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Sample records for nuclear association david

  1. 78 FR 60273 - David E. Cereghino, Idaho County Light & Power Cooperative Association, Inc.; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission David E. Cereghino, Idaho County Light & Power Cooperative... Idaho County Light & Power Cooperative Association, Inc. informed the Commission that the exemption from... transferred to Idaho County Light & Power Cooperative Association, Inc. The project is located on John...

  2. David Dennison, the specific heat of hydrogen, and the discovery of nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton

    2008-04-01

    The specific heat of hydrogen gas at low temperatures, first measured by Arnold Eucken in 1912, decreases sharply as the two rotational degrees of freedom freeze out. The ``old quantum theory'' could never explain this behavior satisfactorily, despite persistent efforts. Then in 1926, Heisenberg showed that in the new quantum mechanics, identical particles must have either symmetric or antisymmetric wave functions, and were the key to the spectrum of helium. Friedrich Hund first applied this concept to the rotational specific heat of hydrogen, with limited success. An experimental breakthrough came in 1926, when for the first time, spectral lines involving the ground state of molecular hydrogen were found in the far ultraviolet. Further measurements by the Japanese spectroscopist Takeo Hori led to a moment of inertia for molecular hydrogen more than double earlier estimates. Using this result, the American physicist David Dennison devised the modern theory in 1927, and in the process, found persuasive evidence for proton spin. Most of these actors were at Bohr's institute in Copenhagen in 1926--27; their interaction plays a central role in this story.

  3. Interview with David Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Dietz, E. Jacquelin; Moor, David

    2013-01-01

    David Moore is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at Purdue University. He served as the first President of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) from 1993-1995 and as President of the American Statistical Association (ASA) in 1998. He is a Fellow of the ASA and of the IMS and was awarded the ASA's Founders Award in…

  4. David Gale: Restless Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Walter

    2006-01-01

    David Gale was one of the mathematicians responsible for the modern form of the theory of duality in linear programming and the associated proof of the minimax theorem in the theory of games. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and is Professor Emeritus of Mathematics and Operations Research at the University of California at…

  5. Remembering David N. Schramm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    2001-03-01

    Eight months ago David Schramm died doing one of things he loved most - flying his airplane, known as Big-bang Aviation. He was to have been at this meeting doing something that he loved even more - going to scientific meetings to talk about the latest results and to renew friendships...

  6. Obituary: David Stanley Evans, 1916-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Frank N.

    2005-12-01

    headquartered in Cape Town, South Africa. David had designed and built a Newtonian spectrograph for the 74-inch Radcliffe Telescope with which he measured the first southern galaxy redshifts. David and his family spent 1965-66 in Austin, Texas, where he was a National Science Foundation Senior Visiting Scientist at the University of Texas and McDonald Observatory. They moved permanently to Austin in 1968 and David became a Professor of Astronomy and Associate Director of McDonald Observatory at the University of Texas at Austin. At McDonald Observatory, R. E. Nather had devised a high-speed photometer capable of measuring millisecond time-scale changes in brightness and with Brian Warner, he invented "high-speed astronomy". This instrument caused Evans to revive his occultation program and, over the next twenty years, he produced the major part of the angular diameters of late-type stars with his students and collaborators. In addition, David and collaborators used the extensive collections of the University of Texas to write "Herschel at the Cape". David was also involved in observing the occultation of ? Sco by Jupiter in 1972 and in observing, during a solar eclipse in 1973, the gravitational deflections in the positions of stars whose light passes near to the Sun. The eclipse was observed from Mauritania, and the observations confirmed Einstein's prediction again. David Evans and his students studied late-type stars that have large star-spots and others that flare. In addition, they studied stars whose lunar occultation observations had revealed them to be double or even more than two stars. David Evans's major scientific contribution was an application of his stellar angular diameters to deduce the surface brightness of stars with the result that with suitable color indices one could use photometry to deduce the angular diameter of stars. This is applicable to stars which can never be occulted by the Moon, and its application to Cepheid variable stars has yielded their

  7. Laurance David Hall.

    PubMed

    Coxon, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    An account is given of the life, scientific contributions, and passing of Laurance David Hall (1938-2009), including his early history and education at the University of Bristol, UK, and the synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrates and other natural products during ∼20 years of research and teaching at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Lists of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and sabbatical visitors are provided for this period. Following a generous endowment by Dr. Herchel Smith, Professor Hall built a new Department of Medicinal Chemistry at Cambridge University, UK, and greatly expanded his researches into the technology and applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and zero quantum NMR. MRI technology was applied both to medical problems such as the characterization of cartilage degeneration in knee joints, the measurement of ventricular function, lipid localization in animal models of atherosclerosis, paramagnetic metal complexes of polysaccharides as contrast agents, and studies of many other anatomical features, but also to several aspects of materials analysis, including food analyses, process control, and the elucidation of such physical phenomena as the flow of liquids through porous media, defects in concrete, and the visualization of fungal damage to wood. Professor Hall's many publications, patents, lectures, and honors and awards are described, and also his successful effort to keep the Asilomar facility in Pacific Grove, California as the alternating venue for the annual Experimental NMR Conference. Two memorial services for Professor Hall are remembered. PMID:21763510

  8. David Crighton 1942 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ffowcs Williams, John E.

    2001-06-01

    David Crighton was struck down by cancer in his fifty-eighth year. He was then at the height of his career and was one of the most admired personalities in fluid mechanics. He had specialized in wave theory, helping to understand and solve problems of practical importance using the full power of mathematical method. Efforts to control the sound and vibration caused by unsteady flow were never far from his thinking, and Crighton's contribution to those efforts has changed significantly the way the subject is viewed. Having first attracted him into the field and never losing my interest in the way he was influencing it, it is natural that I should comment on the technical developments while looking back on Crighton's professional life. The subject has changed a great deal and there are now many more researchers involved in its study, many of whom rely on techniques that Crighton pioneered really powerful mathematical methods. But the basic problems remain: powerful flows are noisy.

  9. David Morrison on Lake Vostok

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. David Morrison discusses the implications of research possibilities at Lake Vostok, one of the largest subglacial lakes located over two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. The lake has been c...

  10. Memories of David Kirzhnits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotovsky, B. M.

    2013-06-01

    In the mid-1950s, a new staff member appeared at the Theory Division of the Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences (FIAN): David Abramovich Kirzhnits. A Moscow State University alumnus, after graduation he had been assigned to a large defense plant in the city of Gorky, where he had worked for several years as an engineer. He was "liberated" from there by Igor Evgenyevich Tamm, our department head, who managed to transfer him to FIAN. Igor Evgenyevich knew D. A. Kirzhnits - they had met in Moscow before Kirzhnits finished university. At that time Kirzhnits was performing thesis work with professor A. S. Kompaneyets as academic adviser. At his adviser's suggestion, D. Kirzhnits consulted with I. E. Tamm on questions pertaining to the thesis topic. I. E. Tamm took a great liking for the diploma student, and he even wanted to recruit D. A. Kirzhnits for the Theory Division immediately after graduation. But at that time (1949) this proved impossible for several reasons. First, D. Kirzhnits was, as they say, an "invalid of the fifth group" - a Jew - which during those years of violent struggle against cosmopolitanismb often proved an obstacle in looking for work. Second, during the years of mass repressions D. Kirzhnits' father had been arrested on treason charges (according to the charges, he had wanted to sell the Far East to Japan). After intensive investigation his father was released, but he lived only a little longer. Reports of this also could have impeded his acceptance. Third, Igor Evgenyevich didn't have enough weight in officials' eyes at that time and so was unable to overcome "first" and "second."...

  11. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  12. A tribute to David Triggle.

    PubMed

    Moos, Walter H

    2015-11-15

    "A gentleman and a scholar" is how many would characterize David Triggle. His insightful, thoughtful approaches to professional pursuits, both personal research and collaborative relationships, stand out by any measure. He has shaped students, colleagues, and whole fields, calcium ion channels and ligands being most representative of the latter. In recent years, he has expanded his contributions to important commentaries on politics and social challenges in the sciences. David is the rare intellect able to do all this and more, as outlined herein. PMID:25931149

  13. David Hume on Competent Judges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Marcia Muelder

    2004-01-01

    This essay is the eighth in an occasional series on past treatments of major issues in arts education policy from antiquity through the twentieth century. The essay on which it is based, David Hume's "Of the Standard of Taste," originally published in 1757, is too extensive to be reprinted here, but it is easily accessible in the public domain.…

  14. A Reply from David Elkind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1989-01-01

    Replying to Robert H. Anderson's article in the same "Principal" issue, David Elkind defends his article against classroom rotation. Elkind strongly favors multiage grouping and team teaching, but views the real issue as departmentalization and rotation versus self-contained classrooms. Although multiage grouping and team teaching are superior…

  15. [Movement disorders in David Copperfield].

    PubMed

    Garćia Ruiz, P J; Gulliksen, L L

    1999-01-01

    Charles Dickens' novels are a source of vivid neurological descriptions. Besides Pickwickian syndrome, many other neurological descriptions can be found in Dickens' novels. David Copperfield contains several characters with movement disorders including generalized dystonia (Mr. Uriah Heep), restless legs syndrome (the waiter), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr. Creakle). These neurological descriptions an probably based on the observation of actual patients. PMID:10570623

  16. The "O" Word: Issues in Outsourcing. Professional Associations React to the Challenge. Interviews with SLA's David Bender and AIIP's Jane Miller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quint, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    The executive director of the Special Libraries Association (SLA) and the president of the Association of Independent Information Professionals (AIIP) answer questions about outsourcing information services. Relevant policy, vendor-client relationships, managerial considerations, and effects on libraries are discussed. Two sidebars offer 19…

  17. Hydrologic issues associated with nuclear waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Neretnieks, Ivars; Tsang, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    Significant progress in hydrology, especially in subsurface flow and solute transport, has been made over the last 35 years because of sustained interest in underground nuclear waste repositories. The present paper provides an overview of the key hydrologic issues involved, and to highlight advances in their understanding and treatment because of these efforts. The focus is not on the development of radioactive waste repositories and their safety assessment, but instead on the advances in hydrologic science that have emerged from such studies. Work and results associated with three rock types, which are being considered to host the repositories, are reviewed, with a different emphasis for each rock type. The first rock type is fractured crystalline rock, for which the discussion will be mainly on flow and transport in saturated fractured rock. The second rock type is unsaturated tuff, for which the emphasis will be on flow from the shallow subsurface through the unsaturated zone to the repository. The third rock type is clay-rich formations, whose permeability is very low in an undisturbed state. In this case, the emphasis will be on hydrologic issues that arise from mechanical and thermal disturbances; i.e., on the relevant coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes. The extensive research results, especially those from multiyear large-scale underground research laboratory investigations, represent a rich body of information and data that can form the basis for further development in the related areas of hydrologic research.

  18. Battling Creaticide: An Interview with David C. Berliner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Don

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with David C. Berliner, a Regents' Professor in the College of Education at Arizona State University. His books include "Educational Psychology," "The Manufactured Crisis," and "The Handbook of Educational Psychology." He has served as president of the American Educational Research Association and of the…

  19. Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) System, which was adopted by the Astrophysics Division for their Astrophysics Data System, is a solution to the system heterogeneity problem. The heterogeneous components of the Astrophysics problem is outlined. The Library and Library Consortium levels of the DAVID approach are described. The 'books' and 'kits' level is discussed. The Universal Object Typer Management System level is described. The relation of the DAVID project with the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program is explained.

  20. [Book review] Green engineering: environmentally conscious design, by David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boustany, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Review of: Green engineering: Environmentally conscious design / David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard / Prentice-Hall, Inc., One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 2002. 552 pages. ISBN 0-13-061908-6.

  1. INTRODUCTION: David Sherrington as a mentor of young scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbart, Paul M.

    2008-08-01

    the ones first developed in the setting of the Sherrington--Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. What this small anecdote hints at is the vastness of the terrain over which research on spin glasses is having a deep and lasting impact. As scientists we are, I think it's fair to say, at least partially motivated by a desire to receive some recognition for our work, some evidence that it has been engaging and stimulating to others in the field. But David's work far transcends this model, being pivotal not only to researchers in the originally-intended domain of rather obscure magnetic alloys, but also far, far beyond: from neuroscience and biological information processing, to the social sciences, including economics, and on to probability theory, computer science, the next generation of optimization algorithms, and the entire field of complexity theory. Indeed, one can regard spin glasses in the guise of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model as a conceptual version of the silicon revolution: a curiosity-driven scientific endeavour that continues to catalyse utterly unanticipated progress over far-flung domains. David captured it all perfectly in the title of his 2001 Bakerian Lecture: 'Magnets, microchips, memories and markets: [the] statistical physics of complex systems.' Many of us would consider ourselves wonderfully fortunate if our work were to have just a small fraction of the impact that David's has. Moreover, the scientific panorama revealed by investigations stimulated by David's work is beautiful, shocking and inspiring, a panorama broader still than condensed matter theory or even physics itself. So, when our spirits are down and our brows furrowed by some painful integral or a bug in our computer code, let us remember to pause and revel in the astonishing confluence of scientific themes that the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and its associates capture. To echo a view I first heard from Giorgio Parisi: I'm not sure if there is anything more rich or surprising in

  2. Straight talk with...David Baker.

    PubMed

    Baker, David; Khamsi, Roxanne

    2012-11-01

    Thirty years ago, technology companies began nestling their facilities close to academia, and the idea of the university research park was born. Soon after, the concept took off in the field of medicine, and today it's not hard to find such innovation hubs that house biomedical startups drawing on the brainpower of professors and students alike. In late September, the Tucson, Arizona-based Association of University Research Parks--which includes about 170 research parks--announced that David Baker would serve as president of the organization's board of directors for the next year and help guide its strategic goals for the next five years. Baker, who is also the executive director of the University Technology Park at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, spoke with Roxanne Khamsi about how the organization hopes to branch out and transform these workplaces. PMID:23135501

  3. David L. Rosenhan (1929-2012).

    PubMed

    Ross, Lee; Kavanagh, David

    2013-09-01

    Presents an obituary for David L. Rosenhan (1929-2012). A distinguished psychologist and professor emeritus at Stanford University, Rosenhan died February 6, 2012, at the age of 82, after a long illness. Born in Jersey City, New Jersey, on November 22, 1929, he received a bachelor's degree in mathematics (1951) from Yeshiva College and a master's degree in economics (1953) and a doctorate in psychology (1958) from Columbia University. A professor of law and of psychology at Stanford University from 1971 until his retirement in 1998, Rosenhan was a pioneer in applying psychological methods to the practice of law, including the examination of expert witnesses, jury selection, and jury deliberation. A former president of the American Psychology-Law Society and of the American Board of Forensic Psychology, Rosenhan was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the American Psychological Association, and of the American Psychological Society. Before joining the Stanford Law School faculty, he was a member of the faculties of Swarthmore College, Princeton University, Haverford College, and the University of Pennsylvania. He also served as a research psychologist at the Educational Testing Service. As generations of Stanford students can attest, David Rosenhan was a spellbinding lecturer who managed to convey the sense that he was speaking to each individual, no matter how large the group. To his graduate students, he was consistently encouraging and optimistic, always ready to share a joke or story, and gently encouraging of their creativity and progressive independence as researchers. The lessons he cared most about offering, in the classroom as in his research, were about human dignity and the need to confront abuse of power and human frailties. PMID:24016118

  4. Climate changes associated with nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear war, featuring explosion of half the world arsenal of nuclear weapons, would cause urban and forest fires that would inject 20-650 megatons of smoke into the atmosphere. The Northern Hemisphere optical depth would increase to between 0.5-14. All models indicate an increase in optical depths, a large net radiation gain in the smoke layer, and an antigreenhouse effect at the surface. Significant global cooling would proceed, transforming the global climate to a large degree toward that of an airless world. Persisting deficiencies in the models are identified, noting research areas which would improve the accuracies of the predictions.

  5. Coupled processes associated with nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with coupled processes which affect a nuclear waste repository. While there are many descriptive accounts of environmental degradation resulting from various land uses, the author emphasizes the geomorphic processes responsible for such changes and the reasons why various reclamation practices are valuable in environmental management.

  6. David Mechanic: Professional Zombie Hunter.

    PubMed

    Hafferty, Frederic W; Tilburt, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Within the fields of medicine and sociology, the descriptor "profession" (along with its brethren: profession, professionalization, and professionalism) has had a rich etymological history, with terms taking on different meanings at different times-sometimes trespassing into shibboleth and jargon. This etymological journey has co-evolved with the career of David Mechanic to whom this issue of the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law is devoted. We exploit a provocative metaphor applied to Mechanic's work on the challenges facing medicine as a profession as a playful exegesis on what we call "profession" to excavate an ensconced and encrusted domain of health jargon operating at the tensive interface of society and modern medical work. PMID:27127250

  7. A Star of David catenane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, David A.; Pritchard, Robin G.; Stephens, Alexander J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the synthesis of a [2]catenane that consists of two triply entwined 114-membered rings, a molecular link. The woven scaffold is a hexameric circular helicate generated by the assembly of six tris(bipyridine) ligands with six iron(II) cations, with the size of the helicate promoted by the use of sulfate counterions. The structure of the ligand extension directs subsequent covalent capture of the catenane by ring-closing olefin metathesis. Confirmation of the Star of David topology (two rings, six crossings) is provided by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Extraction of the iron(II) ions with tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate affords the wholly organic molecular link. The self-assembly of interwoven circular frameworks of controlled size, and their subsequent closure by multiple directed covalent bond-forming reactions, provides a powerful strategy for the synthesis of molecular topologies of ever-increasing complexity.

  8. David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel.

    PubMed

    Hubel, David; Wiesel, Torsten

    2012-07-26

    While attending medical school at McGill, David Hubel developed an interest in the nervous system during the summers he spent at the Montreal Neurological Institute. After heading to the United States in 1954 for a Neurology year at Johns Hopkins, he was drafted by the army and was assigned to the Neuropsychiatry Division at the Walter Reed Hospital, where he began his career in research and did his first recordings from the visual cortex of sleeping and awake cats. In 1958, he moved to the lab of Stephen Kuffler at Johns Hopkins, where he began a long and fruitful collaboration with Torsten Wiesel. Born in Sweden, Torsten Wiesel began his scientific career at the Karolinska Institute, where he received his medical degree in 1954. After spending a year in Carl Gustaf Bernhard's laboratory doing basic neurophysiological research, he moved to the United States to be a postdoctoral fellow with Stephen Kuffler. It was at Johns Hopkins where he met David Hubel in 1958, and they began working together on exploring the receptive field properties of neurons in the visual cortex. Their collaboration continued until the late seventies. Hubel and Wiesel's work provided fundamental insight into information processing in the visual system and laid the foundation for the field of visual neuroscience. They have had many achievements, including--but not limited to--the discovery of orientation selectivity in visual cortex neurons and the characterization of the columnar organization of visual cortex through their discovery of orientation columns and ocular-dominance columns. Their work earned them the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1981, which they shared with Roger Sperry. PMID:22841302

  9. David L. Harrison: A Work Of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This article describes poet and writer David L. Harrison. A former School Board Chairman from Springfield, MO, David was responsible for beginning an annual "Teacher Appreciation Banquet" and for launching the "Sky High for Reading" program. The "Sky High for Reading" program encourages children in Springfield to read enough books so that, if…

  10. Heterogeneous distributed query processing: The DAVID system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) project is the development of an easy to use computer system with which NASA scientists, engineers and administrators can uniformly access distributed heterogeneous databases. Basically, DAVID will be a database management system that sits alongside already existing database and file management systems. Its function is to enable users to access the data in other languages and file systems without having to learn the data manipulation languages. Given here is an outline of a talk on the DAVID project and several charts.

  11. Emergence of the nuclear industry and associated crime. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    Nuclear energy, in weapons production and electrical power generation, is a technology that has endured public scrutiny since the late 1940s. Societal acceptance of this industry has been affected by controversy in the following areas: health effects of exposure to radiation, possible consequences resulting from accidents, and nuclear nonproliferation. The literature review begins in Chapter 2 by examining the changing public perceptions of nuclear energy over the last forty years. Support for the ideals and practices of the industry has often wavered, due to media representation of incidents, accidents, and potential catastrophic events. The second part of the chapter highlights the crimes associated with nuclear energy in a chronological order of concern by nuclear industry security specialists. Research has found certain types of crime to be more prevalent during particular eras than others. Crimes instigated by spies, peace activists, terrorists, and the insider (employee) are reviewed, with an emphasis on insider crime.

  12. Search for Thunderstorm Associated Nuclear Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, J. L.; Millan, R.; Boggs, S.; Eack, K.; Aulich, G.

    2007-12-01

    We present results from further analysis of thunderstorm data taken with a liquid nitrogen-cooled germanium spectrometer with energy range from 13 keV-2.6 MeV that was setup on South Baldy Peak at Langmuir Laboratory in New Mexico during June through August of 2005. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the suggestion made by Greenfield et al. (2003) that delayed gamma ray emissions associated with thunderstorms may be attributed to Chlorine-39 and Chlorine-38. We improve upon results of Boggs et al. (2005) by doing a careful spectral calibration to improve sensitivity.Two methods to determine the presence of chlorine emission lines were used; we created storm length background-subtracted spectra, and also examined the change in count rates in energy bins that correspond to the Chlorine emission energies. Both these methods confirm the conclusions of Boggs et al. that chlorine emission was not detected and any signature of Chlorine production was below the detectability of the detector. These results lead to an upper limit on photon flux in chlorine line emission that can be used to place an upper limit on chlorine production during thunderstorms.

  13. Embryos, DOHaD and David Barker.

    PubMed

    Fleming, T P; Velazquez, M A; Eckert, J J

    2015-10-01

    The early embryo and periconceptional period is a window during which environmental factors may cause permanent change in the pattern and characteristics of development leading to risk of adult onset disease. This has now been demonstrated across small and large animal models and also in the human. Most evidence of periconceptional 'programming' has emerged from maternal nutritional models but also other in vivo and in vitro conditions including assisted reproductive treatments, show consistent outcomes. This short review first reports on the range of environmental in vivo and in vitro periconceptional models and resulting long-term outcomes. Second, it uses the rodent maternal low protein diet model restricted to the preimplantation period and considers the stepwise maternal-embryonic dialogue that comprises the induction of programming. This dialogue leads to cellular and epigenetic responses by the embryo, mainly identified in the extra-embryonic cell lineages, and underpins an apparently permanent change in the growth trajectory during pregnancy and associates with increased cardiometabolic and behavioural disease in adulthood. We recognize the important advice of David Barker some years ago to investigate the sensitivity of the early embryo to developmental programming, an insight for which we are grateful. PMID:25952250

  14. Reading Pictures: An Interview with David Wiesner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varga-Dobai, Kinga

    2008-01-01

    Two-time Caldecott Honor winner (Free Fall, Sector 7) and three-time Caldecott Medal winner (Tuesday, The Three Pigs, Flotsam), David Wiesner is regarded as one of the most remarkable creators of visual storytelling living today. Wiesner is well known for his innovative and unique subject matter and his sophisticated painting-like illustrations…

  15. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas…

  16. Speaking Personally--With Mark David Milliron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark David Milliron, board chair of the Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education, a trustee with Western Governors University, and a member of the advisory board for the University of Texas (UT) TeleCampus. He is also president and CEO of Catalyze Learning International, a private…

  17. Exploring the Living Planet with David Attenborough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Jacquelin; Unwin, David

    1984-01-01

    In this interview David Attenborough, the celebrated natural history film maker and writer, talks about his highly successful television series, "The Living Planet." Devoted to the exposition of the world's ecosystems, the film represents a significant example of popular geographic education. (RM)

  18. David L. Gutmann (1925-2013).

    PubMed

    Rose, Jon; Huyck, Margaret; Grunes, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    David L. Gutmann, a pioneer in geropsychology and professor emeritus at Northwestern University, died on November 3, 2013, at the age of 88. A student of Bernice Neugarten, Bruno Bettelheim, and Erik Erikson, Gutmann discovered changes in adult psychological development related to parenting styles that held across diverse cultures. PMID:25046720

  19. Family Matters: A Conversation with David Popenoe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Professor David Popenoe, author of the controversial book "Disturbing the Nest: Family Change and Decline in Modern Societies" (1988). Popenoe heads the National Marriage Project at Rutgers University, where he taught sociology for forty-five years until his recent retirement. Here, Popenoe discusses his…

  20. Speaking Personally--With David Foster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    David Foster is the founder of Kryterion, an Internet test administration company, and currently serves there as chief scientist and executive vice president. He is the author of numerous articles for industry trade journals and textbooks and sits on the Council for the International Test Commission. In this interview, Foster talks about his…

  1. Interview with Dr. David H. Kalsbeek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, David M.

    2005-01-01

    David H. Kalsbeek currently is vice president for enrollment management at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois. In that capacity, he leads the marketing and enrollment development strategies for the nation's largest and fastest-growing Catholic university, enrolling 23,000 students in eight colleges and six campuses throughout the greater…

  2. Another Perspective: An Interview with David Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ruth A.; Johnson, Kelli

    2005-01-01

    To provide another perspective on evaluation within nonformal settings, "New Directions for Evaluation" recently interviewed David Smith, the coordinator of the Professional Learning to Close the Achievement Gap program for the Kansas City, Kansas, Public Schools, who has extensive background in education and educational research. He formerly held…

  3. A Conversation with...David Satcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Neil A.

    1996-01-01

    David Satcher began his career as a medical geneticist and was appointed director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1993. In this interview, Dr. Satcher talks about the responsibilities of the CDC and explains how a childhood experience inspired his interest in medicine and his continuing commitment to community service.…

  4. Nuclear localization signal receptor importin alpha associates with the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H M; Raikhel, N V

    1998-01-01

    Importin alpha is the nuclear localization signal (NLS) receptor that is involved in the nuclear import of proteins containing basic NLSs. Using importin alpha as a tool, we were interested in determining whether the cytoskeleton could function in the transport of NLS-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Double-labeling immunofluorescence studies showed that most of the cytoplasmic importin alpha coaligned with microtubules and microfilaments in tobacco protoplasts. Treatment of tobacco protoplasts with microtubule- or microfilament-depolymerizing agents disrupted the strands of importin alpha in the cytoplasm, whereas a microtubule-stabilizing agent had no effect. Biochemical analysis showed that importin alpha associated with microtubules and microfilaments in vitro in an NLS-dependent manner. The interaction of importin alpha with the cytoskeleton could be an essential element of protein transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in vivo. PMID:9811789

  5. Interface between astrophysical datasets and distributed database management systems (DAVID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This is a status report on the progress of the DAVID (Distributed Access View Integrated Database Management System) project being carried out at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The objective is to implement an interface between Astrophysical datasets and DAVID. Discussed are design details and implementation specifics between DAVID and astrophysical datasets.

  6. 77 FR 26765 - David H.M. Phelps: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration David H.M. Phelps: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) debarring David H.M. Phelps for a period of 20... Manual Guide 1410.35), finds that Mr. David H.M. Phelps has been convicted of 10 felony counts...

  7. David Alan Walker (1928-2012).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gerald E; Heber, Ulrich

    2012-06-01

    David Alan Walker, Emeritus Professor of Biology, University of Sheffield, UK and Fellow of the Royal Society, died on February 13, 2012. David had a marvelous 60 year career as a scientist, during which he was a researcher, mentor, valued colleague, and a prolific writer in the field of photosynthesis. His career was marked by creative breakthroughs in isolation and analysis of chloroplast metabolism in vitro and simple but valuable technical advances for measurement of photosynthesis in vivo that remain relevant on a global scale to production of crops and biofuels, as well as plant responses to climate change. We include here personal remembrances by the authors (GEE and UH), and by (in alphabetical order): Zoran Cerovic (France), Bob Furbank (Australia), Geoffrey Hind (USA), John Humby (UK), Agu Laisk (Estonia), Peter Lea (UK), Ross Lilley (Australia), Barry Osmond (Australia), Simon Robinson (Australia) and Charles Stirling (UK). PMID:22638915

  8. Remembering David B. Knaff (1941-2016).

    PubMed

    Malkin, Richard

    2016-07-01

    David Knaff began his scientific career in the Department of Cell Physiology at the University of California, Berkeley. At Berkeley, he worked on chloroplast electron carriers such as the cytochromes and plastocyanin and applied redox potentiometry to characterize these carriers in situ. He moved to Texas Tech University where he made major contributions in the study of ferredoxin-mediated reactions with chloroplast enzymes, most notably nitrite reductase. PMID:27130553

  9. 78 FR 26784 - David Freeman: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring David Freeman for 5 years from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application. FDA bases this order on a finding that Mr. Freeman was convicted of introducing and delivering for introduction into interstate......

  10. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R&D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  11. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carasco, Cedric; Deyglun, Clement; Perot, Bertrand; Eleon, Cyrille; Normand, Stephane; Sannie, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenole; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-04-19

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  12. Investigation of Nuclear Gamma Ray Line Emission Associated with Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. E.; Millan, R. M.; Eack, K.; Aulich, G. D.

    2005-12-01

    The first conclusive observations of X-rays associated with thunderstorm activity were made in the 1980's and the prompt emission has been interpreted as bremsstrahlung produced by lightning-accelerated electrons. In 2004, Greenfield et al. reported the first detection of delayed gamma ray emission, with flux peaking 70 minutes after a lightning stroke and decaying exponentially over 50 minutes. They suggested the delayed gamma rays are a result of nuclear reactions in the atmosphere, creating excited Chlorine-39 and decaying with a 56-minute half-life. These results are compelling, but inconclusive; instrumentation capable of measuring the energy spectrum with high precision is necessary to confirm the existence of nuclear line emission associated with lightning. During June-September 2005, we used a spare RHESSI 7 cm-diameter segmented coaxial germanium spectrometer to continuously monitor gamma radiation on South Baldy Peak (10,800 ft) in New Mexico. The detector monitors gamma rays between ~18 keV-10 MeV with an energy resolution of ~2 keV@835 keV. South Baldy is the site of Langmuir Lab and was chosen to take advantage of other lightning research instrumentation located there, including New Mexico Tech's 3D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) which can determine the location of a lightning stroke to within about 50m. We describe the experiment and present the initial results.

  13. Structural Seismic Risk at David City, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.; Battlo, J.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Lindhom, C.

    2007-12-01

    At the southwest margin of the Isthmus of Panama, the Cocos, Nazca and Panama Microplate join in a triple junction. In this tectonic setting, the Panama Fracture Zone (PFZ) which bounds the Nazca and Cocos plate, subducts in an oblique and shallow manner. This zone is one of the most active seismic areas of Central America. On July 18, 1934, the largest earthquake in Panama in historical times (Ms= 7.7) occurred in its northern region. This event caused extensive damage to towns located in the border of Panama and Costa Rica and during the two subsequent days, six aftershocks with magnitude greater than 6.0 were recorded. David City, with 130,000 inhabitants is the most important urban center in southwestern Panama and lies at the northern end of the PFZ. This city was impacted by the strong destructive earthquakes (Ms>7.0) that took place in 1879 and 1934, both with epicenters located on the northern terminus of the PFZ. In this work, we collected and digitized historical seismograms to measure the centroid moment tensor (CMT) from the main 1934 earthquake. Additionally, we gathered new macroseismic information to create improved and more complete isoseismals maps of the 1879 and 1934 events. We determined the probabilistic seismic hazard for David City using records of historical and recent seismicity and the characteristics of local faults. The hazard computation results are presented as peak iso-acceleration curves for rock/hard soil for a recurrence time of 500 years. An elastic response spectrum was obtained with a uniform exceedance probability of 10% in 50 years with one degree of freedom and 5% of damping. Our results indicate maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) in downtown David of 3.8 and 4.5 m/s2 with a probability annual exceedance of 0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Structural vulnerability was determined analyzing the quality and construction design of housing, buildings, and critical facilities as well as the type of soil where these structures

  14. First Scholarship at AGU Established by David E. Lumley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, Joanna G.

    2009-09-01

    Shortly after AGU launched its annual voluntary contribution campaign last year—the theme was “Building Tomorrow's Talent Today”—the Union's development office received an e-mail message from David E. Lumley about establishing a scholarship for a high-school student or undergraduate. Many scientific societies and associations have quite a few named scholarships, but for AGU this was a new concept. Lumley was sure of what he wanted to do and even more excited when he learned that his scholarship would be a first for AGU. “I want to help inspire today's young minds to work on problems of global importance in both the energy and environment sectors of industry and academia,” Lumley said. Recipients of the David E. Lumley Young Scientist Scholarship for Energy and Environmental Science will be expected to present a paper and to participate in various student activities at Fall Meeting. “Meeting some of the ‘giants’ of geoscience and getting their feedback on research is a big deal for these young students. We sometimes lose sight of this,” he said.

  15. Reconstructing the Foreign Teacher: The Nativization of David Crook in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Craig K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a critical examination of the life and work of David Crook (1910-2000) as an English teacher in China from just prior to 1949 through the 1980's. It describes Crook's struggle to transcend attitudes of superiority commonly associated with native speaking English teachers at the time as well as his efforts to introduce innovations in…

  16. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, University of North Carolina's associate dean of research and assessment at the School of Education Terry Ackerman poses questions and shares his thoughts on David Thissen's essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory" (this issue). Ackerman begins by considering the two purposes of Item Response…

  17. Nuclear factor kappa B role in inflammation associated gastrointestinal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Sahil; Vyas, Dinesh; Hollis, Michael; Aekka, Apporva; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has an established role in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. NF-κB is also involved in critical mechanisms connecting inflammation and cancer development. Recent investigations suggest that the NF-κB signaling cascade may be the central mediator of gastrointestinal malignancies including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. This review will explore NF-κB’s function in inflammation-associated gastrointestinal malignancies, highlighting its oncogenic contribution to each step of carcinogenesis. NF-κB’s role in the inflammation-to-carcinoma sequence in gastrointestinal malignancies warrants stronger emphasis upon targeting this pathway in achieving greater therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25805923

  18. America's foremost early astronomer. [David Rittenhouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rubincam, Milton, II

    1995-01-01

    The life of 18th century astronomer, craftsman, and partriot David Rittenhouse is detailed. As a craftsman, he distinguished himself as one of the foremost builders of clocks. He also built magnetic compasses and surveying instruments. The finest examples of his craftsmanship are considered two orreries, mechanical solar systems. In terms of astronomical observations, his best-known contribution was his observation of the transit of Venus in 1769. Rittenhouse constructed the first diffraction grating. Working as Treasurer of Pennsylvania throughout the Revolution, he became the first director of the Mint in 1792. Astronomical observations in later life included charting the position of Uranus after its discovery.

  19. Obituary: David Q. Wark, 1918-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillin, Larry Max

    2003-12-01

    the American Meteorological Society, the Lloyd V. Berkner Space Utilization Award from the American Astronautical Society, and the Robert M. Losey Award, from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. David Quentin Wark was born on 25 March 1918, in Spokane, Washington. He was the fourth and last child of Percival Damon Wark and Clara Belle (née Mackey) Wark. In 1921 his family moved to Altadena and Pasadena, California, where he lived until 1939. He attended Altadena Elementary School, Edison Elementary School, Washington Junior High School, Pasadena High School, and Pasadena Junior College. From 1938 to 1939, and again in the summer of 1940, he worked for the Associated Press and David Lawrence to earn money to resume his education. In 1939, he entered the University of California, Berkeley, from which he graduated with a BA in Astronomy with honors in May 1941. From 1941 to 1942 he did graduate study in meteorology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He resumed graduate studies part time in 1948 at the University of California, Berkeley, while working full time at the U.S. Weather Bureau and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in January 1959. He remembered those times as tough days driving back and forth to Berkeley and living in Half-Moon Bay. Dr. Wark's professional career began in 1942 at the U.S. Naval Observatory, where he served as a Naval Officer until 1946. He then went to work for the U.S. Weather Bureau. He spent the first three years of that period in Istres, France, Frankfurt and Munich, Germany, and Cairo Egypt. From 1949 through 1958 he served at the Aviation Weather Forecast Office in San Francisco. He then moved to the U.S. Weather Bureau Office in Suitland, Maryland, where he worked from November 1958 until 3 July 1999, when he officially retired. He actually retired from NOAA because during this time, he saw the U.S. Weather Bureau become part of ESSA which, in turn, became a part the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  20. Nuclear attitudes and reactions: associations with depression, drug use, and quality of life

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, M.D.

    1986-05-01

    For 40 years the world has lived with the threat of nuclear war and, recently, with the possibility of nuclear power plant accidents. Although virtually every generation must confront various national or international crises, the threat of nuclear war is unprecedented in its destructive potential. This study is an attempt to assess attitudes and amount of distress associated with the ever-present threat of nuclear war and the possibility of accidents at nuclear power plants. The Nuclear Attitudes Questionnaire (NAQ) consists of 15 items and was administered to 722 young adults who have grown up in the nuclear age. The items were found to reflect four latent factors of nuclear concern, nuclear support, fear of the future, and nuclear denial, all of which in turn represent a second-order construct of nuclear anxiety. Women reported significantly more nuclear concern, less nuclear support, more fear of the future, and less nuclear denial than did men. In latent-variable models, nuclear anxiety was found to be significantly associated with less purpose in life, less life satisfaction, more powerlessness, more depression, and more drug use. It is concluded that the threat of nuclear war and accidents is significantly related to psychological distress and may disturb normal maturational development.

  1. 13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, WEST HALF, LOOKING WEST - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  2. 14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, NORTH HALF LOOKING NORTH - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, FRONT ELEVATION SHOWING BELLTOWER AND PROJECTING VERANDA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, DETAIL OF FRONT ELEVATION SHOWING PROJECTING VERANDA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  5. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α, a multifunctional nuclear receptor associated with cardiovascular disease and cholesterol catabolism.

    PubMed

    Tavares-Sanchez, Olga Lidia; Rodriguez, Carmen; Gortares-Moroyoqui, Pablo; Estrada, Maria Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the leading cause of death worldwide, are associated with high plasma cholesterol levels. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BAs) accounts for about 50% of total cholesterol elimination from the body. This phenomenon occurs in the liver and is regulated by nuclear receptors such as hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α). Therefore, special emphasis is given to HNF-4α properties and its multifunctional role, particularly in the conversion of cholesterol to BAs. HNF-4α is a highly conserved transcription factor that has the potential capacity to transactivate a vast number of genes, including CYP7 which codes for cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1; EC 1.14.13.17), the rate-limiting enzyme of BA biosynthesis. The fact that HNF-4α transactivation potential can be modulated via phosporylation is of particular interest. Additional findings on structural and functional characteristics of HNF-4α may eventually present alternatives to control the levels of cholesterol in the body and consequently reduce the risk of CVDs. PMID:24848804

  6. Mitochondrial regulation of cancer associated nuclear DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Chenghui; Naito, Akihiro; Mizumachi, Takatsugu; Evans, Teresa T.; Douglas, Michael G.; Cooney, Craig A.; Fan Chunyang; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2007-12-21

    The onset and progression of cancer is associated with the methylation-dependent silencing of specific genes, however, the mechanism and its regulation have not been established. We previously demonstrated that reduction of mitochondrial DNA content induces cancer progression. Here we found that mitochondrial DNA-deficient LN{rho}0-8 activates the hypermethylation of the nuclear DNA promoters including the promoter CpG islands of the endothelin B receptor, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, and E-cadherin. These are unmethylated and the corresponding gene products are expressed in the parental LNCaP containing mitochondrial DNA. The absence of mitochondrial DNA induced DNA methyltransferase 1 expression which was responsible for the methylation patterns observed. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase eliminated hypermethylation and expressed gene products in LN{rho}0-8. These studies demonstrate loss or reduction of mitochondrial DNA resulted in the induction of DNA methyltransferase 1, hypermethylation of the promoters of endothelin B receptor, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, and E-cadherin, and reduction of the corresponding gene products.

  7. David Lasser: An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the prospects of human spaceflight. Yet his involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he soon moved on to pursue a distinguished career in the cause of workers rights. In lieu of an oral history, the author corresponded with Mr. Lasser on a regular basis in the years before his death in 1996 to gather Mr. Lasser's views on human spaceflight activities as viewed from his unique perspective. This paper will document that correspondence with one of America's original spaceflight pioneers.

  8. David Lasser - An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the use of rockets for human spaceflight. His involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he moved on to pursue a distinguished, if turbulent, career in the labor movement. In lieu of an oral history, Mr. Lasser provided his recollections on the pioneering days of rocketry and his thoughts on mankind's destiny in space. This paper provides an overview of Mr. Lasser's life and accomplishments as an American spaceflight visionary, along with a compilation of the information that he graciously provided.

  9. In memoriam of David P. Rall.

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    As a scientist, administrator, and diplomat, David P. Rall pioneered the effort to identify and understand the elements that make up the human environment and their consequences for human health. As an intellectual and aggressive activist, he educated scientists, governments, and the world community to the critical need to address the existence of environmental agents and their consequences for human health. As a leader he marshalled some of the best minds and hearts of his time to the cause of world health through a safe and clean environment. And as a visionary he provided the goals of environmental health science and the direction to guide both current and future generations. His death on September 28 brought to a close a chapter in the evolution of our understanding of the interconnectedness of human health and the environment, a chapter he was largely responsible for writing. Images pA538-a PMID:10544164

  10. David D. Derse, 1949-2009

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    David D. Derse, Ph.D., Head of the Retrovirus Gene Expression Section in the HIV Drug Resistance Program at the National Cancer Institute-Frederick (NCI-Frederick), passed away on October 9, 2009, a scant six weeks after being diagnosed with liver cancer. It was with great sadness that family, friends, and colleagues gathered together for his memorial service on Saturday, October 17, 2009, at the Middletown United Methodist Church in Maryland. As a NCI scientist since 1986, Dave studied the molecular mechanisms of infection and replication of a number of different types of retroviruses. Dave became an internationally known expert on human T cell lymphotrophic viruses type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) and served on the editorial boards of Virology and Retrovirology. His most recent studies focused on the mechanisms of HTLV-1 virion morphogenesis, transmission, and replication. PMID:19951436

  11. 76 FR 12971 - David E. Berman: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration David E. Berman: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring David E. Berman, MD, for 3 years.... Berman pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor offense of the introduction into interstate commerce of...

  12. 75 FR 10244 - Ellsworth, David C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ellsworth, David C.; Notice of Filing February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 12, 2010, David C. Ellsworth filed an informational report for authority to hold...

  13. Third Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Third Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on Nov. 18 at NCI at Frederick to honor the outstanding research accomplishments of David Derse, Ph.D., and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career.

  14. Music: Part of the Basics at David Douglas and Salem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    This bulletin highlights elements of the music programs in two Oregon school districts--David Douglas School District 40 and Salem School District 24J--that have kept these programs viable in spite of financial constraints. Ingredients for success of the overall music program at David Douglas are first described. Important elements include hiring…

  15. 77 FR 71189 - Falck, David P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Falck, David P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 23, 2012, David P. Falck submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking positions...-8659. Comment Date: 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on December 14, 2012. Dated: November 23, 2012. Kimberly...

  16. 76 FR 7837 - Magill, David W.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Magill, David W.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, David W. Magill submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking...

  17. Teaching Students about the Environment with Henry David Thoreau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Walden: The Ballad of Thoreau" is a two-act four-character play about the final two days writer Henry David Thoreau spent in his cabin before leaving Walden Pond. Teachers can use this play to teach about preserving the earth to students. This article presents a brief synopsis of the play and a brief biography of Henry David Thoreau.

  18. Estimate of thyroid doses for David A. Timothy and June Carrell from Nevada Test Site local fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Ng, Y.C.

    1985-10-28

    David A. Timothy and June Rogers Carrell are litigants in Timothy vs US. They allege that their thyroid cancers have resulted from harm from radiation doses received as a result of local fallout from the testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site. We have calculated a best estimate of the thyroid dose received by each litigant from external exposure and the ingestion of radionuclides with food. For David Timothy, the dose estimate is 7.8 rads. For June Carrell, it is 2.6 rads. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-12-04

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described. (DMC)

  20. Obituary: David L. Band (1957-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, Lynn

    2011-12-01

    David L. Band, of Potomac Maryland, died on March 16, 2009 succumbing to a long battle with spinal cord cancer. His death at the age of 52 came as a shock to his many friends and colleagues in the physics and astronomy community. Band showed an early interest and exceptional aptitude for physics, leading to his acceptance at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an undergraduate student in 1975. After graduating from MIT with an undergraduate degree in Physics, Band continued as a graduate student in Physics at Harvard University. His emerging interest in Astrophysics led him to the Astronomy Department at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), where he did his dissertation work with Jonathan Grindlay. His dissertation (1985) entitled "Non-thermal Radiation Mechanisms and Processes in SS433 and Active Galactic Nuclei" was "pioneering work on the physics of jets arising from black holes and models for their emission, including self-absorption, which previewed much to come, and even David's own later work on Gamma-ray Bursts," according to Grindlay who remained a personal friend and colleague of Band's. Following graduate school, Band held postdoctoral positions at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley and the Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences at the University of California San Diego where he worked on the BATSE experiment that was part of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), launched in 1991. BATSE had as its main objective the study of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and made significant advances in this area of research. Band became a world-renowned figure in the emerging field of GRB studies. He is best known for his widely-used analytic form of gamma-ray burst spectra known as the "Band Function." After the CGRO mission ended, Band moved to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he worked mainly on classified research but continued to work on GRB energetics and spectra. When NASA planned

  1. David J. Hofmann (1937-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshler, Terry; Butler, James H.; Solomon, Susan; Barnes, John E.; Schnell, Russell C.

    2009-12-01

    David J. Hofmann, a pioneer in stratospheric aerosol and ozone research, passed away in Boulder, Colo., on 11 August 2009. He was 72. Dave, a frequent contributor to AGU publications and meetings, was elected an AGU Fellow in 2006. His long and prolific scientific career was, as he would say, simple in concept: Make a long-term commitment to specific measurements, pay attention to the details, and focus on the important issues that the measurements raise. This is simple in concept yet challenging to maintain in a world of short-term contracts and budgets. That Dave sustained and led key measurement programs through 25 years at the University of Wyoming (UW), in Laramie, and 17 years with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL, which became the Global Monitoring Division (GMD) of NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory) in Boulder, speaks volumes about the scientific and societal benefits that have resulted from his work. Most of the measurement programs he initiated, and the instruments he helped develop for them, continue today as testament to the value of his focus and lasting influence.

  2. Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on November 12, 2013, at the NCI at Frederick Conference Center to honor David Derse’s outstanding research accomplishments and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career. The Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award is sponsored by the HIV Drug Resistance Program, with support from Hye Kyung Chung-Derse, Ph.D., the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues and friends of Derse who contributed to the memorial fund in his honor.

  3. Characterization Report for the David Witherspoon Screen Art Site

    SciTech Connect

    Phyllis C. Weaver

    2011-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of Environmental Management (EM) requested the technical assistance of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to characterize a tract of land associated with the David Witherspoon, Incorporated (DWI) Volunteer Equipment and Supply Company (VESC). This tract of land (hereinafter referred to as Screen Arts) is located in the Vestal Community in the 2000-block of Maryville Pike in south Knoxville, Tennessee, as shown in Figure A-1. This tract of land has been used primarily to store salvaged equipment and materials for resale, recycle, or for disposal in the former landfill once operated by DWI. The DWI Site industrial landfill and metal recycling business had been permitted by the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health to accept low-level radiologically contaminated metals. DWI received materials and equipment associated with operations from DOE sites, including those in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. It is likely that items stored at Screen Arts may have contained some residual radiological materials.

  4. Interview With the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, David Wiesner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses David Wiesner, the 2002 Caldecott Medal Winner, and includes excerpts of an interview with him. Notes that Wiesner's books appeal to the imagination and often use art elements such as scale. Details the winning book, "The Three Pigs." (PM)

  5. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 EAST FACADE, PART OF NORTH FACADE, SOUTH DAIRY BARN IN BACKGROUND - Longview Farm, North Dairy Barn, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  6. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 EAST FACADE, PART OF NORTH FACADE, SOUTH DAIRY BARN IN BACKGROUND, WITH FIELD IN FOREGROUND - Longview Farm, North Dairy Barn, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  7. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, LIVING ROOM WITH TIFFANY STAINED GLASS WINDOWS INCLUDING 'FEEDING THE FLAMINGOES,' 'THE FOUR SEASONS,' AND 'THE BATHERS'. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  8. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, CENTRAL COURT WITH PORTRAIT OF TIFFANY BY SOROLLA. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  9. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, INTERIOR OF TIFFANY CHAPEL SHOWING STAINED GLASS WINDOW. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  10. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, VIEW OF THE CENTRAL COURT WITH THE FOUNTAIN AND TIFFANY VASES IN NICHES. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE WITH COLD SPRING HARBOR IN BACKGROUND. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  12. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, TERRACE OVERLOOKING COLD SPRING HARBOR WITH VIEW OF 'TIFFANY TOWER'. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  13. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, 'THE SPRING' ONE OF SEVEN FOUNTAINS ON TIFFANY ESTATE. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  14. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, LIVING ROOM SHOWING LIGHTING FIXTURES OF TIFFANY'S DESIGN. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  15. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, David Aronow, Photographer circa 1924, DETAIL OF ENTRANCE AND BELLTOWER ON FRONT ELEVATION. - Laurelton Hall, Laurel Hollow & Ridge Roads, Oyster Bay, Nassau County, NY

  16. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey David J. Kaminsky, Photographer August 1978 INTERIOR LOOKING SOUTH AT HEARTH - Longview Farm, Paint-Carpentry-Blacksmith Shop, Longview Road, Lees Summit, Jackson County, MO

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July 1965 BARRACKS (West), Left - BARRACKS (East), Right (Combined into New Barn) - Fort Larned, Barracks (West), Larned, Pawnee County, KS

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey David von Riesen, Photographer July 1965 BARRACKS (West), Left - BARRACKS (East), Right (Combined into New Barn) - Fort Larned, Barracks (East), Larned, Pawnee County, KS

  19. Several Novel Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identified in Skeletal Muscle Have Cytoskeletal Associations*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Gavin S.; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K.; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  20. Several novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identified in skeletal muscle have cytoskeletal associations.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Gavin S; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R W; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  1. ACCIDENTS AND UNSCHEDULED EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH NON-NUCLEAR ENERGY RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accidents and unscheduled events associated with non-nuclear energy resources and technology are identified for each step in the energy cycle. Both natural and anthropogenic causes of accidents or unscheduled events are considered. Data concerning these accidents are summarized. ...

  2. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology: David W. Johnson.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology. The 2016 recipient of Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is David W. Johnson. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504568

  3. David Florida Laboratory: Support for mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumoulin, Jean-Guy; Mamen, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    The comprehensive integration and environmental (including RF) test facilities of the Canadian Space Agency's David Florida Laboratory (CSA)(DFL) were used extensively for the MSAT Program. Following a description of the facilities, the paper outlines their application to the qualification of the two MSAT satellites following an overview of the test plan. Particular emphasis is given to passive intermodulation measurement (PIM) demands, which for the MSAT satellites, contributed to the need to extend the anechoic chamber. The extended chamber was also used for an EMC test and SAR signature test of the RADARSAT satellite. The DFL's facilities are being used for additional aspects of mobile satellite communications. One shielded anechoic Extra High Frequency (EHF) chamber and associated test equipment are employed predominantly for measuring the performance of the IRIDIUM satellites' Engineering Model Gateway Moveable Antennas (EM)(GMA). Other chambers are used for testing aeronautical antennas on behalf of Inmarsat. Still others combine thermal and PIM testing. The paper concludes with a review of the test requirements of evolving satcom missions such as Inmarsat Aero-1.

  4. Nuclear association of cyclin D1 in human fibroblasts: tight binding to nuclear structures and modulation by protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Scovassi, A I; Stivala, L A; Rossi, L; Bianchi, L; Prosperi, E

    1997-11-25

    The association of cyclin D1 with nuclear structures was investigated in normal human fibroblasts by using hypotonic detergent extraction procedures, immunofluorescence quantitation with flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. About 20% of the total cellular levels of cyclin D1 was found to be tightly bound to nuclear structures, being the complex formation resistant to DNase I treatment and to high salt extraction. Maximal levels of the insoluble form of the protein were found in the middle to late G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation techniques after in vivo 32P-labeling showed that both soluble and nuclear-bound forms of cyclin D1 were phosphorylated. Both fractions were reactive to an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, while only the latter was detectable with an anti-phosphoserine antibody. Treatment with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, which induces a cell cycle arrest in early G1 phase, strongly reduced cyclin D1 phosphorylation. Concomitantly, the ratio of nuclear-bound/total cyclin D1 levels was reduced by about 60%, compared with the control value. The protein kinase A specific inhibitor isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H-89) induced a similar reduction in the ratio, with no significant modification in the total amount of protein. In contrast, both calphostin C and bisindolylmaleimide, specific inhibitors of protein kinase C, consistently increased by 30-50% the ratio of nuclear-bound/total amount of the cyclin protein. These results suggest that, during the G1 phase, formation of an insoluble complex of cyclin D1 occurs at nuclear matrix structures and that this association is mediated by a protein kinase A-dependent pathway. PMID:9417875

  5. Obituary: David Q. Wark, 1918-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillin, Larry Max

    2003-12-01

    David Q. Wark, a research meteorologist at the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NESDIS) and its predecessor organizations for 55 years, died of cancer 30 July 2002. He will be long remembered for his seminal contributions to the weather satellite program. A pioneer in the use of satellite sensors to provide observations of the Earth's environment for application to weather forecasting and atmospheric science, Dr. Wark was noted for his brilliant insights, dedication, and exceptional scientific achievements. He developed many of the theoretical and experimental techniques on which NOAA's current multi- billion-dollar meteorological satellite program is based. In the 1960's and early 1970's, he and his NOAA colleague Donald Hilleary were the motivating force and principal investigators for the first satellite instruments dedicated to sounding the atmosphere for temperature and water-vapor. These instruments included the Satellite Infra-Red Spectrometer (SIRS)-A and -B and the Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer (VTPR), which were flown on NASA's Nimbus satellites and NOAA's ITOS-D satellites, respectively. With colleague Henry Fleming, he formulated the radiative transfer equation that quantifies the spectral radiances of the Earth and its atmosphere (measured at satellite altitude) and inverted that equation mathematically to infer the atmospheric temperature profile from satellite-based measurements of those radiances. A difficulty they had to overcome was that the mathematical problem is ill-posed, i.e., it admits of an infinite number of solutions. They arrived at a unique solution via an innovative application of a-priori information on the atmospheric state. This work was described in the landmark 1965 Wark and Fleming paper in the American Meteorological Society's Monthly Weather Review. From that early period until just weeks before his death, Dr. Wark continued

  6. Obituary: David Fulmer Bender, 1913-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sylvia L.

    2004-12-01

    David Fulmer Bender died in San Diego, California, on 13 September 2004, at the age of 91. His heart stopped suddenly while he was dancing. His pioneering work in establishing comprehensive, computer-accessible ephemerides of asteroids and comets found many applications, including the first-ever visit to an asteroid, Gaspra, by an interplanetary spacecraft. Dave was born in Reno, Nevada, on 10 February 1913, to Homer Charles Bender and Susan Bowers Bender. The family moved to Spokane, Washington, while Dave was very young. His father was a civil engineer and a graduate of MIT, who helped design bridges and dams throughout the Northwest, including the Grand Coolie Dam. Dave had a brother, Phillip (now deceased), who was one year younger. Advancing rapidly in the Spokane school system, Dave finished high school when he was 15 years old. At 16 he moved to Pasadena, California, and began his studies at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In addition to pursuing his course work, he was active in track and football, a tendency toward physical exercise that stayed with him for the rest of his life. It was probably during these years that Dave heard a lecture by Albert Einstein, as mentioned to colleagues many years later. Dave received a BS degree in physics in 1933, an MS in 1934, and a PhD in 1937, all from Caltech. His dissertation was entitled, "The Index of Refraction of Air in the Photographic Infrared." During his sophomore year he found his way to Pomona College in Claremont, California, where he met his future wife, Elizabeth Boyden at a social gathering. They were married in 1935. Dave's academic career spanned the years from 1937 to 1970, initially at Louisiana State University, Vanderbilt University, and then Fisk. As a life-long pacifist and conscientious objector, Dave served alternate duty during World War II. In 1946 he joined the faculty of the physics department at Whittier College in California, where he became the department chair and

  7. Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Anne Arthur, Guest Writer The Second Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award presentation was held on November 12, 2013, at the NCI at Frederick Conference Center to honor David Derse’s outstanding research accomplishments and to stimulate the exchange of innovative ideas that Derse was well known for promoting throughout his scientific career. The Annual David Derse Memorial Lecture and Award is sponsored by the HIV Drug Resistance Program, with support from Hye Kyung Chung-Derse, Ph.D., the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and colleagues and friends of Derse who contributed to the memorial fund in his honor.

  8. Obituary: David Fulmer Bender, 1913-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sylvia L.

    2004-12-01

    David Fulmer Bender died in San Diego, California, on 13 September 2004, at the age of 91. His heart stopped suddenly while he was dancing. His pioneering work in establishing comprehensive, computer-accessible ephemerides of asteroids and comets found many applications, including the first-ever visit to an asteroid, Gaspra, by an interplanetary spacecraft. Dave was born in Reno, Nevada, on 10 February 1913, to Homer Charles Bender and Susan Bowers Bender. The family moved to Spokane, Washington, while Dave was very young. His father was a civil engineer and a graduate of MIT, who helped design bridges and dams throughout the Northwest, including the Grand Coolie Dam. Dave had a brother, Phillip (now deceased), who was one year younger. Advancing rapidly in the Spokane school system, Dave finished high school when he was 15 years old. At 16 he moved to Pasadena, California, and began his studies at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In addition to pursuing his course work, he was active in track and football, a tendency toward physical exercise that stayed with him for the rest of his life. It was probably during these years that Dave heard a lecture by Albert Einstein, as mentioned to colleagues many years later. Dave received a BS degree in physics in 1933, an MS in 1934, and a PhD in 1937, all from Caltech. His dissertation was entitled, "The Index of Refraction of Air in the Photographic Infrared." During his sophomore year he found his way to Pomona College in Claremont, California, where he met his future wife, Elizabeth Boyden at a social gathering. They were married in 1935. Dave's academic career spanned the years from 1937 to 1970, initially at Louisiana State University, Vanderbilt University, and then Fisk. As a life-long pacifist and conscientious objector, Dave served alternate duty during World War II. In 1946 he joined the faculty of the physics department at Whittier College in California, where he became the department chair and

  9. SUMOylation regulates the nuclear mobility of CREB binding protein and its association with nuclear bodies in live cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Colm M.; Kindle, Karin B.; Collins, Hilary M.; Heery, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The lysine acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) is required for chromatin modification and transcription at many gene promoters. In fixed cells, a large proportion of CBP colocalises to PML or nuclear bodies. Using live cell imaging, we show here that YFP-tagged CBP expressed in HEK293 cells undergoes gradual accumulation in nuclear bodies, some of which are mobile and migrate towards the nuclear envelope. Deletion of a short lysine-rich domain that contains the major SUMO acceptor sites of CBP abrogated its ability to be SUMO modified, and prevented its association with endogenous SUMO-1/PML speckles in vivo. This SUMO-defective CBP showed enhanced ability to co-activate AML1-mediated transcription. Deletion mapping revealed that the SUMO-modified region was not sufficient for targeting CBP to PML bodies, as C-terminally truncated mutants containing this domain showed a strong reduction in accumulation at PML bodies. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that YFP-CBP{Delta}998-1087 had a retarded recovery time in the nucleus, as compared to YFP-CBP. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates CBP function by influencing its shuttling between nuclear bodies and chromatin microenvironments.

  10. Type B lamins remain associated with the integral nuclear envelope protein p58 during mitosis: implications for nuclear reassembly.

    PubMed Central

    Meier, J; Georgatos, S D

    1994-01-01

    p58 (also referred to as the lamin B receptor) is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope known to form a multimeric complex with the lamins and other nuclear proteins during interphase. To examine the fate of this complex during mitosis, we have investigated the partitioning and the molecular interactions of p58 in dividing chicken hepatoma (DU249) cells. Using confocal microscopy and double immunolabelling, we show here that lamins B1 and B2 co-localize with p58 during all phases of mitosis and co-assemble around reforming nuclei. A close juxtaposition of p58/lamin B-containing vesicles and chromosomes is already detectable in metaphase; however, p58 and lamin reassembly proceeds slowly and is completed in late telophase--G1. Flotation of mitotic membranes in sucrose density gradients and analysis of mitotic vesicles by immunoelectron microscopy confirms that p58 and most of the type B lamins reside in the same compartment. Co-immunoprecipitation of both proteins by affinity-purified anti-p58 antibodies shows that they are physically associated in the context of a mitotic p58 'sub-complex'. This sub-assembly does not include the type A lamins which are fully solubilized during mitosis. Our data provide direct, in vivo and in vitro evidence that the majority of type B lamins remain connected to nuclear membrane 'receptors' during mitosis. The implications of these findings in nuclear envelope reassembly are discussed below. Images PMID:8168487

  11. INTRODUCTION: David Sherrington as a mentor of young scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbart, Paul M.

    2008-08-01

    How deeply honoured I am to have the opportunity to express my thoughts at this delightful celebration of David's achievements, so far, in his remarkable career. I have been asked to center my remarks on David's contributions to the mentoring and professional development of scientists early in their careers. This is a topic that I am more than happy to reflect on, because it gives me the opportunity to recall the exciting period I spent as one of David's postgraduate students at Imperial College in the early 1980s. It also gives me the chance to publicly express my gratitude to David for the opportunities he created for me at that time, as well as for the interest and care he has shown in my career and well-being ever since, as we have met up and exchanged news and ideas around the world: in New Mexico and Colorado, in Cancun, Paris and Trieste, at numerous March Meetings of the American Physical Society and, of course in London, Oxford, and my home town, Champaign-Urbana, location of the University of Illinois. I have been a member of David's circle for 25 years now, and I would like to tell you a little about how this came to be. Not because of what this says about me, but, rather, because of what it tells you about David and the rich generosity of his spirit and effort when it comes to supporting the underdog. I was indeed one such underdog—and that's putting it charitably—when I first met David in September of 1982, not long before the academic year was to begin. I had heard about the exciting circle of physical and mathematical ideas swirling around the spin glass question during the previous year, which I had spent at the University of California's Los Angeles campus, through an opportunity kindly arranged, as it happens, by Sam Edwards. But I was eager to return to the UK for postgraduate studies and to work on spin glasses, so I simply showed up at David's Imperial College office, unannounced (if I remember correctly). And with his characteristic

  12. Dr. David Sawyer, Mickey Mouse and Dr. David Brown attend a ceremony at Ronald McNair Middle School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. David Sawyer (left), Superintendent of the Brevard County School District, Mickey Mouse, and Dr. David Brown, a NASA astronaut, attend a tribute to NASA astronaut Ronald McNair held in the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla. During the tribute, Walt Disney World presented a portrait of McNair to the school, which had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut. McNair was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  13. Can Education Save the World? A Response to David Gruenewald

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Any commitment to education for sustainability assumes that teaching and learning can reduce or prevent damage to the biosphere. However, such an assumption remains deeply problematic. David Gruenewald's is only one of several possible epistemological positions. This article discusses the variety of such positions, arguing for that which might…

  14. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Don

    2008-01-01

    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  15. David Almond's "Skellig": "A New Vista of Contemplation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan Louise

    2009-01-01

    The debates that have arisen regarding Darwin's theories of evolution and Christian views of creation and their place in education in the United States have frequently been extremely heated, resulting in trials, hearings, and laws. This article provides an overview of some of the disagreements and illustrates how David Almond's British novel,…

  16. Challenging Texts: Teaching Deliberately--Reading Henry David Thoreau's "Walden"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    One of the more difficult 19th-century American texts for high school students to read is undoubtedly Henry David Thoreau's "Walden." His erudite allusions, often page-long sentences, and sophisticated sense of the ironic initially leave many students cold. Still, the author encourages them to read amid the din of a cultural cacophony that shouts…

  17. Instructional Implications of David C. Geary's Evolutionary Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweller, John

    2008-01-01

    David C. Geary's thesis has the potential to alter our understanding of those aspects of human cognition relevant to instruction. His distinction between biologically primary knowledge that we have evolved to acquire and biologically secondary knowledge that is culturally important, taught in educational institutions and which we have not evolved…

  18. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with David Dockterman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Michael F. Shaughnessy, Contributing Editor of this journal, interviews David Dockterman, Chief Architect, Learning Sciences, at Scholastic Education, where he provides guidance on turning research into practical programs. Dockterman was one of the founders of Tom Snyder Productions, a leading educational software developer and…

  19. Astronaut David Wolf in medical experiment in SLS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, mission specialist, participates in an experiment that investigates in-space distribution and movement of blood and gas in the pulmonary system. The data gathered during the two-week flight will be compared with results of tests performed on Earth to determine the changes that occur in pulmonary functions.

  20. Fighting for the Past: Lessons from the David Irving Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, A. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article offers lessons from the David Irving trial. These lessons about Holocaust denial allow educators to identify how deniers violate certain scholarly tenets. This also serves as a safeguard against legitimizing deniers' efforts, while also reinforcing important principles of historical inquiry. (Contains 11 notes.)

  1. David Booth: Drama as a Way of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Kaila

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how David Booth's ability to elicit both commitment and authenticity in children's creation of improvised dramas distinguishes him as a teacher. Describes various phases and aspects of a drama lesson given to a group of fourth, fifth, and sixth graders that demonstrate his powerful teaching technique called "story-drama." (JD)

  2. From the Ocean's Flotsam, David Wiesner Imagines a Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    David Wiesner's 2007 Caldecott Medal-winning "Flotsam" blends the events of everyday life with the surreal. As he often does in his picture books, Wiesner plays with size and scale, opening "Flotsam" with a full-page illustration of a sand crab and the enormous eye behind it before pulling back on the second page to reveal the creature's actual…

  3. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  4. Video from Panel Discussion with Joseph Fraumeni and David Schottenfeld

    Cancer.gov

    Video footage from Panel Discussion with Joseph Fraumeni and David Schottenfeld on Cancer Epidemiology over the Last Half-Century and Thoughts on the Future. The discussion took place on May 11, 2012, when DCEG hosted Dr. Schottenfeld as a Visiting Scholar.

  5. David Haynes: Chronicler of the African American Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Profiles writer David Haynes, and discusses his four novels (an award-winning young adult book and three novels for the adult market). Concludes that Haynes' success as a novelist is due to his characters, a healthy dose of humor, and his realistic depiction of a wide range of African American characters without resorting to sensationalism or…

  6. Moral philosophers are moral experts! A reply to David Archard.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In his article 'Why Moral Philosophers Are Not and Should Not Be Moral Experts' David Archard attempts to show that his argument from common-sense morality is more convincing than other competing arguments in the debate. I examine his main line of argumentation and eventually refute his main argument in my reply. PMID:22994530

  7. Reflections on the Scholarly Contributions of Professor David H. Jonassen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.; Lee, Chwee Beng; Hung, Woei

    2013-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue of "Computers and Education" honoring Professor David H. Jonassen are diverse in nature. They also reflect differing interpretations of the implications of Jonassen's work for research and development focused on instructional models and the factors influencing instruction as well as the directions for future…

  8. Grade 1 Students Meet David Wiesner's "Three Pigs."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Describes the oral, written, and visual arts responses of a group of Grade 1 children. Discusses first grade children's understandings of and responses to several Radical Change characteristics and metafictive techniques found in David Wiesner's "The Three Pigs" (2001), the 2002 Randolph Caldecott Medal winner. Explores the nature of the literary…

  9. The Sociological Foundations of David Elliott's "Music Matters" Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the ideas presented in the book, "Music Matters (David Elliott)." Discusses Elliott's stance on praxialism, stating that his book is based on social mediation of action as its behavioral theory. Addresses Elliott's concept of expertise and topics using an interactionist perspective as a means of interpretation. (CMK)

  10. STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-69 Mission Commander David M. Walker chats with white room closeout crew members Bob Saulnier (left), Regulo Villalobos and closeout crew leader Travis Thompson prior to entering the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A.

  11. On Improving Teacher Effectiveness: A Conversation with David Berliner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Ron

    1982-01-01

    An interview with David Berliner explores his claims that research on teacher effectiveness will only be applied practically when "connoisseurs of teaching" act as teacher coaches, helping teachers to analyze the effects of their behaviors, specify new behaviors, and assess the results. (PGD)

  12. Life after Death in Poverty: David Treuer's "Little"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirrup, David

    2005-01-01

    David Treuer's debut novel, "Little" (1995), is set on a Minnesota reservation, centering around a dilapidated housing tract that its small community of residents call "Poverty." Aptly named both for the condition and background of the housing, this name is the first pointer to the type of multifaceted reading that the novel merits. This essay…

  13. A new gene mapping resource: Interspecies hybrids between Pere David`s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, M.L.; Mathias, H.C.; Penty, J.M.; Hill, D.F.; Fennessy, P.F.; Dodds, K.G.

    1995-03-01

    Three male F{sub 1} hybrids between Pere David`s deer and red deer were mated to red deer to produce 143 backcross calves. The pedigrees are a rare example of a fertile hybrid between evolutionarily divergent species. We examined the use of these families for genetic mapping of evolutionarily conserved (Type I) loci by testing for genetic linkage between five species-specific protein variants and 12 conserved DNA probes. Two probes were homologous, and the remainder syntenic, to the protein coding loci in cattle or humans. Using six restriction enzymes, each DNA probe detected one or more restriction fragments specific to Pere David`s deer. Linkage analyses among the species-specific variants placed the loci into four linkage groups within which linkage between adjacent loci and gene order was supported by a LOD > 3. Southern and protein analysis of LDHA and ALB provided identical segregation data. These linkage groups were consistent with the cattle gene map and provide new information for comparing the gene maps of ruminants, humans and mice. The deer hybrids are an important new resource that can contribute to the comparative analysis of the mammalian genome. 68 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Computational image analysis of nuclear morphology associated with various nuclear-specific aging disorders

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Siwon; Wang, Wei; Ribeiro, Alexandrew J.S.; Kalinowski, Agnieszka; Gregg, Siobhan Q.; Opresko, Patricia L.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Computational image analysis is used in many areas of biological and medical research, but advanced techniques including machine learning remain underutilized. Here, we used automated segmentation and shape analyses, with pre-defined features and with computer generated components, to compare nuclei from various premature aging disorders caused by alterations in nuclear proteins. We considered cells from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) with an altered nucleoskeletal protein; a mouse model of XFE progeroid syndrome caused by a deficiency of ERCC1-XPF DNA repair nuclease; and patients with Werner syndrome (WS) lacking a functional WRN exonuclease and helicase protein. Using feature space analysis, including circularity, eccentricity, and solidity, we found that XFE nuclei were larger and significantly more elongated than control nuclei. HGPS nuclei were smaller and rounder than the control nuclei with features suggesting small bumps. WS nuclei did not show any significant shape changes from control. We also performed principle component analysis (PCA) and a geometric, contour based metric. PCA allowed direct visualization of morphological changes in diseased nuclei, whereas standard, feature-based approaches required pre-defined parameters and indirect interpretation of multiple parameters. Both methods yielded similar results, but PCA proves to be a powerful pre-analysis methodology for unknown systems. PMID:22127259

  15. Panel Session on International Perspectives on the Future of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph C. Perkowski

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Annual Meeting provided an opportunity to exchange viewpoints and consider current information regarding the evolution of selected commercial nuclear power trends worldwide. Within the overall topical context of radiation-related regulation, focus was placed on activities in the United Kingdom, Japan, and the United States, although general global developments were reviewed to some extent. This paper provides the reader with a sense of these activities as described by the authors and presenters: David Bennett (Environmental Agency, United Kingdom), Alan Hanson (AREVA), Shojiro Matsuura (Japan Nuclear Safety Research Association), and Alexander Marion (Nuclear Energy Institute).

  16. Panel session on international perspectives on the future of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Perkowski, Joseph C

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Annual Meeting provided an opportunity to exchange viewpoints and consider current information regarding the evolution of selected commercial nuclear power trends worldwide. Within the overall topical context of radiation-related regulation, focus was placed on activities in the United Kingdom, Japan, and the United States, although general global developments were reviewed to some extent. This paper provides the reader with a sense of these activities as described by the authors and presenters: David Bennett (Environmental Agency, United Kingdom), Alan Hanson (AREVA), Shojiro Matsuura (Japan Nuclear Safety Research Association), and Alexander Marion (Nuclear Energy Institute). PMID:21399408

  17. Subnuclear associations of the v-myb oncogene product and actin are dependent on ionic strength during nuclear isolation.

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, W J; Baluda, M A

    1987-01-01

    The method used to isolate nuclei has a direct effect on the subnuclear association of the v-myb product, p48v-myb, and nuclear actin. Analysis of nuclei subjected to various isolation procedures showed that disruption of native nuclear structure during hypotonic treatment resulted in dissociation of p48v-myb from the nuclear matrix. Images PMID:3670313

  18. The MUC1 Extracellular Domain Subunit Is Found in Nuclear Speckles and Associates with Spliceosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priyadarsina; Ji, Jennifer W.; Martsching, Lindsay; Douglas, Gordon C.

    2012-01-01

    MUC1 is a large transmembrane glycoprotein and oncogene expressed by epithelial cells and overexpressed and underglycosylated in cancer cells. The MUC1 cytoplasmic subunit (MUC1-C) can translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression. It is frequently assumed that the MUC1 extracellular subunit (MUC1-N) does not enter the nucleus. Based on an unexpected observation that MUC1 extracellular domain antibody produced an apparently nucleus-associated staining pattern in trophoblasts, we have tested the hypothesis that MUC1-N is expressed inside the nucleus. Three different antibodies were used to identify MUC1-N in normal epithelial cells and tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The results of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analyses as well as subcellular fractionation, Western blotting, and siRNA/shRNA studies, confirm that MUC1-N is found within nuclei of all cell types examined. More detailed examination of its intranuclear distribution using a proximity ligation assay, subcellular fractionation, and immunoprecipitation suggests that MUC1-N is located in nuclear speckles (interchromatin granule clusters) and closely associates with the spliceosome protein U2AF65. Nuclear localization of MUC1-N was abolished when cells were treated with RNase A and nuclear localization was altered when cells were incubated with the transcription inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-b-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB). While MUC1-N predominantly associated with speckles, MUC1-C was present in the nuclear matrix, nucleoli, and the nuclear periphery. In some nuclei, confocal microscopic analysis suggest that MUC1-C staining is located close to, but only partially overlaps, MUC1-N in speckles. However, only MUC1-N was found in isolated speckles by Western blotting. Also, MUC1-C and MUC1-N distributed differently during mitosis. These results suggest that MUC1-N translocates to the nucleus where it is expressed in nuclear speckles and that MUC1-N and MUC1-C have

  19. Nuclear lamins are not required for lamina-associated domain organization in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Amendola, Mario; van Steensel, Bas

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the nuclear lamina interacts with hundreds of large genomic regions, termed lamina-associated domains (LADs) that are generally in a transcriptionally repressed state. Lamins form the major structural component of the lamina and have been reported to bind DNA and chromatin. Here, we systematically evaluate whether lamins are necessary for the LAD organization in murine embryonic stem cells. Surprisingly, removal of essentially all lamins does not have any detectable effect on the genome-wide interaction pattern of chromatin with emerin, a marker of the inner nuclear membrane. This suggests that other components of the lamina mediate these interactions. PMID:25784758

  20. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  1. DAVID: A new video motion sensor for outdoor perimeter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    To be effective, a perimeter intrusion detection system must comprise both sensor and rapid assessment components. The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) to provide the rapid assessment capability, makes possible the use of video motion detection (VMD) processing as a system sensor component. Despite it's conceptual appeal, video motion detection has not been widely used in outdoor perimeter systems because of an inability to discriminate between genuine intrusions and numerous environmental effects such as cloud shadows, wind motion, reflections, precipitation, etc. The result has been an unacceptably high false alarm rate and operator work-load. DAVID (Digital Automatic Video Intrusion Detector) utilizes new digital signal processing techniques to achieve a dramatic improvement in discrimination performance thereby making video motion detection practical for outdoor applications. This paper begins with a discussion of the key considerations in implementing an outdoor video intrusion detection system, followed by a description of the DAVID design in light of these considerations.

  2. About David Ruelle, After His 80th Birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    This is, with minor modifications, a text read at the 114th Statistical Mechanics meeting, in honor of D. Ruelle and Y. Sinai, at Rutgers, Dec. 13-15, 2015. It does not attempt to analyze, or not even just quote, all works of David Ruelle; I discuss, as usual in such occasions, a few among his works with which I have most familiarity and which were a source of inspiration for me.

  3. STS-86 Mission Specialist David Wolf in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf, at center facing camera, prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A, with the assistance of Rick Welty, in foreground at center, United Space Alliance (USA) orbiter vehicle closeout chief; and closeout team members, in background from left, Jim Davis, NASA quality assurance specialist; and George Schramm, USA mechanical technician. STS-86 Mission Specialist Vladimir Georgievich Titov, in foreground at far left, is awaiting his turn.

  4. David Nelson, MD, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. David E Nelson is the Director of the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) Branch in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention. The CPFP is an internationally renowned postdoctoral program designed to train early career scientific researchers and leaders in the field of cancer prevention. Dr. Nelson came to the CPFP in 2008 after working at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta for many years. |

  5. Nuclear envelope-associated endosomes deliver surface proteins to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chaumet, Alexandre; Wright, Graham D; Seet, Sze Hwee; Tham, Keit Min; Gounko, Natalia V; Bard, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis directs molecular cargo along three main routes: recycling to the cell surface, transport to the Golgi apparatus or degradation in endolysosomes. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is a bacterial protein that typically traffics to the Golgi and then the endoplasmic reticulum before translocating to the cytosol. Here we show that a substantial fraction of internalized PE is also located in nuclear envelope-associated endosomes (NAE), which display limited mobility, exhibit a propensity to undergo fusion and readily discharge their contents into the nuclear envelope. Electron microscopy and protein trapping in the nucleus indicate that NAE mediate PE transfer into the nucleoplasm. RNAi screening further revealed that NAE-mediated transfer depends on the nuclear envelope proteins SUN1 and SUN2, as well as the Sec61 translocon complex. These data reveal a novel endosomal route from the cell surface to the nucleoplasm that facilitates the accumulation of extracellular and cell surface proteins in the nucleus. PMID:26356418

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  7. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  8. The DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool: a novel biological module-centric algorithm to functionally analyze large gene lists

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Da Wei; Sherman, Brad T; Tan, Qina; Collins, Jack R; Alvord, W Gregory; Roayaei, Jean; Stephens, Robert; Baseler, Michael W; Lane, H Clifford; Lempicki, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    The DAVID Gene Functional Classification Tool uses a novel agglomeration algorithm to condense a list of genes or associated biological terms into organized classes of related genes or biology, called biological modules. This organization is accomplished by mining the complex biological co-occurrences found in multiple sources of functional annotation. It is a powerful method to group functionally related genes and terms into a manageable number of biological modules for efficient interpretation of gene lists in a network context. PMID:17784955

  9. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis. PMID:27031510

  10. Nucleus accumbens associated 1 is recruited within the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body through SUMO modification

    PubMed Central

    Tatemichi, Yoshinori; Shibazaki, Masahiko; Yasuhira, Shinji; Kasai, Shuya; Tada, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yuji; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    Nucleus accumbens associated 1 (NACC1) is a cancer-associated BTB/POZ (pox virus and zinc finger/bric-a-brac tramtrack broad complex) gene, and is involved in several cellular functions in neurons, cancer and stem cells. Some of the BTB/POZ proteins associated with cancer biology are SUMOylated, which appears to play an important role in transcription regulation. We show that NACC1 is SUMOylated on a phylogenetically conserved lysine (K167) out of three consensus SUMOylation motif sites. Amino acid substitution in the SIM sequence (SIM/M) within the BTB/POZ domain partially reduced K167 SUMOylation activity of NACC1. Overexpression of GFP-NACC1 fusion protein leads to formation of discrete nuclear foci similar to promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB), which colocalized with SUMO paralogues (SUMO1/2/3). Both NACC1 nuclear body formation and colocalization with SUMO paralogues were completely suppressed in the GFP-NACC1-SIM/M mutant, whereas they were partially maintained in the NACC1 K167R mutant. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that endogenous and exogenous NACC1 proteins colocalized with endogenous PML protein. A pull-down assay revealed that the consensus motifs of the SUMO acceptor site at K167 and the SIM within the BTB/POZ domain were both necessary for efficient binding to PML protein. Our study demonstrates that NACC1 can be modified by SUMO paralogues, and cooperates with PML protein. PMID:25891951

  11. Human Homolog of Drosophila Ariadne (HHARI) is a marker of cellular proliferation associated with nuclear bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Elmehdawi, Fatima; Wheway, Gabrielle; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Adams, Matthew; High, Alec S.; Johnson, Colin A.; Robinson, Philip A.

    2013-02-01

    HHARI (also known as ARIH1) is an ubiquitin-protein ligase and is the cognate of the E2, UbcH7 (UBE2L3). To establish a functional role for HHARI in cellular proliferation processes, we performed a reverse genetics screen that identified n=86/522 (16.5%) ubiquitin conjugation components that have a statistically significant effect on cell proliferation, which included HHARI as a strong hit. We then produced and validated a panel of specific antibodies that establish HHARI as both a nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that is expressed in all cell types studied. HHARI was expressed at higher levels in nuclei, and co-localized with nuclear bodies including Cajal bodies (p80 coilin, NOPP140), PML and SC35 bodies. We confirmed reduced cellular proliferation after ARIH1 knockdown with individual siRNA duplexes, in addition to significantly increased levels of apoptosis, an increased proportion of cells in G2 phase of the cell cycle, and significant reductions in total cellular RNA levels. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsies, there are higher levels of HHARI expression associated with increased levels of proliferation, compared to healthy control tissues. We demonstrate that HHARI is associated with cellular proliferation, which may be mediated through its interaction with UbcH7 and modification of proteins in nuclear bodies. -- Highlights: ► We produce and validate new antibody reagents for the ubiquitin-protein ligase HHARI. ► HHARI colocalizes with nuclear bodies including Cajal, PML and SC35 bodies. ► We establish new functions in cell proliferation regulation for HHARI. ► Increased HHARI expression associates with squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation.

  12. Characterization of a novel Dp71 dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) present in the nucleus of HeLa cells: Members of the nuclear DAPC associate with the nuclear matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Rodriguez-Munoz, Rafael; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Garcia-Sierra, Francisco; Gonzalez, Everardo; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro . E-mail: bcisnero@cinvestav.mx

    2006-10-01

    Dystrophin is an essential component in the assembly and maintenance of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), which includes members of the dystroglycan, syntrophin, sarcoglycan and dystrobrevin protein families. Distinctive complexes have been described in the cell membrane of different tissues and cultured cells. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of a novel DAPC present in the nuclei of HeLa cells, which contains dystrophin Dp71 as a key component. Using confocal microscopy and cell fractionation analyses, we found the presence of Dp71, {beta}-sarcoglycan, {beta}-dystroglycan, {alpha}- and {beta}-syntrophin, {alpha}1- and {beta}-dystrobrevin and nNOS in the nuclei of HeLa cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that most of these proteins form a complex in the nuclear compartment. Next, we analyze the possible association of the nuclear DAPC with the nuclear matrix. We found the presence of Dp71, {beta}-dystroglycan, nNOS, {beta}-sarcoglycan, {alpha}/{beta} syntrophin, {alpha}1-dystrobrevin and {beta}-dystrobrevin in the nuclear matrix protein fractions and in situ nuclear matrix preparations from HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that Dp71, {beta}-dystroglycan and {beta}-dystrobrevin co-immunoprecipitated with the nuclear matrix proteins lamin B1 and actin. The association of members of the nuclear DAPC with the nuclear matrix indicates that they may work as scaffolding proteins involved in nuclear architecture.

  13. Nesprin-3, a novel outer nuclear membrane protein, associates with the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmsen, Kevin; Litjens, Sandy H.M.; Kuikman, Ingrid; Tshimbalanga, Ntambua; Janssen, Hans; van den Bout, Iman; Raymond, Karine; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2005-01-01

    Despite their importance in cell biology, the mechanisms that maintain the nucleus in its proper position in the cell are not well understood. This is primarily the result of an incomplete knowledge of the proteins in the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) that are able to associate with the different cytoskeletal systems. Two related ONM proteins, nuclear envelope spectrin repeat (nesprin)–1 and –2, are known to make direct connections with the actin cytoskeleton through their NH2-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD). We have now isolated a third member of the nesprin family that lacks an ABD and instead binds to the plakin family member plectin, which can associate with the intermediate filament (IF) system. Overexpression of nesprin-3 results in a dramatic recruitment of plectin to the nuclear perimeter, which is where these two molecules are colocalized with both keratin-6 and -14. Importantly, plectin binds to the integrin α6β4 at the cell surface and to nesprin-3 at the ONM in keratinocytes, suggesting that there is a continuous connection between the nucleus and the extracellular matrix through the IF cytoskeleton. PMID:16330710

  14. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  15. Invariant delineation of nuclear architecture in glioblastoma multiforme for clinical and molecular association.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Borowsky, Alexander; Loss, Leandro; Gray, Joe W; Spellman, Paul T; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-04-01

    Automated analysis of whole mount tissue sections can provide insights into tumor subtypes and the underlying molecular basis of neoplasm. However, since tumor sections are collected from different laboratories, inherent technical and biological variations impede analysis for very large datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our objective is to characterize tumor histopathology, through the delineation of the nuclear regions, from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections. Such a representation can then be mined for intrinsic subtypes across a large dataset for prediction and molecular association. Furthermore, nuclear segmentation is formulated within a multi-reference graph framework with geodesic constraints, which enables computation of multidimensional representations, on a cell-by-cell basis, for functional enrichment and bioinformatics analysis. Here, we present a novel method, multi-reference graph cut (MRGC), for nuclear segmentation that overcomes technical variations associated with sample preparation by incorporating prior knowledge from manually annotated reference images and local image features. The proposed approach has been validated on manually annotated samples and then applied to a dataset of 377 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) whole slide images from 146 patients. For the GBM cohort, multidimensional representation of the nuclear features and their organization have identified 1) statistically significant subtypes based on several morphometric indexes, 2) whether each subtype can be predictive or not, and 3) that the molecular correlates of predictive subtypes are consistent with the literature. Data and intermediaries for a number of tumor types (GBM, low grade glial, and kidney renal clear carcinoma) are available at: http://tcga.lbl.gov for correlation with TCGA molecular data. The website also provides an interface for panning and zooming of whole mount tissue sections with/without overlaid segmentation results for quality

  16. Invariant Delineation of Nuclear Architecture in Glioblastoma Multiforme for Clinical and Molecular Association

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ju; Borowsky, Alexander; Loss, Leandro; Gray, Joe W.; Spellman, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Automated analysis of whole mount tissue sections can provide insights into tumor subtypes and the underlying molecular basis of neoplasm. However, since tumor sections are collected from different laboratories, inherent technical and biological variations impede analysis for very large datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our objective is to characterize tumor histopathology, through the delineation of the nuclear regions, from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections. Such a representation can then be mined for intrinsic subtypes across a large dataset for prediction and molecular association. Furthermore, nuclear segmentation is formulated within a multi-reference graph framework with geodesic constraints, which enables computation of multidimensional representations, on a cell-by-cell basis, for functional enrichment and bioinformatics analysis. Here, we present a novel method, Multi-Reference Graph Cut (MRGC), for nuclear segmentation that overcomes technical variations associated with sample preparation by incorporating prior knowledge from manually annotated reference images and local image features. The proposed approach has been validated on manually annotated samples and then applied to a dataset of 377 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) whole slide images from 146 patients. For the GBM cohort, multidimensional representation of the nuclear features and their organization have identified (i) statistically significant subtypes based on several morphometric indices, (ii) whether each subtype can be predictive or not, and (iii) that the molecular correlates of predictive subtypes are consistent with the literature. Data and intermediaries for a number of tumor types (GBM, low grade glial, and kidney renal clear carcinoma) are available at: http://tcga.lbl.gov for correlation with TCGA molecular data. The website also provides an interface for panning and zooming of whole mount tissue sections with/without overlaid segmentation results for

  17. THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIAS ASSOCIATED WITH THORIUM-BASED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FOR PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Prichard, Andrew W.; Niehus, Mark T.; Collins, Brian A.; Bathke, Charles G.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Hase, Kevin R.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Robel, Martin; Smith, Brian W.

    2011-07-17

    This paper reports the continued evaluation of the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with thorium based nuclear fuel cycles. Specifically, this paper examines a thorium fuel cycle in which a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) is fueled with mixtures of natural uranium/233U/thorium. This paper uses a PHWR fueled with natural uranium as a base fuel cycle, and then compares material attractiveness of fuel cycles that use 233U/thorium salted with natural uranium. The results include the material attractiveness of fuel at beginning of life (BoL), end of life (EoL), and the number of fuel assemblies required to collect a bare critical mass of plutonium or uranium. This study indicates what is required to render the uranium as having low utility for use in nuclear weapons; in addition, this study estimates the increased number of assemblies required to accumulate a bare critical mass of plutonium that has a higher utility for use in nuclear weapons. This approach identifies that some fuel cycles may be easier to implement the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approach and have a more effective safeguards by design outcome. For this study, approximately one year of fuel is required to be reprocessed to obtain one bare critical mass of plutonium. Nevertheless, the result of this paper suggests that all spent fuel needs to be rigorously safeguarded and provided with high levels of physical protection. This study was performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy /National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). The methodology and key findings will be presented.

  18. Nuclear actin is partially associated with Cajal bodies in human cells in culture and relocates to the nuclear periphery after infection of cells by adenovirus 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gedge, L.J.E.; Morrison, E.E.; Blair, G.E.; Walker, J.H. . E-mail: J.H.Walker@leeds.ac.uk

    2005-02-15

    Cajal bodies are intra-nuclear structures enriched in proteins involved in transcription and mRNA processing. In this study, immunofluorescence microscopy experiments using a highly specific antibody to actin revealed nuclear actin spots that colocalized in part with p80 coilin-positive Cajal bodies. Actin remained associated with Cajal bodies in cells extracted to reveal the nuclear matrix. Adenovirus infection, which is known to disassemble Cajal bodies, resulted in loss of actin from these structures late in infection. In infected cells, nuclear actin was observed to relocate to structures at the periphery of the nucleus, inside the nuclear envelope. Based on these findings, it is suggested that actin may play an important role in the organization or function of the Cajal body.

  19. Association of Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Protein with Nuclear Structures In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kurg, Reet; Sild, Kristiina; Ilves, Aigi; Sepp, Mari; Ustav, Mart

    2005-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses which have the capacity to establish a persistent infection in mammalian epithelial cells. The papillomavirus E2 protein is a central coordinator of viral gene expression, genome replication, and maintenance. We have investigated the distribution of bovine papillomavirus E2 protein in nuclei of proliferating cells and found that E2 is associated with cellular chromatin. This distribution does not change during the entire cell cycle. The N-terminal transactivation domain, but not the C-terminal DNA-binding domain, of the E2 protein is responsible for this association. The majority of the full-length E2 protein can only be detected in chromatin-enriched fractions but not as a free protein in the nucleus. Limited micrococcal nuclease digestion revealed that the E2 protein partitioned to different chromatin regions. A fraction of the E2 protein was located at nuclear sites that are resistant against nuclease attack, whereas the remaining E2 resided on compact chromatin accessible to micrococcal nuclease. These data suggest that there are two pools of E2 in the cell nucleus: one that localizes on transcriptionally inactive compact chromatin and the other, which compartmentalizes to transcriptionally active nuclear structures of the cell. Our data also suggest that E2 associates with chromatin through cellular protein(s), which in turn is released from chromatin at 0.4 M salt. PMID:16051845

  20. Evidence for LINC1-SUN Associations at the Plant Nuclear Periphery

    PubMed Central

    Graumann, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Sad1/UNC84 (SUN) domain proteins are a highly conserved family of inner nuclear membrane localised proteins in eukaryotes. One of their main functions is as key components of nucleo-cytoskeletal bridging complexes, in which SUN proteins associate with nucleoskeletal elements. In metazoans these are the lamins, which form a supportive structural network termed the lamina. Plants lack sequence homologs of lamins but have a similar nucleoplasmic structural network to support the plant NE. Putative components of this plant lamina-like structure are Little Nuclei (LINC) proteins, which bear structural resemblance to lamins and fulfil similar functions. This work explores the associations between AtLINC1, AtSUN1 and AtSUN2. AtLINC1 is recruited to the NE by SUN proteins and is immobilised therein. This recruitment and the immobile properties are likely due to AtSUN1/2-AtLINC1 protein interactions occurring in planta. In addition, the SUN N-terminus appears to play an important role in mediating these interactions. The associations between AtLINC1 and plant SUN proteins are a first indicator of how the nucleoskeleton may be anchored to the nuclear membrane in plants. Building on the previous characterisation of Klarsicht/Anc1/Syne1 homology (KASH) like proteins in plants, this study advances the identification and characterisation of nucleo-cytoskeletal bridging complexes in plants. PMID:24667841

  1. Association of bovine papillomavirus E2 protein with nuclear structures in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kurg, Reet; Sild, Kristiina; Ilves, Aigi; Sepp, Mari; Ustav, Mart

    2005-08-01

    Papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses which have the capacity to establish a persistent infection in mammalian epithelial cells. The papillomavirus E2 protein is a central coordinator of viral gene expression, genome replication, and maintenance. We have investigated the distribution of bovine papillomavirus E2 protein in nuclei of proliferating cells and found that E2 is associated with cellular chromatin. This distribution does not change during the entire cell cycle. The N-terminal transactivation domain, but not the C-terminal DNA-binding domain, of the E2 protein is responsible for this association. The majority of the full-length E2 protein can only be detected in chromatin-enriched fractions but not as a free protein in the nucleus. Limited micrococcal nuclease digestion revealed that the E2 protein partitioned to different chromatin regions. A fraction of the E2 protein was located at nuclear sites that are resistant against nuclease attack, whereas the remaining E2 resided on compact chromatin accessible to micrococcal nuclease. These data suggest that there are two pools of E2 in the cell nucleus: one that localizes on transcriptionally inactive compact chromatin and the other, which compartmentalizes to transcriptionally active nuclear structures of the cell. Our data also suggest that E2 associates with chromatin through cellular protein(s), which in turn is released from chromatin at 0.4 M salt. PMID:16051845

  2. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1β-Associated Kidney Disease: More than Renal Cysts and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Verhave, Jacobien C; Bech, Anneke P; Wetzels, Jack F M; Nijenhuis, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β)-associated disease is a recently recognized clinical entity with a variable multisystem phenotype. Early reports described an association between HNF1B mutations and maturity-onset diabetes of the young. These patients often presented with renal cysts and renal function decline that preceded the diabetes, hence it was initially referred to as renal cysts and diabetes syndrome. However, it is now evident that many more symptoms occur, and diabetes and renal cysts are not always present. The multisystem phenotype is probably attributable to functional promiscuity of the HNF1β transcription factor, involved in the development of the kidney, urogenital tract, pancreas, liver, brain, and parathyroid gland. Nephrologists might diagnose HNF1β-associated kidney disease in patients referred with a suspected diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, medullary cystic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, or CKD of unknown cause. Associated renal or extrarenal symptoms should alert the nephrologist to HNF1β-associated kidney disease. A considerable proportion of these patients display hypomagnesemia, which sometimes mimics Gitelman syndrome. Other signs include early onset diabetes, gout and hyperparathyroidism, elevated liver enzymes, and congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract. Because many cases of this disease are probably undiagnosed, this review emphasizes the clinical manifestations of HNF1β-associated disease for the nephrologist. PMID:26319241

  3. Idealism and romantic patriotism for science - an interview with José Francisco David-Ferreira.

    PubMed

    David-Ferreira, José Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Jose Francisco David-Ferreira is one of the most influential Professors of Cell and Developmental Biology in Portugal. David-Ferreira pioneered the use of electron microscopy in cell biology and experimental embryology. He also paved the way for successive generations of biologists who cross-fertilized the national scientific community. As we discuss briefly below, David-Ferreira is above all a Pedagogue and an Institution builder. PMID:19247950

  4. Nuclear envelope-associated dynein cooperates with Eg5 to drive prophase centrosome separation

    PubMed Central

    van Heesbeen, Roy G.H.P.; Raaijmakers, Jonne A.; Tanenbaum, Marvin E.; Medema, René H.

    2013-01-01

    Eg5 (kinesin-5) is a highly conserved microtubule motor protein, essential for centrosome separation and bipolar spindle assembly in human cells. Using an “in vitro” evolution approach, we generated human cancer cells that can grow in the complete absence of Eg5 activity. Characterization of these Eg5-independent cells (EICs) led to the identification of a novel pathway for prophase centrosome separation, which depends on nuclear envelope (NE)-associated dynein. Here, we discuss our recent findings and elaborate on the mechanism by which dynein drives centrosome separation. PMID:23713137

  5. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen interacts with bromodomain protein Brd4 on host mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    You, Jianxin; Srinivasan, Viswanathan; Denis, Gerald V; Harrington, William J; Ballestas, Mary E; Kaye, Kenneth M; Howley, Peter M

    2006-09-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is required for viral episome maintenance in host cells during latent infection. Two regions of the protein have been implicated in tethering LANA/viral episomes to the host mitotic chromosomes, and LANA chromosome-binding sites are subjects of high interest. Because previous studies had identified bromodomain protein Brd4 as the mitotic chromosome anchor for the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein, which tethers the viral episomes to host mitotic chromosomes (J. You, J. L. Croyle, A. Nishimura, K. Ozato, and P. M. Howley, Cell 117:349-360, 2004, and J. You, M. R. Schweiger, and P. M. Howley, J. Virol. 79:14956-14961, 2005), we examined whether KSHV LANA interacts with Brd4. We found that LANA binds Brd4 in vivo and in vitro and that the binding is mediated by a direct protein-protein interaction between the ET (extraterminal) domain of Brd4 and a carboxyl-terminal region of LANA previously implicated in chromosome binding. Brd4 associates with mitotic chromosomes throughout mitosis and demonstrates a strong colocalization with LANA and the KSHV episomes on host mitotic chromosomes. Although another bromodomain protein, RING3/Brd2, binds to LANA in a similar fashion in vitro, it is largely excluded from the mitotic chromosomes in KSHV-uninfected cells and is partially recruited to the chromosomes in KSHV-infected cells. These data identify Brd4 as an interacting protein for the carboxyl terminus of LANA on mitotic chromosomes and suggest distinct functional roles for the two bromodomain proteins RING3/Brd2 and Brd4 in LANA binding. Additionally, because Brd4 has recently been shown to have a role in transcription, we examined whether Brd4 can regulate the CDK2 promoter, which can be transactivated by LANA. PMID:16940503

  6. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen induction by hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Veeranna, Ravindra P; Haque, Muzammel; Davis, David A; Yang, Min; Yarchoan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play an important role in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) life cycle. In particular, hypoxia can activate lytic replication of KSHV and specific lytic genes, including the replication and transcription activator (RTA), while KSHV infection in turn can increase the levels and activity of HIFs. In the present study, we show that hypoxia increases the levels of mRNAs encoding KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines and also increases the levels of LANA protein. Luciferase reporter assays in Hep3B cells revealed a moderate activation of the LANA promoter region by hypoxia as well as by cotransfection with degradation-resistant HIF-1α or HIF-2α expression plasmids. Computer analysis of a 1.2-kb sequence upstream of the LANA translational start site identified six potential hypoxia-responsive elements (HRE). Sequential deletion studies revealed that much of this activity was mediated by one of these HREs (HRE 4R) oriented in the 3' to 5' direction and located between the constitutive (LTc) and RTA-inducible (LTi) mRNA start sites. Site-directed mutation of this HRE substantially reduced the response to both HIF-1α and HIF-2α in a luciferase reporter assay. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated binding of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α to this region. Also, HIF-1α was found to associate with RTA, and HIFs enhanced the activation of LTi by RTA. These results provide evidence that hypoxia and HIFs upregulate both latent and lytic KSHV replication and play a central role in the life cycle of this virus. PMID:22090111

  7. Potential advantages associated with implementing a risk-based inspection program by a nuclear facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Alexander, III; Balkey, Kenneth R.

    1995-05-01

    The current inservice inspection activities at a U.S. nuclear facility are based upon the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The Code selects examination locations based upon a sampling criteria which includes component geometry, stress, and usage among other criteria. This can result in a significant number of required examinations. As a result of regulatory action each nuclear facility has conducted probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) or individual plant examinations (IPE), producing plant specific risk-based information. Several initiatives have been introduced to apply this new plant risk information. Among these initiatives is risk-based inservice inspection. A code case has been introduced for piping inspections based upon this new risk- based technology. This effort brought forward to the ASME Section XI Code committee, has been initiated and championed by the ASME Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inspection Guidelines -- LWR Nuclear Power Plant Application. Preliminary assessments associated with the code case have revealed that potential advantages exist in a risk-based inservice inspection program with regard to a number of exams, risk, personnel exposure, and cost.

  8. Super-resolution imaging of nuclear import of adeno-associated virus in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Kelich, Joseph M; Ma, Jiong; Dong, Biao; Wang, Qizhao; Chin, Mario; Magura, Connor M; Xiao, Weidong; Yang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been developed as a promising human gene therapy vector. Particularly, recombinant AAV vector (rAAV) achieves its transduction of host cells by crossing at least three physiological barriers including plasma membrane, endosomal membrane, and nuclear envelope (NE). So far, the AAV transduction mechanism has not been explored thoroughly at the single viral particle level. In this study, we employed high-speed super-resolution single-point edge-excitation sub-diffraction (SPEED) microscopy to map the events of single rAAV2 particles infecting live human cells with an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of 9–12 nm and 2–20 ms. Data reveal that rAAV2 particles are imported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) rather than nuclear membrane budding into the nucleus. Moreover, approximately 17% of the rAAV2 molecules starting from the cytoplasm successfully transverse the NPCs to reach the nucleoplasm, revealing that the NPCs act as a strict selective step for AAV delivery. This study lastly suggests a new pathway to improve AAV vectors for human gene therapy. PMID:26665132

  9. Super-resolution imaging of nuclear import of adeno-associated virus in live cells.

    PubMed

    Kelich, Joseph M; Ma, Jiong; Dong, Biao; Wang, Qizhao; Chin, Mario; Magura, Connor M; Xiao, Weidong; Yang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been developed as a promising human gene therapy vector. Particularly, recombinant AAV vector (rAAV) achieves its transduction of host cells by crossing at least three physiological barriers including plasma membrane, endosomal membrane, and nuclear envelope (NE). So far, the AAV transduction mechanism has not been explored thoroughly at the single viral particle level. In this study, we employed high-speed super-resolution single-point edge-excitation sub-diffraction (SPEED) microscopy to map the events of single rAAV2 particles infecting live human cells with an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of 9-12 nm and 2-20 ms. Data reveal that rAAV2 particles are imported through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) rather than nuclear membrane budding into the nucleus. Moreover, approximately 17% of the rAAV2 molecules starting from the cytoplasm successfully transverse the NPCs to reach the nucleoplasm, revealing that the NPCs act as a strict selective step for AAV delivery. This study lastly suggests a new pathway to improve AAV vectors for human gene therapy. PMID:26665132

  10. AIRE-induced apoptosis is associated with nuclear translocation of stress sensor protein GAPDH

    SciTech Connect

    Liiv, Ingrid; Haljasorg, Uku; Kisand, Kai; Maslovskaja, Julia; Laan, Martti; Peterson, Paert

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induces apoptosis in epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CARD domain of AIRE is sufficient for apoptosis induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induced apoptosis involves GAPDH translocation to the nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deprenyl inhibits AIRE induced apoptosis. -- Abstract: AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator) has a central role in the transcriptional regulation of self-antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, which is necessary for negative selection of autoreactive T cells. Recent data have shown that AIRE can also induce apoptosis, which may be linked to cross-presentation of these self-antigens. Here we studied AIRE-induced apoptosis using AIRE over-expression in a thymic epithelial cell line as well as doxycycline-inducible HEK293 cells. We show that the HSR/CARD domain in AIRE together with a nuclear localization signal is sufficient to induce apoptosis. In the nuclei of AIRE-positive cells, we also found an increased accumulation of a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH) reflecting cellular stress and apoptosis. Additionally, AIRE-induced apoptosis was inhibited with an anti-apoptotic agent deprenyl that blocks GAPDH nitrosylation and nuclear translocation. We propose that the AIRE-induced apoptosis pathway is associated with GAPDH nuclear translocation and induction of NO-induced cellular stress in AIRE-expressing cells.

  11. David Hartley's views on Madness: With an introduction by GE Berrios.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    2015-03-01

    The psychiatric aspects of David Hartley's writings have received less attention than the rest of his work. This Classic Text deals with Section VI of his Observations on Man …, namely, the 'Imperfections of the rational Faculty'. Hartley defines madness as an imperfection of reason that can be temporary or enduring. He makes use of his model of mental functioning to differentiate between eight clinical categories of madness, each representing a different pattern of vibrations of the nerves. Hartley developed this model based on Newton's theory of vibrations and, to explain the complexity of mental acts and entities, he combined it with his own version of the mechanism of Association of Ideas borrowed from John Locke. Much work needs to be done to identify the provenance of Hartley's nosology and nosography. PMID:25698690

  12. Localization of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) on mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Retno; Ohsaki, Eriko; Omori, Hiroko; Ueda, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    In latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), viral gene expression is extremely limited and copy numbers of viral genomes remain constant. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is known to have a role in maintaining viral genome copy numbers in growing cells. Several studies have shown that LANA is localized in particular regions on mitotic chromosomes, such as centromeres/pericentromeres. We independently examined the distinct localization of LANA on mitotic chromosomes during mitosis, using super-resolution laser confocal microscopy and correlative fluorescence microscopy-electron microscopy (FM-EM) analyses. We found that the majority of LANA were not localized at particular regions such as telomeres/peritelomeres, centromeres/pericentromeres, and cohesion sites, but at the bodies of condensed chromosomes. Thus, LANA may undergo various interactions with the host factors on the condensed chromosomes in order to tether the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes and realize faithful viral genome segregation during cell division. PMID:27254595

  13. Anhydrobiosis-Associated Nuclear DNA Damage and Repair in the Sleeping Chironomid: Linkage with Radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    Vanyagina, Veronica; Malutina, Ludmila; Cornette, Richard; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kikawada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. To understand the cross-tolerance mechanism, we have analyzed the structural changes in the nuclear DNA using transmission electron microscopy and DNA comet assays in relation to anhydrobiosis and radiation. We found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Furthermore, while the larvae had restored physiological activity within an hour following rehydration, nuclear DNA restoration typically took 72 to 96 h. The DNA fragmentation level and the recovery of DNA integrity in the rehydrated larvae after anhydrobiosis were similar to those of hydrated larvae irradiated with 70 Gy of high-linear energy transfer (LET) ions (4He). In contrast, low-LET radiation (gamma-rays) of the same dose caused less initial damage to the larvae, and DNA was completely repaired within within 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the DNA repair enzymes occurred upon entering anhydrobiosis and exposure to high- and low-LET radiations, indicative of DNA damage that includes double-strand breaks and their subsequent repair. The expression of antioxidant enzymes-coding genes was also elevated in the anhydrobiotic and the gamma-ray-irradiated larvae that probably functions to reduce the negative effect of reactive oxygen species upon exposure to these stresses. Indeed the mature antioxidant proteins accumulated in the dry larvae and the total activity of antioxidants increased by a 3–4 fold in association with anhydrobiosis. We conclude that one of the factors explaining the relationship between radioresistance and the ability to undergo anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomid could be an adaptation to desiccation-inflicted nuclear DNA damage. There were also similarities in the molecular response of the larvae to damage caused by

  14. Anhydrobiosis-associated nuclear DNA damage and repair in the sleeping chironomid: linkage with radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Vanyagina, Veronica; Malutina, Ludmila; Cornette, Richard; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kikawada, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Okuda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. To understand the cross-tolerance mechanism, we have analyzed the structural changes in the nuclear DNA using transmission electron microscopy and DNA comet assays in relation to anhydrobiosis and radiation. We found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Furthermore, while the larvae had restored physiological activity within an hour following rehydration, nuclear DNA restoration typically took 72 to 96 h. The DNA fragmentation level and the recovery of DNA integrity in the rehydrated larvae after anhydrobiosis were similar to those of hydrated larvae irradiated with 70 Gy of high-linear energy transfer (LET) ions ((4)He). In contrast, low-LET radiation (gamma-rays) of the same dose caused less initial damage to the larvae, and DNA was completely repaired within within 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the DNA repair enzymes occurred upon entering anhydrobiosis and exposure to high- and low-LET radiations, indicative of DNA damage that includes double-strand breaks and their subsequent repair. The expression of antioxidant enzymes-coding genes was also elevated in the anhydrobiotic and the gamma-ray-irradiated larvae that probably functions to reduce the negative effect of reactive oxygen species upon exposure to these stresses. Indeed the mature antioxidant proteins accumulated in the dry larvae and the total activity of antioxidants increased by a 3-4 fold in association with anhydrobiosis. We conclude that one of the factors explaining the relationship between radioresistance and the ability to undergo anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomid could be an adaptation to desiccation-inflicted nuclear DNA damage. There were also similarities in the molecular response of the larvae to damage caused by

  15. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  16. Modulation of Cellular and Viral Gene Expression by the Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Renne, Rolf; Barry, Chris; Dittmer, Dirk; Compitello, Nicole; Brown, Patrick O.; Ganem, Don

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also called human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the likely etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma. Common to these malignancies is that tumor cells are latently infected with KSHV. Viral gene expression is limited to a few genes, one of which is the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), the product of ORF73. Examination of the primary sequence of LANA reveals some structural features reminiscent of transcription factors, leading us to hypothesize that LANA may regulate viral and cellular transcription during latency. In reporter gene-based transient transfection assays, we found that LANA can have either positive or negative effects on gene expression. While expression of a reporter gene from several synthetic promoters was increased in the presence of LANA, expression from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat (LTR)—and from NF-κB-dependent reporter genes—was reduced by LANA expression. In addition, the promoter of KSHV ORF73 itself is activated up to 5.5-fold by LANA. This autoregulation may be important in tumorigenesis, because two other genes (v-cyclin and v-FLIP) with likely roles in cell growth and survival are also controlled by this element. To identify cellular genes influenced by LANA, we employed cDNA array-based expression profiling. Six known genes (and nine expressed sequence tags) were found to be upregulated in LANA-expressing cell lines. One of these, Staf-50, is known to inhibit expression from the HIV LTR; most of the other known genes are interferon inducible, although the interferon genes themselves were not induced by LANA. These data demonstrate that LANA expression has effects on cellular and viral gene expression. We suggest that, whether direct or indirect in origin, these effects may play important roles in the pathobiology of KSHV infection. PMID:11119614

  17. Methylated TRF2 associates with the nuclear matrix and serves as a potential biomarker for cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Taylor R H; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Methylation of N-terminal arginines of the shelterin component TRF2 is important for cellular proliferation. While TRF2 is found at telomeres, where it plays an essential role in maintaining telomere integrity, little is known about the cellular localization of methylated TRF2. Here we report that the majority of methylated TRF2 is resistant to extraction by high salt buffer and DNase I treatment, indicating that methylated TRF2 is tightly associated with the nuclear matrix. We show that methylated TRF2 drastically alters its nuclear staining as normal human primary fibroblast cells approach and enter replicative senescence. This altered nuclear staining, which is found to be overwhelmingly associated with misshapen nuclei and abnormal nuclear matrix folds, can be suppressed by hTERT and it is barely detectable in transformed and cancer cell lines. We find that dysfunctional telomeres and DNA damage, both of which are potent inducers of cellular senescence, promote the altered nuclear staining of methylated TRF2, which is dependent upon the ATM-mediated DNA damage response. Collectively, these results suggest that the altered nuclear staining of methylated TRF2 may represent ATM-mediated nuclear structural alteration associated with cellular senescence. Our data further imply that methylated TRF2 can serve as a potential biomarker for cellular senescence. PMID:24721747

  18. The Greening of the David L. Lawrence Pittsburgh Convention Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Mark

    2009-03-01

    The David L. Lawrence Convention Center is the largest Gold LEED NC (new construction) certified convention center in the USA and the first of its kind in the world. The designation has been awarded by the United States Green Building Council through its Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. In this talk we discuss the unique green properties of this 1.5 million square foot Convention Center including the design and use of daylight, natural ventilation and other sustainable design and practices. No other building the size of the Convention Center (1.5 million square feet), uses natural ventilation or can illuminate an exhibition hall entirely through its windows and skylights. Approximately 75% of the convention center's exhibition space is lit by natural daylight. The use of natural ventilation and extensive day lighting is designed to reduce energy consumption by nearly 35% compared to traditional ventilated and lit buildings of a similar size.

  19. Astronaut David Brown talks with team members from South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown looks over the robot named 'L'il Max' with members of the team The Bot Kickers! from Northwestern High School, Rock Hill, S.C. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition being held March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co- sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  20. Astronaut David Brown poses with ComBBat team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown poses with members of the team known as ComBBat, representing Central Florida's Astronaut and Titusville high schools. ComBBat was teamed with Boeing at KSC and Brevard Community College. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition being held March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  1. Astronaut David Brown talks to FIRST team members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown talks with FIRST team members, Baxter Bomb Squad, from Mountain Home High School, Mountain Home, Ariz., during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  2. STS-86 Mission Specialist David Wolf suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf gets assistance from a suit technician while donning his orange launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. This will be Wolfs second flight. He and the six other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis awaits liftoff on a 10-day mission slated to be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Wolf will transfer to the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the rest of the STS-86 crew. Wolf is expected to live and work aboard the Russian space station for about four months.

  3. Americium and plutonium association with magnesium hydroxide colloids in alkaline nuclear industry process environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Zoe; Ivanov, Peter; O'Brien, Luke; Sims, Howard; Taylor, Robin J.; Heath, Sarah L.; Livens, Francis R.; Goddard, David; Kellet, Simon; Rand, Peter; Bryan, Nick D.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviours of Pu, Am and colloids in feed solutions to the Site Ion-exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP) at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in the U.K. have been studied. For both Pu and Am, fractions were found to be associated with material in the colloidal size range, with ˜50% of the Pu in the range 1-200 nm. The concentration of soluble Pu (<1 nm) was ˜1 nM, which is very similar to the solubility limit for Pu(V). The soluble Am concentration was of the order of 10-11 M, which was below the solubility limit of americium hydroxide. The size, morphology and elemental composition of the particulates and colloids in the feed solutions were investigated. Magnesium is homogeneously distributed throughout the particles, whereas U, Si, Fe, and Ca were present in localised areas only. Amongst some heterogeneous material, particles were identified that were consistent with hydrotalcite. The distribution of 241Am(III) on brucite (magnesium hydroxide) colloids of different sizes was studied under alkaline conditions representative of nuclear fuel storage pond and effluent feed solution conditions. The morphology of the brucite particles in the bulk material observed by ESEM was predominantly hexagonal, while that of the carbonated brucite consisted of hexagonal species mixed with platelets. The association of 241Am(III) with the brucite colloids was studied by ultrafiltration coupled with gamma ray-spectrometry. For carbonate concentrations up to 10-3 M, the 241Am(III) was mainly associated with larger colloids (>300 kDa), and there was a shift from the smaller size fractions to the larger over a period of 6 months. At higher carbonate concentrations (10-2 M), the Am was predominantly detected in the true solution fraction (<3 kDa) and in smaller size colloidal fractions, in the range 3-100 kDa.

  4. 78 FR 38363 - David A. Ruben, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration David A. Ruben, M.D.; Decision and Order On February 7, 2011, the Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to David A. Ruben, M.D....

  5. Building Consensus toward a Shared Purpose: A Profile of President David Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The author presents a profile of APPA president David Gray. One might say that David Gray's path into higher education facilities management was anything but traditional. Today, Gray is the assistant vice president of facilities services at Middle Tennessee State University. His professional career, however, actually began in banking. In 1993 he…

  6. 77 FR 67725 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Michelangelo's David Apollo”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Michelangelo's David Apollo'' SUMMARY... object to be included in the exhibition ``Michelangelo's David Apollo,'' imported from abroad for... display of the exhibit object at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, from on or about December...

  7. Evaluating Home Visitation: A Case Study of Evaluation at the David and Lucile Packard Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Kay E.

    2005-01-01

    David Packard, chairman of the board of trustees of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and an engineer by training and profession, was personally steeped in scientific method and committed to the belief that public resources should be invested in programs on the basis of evidence. He extended this standard to the foundation's investments and…

  8. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…

  9. A Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities at Teachers College: David Eugene Smith's Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a history of David Eugene Smith's collection of historical books, manuscripts, portraits, and instruments related to mathematics. The study analyzes surviving documents, images, objects, college announcements and catalogs, and secondary sources related to Smith's collection. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944) travelled…

  10. Changes in mitochondrial DNA alter expression of nuclear encoded genes associated with tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jandova, Jana; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-10-15

    We previously reported the presence of a mtDNA mutation hotspot in UV-induced premalignant and malignant skin tumors in hairless mice. We have modeled this change (9821insA) in murine cybrid cells and demonstrated that this alteration in mtDNA associated with mtBALB haplotype can alter the biochemical characteristics of cybrids and subsequently can contribute to significant changes in their behavioral capabilities. This study shows that changes in mtDNA can produce differences in expression levels of specific nuclear-encoded genes, which are capable of triggering the phenotypes such as seen in malignant cells. From a potential list of differentially expressed genes discovered by microarray analysis, we selected MMP-9 and Col1a1 for further studies. Real-time PCR confirmed up-regulation of MMP-9 and down-regulation of Col1a1 in cybrids harboring the mtDNA associated with the skin tumors. These cybrids also showed significantly increased migration and invasion abilities compared to wild type. The non-specific MMP inhibitor, GM6001, was able to inhibit migratory and invasive abilities of the 9821insA cybrids confirming a critical role of MMPs in cellular motility. Nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is a key transcription factor for production of MMPs. An inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activation, Bay 11-7082, was able to inhibit the expression of MMP-9 and ultimately decrease migration and invasion of mutant cybrids containing 9821insA. These studies confirm a role of NF-{kappa}B in the regulation of MMP-9 expression and through this regulation modulates the migratory and invasive capabilities of cybrids with mutant mtDNA. Enhanced migration and invasion abilities caused by up-regulated MMP-9 may contribute to the tumorigenic phenotypic characteristics of mutant cybrids. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cybrids are useful models to study the role of mtDNA changes in cancer development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mtDNA changes affect the expression of nuclear

  11. A novel role for the nuclear membrane protein emerin in association of the centrosome to the outer nuclear membrane

    PubMed Central

    Salpingidou, Georgia; Smertenko, Andrei; Hausmanowa-Petrucewicz, Irena; Hussey, Patrick J.; Hutchison, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    The type II inner nuclear membrane protein emerin is a component of the LINC complex that connects the nuclear lamina to the actin cytoskeleton. In emerin-null or -deficient human dermal fibroblasts we find that the centrosome is detached from the nucleus. Moreover, following siRNA knockdown of emerin in wild-type fibroblasts, the centrosome also becomes detached from the nucleus. We show that emerin interacts with tubulin, and that nocadozole-treated wild-type cells phenocopy the detached centrosome characteristic of emerin-null/deficient cells. We also find that a significant fraction of emerin is located at the outer nuclear membrane and peripheral ER, where it interacts directly with the centrosome. Our data provide the first evidence in mammalian cells as to the nature of the linkage of the centrosome, and therefore the tubulin cytoskeleton, with the outer nuclear membrane. PMID:17785515

  12. Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) Promotes the Nuclear Import of p73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Wu, Shengnan

    2011-01-01

    p73 has been identified as a structural and functional homolog of the tumor suppressor p53. However, mechanisms that regulate the localization of p73 have not been fully clarified. The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional coactivator. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP needs to bind transcription factors to stimulate gene expression. p73 is a reported YAP target transcription factors and YAP has been shown to positively regulate p73 in promoting apoptosis. Previous studies show that p73 interacts with YAP through its PPPY motif, and increases p73 transactivation of apoptotic genes. In this study, we focused on YAP's regulation of the localization of p73. After transient transfection into Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and Human embryonic kidney 293T cells with GFP-YAP and/or YFP-p73, and incubated for 24 hours expression. p73 was fused to YFP to allow the examination of its subcellular localization. When expressed alone, YFP-p73 was distributed throughout the cell. When coexpressed with YAP, nuclear accumulation of YFP-p73 became evident. We quantitated the effect of YAP on the redistribution of YFP-p73 by counting cells with nuclear-only YFP signal. We found that YAP can influence the subcellular distribution of p73. Altogether, coexpression with YAP affected the subcellular distribution of the p73 protein. Our studies attribute a central role to YAP in regulating p73 accumulation and YAP, at least in part, might promote the nuclear import of p73.

  13. Likelihood-based association analysis for nuclear families and unrelated subjects with missing genotype data.

    PubMed

    Dudbridge, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Missing data occur in genetic association studies for several reasons including missing family members and uncertain haplotype phase. Maximum likelihood is a commonly used approach to accommodate missing data, but it can be difficult to apply to family-based association studies, because of possible loss of robustness to confounding by population stratification. Here a novel likelihood for nuclear families is proposed, in which distinct sets of association parameters are used to model the parental genotypes and the offspring genotypes. This approach is robust to population structure when the data are complete, and has only minor loss of robustness when there are missing data. It also allows a novel conditioning step that gives valid analysis for multiple offspring in the presence of linkage. Unrelated subjects are included by regarding them as the children of two missing parents. Simulations and theory indicate similar operating characteristics to TRANSMIT, but with no bias with missing data in the presence of linkage. In comparison with FBAT and PCPH, the proposed model is slightly less robust to population structure but has greater power to detect strong effects. In comparison to APL and MITDT, the model is more robust to stratification and can accommodate sibships of any size. The methods are implemented for binary and continuous traits in software, UNPHASED, available from the author. PMID:18382088

  14. Changes in mitochondrial DNA alter expression of nuclear encoded genes associated with tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jandova, Jana; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of a mtDNA mutation hotspot in UV-induced premalignant and malignant skin tumors in hairless mice. We have modeled this change (9821insA) in murine cybrid cells and demonstrated that this alteration in mtDNA associated with mtBALB haplotype can alter the biochemical characteristics of cybrids and subsequently can contribute to significant changes in their behavioral capabilities. This study shows that changes in mtDNA can produce differences in expression levels of specific nuclear-encoded genes, which are capable of triggering the phenotypes such as seen in malignant cells. From a potential list of differentially expressed genes discovered by microarray analysis, we selected MMP-9 and Col1a1 for further studies. Real-time PCR confirmed up-regulation of MMP-9 and down-regulation of Col1a1 in cybrids harboring the mtDNA associated with the skin tumors. These cybrids also showed significantly increased migration and invasion abilities compared to wild type. The non-specific MMP inhibitor, GM6001, was able to inhibit migratory and invasive abilities of the 9821insA cybrids confirming a critical role of MMPs in cellular motility. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a key transcription factor for production of MMPs. An inhibitor of NF-κB activation, Bay11-7082, was able to inhibit the expression of MMP-9 and ultimately decrease migration and invasion of mutant cybrids containing 9821insA. These studies confirm a role of NF-κB in the regulation of MMP-9 expression and through this regulation modulates the migratory and invasive capabilities of cybrids with mutant mtDNA. Enhanced migration and invasion abilities caused by up-regulated MMP-9 may contribute to the tumorigenic phenotypic characteristics of mutant cybrids. PMID:22705584

  15. Environmental problems associated with decommissioning the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, B Ya; Bondarkov, M D; Gaschak, S P; Maksymenko, A M; Maksymenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Farfán, E B; Jannik, G T; Marra, J C

    2010-11-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination of their territories is an imperative issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds with residual radioactive contamination. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained water reservoirs in the Chernobyl region and Ukrainian and Belorussian Polesye region. The 1986 ChNPP Reactor Unit Number Four significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. The total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits are as follows: ¹³⁷Cs: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq; ⁹⁰Sr: 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq; and ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu: 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq. The ChNPP Cooling Pond is inhabited by over 500 algae species and subspecies, over 200 invertebrate species, and 36 fish species. The total mass of the living organisms in the ChNPP Cooling Pond is estimated to range from about 60,000 to 100,000 tons. The territory adjacent to the ChNPP Cooling Pond attracts many birds and mammals (178 bird species and 47 mammal species were recorded in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone). This article describes several options for the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning and environmental problems associated with its decommissioning. The article also provides assessments of the existing and potential exposure doses for the shoreline biota. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated total dose rate values were 11.4 40 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 6.3 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 15.1 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 10.3 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles, with the recommended maximum dose rate being equal to 40 μGy h⁻¹. However, drying the ChNPP Cooling Pond may increase the exposure doses to 94.5 μGy h⁻¹ for amphibians, 95.2 μGy h⁻¹ for birds, 284.0 μGy h⁻¹ for mammals, and 847.0 μGy h⁻¹ for reptiles. All of these anticipated dose rates exceed the recommended values. PMID:20938234

  16. Senescent cells develop a PARP-1 and nuclear factor-κB-associated secretome (PNAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ohanna, Mickaël; Giuliano, Sandy; Bonet, Caroline; Imbert, Véronique; Hofman, Véronique; Zangari, Joséphine; Bille, Karine; Robert, Caroline; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Hofman, Paul; Rocchi, Stéphane; Peyron, Jean-François; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Bertolotto, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma cells can enter the process of senescence, but whether they express a secretory phenotype, as reported for other cells, is undetermined. This is of paramount importance, because this secretome can alter the tumor microenvironment and the response to chemotherapeutic drugs. More generally, the molecular events involved in formation of the senescent-associated secretome have yet to be determined. We reveal here that melanoma cells experiencing senescence in response to diverse stimuli, including anti-melanoma drugs, produce an inflammatory secretory profile, where the chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) acts as a critical effector. Thus, we reveal how senescence induction might be involved in therapeutic failure in melanoma. We further provide a molecular relationship between senescence induction and secretome formation by revealing that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling cascade, activated during senescence, drives the formation of a secretome endowed with protumoral and prometastatic properties. Our findings also point to the existence of the PARP-1 and NF-κB-associated secretome, termed the PNAS, in nonmelanoma cells. Most importantly, inhibition of PARP-1 or NF-κB prevents the proinvasive properties of the secretome. Collectively, identification of the PARP-1/NF-κB axis in secretome formation opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention against cancers. PMID:21646373

  17. An association between RBMX, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and ARTS-1 regulates extracellular TNFR1 release

    SciTech Connect

    Adamik, Barbara; Islam, Aminul; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Hawari, Feras I.; Zhang Jing; Levine, Stewart J.

    2008-07-04

    The type I, 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) is released to the extracellular space by two mechanisms, the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains. Both pathways appear to be regulated by an interaction between TNFR1 and ARTS-1 (aminopeptidase regulator of TNFR1 shedding). Here, we sought to identify ARTS-1-interacting proteins that modulate TNFR1 release. Co-immunoprecipitation identified an association between ARTS-1 and RBMX (RNA-binding motif gene, X chromosome), a 43-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein. RNA interference attenuated RBMX expression, which reduced both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the IL-1{beta}-mediated inducible proteolytic cleavage of soluble TNFR1 ectodomains. Reciprocally, over-expression of RBMX increased TNFR1 exosome-like vesicle release and the IL-1{beta}-mediated inducible shedding of TNFR1 ectodomains. This identifies RBMX as an ARTS-1-associated protein that regulates both the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles and the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains.

  18. Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2-associated molecular signature predicts lung cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhongqing; Zhou, Tong; Gurguis, Christopher I; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wen, Qing; Lv, Jingzhu; Fang, Fang; Hecker, Louise; Cress, Anne E; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Donna D; Garcia, Joe G N; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), a transcription factor also known as NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a key cytoprotective gene that regulates critical antioxidant and stress-responsive genes. Nrf2 has been demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic target and useful biomarker in malignant disease. We hypothesized that NFE2L2-mediated gene expression would reflect cancer severity and progression. We conducted a meta-analysis of microarray data for 240 NFE2L2-mediated genes that were enriched in tumor tissues. We then developed a risk scoring system based on NFE2L2 gene expression profiling and designated 50 tumor-associated genes as the NFE2L2-associated molecular signature (NAMS). We tested the relationship between this gene expression signature and both recurrence-free survival and overall survival in lung cancer patients. We find that NAMS predicts clinical outcome in the training cohort and in 12 out of 20 validation cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regressions indicate that NAMS is a robust prognostic gene signature, independent of other clinical and pathological factors including patient age, gender, smoking, gene alteration, MYC level, and cancer stage. NAMS is an excellent predictor of recurrence-free survival and overall survival in human lung cancer. This gene signature represents a promising prognostic biomarker in human lung cancer. PMID:26596768

  19. Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    MASSEY,CHARLES D.; MESSICK,C.E.; MUSTIN,T.

    1999-11-01

    Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed.

  20. A case of anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 antibody positive myopathy associated with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shin; Unoda, Ki-Ichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Ikeda, Soichiro; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Kimura, Fumiharu

    2016-08-31

    Myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are associated with myositis. Anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP-2) antibody was recently identified as a major MSA and was observed mostly in juvenile dermatomyositis. We report the case of a 44-year-old man who presented with myopathy with anti-NXP-2 antibody and large cell carcinoma of the lung. He was hospitalized because of myalgia and edema of limbs. Neurological examination revealed mild proximal-dominant weakness in all four extremities, and laboratory studies showed elevated creatine kinase level (6,432 IU/l). Needle electromyography showed myogenic patterns. MRI of the lower limbs demonstrated inflammatory lesions in the thighs. Biopsied specimen from the left quadriceps femoris muscle showed mild mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate surrounding muscle fibres but no fiber necrosis. He was diagnosed with myopathy based on neurological examinations and clinical symptoms. His chest X-ray and CT showed tumor shadow on the right upper lung field, but CT didn't indicate the findings of interstitial lung disease. This was surgically removed, and a histological diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer was suspected. He was also treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy before and after operation. His symptoms of myopathy promptly remitted with the preoperative chemotherapy. His serum analysis was positive for the anti-NXP-2. Further investigation and experience of MSAs are necessary to evaluate the therapeutic strategy against cancer-associated myopathy/myositis. PMID:27477574

  1. Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2-associated molecular signature predicts lung cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhongqing; Zhou, Tong; Gurguis, Christopher I.; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wen, Qing; Lv, Jingzhu; Fang, Fang; Hecker, Louise; Cress, Anne E.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Zhang, Donna D.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), a transcription factor also known as NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a key cytoprotective gene that regulates critical antioxidant and stress-responsive genes. Nrf2 has been demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic target and useful biomarker in malignant disease. We hypothesized that NFE2L2-mediated gene expression would reflect cancer severity and progression. We conducted a meta-analysis of microarray data for 240 NFE2L2-mediated genes that were enriched in tumor tissues. We then developed a risk scoring system based on NFE2L2 gene expression profiling and designated 50 tumor-associated genes as the NFE2L2-associated molecular signature (NAMS). We tested the relationship between this gene expression signature and both recurrence-free survival and overall survival in lung cancer patients. We find that NAMS predicts clinical outcome in the training cohort and in 12 out of 20 validation cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regressions indicate that NAMS is a robust prognostic gene signature, independent of other clinical and pathological factors including patient age, gender, smoking, gene alteration, MYC level, and cancer stage. NAMS is an excellent predictor of recurrence-free survival and overall survival in human lung cancer. This gene signature represents a promising prognostic biomarker in human lung cancer. PMID:26596768

  2. Midwest Nuclear Training Association Annual Nuclear Instructors' Workshop (4th, Columbus, Ohio, October 16-18, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document reports the proceedings of a national workshop designed to provide nuclear trainers from the electric power industry with an opportunity to expand and improve their knowledge and skills in the development and implementation of effective training programs. The following papers are included: "Developing Positive Worker Behaviors:…

  3. The Nuclear Receptor, Nor-1, Induces the Physiological Responses Associated With Exercise.

    PubMed

    Goode, Joel M; Pearen, Michael A; Tuong, Zewen K; Wang, Shu-Ching M; Oh, Tae Gyu; Shao, Emily X; Muscat, George E O

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscle remodels metabolic capacity, contractile and exercise phenotype in response to physiological demands. This adaptive remodeling response to physical activity can ameliorate/prevent diseases associated with poor diet and lifestyle. Our previous work demonstrated that skeletal muscle-specific transgenic expression of the neuron-derived orphan nuclear receptor, Nor-1 drives muscle reprogramming, improves exercise endurance, and oxidative metabolism. The current manuscript investigates the association between exercise, Nor-1 expression and the role of Nor-1 in adaptive remodeling. We demonstrate that Nor-1 expression is induced by exercise and is dependent on calcium/calcineurin signaling (in vitro and in vivo). Analysis of fatigue-resistant transgenic mice that express Nor-1 in skeletal muscle revealed increased hypertrophy and vascularization of muscle tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic Nor-1 expression is associated with increased intracellular recycling, ie, autophagy, involving 1) increased expression of light chain 3A or LC3A-II, autophagy protein 5, and autophagy protein 12 in quadriceps femoris muscle extracts from Tg-Nor-1 (relative to Wild-type (WT) littermates); 2) decreased p62 expression indicative of increased autophagolysosome assembly; and 3) decreased mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity. Transfection of LC3A-GFP-RFP chimeric plasmid demonstrated that autophagolysosome formation was significantly increased by Nor-1 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated a single bout of exercise induced LC3A-II expression in skeletal muscle from C57BL/6 WT mice. This study, when combined with our previous studies, demonstrates that Nor-1 expression drives multiple physiological changes/pathways that are critical to the beneficial responses of muscle to exercise and provides insights into potential pharmacological manipulation of muscle reprogramming for the treatment of lifestyle induced chronic diseases. PMID:27144290

  4. Sir David Brewster's changing ideas on the plurality of worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    In the course of his long life the Scottish physicist David Brewster wrote copiously about the plurality of worlds. More Worlds than One (1854), perhaps his strongest statement on the question, was written as an answer to William Whewell's On the Plurality of Worlds (1853), which argued that life was a privilege of the Earth. Brewster's ideas changed drastically along the years in many crucial issues such as the habitability of the Sun and the Moon, the possibility that extraterrestrials could be different from humans, and the occupation of the Earth by intelligent races in the distant past. This paper succinctly surveys Brewster's main lines of thought about the plurality of worlds underlining the significance of his first two articles devoted exclusively to this topic. They were published in 1838 in The Monthly Chronicle, and affirm the habitability of the planets while denying that of the Moon. As is the case with many Victorian scientists, belief in pluralism was for Brewster part and parcel of a complex of ideas and attitudes in which it is hard to distinguish science from religion. I shall argue that a fair number of the shifting opinions and inconsistencies detectable in Brewster's ideas on the plurality of worlds can be attributed to the fact that these were used as pliable apologetic instruments in his scientific writings, many of which are permeated by strong religious concerns.

  5. David Malament and the Conventionality of Simultaneity: A Reply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, Adolf

    2010-10-01

    In 1977, David Malament proved the valuable technical result that the simultaneity relation of standard synchrony ɛ=1/2 with respect to an inertial observer O is uniquely definable in terms of the relation κ of causal connectibility. And he claimed that this definability undermines my own version of the conventionality of metrical simultaneity within an inertial frame. But Malament’s proof depends on the imposition of several supposedly “innocuous” constraints on any candidate for the simultaneity relation relative to O. Relying on Allen I. Janis’s 1983 challenge to one of these constraints, I argue that Malament’s technical result did not undermine my philosophical construal of the ontological status of relative metrical simultaneity. Furthermore, I show that (a) Michael Friedman’s peremptorily substantivalist critique of my conception, which Malament endorses, is ill-founded, and (b) if Malament had succeeded in discrediting my own conventionalist version of metrical simultaneity, he would likewise have invalidated Einstein’s pioneering version of it.

  6. Reconstructing apology: David Cameron's Bloody Sunday apology in the press.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Andrew; Lyons, Evanthia; Pehrson, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    While there is an acknowledgement in apology research that political apologies are highly mediated, the process of mediation itself has lacked scrutiny. This article suggests that the idea of reconstruction helps to understand how apologies are mediated and evaluated. David Cameron's apology for Bloody Sunday is examined to see how he constructs four aspects of apology: social actors, consequences, categorization, and reasons. The reconstruction of those aspects by British, Unionist, and Nationalist press along with reconstructions made by soldiers in an online forum are considered. Data analysis was informed by thematic analysis and discourse analysis which helped to explore key aspects of reconstruction and how elements of Cameron's apology are altered in subsequent mediated forms of the apology. These mediated reconstructions of the apology allowed their authors to evaluate the apology in different ways. Thus, in this article, it is suggested that the evaluation of the apology by different groups is preceded by a reconstruction of it in accordance with rhetorical goals. This illuminates the process of mediation and helps to understand divergent responses to political apologies. PMID:24286526

  7. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim

  8. Associations between Disaster Exposures, Peritraumatic Distress, and Posttraumatic Stress Responses in Fukushima Nuclear Plant Workers following the 2011 Nuclear Accident: The Fukushima NEWS Project Study

    PubMed Central

    Shigemura, Jun; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nomura, Soichiro; Yoshino, Aihide

    2014-01-01

    Background The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD), to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR). Methods A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580) 2–3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%). The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. Results For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001). PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005) and presence of preexisting illness(es) (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001). Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. Conclusion Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience. PMID:24586278

  9. DAVID--a translucent multi-wire transmission ionization chamber for in vivo verification of IMRT and conformal irradiation techniques.

    PubMed

    Poppe, B; Thieke, C; Beyer, D; Kollhoff, R; Djouguela, A; Rühmann, A; Willborn, K C; Harder, D

    2006-03-01

    Permanent in vivo verification of IMRT photon beam profiles by a radiation detector with spatial resolution, positioned on the radiation entrance side of the patient, has not been clinically available so far. In this work we present the DAVID system, which is able to perform this quality assurance measurement while the patient is treated. The DAVID system is a flat, multi-wire transmission-type ionization chamber, placed in the accessory holder of the linear accelerator and constructed from translucent materials in order not to interfere with the light field. Each detection wire of the chamber is positioned exactly in the projection line of a MLC leaf pair, and the signal of each wire is proportional to the line integral of the ionization density along this wire. Thereby, each measurement channel essentially presents the line integral of the ionization density over the opening width of the associated leaf pair. The sum of all wire signals is a measure of the dose-area product of the transmitted photon beam and of the total radiant energy administered to the patient. After the dosimetric verification of an IMRT plan, the values measured by the DAVID system are stored as reference values. During daily treatment the signals are re-measured and compared to the reference values. A warning is output if there is a deviation beyond a threshold. The error detection capability is a leaf position error of less than 1 mm for an isocentric 1 cm x 1 cm field, and of 1 mm for an isocentric 20 cm x 20 cm field. PMID:16481690

  10. 76 FR 42159 - Lifting of Sanctions on Person Associated With the A.Q. Khan Nuclear Procurement Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... were first imposed on January 16, 2009 (see 74 FR 3126, Jan 16, 2009; Public Notice 6486). Dated: July... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Lifting of Sanctions on Person Associated With the A.Q. Khan Nuclear Procurement Network AGENCY: Bureau...

  11. Reporting nuclear cardiology: a joint position paper by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, Elin; Hesse, Birger; Knuuti, Juhani; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J; Edenbrandt, Lars; Delgado, Victoria; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Galderisi, Maurizio; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Nieman, Koen; Rosenhek, Raphael; Agostini, Denis; Gimelli, Alessia; Lindner, Oliver; Slart, Riemert; Ubleis, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The report of an imaging procedure is a critical component of an examination, being the final and often the only communication from the interpreting physician to the referring or treating physician. Very limited evidence and few recommendations or guidelines on reporting imaging studies are available; therefore, an European position statement on how to report nuclear cardiology might be useful. The current paper combines the limited existing evidence with expert consensus, previously published recommendations as well as current clinical practices. For all the applications discussed in this paper (myocardial perfusion, viability, innervation, and function as acquired by single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography or hybrid imaging), headings cover laboratory and patient demographics, clinical indication, tracer administration and image acquisition, findings, and conclusion of the report. The statement also discusses recommended terminology in nuclear cardiology, image display, and preliminary reports. It is hoped that this statement may lead to more attention to create well-written and standardized nuclear cardiology reports and eventually lead to improved clinical outcome. PMID:25618478

  12. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials.

  13. A novel connexin50 mutation associated with congenital nuclear pulverulent cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Arora, A; Minogue, P J; Liu, X; Addison, P K; Russel-Eggitt, I; Webster, A R; Hunt, D M; Ebihara, L; Beyer, E C; Berthoud, V M; Moore, A T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To screen for mutations of connexin50 (Cx50)/GJA8 in a panel of patients with inherited cataract and to determine the cellular and functional consequences of the identified mutation. Methods All patients in the study underwent a full clinical examination and leucocyte DNA was extracted from venous blood. The GJA8 gene was sequenced directly. Connexin function and cellular trafficking were examined by expression in Xenopus oocytes and HeLa cells. Results Screening of the GJA8 gene identified a 139 G to A transition that resulted in the replacement of aspartic acid by asparagine (D47N) in the coding region of Cx50. This change co-segregated with cataract among affected members of a family with autosomal dominant nuclear pulverulent cataracts. While pairs of Xenopus oocytes injected with wild type Cx50 RNA formed functional gap junction channels, pairs of oocytes injected with Cx50D47N showed no detectable intercellular conductance. Co-expression of Cx50D47N did not inhibit gap junctional conductance of wild type Cx50. In transiently transfected HeLa cells, wild type Cx50 localised to appositional membranes and within the perinuclear region, but Cx50D47N showed no immunostaining at appositional membranes with immunoreactivity confined to the cytoplasm. Incubation of HeLa cells transfected with Cx50D47N at 27°C resulted in formation of gap junctional plaques. Conclusions The pulverulent cataracts present in members of this family are associated with a novel GJA8 mutation, Cx50D47N, that acts as a loss-of-function mutation. The consequent decrease in lens intercellular communication and changes associated with intracellular retention of the mutant connexin may contribute to cataract formation. PMID:18006672

  14. Systematic and Statistical Errors Associated with Nuclear Decay Constant Measurements Using the Counting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  15. Association between Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Methylation and Relative Telomere Length in Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Bo; Zou, Ji-Zhen; He, Cai; Zeng, Rui; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Fei-Fei; Liu, Zhuo; Ye, Hui; Wu, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: DNA hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINEs-1) occurs during carcinogenesis, whereas information addressing LINE-1 methylation in Wilms tumor (WT) is limited. The main purpose of our study was to quantify LINE-1 methylation levels and evaluate their relationship with relative telomere length (TL) in WT. Methods: We investigated LINE-1 methylation and relative TL using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR, respectively, in 20 WT tissues, 10 normal kidney tissues and a WT cell line. Significant changes were analyzed by t-tests. Results: LINE-1 methylation levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and relative TLs were significantly shorter (P < 0.05) in WT compared with normal kidney. There was a significant positive relationship between LINE-1 methylation and relative TL in WT (r = 0.671, P = 0.001). LINE-1 Methylation levels were significantly associated with global DNA methylation (r = 0.332, P < 0.01). In addition, relative TL was shortened and LINE-1 methylation was decreased in a WT cell line treated with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine compared with untreated WT cell line. Conclusion: These results suggest that LINE-1 hypomethylation is common and may be linked to telomere shortening in WT. PMID:26608986

  16. Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara,J.M.; Higgins,J.; Brown, William S.

    2009-04-01

    This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

  17. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruirui; Zeng, Ying; Xu, Haifan; Chen, Zhuo; Xiang, Mengqin; Fu, Yun; Yin, Yufang; Zhong, Jing; Zeng, Min; Wang, Peihua; You, Qin; Zeng, Xi

    2016-08-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is one of the major pre-mRNA-binding proteins, that is involved in translational modifications. In our previous studies, we found that hnRNP K is associated with human gastric cancer. The protein levels of hnRNP K were detected in cell lines and tissue microarrays. The correlation between hnRNP K expression and patient survival rate was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. In addition, we also detected hnRNP K expression in preoperative and postoperative serum samples from patients with gastric cancer, and serum samples from healthy volunteers. We found that hnRNP K was overexpressed in the gastric cancer cell lines. The levels of hnRNP K were significantly elevated in the gastric cancer tissues compared with that noted in the tumor-adjacent gastric mucosal and normal gastric mucosal sampes, and hnRNP K expression was found to correlate with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. However, the level of serum hnRNP K did not differ significantly between gastric cancer patients and healthy volunteers. We also found that patients whose tumors showed elevated expression of hnRNP K had poor survival. The present study suggests that hnRNP K is a promising tissue biomarker for diagnosing gastric cancer and is a prognostic indicator for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27278897

  18. Astronaut David Wolf draws blood from Martin Fettman for SLS-2 investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Inside the science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, Astronaut David A. Wolf draws blood from payload specialists Martin J. Fettman, DVM. Blood samples from crew members are critical to several Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-2) investigations.

  19. Abnormal mitosis in hypertetraploid cells causes aberrant nuclear morphology in association with H2O2-induced premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Susumu

    2008-09-01

    Aberrant nuclear morphology, such as nuclei with irregular shapes or fragmented nuclei, is often observed in senescent cells, but its biological significance is not fully understood. My previous study showed that aberrant nuclear morphology in senescent human fibroblasts is attributable to abnormal mitosis in later passages. In this study, the production of abnormal nuclei in association with premature senescence was investigated. Premature senescence was induced by brief exposure of human fibroblasts to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and mitosis was observed by time-lapse microscopy. In addition, cell cycle and nuclear morphology after exposure to H(2)O(2) were also analyzed using a laser scanning cytometer. Time-lapse analysis revealed that the induction of premature senescence caused abnormal mitoses, such as mitotic slippage or incomplete mitosis, especially in later days after H(2)O(2) exposure and often resulted in abnormal nuclear morphology. Analysis by laser scanning cytometer showed significantly higher frequency of abnormal cells with deformed nuclei and abnormal mitotic cells with misaligned chromosomes in a hypertetraploid subpopulation. These results suggest that unstable hypertetraploid cells, formed in association with H(2)O(2)-induced premature senescence, cause abnormal mitosis that leads to aberrant nuclear morphology. PMID:18618767

  20. Tissue-specific expression and cDNA cloning of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, G.; Amara, S.G.; Lerner, M.R. )

    1988-07-01

    Sera from some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases have antibodies against nuclear antigens. An example is anti-Sm sera, which recognize proteins associated with small nuclear RNA molecules (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles). In this paper anti-Sm sera were used to probe immunoblots of various rat tissues. A previously unidentified M{sub r} 28,000 polypeptide was recognized by these anti-Sm sera. This polypeptide, referred to as N, is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, being most abundant in rat brain, less so in heart, and undetectable in the other tissues examined. Immunoprecipitation experiments using antibodies directed against the cap structure of small nuclear RNAs have demonstrated that N is a snRNP-associated polypeptide. Anti-Sm serum was also used to isolate a partial cDNA clone ({lambda}rb91) from a rat brain phage {lambda}gt11 cDNA expression library. A longer cDNA clone was obtained by rescreening the library with {lambda}rb91. In vitro transcription and subsequent translation of this subcloned, longer insert (pGMA2) resulted in a protein product with the same electrophoretic and immunological properties as N, confirming that pGMA2 encodes N. The tissue distribution of N and the involvement of snRNP particles in nuclear pre-mRNA processing may imply a role for N in tissue-specific pre-mRNA splicing.

  1. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

  2. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. {yields} smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. {yields} The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. {yields} The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. {yields} smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  3. Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bill; Ruff, Tilman A

    2007-01-01

    Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'. PMID:17987979

  4. Polymorphisms in the nuclear factor kappa B gene association with recurrent embryo implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Luo, L; Li, D H; Li, X P; Zhang, S C; Yan, C F; Wu, J F; Qi, Y H; Zhao, J

    2016-01-01

    Despite more than a century of intensive study, the mechanisms of successful pregnancy remain unclear. Recent research suggests that NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) plays an important role in embryo implantation. In the current study, we aimed to identify SNPs that contribute to genetic susceptibility for recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Thus, we examined the potential associations between RIF and ten SNPs (rs28362491, rs3774932, rs1598856, rs230528, rs230521, rs3774956, rs4648055, rs3774964, rs4648068, and rs3774968) of the NF-κB gene. Participants included 209 patients with RIF and 395 controls. Our results revealed that there were statistically significant differences observed in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the rs28362491 promoter in the NF-κB gene. The frequency of the del/ del genotype was significantly higher in RIF patients than in healthy controls (P = 0.004). Compared with healthy controls, the RIF patients carried a higher frequency of the rs28362491 del allele (P = 0.010). Furthermore, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed in the three identified haplotype blocks (D' > 0.9). Particularly, in block 1 (rs230528-rs230521), the A-C haplotype occurred significantly more frequently (P = 0.029) in subjects with RIF (P = 0.0003). In contrast, the A-G haplotype occurred significantly less frequently (P = 0.008) in RIF subjects. These findings support an important role for G-712A polymorphisms of NF-κB in RIF, and may guide future studies that aim to characterize genetic risk factors for RIF. PMID:27173287

  5. Regulation of viral and cellular gene expression by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus polyadenylated nuclear RNA.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Cyprian C; Tarrant-Elorza, Margaret; Verma, Subhash; Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; Pari, Gregory S

    2013-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity lymphoma. In cell culture, KSHV results in a latent infection, and lytic reactivation is usually induced with the expression of K-Rta or by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) and/or n-butyrate. Lytic infection is marked by the activation of the entire viral genomic transcription cascade and the production of infectious virus. KSHV-infected cells express a highly abundant, long, noncoding transcript referred to as polyadenylated nuclear RNA (PAN RNA). PAN RNA interacts with specific demethylases and physically binds to the KSHV genome to mediate activation of viral gene expression. A recombinant BACmid lacking the PAN RNA locus fails to express K-Rta and does not produce virus. We now show that the lack of PAN RNA expression results in the failure of the initiation of the entire KSHV transcription program. In addition to previous findings of an interaction with demethylases, we show that PAN RNA binds to protein components of Polycomb repression complex 2 (PRC2). RNA-Seq analysis using cell lines that express PAN RNA shows that transcription involving the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle, immune response, and inflammation is dysregulated. Expression of PAN RNA in various cell types results in an enhanced growth phenotype, higher cell densities, and increased survival compared to control cells. Also, PAN RNA expression mediates a decrease in the production of inflammatory cytokines. These data support a role for PAN RNA as a major global regulator of viral and cellular gene expression. PMID:23468496

  6. Issues Associated with IAEA Involvement in Assured Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.

    2008-02-08

    Assured nuclear fuel supply has been discussed at various times as a mechanism to help limit expansion of enrichment and reprocessing (E&R) capability beyond current technology holders. Given the events in the last few years in North Korea and Iran, concern over weapons capabilities gained from acquisition of E&R capabilities has heightened and brought assured nuclear fuel supply (AFS) again to the international agenda. Successful AFS programs can be valuable contributions to strengthening the nonproliferation regime and helping to build public support for expanding nuclear energy.

  7. Nuclear Pattern of CXCR4 Expression Is Associated with a Better Overall Survival in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhoo, Bahram; Fakhari, Shohreh; Sheikhesmaili, Farshad; Fathi, Fardin; Rooshani, Daem; Hoseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali; Nikzaban, Mehrnoush

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Previous studies have shown that stromal-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4, play a crucial role in metastasis of various tumors. Similarly, it has been cleared that CXCR4 is expressed on the cell surface of gastric cancers. However, nuclear expression of CXCR4 and its clinical importance have not been yet studied. Materials and Methods. Herein, we studied the expression of CXCR4 in gastric samples from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma as well as human gastric carcinoma cell line, AGS, by employing RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry techniques. Results. RT-PCR data showed that CXCR4 is highly expressed on AGS cells. This was confirmed by IHC and FACS as CXCR4 was detected on cell membrane, in cytoplasm, and in nucleus of AGS cells. Moreover, we found that both cytoplasmic and nuclear CXCR4 are strongly expressed in primary gastric cancer and the cytoplasmic pattern of CXCR4 tends to be associated with a shorter overall survival than nuclear staining. In conclusion, we present evidence for the first time that both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of CXCR4 are detectable in gastric cancer tissues. However, the role of both cytoplasmic and nuclear CXCR4 needs to be further elucidated. PMID:24659999

  8. Identification and characterisation of a nuclear localisation signal in the SMN associated protein, Gemin4

    SciTech Connect

    Lorson, Monique A.; Dickson, Alexa M.; Shaw, Debra J.; Todd, Adrian G.; Young, Elizabeth C.; Morse, Robert; Wolstencroft, Catherine; Lorson, Christian L.; Young, Philip J.

    2008-10-10

    Gemin4 is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein that is involved in U snRNP assembly, apoptosis, nuclear/cytoplasmic transportation, transcription, and RNAi pathways. Gemin4 is one of the core components of the Gemin-complex, which also contains survival motor neuron (SMN), the seven Gemin proteins (Gemin2-8), and Unrip. Mutations in the SMN1 gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although the functions assigned to Gemin4 predominantly occur in the nucleus, the mechanisms that mediate the nuclear import of Gemin4 remain unclear. Here, using a novel panel of Gemin4 constructs we identify a canonical nuclear import sequence (NLS) in the N-terminus of Gemin4. The Gemin4 NLS is necessary and independently sufficient to mediate nuclear import of Gemin4. This is the first functional NLS identified within the SMN-Gemin complex.

  9. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Seho; Lim, Chunghun; Lee, Jae Young; Song, Yoon-Jae; Park, Junsoo; Choe, Joonho; Seo, Taegun

    2010-04-16

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  10. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution.

    PubMed

    Baniaga, Anthony E; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. PMID:27189987

  11. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  12. The Small Nuclear Genomes of Selaginella Are Associated with a Low Rate of Genome Size Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Baniaga, Anthony E.; Arrigo, Nils; Barker, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The haploid nuclear genome size (1C DNA) of vascular land plants varies over several orders of magnitude. Much of this observed diversity in genome size is due to the proliferation and deletion of transposable elements. To date, all vascular land plant lineages with extremely small nuclear genomes represent recently derived states, having ancestors with much larger genome sizes. The Selaginellaceae represent an ancient lineage with extremely small genomes. It is unclear how small nuclear genomes evolved in Selaginella. We compared the rates of nuclear genome size evolution in Selaginella and major vascular plant clades in a comparative phylogenetic framework. For the analyses, we collected 29 new flow cytometry estimates of haploid genome size in Selaginella to augment publicly available data. Selaginella possess some of the smallest known haploid nuclear genome sizes, as well as the lowest rate of genome size evolution observed across all vascular land plants included in our analyses. Additionally, our analyses provide strong support for a history of haploid nuclear genome size stasis in Selaginella. Our results indicate that Selaginella, similar to other early diverging lineages of vascular land plants, has relatively low rates of genome size evolution. Further, our analyses highlight that a rapid transition to a small genome size is only one route to an extremely small genome. PMID:27189987

  13. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    PubMed

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  14. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein U associates with YAP and regulates its co-activation of Bax transcription.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael; Borchers, Christoph; Milgram, Sharon L

    2004-06-18

    Although initially described as a cytosolic scaffolding protein, YAP (Yes-associated protein of 65 kDa) is known to associate with multiple transcription factors in the nucleus. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we show that YAP interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein U (hnRNP U), an RNA- and DNA-binding protein enriched in the nuclear matrix that also plays a role in the regulation of gene expression. hnRNP U interacts specifically with the proline-rich amino terminus of YAP, a region of YAP that is not found in the related protein TAZ. Although hnRNP U and YAP localize to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, YAP does not translocate to the nucleus in an hnRNP U-dependent manner. Furthermore, hnRNP U and YAP only interact in the nucleus, suggesting that the association between the two proteins is regulated. Co-expression of hnRNP U attenuates the ability of YAP to increase the activity of a p73-driven Bax-luciferase reporter plasmid. In contrast, hnRNP U has no effect when co-expressed with a truncated YAP protein lacking the hnRNP U-binding site. Because YAP is distinguished from the homologue TAZ by its proline-rich amino terminus, the YAP-hnRNP U interaction may uniquely regulate the nuclear function(s) of YAP. The YAP-hnRNP U interaction provides another mechanism of YAP transcriptional regulation. PMID:15096513

  15. Coiled bodies contain U7 small nuclear RNA and associate with specific DNA sequences in interphase human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, M R; Matera, A G

    1995-01-01

    Coiled bodies (CBs) are nuclear organelles whose structures appear to be highly conserved in evolution. In rapidly cycling cells, they are typically located in the nucleoplasm but are often found in contact with the nucleolus. The CBs in human cells contain a unique protein, called p80-coilin. Studies on amphibian oocyte nuclei have revealed a protein within the "sphere" organelle that shares significant structural similarity to p80-coilin. Spheres and CBs are also highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and other RNA-processing components. We present evidence that, like spheres, CBs contain U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and associate with specific chromosomal loci. Using biotinylated 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotides complementary to the 5' end of U7 snRNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that U7 is distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, excluding nucleoli, and is concentrated in CBs. Interestingly, we found that CBs often associate with subsets of the histone, U1, and U2 snRNA gene loci in interphase HeLa-ATCC and HEp-2 monolayer cells. However, in a strain of suspension-grown HeLa cells, called HeLa-JS1000, we found a much lower rate of association between CBs and snRNA genes. Possible roles for CBs in the metabolism of these various histone and snRNAs are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7597053

  16. On Our Changing Family Values: A Conversation with David Elkind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    1996-01-01

    The idealized nuclear family values of romantic love, maternalism, and domesticity are being supplanted by postmodernist sentiments such as consensual love, shared parenting, and urbanity. Today's "competent" kids are developing more stress-related problems. Schools can help families by placing students' and teachers' needs above political and…

  17. Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: The incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, Alberto; Acampa, Wanda; Varrone, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco

    2006-03-01

    The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15-19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,670 abstracts were received. Of these, 1,399 were accepted for oral or poster presentations, with a rejection rate of 16.2%. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine, and addressed particularly advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well-established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, nephrology, and infection and inflammation. It is noteworthy that a number of studies presented at this congress focussed on the quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, and identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and management. These and many other studies presented at the congress demonstrate once more the crucial role that nuclear medicine has to play in contemporary medicine. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress proceedings book, published as volume 32, supplement 1 of the Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in September 2005. PMID:16538466

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the appendixes for the remedial investigation and feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The following topics are covered in the appendixes: (A) David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Historical Data, (B) Fieldwork Plans for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, (C) Risk Assessment, (D) Remediation Technology Discussion, (E) Engineering Support Documentation, (F) Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, and (G) Cost Estimate Documentation.

  19. The GIP gamma-tubulin complex-associated proteins are involved in nuclear architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Batzenschlager, Morgane; Masoud, Kinda; Janski, Natacha; Houlné, Guy; Herzog, Etienne; Evrard, Jean-Luc; Baumberger, Nicolas; Erhardt, Mathieu; Nominé, Yves; Kieffer, Bruno; Schmit, Anne-Catherine; Chabouté, Marie-Edith

    2013-01-01

    During interphase, the microtubular cytoskeleton of cycling plant cells is organized in both cortical and perinuclear arrays. Perinuclear microtubules (MTs) are nucleated from γ-Tubulin Complexes (γ-TuCs) located at the surface of the nucleus. The molecular mechanisms of γ-TuC association to the nuclear envelope (NE) are currently unknown. The γ-TuC Protein 3 (GCP3)-Interacting Protein 1 (GIP1) is the smallest γ-TuC component identified so far. AtGIP1 and its homologous protein AtGIP2 participate in the localization of active γ-TuCs at interphasic and mitotic MT nucleation sites. Arabidopsis gip1gip2 mutants are impaired in establishing a fully functional mitotic spindle and exhibit severe developmental defects. In this study, gip1gip2 knock down mutants were further characterized at the cellular level. In addition to defects in both the localization of γ-TuC core proteins and MT fiber robustness, gip1gip2 mutants exhibited a severe alteration of the nuclear shape associated with an abnormal distribution of the nuclear pore complexes. Simultaneously, they showed a misorganization of the inner nuclear membrane protein AtSUN1. Furthermore, AtGIP1 was identified as an interacting partner of AtTSA1 which was detected, like the AtGIP proteins, at the NE. These results provide the first evidence for the involvement of a γ-TuC component in both nuclear shaping and NE organization. Functional hypotheses are discussed in order to propose a model for a GIP-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic continuum. PMID:24348487

  20. Prevalence of nuclear cataract in Swiss veal calves and its possible association with mobile telephone antenna base stations.

    PubMed

    Hässig, Michael; Jud, F; Naegeli, H; Kupper, J; Spiess, B M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to valuate the prevalence of nuclear cataract in veal calves and to elucidate a possible impact by mobile phone base stations (MPBS). For this experiment a cohort study was conducted. A follow-up of the geographical location of each dam and its calf from conception through the fetal period up to slaughter was performed. The first trimester of gestation (organogenesis) was particularly emphasized. The activities of selected protective antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) were assessed in aqueous humor of the eye to evaluate the redox status. Of 253 calves, 79 (32 %) had various degrees of nuclear cataract, but only 9 (3.6 %) calves had severe nuclear cataract. Results demonstrate a relation between the location of veals calves with nuclear cataracts in the first trimester of gestation and the strength of antennas. The number of antennas within 100 to 199 meters was associated with oxidative stress and there was an association between oxidative stress and the distance to the nearest MPBS. Oxidative stress was increased in eyes with cataract (OR per kilometer: 0.80, confidence interval 95 % 0.62,0.93). It has not been shown that the antennas actually affected stress. Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics showed an accuracy of 100 % in negative cases with low radiation, and only 11.11 % accuracy in positive cases with high radiation. This reflects, that there are a lot of other possibilities for nuclear cataract beside MPBS. Further studies on the influence of electromagnetic fields during embryonic development animal or person at risk are indicated. PMID:19780007

  1. Nitric oxide induces thioredoxin-1 nuclear translocation: Possible association with the p21Ras survival pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Roberto J.; Yodoi, J.; Debbas, V.; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Stern, A.; Monteiro, Hugo P. . E-mail: hpmonte@uol.com.br

    2006-10-06

    One of the major redox-regulating molecules with thiol reducing activity is thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1). TRX-1 is a multifunctional protein that exists in the extracellular millieu, cytoplasm, and nucleus, and has a distinct role in each environment. It is well known that TRX-1 promptly migrates to the nuclear compartment in cells exposed to oxidants. However, the intracellular location of TRX-1 in cells exposed to nitrosothiols has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrated that the exposure of HeLa cells to increasing concentrations of the nitrosothiol S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) promoted TRX-1 nuclear accumulation. The SNAP-induced TRX-1 translocation to the nucleus was inhibited by FPTIII, a selective inhibitor of p21Ras. Furthermore, TRX-1 migration was attenuated in cells stably transfected with NO insensitive p21Ras (p21{sup RasC118S}). Downstream to p21Ras, the MAP Kinases ERK1/2 were activated by SNAP under conditions that promote TRX-1 nuclear translocation. Inhibition of MEK prevented SNAP-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and TRX-1 nuclear migration. In addition, cells treated with p21Ras or MEK inhibitor showed increased susceptibility to cell death induced by SNAP. In conclusion, our observations suggest that the nuclear translocation of TRX-1 is induced by SNAP involving p21Ras survival pathway.

  2. Biological Significance of Unwinding Capability of Nuclear Matrix-Associating DNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, J.; Kohwi, Y.; Dickinson, L.; Joh, T.; Klehr, D.; Mielke, C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, T.

    1992-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are thought to separate chromatin into topologically constrained loop domains. A MAR located 5' of the human β-interferon gene becomes stably base-unpaired under superhelical strain, as do the MARs flanking the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer; in both cases a nucleation site exists for DNA unwinding. Concatemerized oligonucleotides containing the unwinding nucleation site exhibited a strong affinity for the nuclear scaffold and augmented SV40 promoter activity in stable transformants. Mutated concatemerized oligonucleotides resisted unwinding, showed weak affinity for the nuclear scaffold, and did not enhance promoter activity. These results suggest that the DNA feature capable of relieving superhelical strain is important for MAR functions.

  3. N-terminal determinants of human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein in nuclear targeting and disrupting PML-associated subnuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Huh, Yong Ho; Kim, Young-Eui; Lee, Karim; Kim, Sunyoung; Ahn, Jin-Hyun . E-mail: jahn@med.skku.ac.kr

    2007-05-04

    The 72-kDa IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus disrupts PML-associated subnuclear structures (PODs) by inducing PML desumoylation. This process correlates with the functions of IE1 in transcriptional regulation and efficient viral replication. Here, we defined the N-terminal regions of IE1 required for nuclear targeting and POD-disrupting activity. Although the 24 N-terminal amino acids encoded by exon 2, which were previously shown to be essential for nuclear targeting, did not appear to contain typical basic nuclear localization signals, these residues were able to efficiently convey the GFP protein into the nucleus, suggesting a role in promoting nuclear translocation. In assays using a series of N-terminal truncation IE1 mutants, which were forced to enter the nucleus, exon 2 was completely dispensable for POD disruption. However, the predicted two {alpha}-helix regions in exon 3 were identified as important structural determinants for protein stability and for the correlating activities in POD disruption and PML desumoylation.

  4. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression. Methods Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. Results The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies. Conclusion The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer. PMID:19878561

  5. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  6. Genome Assembly of Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear Type Reveals a Close Association with Orchid Fleck Virus

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Andrew; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Shao, Jonathan; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K.; Hollingsworth, Charla R.; Hartung, John S.; Schneider, William L.

    2013-01-01

    The complete genome of citrus leprosis virus nuclear type (CiLV-N) was identified by small RNA sequencing utilizing leprosis-affected citrus samples collected from the state of Querétaro, Mexico. The nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analysis indicate that CiLV-N is very closely related to orchid fleck virus, which typically infects Cymbidium species. PMID:23887919

  7. Seismic activity and faulting associated with a large underground nuclear explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, R.M.; McKeown, F.A.; Healy, J.H.

    1969-01-01

    The 1.1-megaton nuclear test Benham caused movement on previously mapped faults and was followed by a sequence of small earthquakes. These effects were confined to a zone extending not more than 13 kilometers from ground zero; they are apparently related to the release of natural tectonic strain.

  8. Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometric Isotopic Determination of Nuclear Wastes Sources Associated with Hanford Tank Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, John C.; Dresel, P. Evan; Farmer, Orville T.

    2007-11-01

    The subsurface distribution of a nuclear waste tank leak on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site was sampled by slant drilling techniques in order to characterize the chemical and radiological characteristics of the leaked material and assess geochemical transport properties of hazardous constituents. Sediment core samples recovered from the borehole were subjected to distilled water and acid leaching procedures with the resulting leachates analyzed for isotopic and chemical signatures. High-sensitivity inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) techniques were used for determination of isotopic ratios for Cs, I, Mo. Analysis of the isotopic patterns of I and Mo combined with associated chemical data showed evidence for at least two separate intrusions of nuclear waste into the subsurface. Isotopic data for Cs was inconclusive with respect to a source attribution signature.

  9. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with origin recognition complexes at the LANA binding sequence within the terminal repeats.

    PubMed

    Verma, Subhash C; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Kaul, Rajeev; Robertson, Erle S

    2006-03-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) DNA persists in latently infected cells as an episome via tethering to the host chromosomes. The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of KSHV binds to the cis-acting elements in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the genome through its carboxy terminus. Previous studies have demonstrated that LANA is important for episome maintenance and replication of the TR-containing plasmids. Here we report that LANA associates with origin recognition complexes (ORCs) when bound to its 17-bp LANA binding cognate sequence (LBS). Chromatin immunoprecipitation of multiple regions across the entire genome from two KSHV-infected cell lines, BC-3 and BCBL-1, revealed that the ORCs predominantly associated with the chromatin structure at the TR as well as two regions within the long unique region of the genome. Coimmunoprecipitation of ORCs with LANA-specific antibodies shows that ORCs can bind and form complexes with LANA in cells. This association was further supported by in vitro binding studies which showed that ORCs associate with LANA predominantly through the carboxy-terminal DNA binding region. KSHV-positive BC-3 and BCBL-1 cells arrested in G(1)/S phase showed colocalization of LANA with ORCs. Furthermore, replication of The TR-containing plasmid required both the N- and C termini of LANA in 293 and DG75 cells. Interestingly, our studies did not detect cellular ORCs associated with packaged viral DNA as an analysis of purified virions did not reveal the presence of ORCs, minichromosome maintenance proteins, or LANA. PMID:16474132

  10. Increased EID1 nuclear translocation impairs synaptic plasticity and memory function associated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rugao; Lei, Joy X; Luo, Chun; Lan, Xun; Chi, Liying; Deng, Panyue; Lei, Saobo; Ghribi, Othman; Liu, Qing Yan

    2012-03-01

    Though loss of function in CBP/p300, a family of CREB-binding proteins, has been causally associated with a variety of human neurological disorders, such as Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Huntington's disease and drug addiction, the role of EP300 interacting inhibitor of differentiation 1 (EID1), a CBP/p300 inhibitory protein, in modulating neurological functions remains completely unknown. Through the examination of EID1 expression and cellular distribution, we discovered that there is a significant increase of EID1 nuclear translocation in the cortical neurons of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient brains compared to that of control brains. To study the potential effects of EID1 on neurological functions associated with learning and memory, we generated a transgenic mouse model with a neuron-specific expression of human EID1 gene in the brain. Overexpression of EID1 led to an increase in its nuclear localization in neurons mimicking that seen in human AD brains. The transgenic mice had a disrupted neurofilament organization and increase of astrogliosis in the cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of EID1 reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation and impaired spatial learning and memory function in the transgenic mice. Our results indicated that the negative effects of extra nuclear EID1 in transgenic mouse brains are likely due to its inhibitory function on CBP/p300 mediated histone and p53 acetylation, thus affecting the expression of downstream genes involved in the maintenance of neuronal structure and function. Together, our data raise the possibility that alteration of EID1 expression, particularly the increase of EID1 nuclear localization that inhibits CBP/p300 activity in neuronal cells, may play an important role in AD pathogenesis. PMID:22186421