needle tip confirmation. We feel more confident using gadolinium in the lumbar spine and in cervical nerve blocks. Gadolinium should probably not be used as an injectate volume expander. The indications for gadolinium use in cervical needle-guided spine procedures are less clear and use of a blunt-tipped needle should be considered.

  8. Tags and seals for arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-09-18

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags might be considered as single-point markers, seals as two-point couplings, and nets as volume containment. The functions of an arms control tag can be considered to be two-fold: to provide field verification of the identity of a treaty-limited item (TLI), and to have a means of authentication of the tag and its tamper-revealing features. Authentication could take place in the field or be completed elsewhere. For CFE, the goal of tags and seals can be to reduce the overall cost of the entire verification system.

  9. Enhanced UHF RFID tags for drug tracing.

    PubMed

    Catarinucci, Luca; Colella, Riccardo; De Blasi, Mario; Patrono, Luigi; Tarricone, Luciano

    2012-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is playing a crucial role for item-level tracing systems in healthcare scenarios. The pharmaceutical supply chain is a fascinating application context, where RFID can guarantee transparency in the drug flow, supporting both suppliers and consumers against the growing counterfeiting problem. In such a context, the choice of the most adequate RFID tag, in terms of shape, frequency, size and reading range, is crucial. The potential presence of items containing materials hostile to the electromagnetic propagation exasperates the problem. In addition, the peculiarities of the different RFID-based checkpoints make even more stringent the requirements for the tag. In this work, the performance of several commercial UHF RFID tags in each step of the pharmaceutical supply chain has been evaluated, confirming the expected criticality. On such basis, a guideline for the electromagnetic design of new high-performance tags capable to overcome such criticalities has been defined. Finally, driven by such guidelines, a new enhanced tag has been designed, realized and tested. Due to patent pending issues, the antenna shape is not shown. Nevertheless, the optimal obtained results do not lose their validity. Indeed, on the one hand they demonstrate that high performance item level tracing systems can actually be implemented also in critical operating conditions. On the other hand, they encourage the tag designer to follow the identified guidelines so to realize enhanced UHF tags. PMID:22048779

  10. Transcriptome annotation using tandem SAGE tags

    PubMed Central

    Rivals, Eric; Boureux, Anthony; Lejeune, Mireille; Ottones, Florence; Pecharromàn Pérez, Oscar; Tarhio, Jorma; Pierrat, Fabien; Ruffle, Florence; Commes, Thérèse; Marti, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of several million expressed gene signatures (tags) revealed an increasing number of different sequences, largely exceeding that of annotated genes in mammalian genomes. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) can reveal new Poly(A) RNAs transcribed from previously unrecognized chromosomal regions. However, conventional SAGE tags are too short to identify unambiguously unique sites in large genomes. Here, we design a novel strategy with tags anchored on two different restrictions sites of cDNAs. New transcripts are then tentatively defined by the two SAGE tags in tandem and by the spanning sequence read on the genome between these tagged sites. Having developed a new algorithm to locate these tag-delimited genomic sequences (TDGS), we first validated its capacity to recognize known genes and its ability to reveal new transcripts with two SAGE libraries built in parallel from a single RNA sample. Our algorithm proves fast enough to experiment this strategy at a large scale. We then collected and processed the complete sets of human SAGE tags to predict yet unknown transcripts. A cross-validation with tiling arrays data shows that 47% of these TDGS overlap transcriptional active regions. Our method provides a new and complementary approach for complex transcriptome annotation. PMID:17709346

  11. Protein Name Tagging Guidelines: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhangzhi; Jang, Seok Bae; Samuel, Ken; Krause, Matthew; Phillips, Jon; Wu, Cathy H.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in information extraction from the biomedical literature is motivated by the need to speed up the creation of structured databases representing the latest scientific knowledge about specific objects, such as proteins and genes. This paper addresses the issue of a lack of standard definition of the problem of protein name tagging. We describe the lessons learned in developing a set of guidelines and present the first set of inter-coder results, viewed as an upper bound on system performance. Problems coders face include: (a) the ambiguity of names that can refer to either genes or proteins; (b) the difficulty of getting the exact extents of long protein names; and (c) the complexity of the guidelines. These problems have been addressed in two ways: (a) defining the tagging targets as protein named entities used in the literature to describe proteins or protein-associated or -related objects, such as domains, pathways, expression or genes, and (b) using two types of tags, protein tags and long-form tags, with the latter being used to optionally extend the boundaries of the protein tag when the name boundary is difficult to determine. Inter-coder consistency across three annotators on protein tags on 300 MEDLINE abstracts is 0.868 F-measure. The guidelines and annotated datasets, along with automatic tools, are available for research use. PMID:18629297

  12. Communication methods, systems, apparatus, and devices involving RF tag registration

    DOEpatents

    Burghard, Brion J.; Skorpik, James R.

    2008-04-22

    One technique of the present invention includes a number of Radio Frequency (RF) tags that each have a different identifier. Information is broadcast to the tags from an RF tag interrogator. This information corresponds to a maximum quantity of tag response time slots that are available. This maximum quantity may be less than the total number of tags. The tags each select one of the time slots as a function of the information and a random number provided by each respective tag. The different identifiers are transmitted to the interrogator from at least a subset of the RF tags.

  13. Application of Paramagnetically Tagged Molecules for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Biofilm Mass Transport Processes▿

    PubMed Central

    Ramanan, B.; Holmes, W. M.; Sloan, W. T.; Phoenix, V. R.

    2010-01-01

    Molecules become readily visible by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when labeled with a paramagnetic tag. Consequently, MRI can be used to image their transport through porous media. In this study, we demonstrated that this method could be applied to image mass transport processes in biofilms. The transport of a complex of gadolinium and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), a commercially available paramagnetic molecule, was imaged both in agar (as a homogeneous test system) and in a phototrophic biofilm. The images collected were T1 weighted, where T1 is an MRI property of the biofilm and is dependent on Gd-DTPA concentration. A calibration protocol was applied to convert T1 parameter maps into concentration maps, thus revealing the spatially resolved concentrations of this tracer at different time intervals. Comparing the data obtained from the agar experiment with data from a one-dimensional diffusion model revealed that transport of Gd-DTPA in agar was purely via diffusion, with a diffusion coefficient of 7.2 × 10−10 m2 s−1. In contrast, comparison of data from the phototrophic biofilm experiment with data from a two-dimensional diffusion model revealed that transport of Gd-DTPA inside the biofilm was by both diffusion and advection, equivalent to a diffusion coefficient of 1.04 × 10−9 m2 s−1. This technology can be used to further explore mass transport processes in biofilms, either by using the wide range of commercially available paramagnetically tagged molecules and nanoparticles or by using bespoke tagged molecules. PMID:20435773

  14. Tag retention, growth, and survival of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii marked with coded wire tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isely, J.J.; Eversole, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile red swamp crayfish (or crawfish), Procambarus clarkii (20-41 mm in total length) were collected from a crayfish culture pond by dipnetting and tagged with sequentially numbered, standard length, binary-coded wire tags. Four replicates of 50 crayfish were impaled perpendicular to the long axis of the abdomen with a fixed needle. Tags were injected transversely into the ventral surface of the first or second abdominal segment and were imbedded in the musculature just beneath the abdominal sternum. Tags were visible upon inspection. Additionally, two replicates of 50 crayfish were not tagged and were used as controls. Growth, survival, and tag retention were evaluated after 7 d in individual containers, after 100 d in aquaria, and after 200 d in field cages. Tag retention during each sample period was 100%, and average mortality of tagged crayfish within 7 d of tagging was 1%. Mortality during the remainder of the study was high (75-91%) but was similar between treatment and control samples. Most of the deaths were probably due to cannibalism. Average total length increased threefold during the course of the study, and crayfish reached maturity. Because crayfish were mature by the end of the study, we concluded that the coded wire tag was retained through the life history of the crayfish.

  15. Time-Tag Generation Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dan E.

    2010-01-01

    Time-Tag Generation Script (TTaGS) is an application program, written in the AWK scripting language, for generating commands for aiming one Ku-band antenna and two S-band antennas for communicating with spacecraft. TTaGS saves between 2 and 4 person-hours per every 24 hours by automating the repetitious process of building between 150 and 180 antenna-control commands. TTaGS reads a text database of communication satellite schedules and a text database of satellite rise and set times and cross-references items in the two databases. It then compares the scheduled start and stop with the geometric rise and set to compute the times to execute antenna control commands. While so doing, TTaGS determines whether to generate commands for guidance, navigation, and control computers to tell them which satellites to track. To help prevent Ku-band irradiation of the Earth, TTaGS accepts input from the user about horizon tolerance and accordingly restricts activation and effects deactivation of the transmitter. TTaGS can be modified easily to enable tracking of additional satellites and for such other tasks as reading Sun-rise/set tables to generate commands to point the solar photovoltaic arrays of the International Space Station at the Sun.

  16. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Ira V.

    1976-06-22

    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  17. Tagging Water Sources in Atmospheric Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tagging of water sources in atmospheric models allows for quantitative diagnostics of how water is transported from its source region to its sink region. In this presentation, we review how this methodology is applied to global atmospheric models. We will present several applications of the methodology. In one example, the regional sources of water for the North American Monsoon system are evaluated by tagging the surface evaporation. In another example, the tagged water is used to quantify the global water cycling rate and residence time. We will also discuss the need for more research and the importance of these diagnostics in water cycle studies.

  18. XAFS study of gadolinium and samarium bisporphyrinate complexes.

    PubMed

    Agondanou, J H; Spyroulias, G A; Purans, J; Tsikalas, G; Souleau, C; Coutsolelos, A G; Bénazeth, S

    2001-11-19

    The comparative X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of gadolinium and samarium bisporphyrinate complexes represented by the formulas Gd(III)H(oep)(tpp), Gd(III)(oep)(2), Gd(III)H(tpp)(2) and Sm(III)H(oep)(tpp), Sm(III)(oep)(2), Sm(III)H(tpp)(2) is reported. The XAFS spectra are recorded on the LURE-DCI storage ring (Orsay, France) in transmission mode on the microcrystalline samples at the Gd and Sm L(3) edges. The local environment for Ln(3+) ions has been reconstructed applying one-shell and two-shell XAFS analysis procedures. The protonated and nonprotonated bisporphyrinate complexes present different XAFS features. After our analysis on the title derivatives, the gadolinium ion (at 80 K) is found to be bonded: (i) to eight nitrogen atoms at R(Gd-N) 2.50 A, for Gd(III)(oep)(2) [Debye-Waller (DW) factor 0.004 A(2)]; (ii) to seven nitrogen atoms at R(Gd-N) 2.49 A, for Gd(III)H(oep)(tpp) [DW factor 0.005 A(2)] and one nitrogen at long distance; and (iii) to six nitrogen atoms at R(Gd-N) 2.50 A [DW factor 0.006 A(2)] and two nitrogen atoms at long distance for Gd(III)H(tpp)(2). A similar coordination sphere has been detected for the corresponding Sm derivatives. So, the samarium ion (at room temperature) is bonded: (i) to eight nitrogen atoms at R(Sm-N) 2.53 A, for Sm(III)(oep)(2) [DW factor 0.006 A(2)]; (ii) to seven nitrogen atoms at R(Sm-N) 2.53 A, for Sm(III)H(oep)(tpp) [DW factor 0.006 A(2)] and one nitrogen at long distance; and (iii) to six nitrogen atoms at R(Sm-N) 2.50 A, for Sm(III)H(tpp)(2) [DW factor 0.006 A(2)] and two nitrogen atoms at long distance. As far as concerns Ln(III)(oep)(2) complexes, the increase of Ln-N distance in the series Gd(3+) < Eu(3+) < Sm(3+) reflects an increase in the ionic radii, which are in good agreement with previously published XRD data on Eu(III)(oep)(2). Moreover, the protonated Ln(III)H(oep)(tpp) and Ln(III)H(tpp)(2) complexes possess systematically shorter distances of about 0.02 A between the XAFS and XRD data. This

  19. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  20. Evacuation of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags from Northern Pikeminnow Consuming Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prey fish implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags can be used in predation studies if the timing of tag evacuation from the predators is understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how PIT tags in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were consumed by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis were evacuated in relation to various parameters. The rate of evacuation was directly related to temperature, while predator size and the number of prey consumed had less effect on the timing of tag evacuation. A power model was fitted to predict the proportion of tags expected to be evacuated at different intervals after ingestion. These results could be used in planning field or laboratory predation experiments with PIT-tagged prey fish.

  1. User Interface Program for secure electronic tags

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Koehl, E.R.; Carlson, R.D.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report summarizes and documents the efforts of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in developing a secure tag communication user interface program comprising a tag monitor and a communication tool. This program can perform the same functions as the software that was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but it is enhanced with a user-friendly screen. It represents the first step in updating the TRANSCOM Tracking System (TRANSCOM) by incorporating a tag communication screen menu into the main menu of the TRANSCOM user program. A working version of TRANSCOM, enhanced with ANL secure-tag graphics, will strongly support the Department of Energy Warhead Dismantlement/Special Nuclear Materials Control initiatives. It will allow commercial satellite tracking of the movements and operational activities of treaty-limited items and transportation vehicles throughout Europe and the former USSR, as well as the continental US.

  2. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  3. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag's unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  4. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Wilbur L.; Schenter, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  5. b-tagging at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Many high p{sub T} physics analyses at the Tevatron contain a b-quark and hence a b-jet in the final states. We report on the b-jet identification methods in D0 and their performance. For 0.5% of light jet tagging rate, 40 or 45% of b-jet tagging efficiency is achieved for jets with 35 < E{sub T} < 55 GeV and |{eta}| < 1.2.

  6. Survival and tag loss in Moapa White River springfish implanted with passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, Christopher J.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored survival and tag loss among Moapa White River springfish Crenichthys baileyi moapae that were surgically implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT; 9 × 2 mm) tags. The fish used in the study ranged from 40 to 67 mm in total length and from 1.0 to 6.5 g in mass; the PIT tag: body weight ratios were 1.0–6.1%. Fish were held for 41 d in live cages within a small, warm desert stream. Survival did not differ between untagged control fish (94.5%) and tagged fish (95.6%). Survival did not appear to be influenced by fish size or PIT tag: body weight ratio, but the small number of fish that died precluded a detailed analysis. Tag retention was 100% among the 86 fish that survived over the 41 d. Our results suggest that surgically implanting 9-mm PIT tags into Moapa White River springfish as small as 40 mm is an effective method for marking them because it has minimal impacts on survival and tag retention is high. More work is needed on the effects of PIT tagging on growth and other performance metrics of springfish and other small desert fishes.

  7. Survival and tag retention of Pacific lamprey larvae and macrophthalmia marked with coded wire tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Puls, A.L.; Bayer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the survival, tag retention, and growth of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata larvae and macrophthalmia marked with standard-length decimal coded wire tags and exposed to two levels of handling stress. The survival of marked individuals did not differ from that of unmarked individuals at either life stage for the duration of the experiment (56 d). Tag retention was 100% for all treatment combinations except larvae that were handled frequently (93 ?? 3%). The majority of tag loss occurred within 28 d of marking, and no tag loss was observed between 42 and 56 d after marking. The individuals that lost tags were among the smallest marked, and a logistic regression model indicated a relationship between larva length and the probability of tag retention. Size of larvae (length and mass) and macrophthalmia (mass) decreased over the duration of the experiment; however, changes in size were systematic among treatment combinations, indicating that factors other than tagging or handling affected growth. These data indicate that coded wire tags may be useful for field-based studies of Pacific lamprey larvae and macrophthalmia.

  8. Degradation of HaloTag-fused nuclear proteins using bestatin-HaloTag ligand hybrid molecules.

    PubMed

    Tomoshige, Shusuke; Naito, Mikihiko; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2015-10-14

    We have developed a protein knockdown technology using hybrid small molecules designed as conjugates of a ligand for the target protein and a ligand for ubiquitin ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1). However, this technology has several limitations. Here, we report the development of a novel protein knockdown system to address these limitations. In this system, target proteins are fused with HaloTag to provide a common binding site for a degradation inducer. We designed and synthesized small molecules consisting of alkyl chloride as the HaloTag-binding degradation inducer, which binds to HaloTag, linked to BE04 (2), which binds to cIAP1. Using this system, we successfully knocked down HaloTag-fused cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (HaloTag-CREB1) and HaloTag-fused c-jun (HaloTag-c-jun), which are ligand-unknown nuclear proteins, in living cells. HaloTag-binding degradation inducers can be synthesized easily, and are expected to be useful as biological tools for pan-degradation of HaloTag-fused proteins. PMID:26338696

  9. TagSmart: analysis and visualization for yeast mutant fitness data measured by tag microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulyun; Kim, Sangkyum; Dorer, Russell; Xie, Dan; Han, Jiawei; Zhong, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Background A nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been systematically constructed. Tag microarrays are widely used to measure the fitness of each mutant in a mutant mixture. The tag array experiments can have a complex experimental design, such as time course measurements and drug treatment with multiple dosages. Results TagSmart is a web application for analysis and visualization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant fitness data measured by tag microarrays. It implements a robust statistical approach to assess the concentration differences among S. cerevisiae mutant strains. It also provides an interactive environment for data analysis and visualization. TagSmart has the following advantages over previously described analysis procedures: 1) it is user-friendly software rather than merely a description of analytical procedure; 2) It can handle complicated experimental designs, such as multiple time points and treatment with multiple dosages; 3) it has higher sensitivity and specificity; 4) It allows users to mask out "bad" tags in the analysis. Two biological tests were performed to illustrate the performance of TagSmart. First, we generated titration mixtures of mutant strains, in which the relative concentration of each strain was controlled. We used tag microarrays to measure the numbers of tag copies in each titration mixture. The data was analyzed with TagSmart and the result showed high precision and recall. Second, TagSmart was applied to a dataset in which heterozygous deletion strain mixture pools were treated with a new drug, Cincreasin. TagSmart identified 53 mutant strains as sensitive to Cincreasin treatment. We individually tested each identified mutant, and found 52 out of the 53 predicted mutants were indeed sensitive to Cincreasin. Conclusion TagSmart is provided "as is" to analyze tag array data produced by Affymetrix and Agilent arrays. TagSmart web

  10. Cationic gadolinium chelate for magnetic resonance imaging of cartilaginous defects.

    PubMed

    Nwe, Kido; Huang, Ching-Hui; Qu, Feini; Warden-Rothman, Robert; Zhang, Clare Y; Mauck, Robert L; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The ability to detect meniscus defects by magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) can be highly variable. To improve the delineation of fine tears, we synthesized a cationic gadolinium complex, (Gd-DOTA-AM4 )(2+) , that can electrostatically interact with Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The complex has a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4.2 mM(-1) s(-1) and is highly stable in serum. Its efficacy in highlighting soft tissue tears was evaluated in comparison to a clinically employed contrast agent (Magnevist) using explants obtained from adult bovine menisci. In all cases, Gd-DOTA-AM4 appeared to improve the ability to detect the soft tissue defect by providing increased signal intensity along the length of the tear. Magnevist shows a strong signal near the liquid-meniscus interface, but much less contrast is observed within the defect at greater depths. This provides initial evidence that cationic contrast agents can be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26853708

  11. Impedance spectroscopic characterization of gadolinium substituted cobalt ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Md. T. Ramana, C. V.

    2014-10-28

    Gadolinium (Gd) substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe{sub 2−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 4}, referred to CFGO) with variable Gd content (x = 0.0–0.4) have been synthesized by solid state ceramic method. The crystal structure and impedance properties of CFGO compounds have been evaluated. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that CFGO crystallize in the inverse spinel phase. The CFGO compounds exhibit lattice expansion due to substitution of larger Gd ions into the crystal lattice. Impedance spectroscopy analysis was performed under a wide range of frequency (f = 20 Hz–1 MHz) and temperature (T = 303–573 K). Electrical properties of Gd incorporated Co ferrite ceramics are enhanced compared to pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to the lattice distortion. Impedance spectroscopic analysis illustrates the variation of bulk grain and grain-boundary contributions towards the electrical resistance and capacitance of CFGO materials with temperature. A two-layer heterogeneous model consisting of moderately conducting grain interior (ferrite-phase) regions separated by insulating grain boundaries (resistive-phase) accurately account for the observed temperature and frequency dependent electrical characteristic of CFGO ceramics.

  12. Gadolinium Doped Water Cherenkov Detector for use as Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Patrick; Woltman, Brian; Mei, Dongming; Sun, Yongchen; Thomas, Keenan; Perevozchikov, Oleg

    2010-11-01

    Background characterization is imperative to the success of rare event physics research such as neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches. There are a number of different ways to measure backgrounds from muon-induced processes and other forms of high energy events. In our current research, we are constructing a research and development project for the feasibility of a Gadolinium doped water Cherenkov detector as a neutron detector. We are constructing a 46 liter acrylic housing for the Gd-doped water consisting of two acrylic cone sections connected to a middle acrylic cylinder to increase volume while still using 5 inch photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) on either end. I will present the challenges of a Gd-doped water detector and the reasons why our design should be much more successful than past metal housed detectors. I will also discuss our current progress and future goals of our detector including its use in characterizing the background in the future underground laboratory in the Sanford Lab, soon to be DUSEL.

  13. Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as potential multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Jeong; Chae, Kwon Seok; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Gang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Potentials of hydrophilic and biocompatible ligand coated gadolinium oxide nanoparticles as multimodal imaging agents, drug carriers, and therapeutic agents are reviewed. First of all, they can be used as advanced T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents because they have r1 larger than those of Gd(III)-chelates due to a high density of Gd(III) per nanoparticle. They can be further functionalized by conjugating other imaging agents such as fluorescent imaging (FI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) agents. They can be also useful for drug carriers through morphology modifications. They themselves are also potential CT and ultrasound imaging (USI) contrast and thermal neutron capture therapeutic (NCT) agents, which are superior to commercial iodine compounds, air-filled albumin microspheres, and boron ((10)B) compounds, respectively. They, when conjugated with targeting agents such as antibodies and peptides, will provide enhanced images and be also very useful for diagnosis and therapy of diseases (so called theragnosis). PMID:23432005

  14. Susceptibility-Based Analysis Of Dynamic Gadolinium Bolus Perfusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, David; Barker, Peter B.; Leigh, Richard; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An algorithm is developed for the reconstruction of dynamic, gadolinium (Gd) bolus MR perfusion images of the human brain, based on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). Methods The method is evaluated in 5 perfusion scans obtained from 4 different patients scanned at 3T, and compared to the conventional analysis based on changes in the transverse relaxation rate ΔR2* and to theoretical predictions. QSM images were referenced to ventricular CSF for each dynamic of the perfusion sequence. Results Images of cerebral blood flow and blood volume were successfully reconstructed from the QSM-analysis, and were comparable to those reconstructed using ΔR2*. The magnitudes of the Gd-associated susceptibility effects in gray and white matter were consistent with theoretical predictions. Conclusion QSM-based analysis may have some theoretical advantages compared to ΔR2*, including a simpler relationship between signal change and Gd concentration. However, disadvantages are its much lower contrast-to-noise ratio, artifacts due to respiration and other effects, and more complicated reconstruction methods. More work is required to optimize data acquisition protocols for QSM-based perfusion imaging. PMID:24604343

  15. LASERS: Efficient neodymium-doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystal laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Sigachev, V. B.; Timoshechkin, M. I.

    1991-07-01

    An investigation was made of the stimulated emission parameters of a laser utilizing a gadolinium gallium garnet crystal doped with neodymium ions (YAG:Nd) at the 1.062 μm wavelength. The free-running efficiency was the highest so far achieved for flashlamp-pumped lasers utilizing unsensitized garnets. For an active element 8 mm in diameter and 120 mm long the absolute efficiency was 5.4% and the differential efficiency was 5.9%. The average free-running power was 170 W. A comparison was made of the optical powers of thermal lenses in cylindrical GGG:Nd and YAG:Nd active elements and this was found to be 2.4 times higher for a GGG:Nd crystal at the same pump powers. It was shown that by using traditional methods of compensating for the thermal lens in cylindrical active elements, it is possible to develop pulsed GGG:Nd crystal lasers having an average output power higher than 100 W, an efficiency of ~ 4%, and an angular divergence of less than 10 mrad.

  16. A hypergraph model of social tagging networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang

    2010-10-01

    The past few years have witnessed the great success of a new family of paradigms, so-called folksonomy, which allows users to freely associate tags with resources and efficiently manage them. In order to uncover the underlying structures and user behaviors in folksonomy, in this paper, we propose an evolutionary hypergraph model for explaining the emerging statistical properties. The present model introduces a novel mechanism that can not only assign tags to resources, but also retrieve resources via collaborative tags. We then compare the model with a real-world data set: Del.icio.us. Indeed, the present model shows considerable agreement with the empirical data in the following aspects: power-law hyperdegree distributions, negative correlation between clustering coefficients and hyperdegrees, and small average distances. Furthermore, the model indicates that most tagging behaviors are motivated by labeling tags on resources, and the tag plays a significant role in effectively retrieving interesting resources and making acquaintances with congenial friends. The proposed model may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of folksonomy.

  17. Purification of GST-Tagged Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Frank; Seip, Nicole; Maertens, Barbara; Block, Helena; Kubicek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes the purification of recombinant proteins fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST, GST-tagged proteins) by Glutathione Affinity purification. The GST tag frequently increases the solubility of the fused protein of interest and thus enables its purification and subsequent functional characterization. The GST-tagged protein specifically binds to glutathione immobilized to a matrix (e.g., agarose) and can be easily separated from a cell lysate by a bind-wash-elute procedure. GST-tagged proteins are often used to study protein-protein interactions, again making use of glutathione affinity in a procedure called a GST pull-down assay. The protocol is designed to process 200 ml of E. coli culture expressing intermediate to high amounts of a GST-tagged protein (~25 mg l(-1)). Depending on the expression rate or the available culture volume, the scale can be increased or decreased linearly. The protocol can also be used to purify GST-tagged proteins from other expression systems, such as insect or mammalian cells. Tips are provided to aid in modifying certain steps if proteins shall be recovered from alternative expression systems. PMID:26096507

  18. Microstructure and Crystal Structure in TAGS Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A. J.; Sharp, J; Rawn, Claudia J

    2009-01-01

    GeTe, a small bandgap semiconductor that has native p-type defects due to Ge vacancies, is an important constituent in the thermoelectric material known as TAGS. TAGS is an acronym for alloys of GeTe with AgSbTe{sub 2}, and compositions are normally designated as TAGS-x, where x is the fraction of GeTe. TAGS-85 is the most important with regard to applications, and there is also commercial interest in TAGS-80. The crystal structure of GeTe{sub 1+{delta}} has a composition-dependent phase transformation at a temperature ranging from 430 C ({delta} = 0) to {approx}400 C ({delta} = 0.02). The high-temperature form is cubic. The low-temperature form is rhombohedral for {delta} < 0.01, as is the case for good thermoelectric performance. Addition of AgSbTe{sub 2} shifts the phase transformation to lower temperatures, and one of the goals of this work is a systematic study of the dependence of transformation temperature on the parameter x. We present results on phase transformations and associated instabilities in TAGS compositions in the range of 70 at.% to 85 at.% GeTe.

  19. Nanomechanics of HaloTag tethers.

    PubMed

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M

    2013-08-28

    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ∼2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a 4-fold increase, from 131 to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice as sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether. PMID:23909704

  20. 48 CFR 952.208-7 - Tagging of leased vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for periods in excess of 60 days: Tagging of Leased Vehicles (APR 1984) (a) DOE intends to use U.S... Federal tags, the DOE reserves the right to utilize State tags if necessary to accomplish its mission. Should State tags be required, the Contractor shall furnish the DOE the documentation required by...

  1. 48 CFR 952.208-7 - Tagging of leased vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for periods in excess of 60 days: Tagging of Leased Vehicles (APR 1984) (a) DOE intends to use U.S... Federal tags, the DOE reserves the right to utilize State tags if necessary to accomplish its mission. Should State tags be required, the Contractor shall furnish the DOE the documentation required by...

  2. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.; Lambert, J.B.; Herzog, J.P.

    1997-02-11

    A method and system are disclosed for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod. 12 figs.

  3. Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Laug, Matthew T.; Lambert, John D. B.; Herzog, James P.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod.

  4. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate-Polymeric Micelles Incorporating Gadolinium Chelates for Imaging-Guided Gadolinium Neutron Capture Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Dewi, Novriana; Yanagie, Hironobu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Li, Yanmin; Aoki, Ichio; Ono, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-06-23

    Gadolinium (Gd) chelates-loaded nanocarriers have high potential for achieving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided Gd neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) of tumors. Herein, we developed calcium phosphate micelles hybridized with PEG-polyanion block copolymers, and incorporated with the clinical MRI contrast agent Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA/CaP). The Gd-DTPA/CaP were nontoxic to cancer cells at the concentration of 100 μM based on Gd-DTPA, while over 50% of the cancer cells were killed by thermal neutron irradiation at this concentration. Moreover, the Gd-DTPA/CaP showed a dramatically increased accumulation of Gd-DTPA in tumors, leading to the selective contrast enhancement of tumor tissues for precise tumor location by MRI. The enhanced tumor-to-blood distribution ratio of Gd-DTPA/CaP resulted in the effective suppression of tumor growth without loss of body weight, indicating the potential of Gd-DTPA/CaP for safe cancer treatment. PMID:26033034

  5. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  6. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Webb, Judith A W; Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2005-06-01

    The use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnant or lactating women often causes concerns in the radiology department because of the principle of not exposing a fetus or neonate to any drugs. Because of the uncertainty about the use of contrast media during pregnancy and lactation, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the limited information available, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects have not been described after administration of gadolinium or iodinated contrast media. Free iodide in radiographic contrast medium given to the mother has the potential to depress fetal/neonatal thyroid function. Neonatal thyroid function should be checked during the 1st week if iodinated contrast media have been given during pregnancy. No effect on the fetus has been seen after gadolinium contrast media. Only tiny amounts of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast medium given to a lactating mother reach the milk, and only a minute proportion entering the baby's gut is absorbed. The very small potential risk associated with absorption of contrast medium may be considered insufficient to warrant stopping breast-feeding for 24 h following either iodinated or gadolinium contrast agents. PMID:15609057

  7. Gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents: important variations on a theme for NSF.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Phillip H

    2008-01-01

    Millions of doses of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are administered annually to improve the clinical utility of magnetic resonance imaging. All the approved agents incorporate one atom of the rare earth metal gadolinium into a chelate to improve the safety of the ordinarily toxic free gadolinium. The undeniable epidemiologic link between GBCAs and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has prompted renewed investigation into the different chemical properties of the GBCAs despite their clinical interchangeability. Gadolinium-based contrast agents can be divided into different categories: linear versus macrocyclic structure, ionic versus nonionic, and non-protein-binding versus protein-binding agents. The GBCAs differ significantly with respect to transmetallation and kinetic and thermodynamic stability and therefore their propensity to release free gadolinium, which is hypothesized to induce NSF. That gadodiamide, with its susceptibility to transmetallation and relatively low thermodynamic and kinetic stability, is associated with the most cases of NSF supports this hypothesis. On the other hand, the greater stability of a macrocyclic agent hypothetically would confer a greater safety margin with regard to NSF. Because few published data on an experimental model of NSF exist, continuing vigilance is necessary to report new cases of NSF, especially with regard to the agents with small market share. PMID:18180006

  8. Extraction of gadolinium from high flux isotope reactor control plates. [Alternative method

    SciTech Connect

    Kohring, M.W.

    1987-04-01

    Gadolinium-153 is an important radioisotope used in the diagnosis of various bone disorders. Recent medical and technical developments in the detection and cure of osteoporosis, a bone disease affecting an estimated 50 million people, have greatly increased the demand for this isotope. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has produced /sup 153/Gd since 1980 primarily through the irradiation of a natural europium-oxide powder followed by the chemical separation of the gadolinium fraction from the europium material. Due to the higher demand for /sup 153/Gd, an alternative production method to supplement this process has been investigated. This process involves the extraction of gadolinium from the europium-bearing region of highly radioactive, spent control plates used at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with a subsequent re-irradiation of the extracted material for the production of the /sup 153/Gd. Based on the results of experimental and calculational analyses, up to 25 grams of valuable gadolinium (greater than or equal to60% enriched in /sup 152/Gd) resides in the europium-bearing region of the HFIR control components of which 70% is recoverable. At a specific activity yield of 40 curies of /sup 153/Gd for each gram of gadolinium re-irradiated, 700 one-curie sources can be produced from each control plate assayed.

  9. Tumor-induced lymph node alterations detected by MRI lymphography using gadolinium nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, S. C.; Kurland, B. F.; Liu, C.-L.; Ho, R. J. Y.; Ruddell, A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI lymphography shows potential to identify alterations in lymph drainage through lymph nodes (LNs) in cancer and other diseases. MRI studies have typically used low molecular weight gadolinium contrast agents, however larger gadolinium-loaded nanoparticles possess characteristics that could improve the specificity and sensitivity of lymphography. The performance of three gadolinium contrast agents with different sizes and properties was compared by 3T MRI after subcutaneous injection. Mice bearing B16-F10 melanoma footpad tumors were imaged to assess tumor-induced alterations in lymph drainage through tumor-draining popliteal and inguinal LNs versus contralateral uninvolved drainage. Gadolinium lipid nanoparticles were able to identify tumor-induced alterations in contrast agent drainage into the popliteal LN, while lower molecular weight or albumin-binding gadolinium agents were less effective. All of the contrast agents distributed in foci around the cortex and medulla of tumor-draining popliteal LNs, while they were restricted to the cortex of non-draining LNs. Surprisingly, second-tier tumor-draining inguinal LNs exhibited reduced uptake, indicating that tumors can also divert LN drainage. These characteristics of tumor-induced lymph drainage could be useful for diagnosis of LN pathology in cancer and other diseases. The preferential uptake of nanoparticle contrasts into tumor-draining LNs could also allow selective targeting of therapies to tumor-draining LNs. PMID:26497382

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ADVANCED GADOLINIUM NEUTRON ABSORBER ALLOY BY MEANS OF NEUTRON TRANSMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg W. Wachs

    2007-09-01

    Neutron transmission experiments were performed on samples of an advanced nickel-chromium-molybdenum-gadolinium (Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd) neutron absorber alloy. The primary purpose of the experiments was to demonstrate the thermal neutron absorbing capability of the alloy at specific gadolinium dopant levels. The new alloy is to be deployed for criticality control of highly enriched DOE SNF. For the transmission experiments, alloy test samples were fabricated with 0.0, 1.58 and 2.1 wt% natural gadolinium dispersed in a Ni-Cr-Mo base alloy. The transmission experiments were successfully carried out at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Measured data from the neutron transmission experiments were compared to calculated results derived from a simple exponential transmission formula using only radiative capture cross sections. Excellent agreement between the measured and calculated results demonstrated the expected strong thermal absorption capability of the gadolinium poison and in addition, verified the measured elemental composition of the alloy test samples. The good agreement also indirectly confirmed that the gadolinium was dispersed fairly uniformly in the alloy and the ENDF VII radiative capture cross section data were accurate.