Science.gov

Sample records for nuclear fireballs

  1. DRAGON: Monte Carlo Generator of Particle Production from a Fragmented Fireball in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasik, Boris

    2010-11-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. DRAGON's purpose is to produce artificial data sets which resemble those coming from real nuclear collisions provided fragmentation occurs at hadronisation and hadrons are emitted from fragments without any further scattering. Its name, DRAGON, stands for DRoplet and hAdron GeneratOr for Nuclear collisions. In a way, the model is similar to THERMINATOR, with the crucial difference that emission from fragments is included.

  2. DRAGON: Monte Carlo generator of particle production from a fragmented fireball in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomášik, Boris

    2009-09-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. Program summaryProgram title: DRAGON Catalogue identifier: AEDK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6383 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 32 756 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed Operating system: Linux; the program has been successfully run on Gentoo Linux 2.6, RedHat Linux 9, Debian Linux 4.0, all with g++ compiler. It also ran successfully on MS Windows under Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition as well as under cygwin/g++ RAM: 100 Mbytes Supplementary material: Sample output files from the test run, provided in the distribution, are available. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: Deconfined matter produced in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions expands and cools down and eventually returns into the confined phase. If the expansion is fast, the fireball could fragment either due to spinodal decomposition or due to suddenly arising bulk viscous force. Particle abundances are reasonably well described with just a few parameters

  3. Halloween Fireball

    NASA Video Gallery

    Halloween fireballs or Taurid meteors are frequently seen in the night sky from mid-October until mid-November. The Marshall all-sky camera network captured an image of an early Halloween fireball ...

  4. Two-dimensional temperature analysis of nuclear fireballs using digitized film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, Robert C.; Peery, Tyler R.; McClory, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have begun digitizing technical films spanning the atmospheric nuclear testing operations conducted by the United States from 1945 through 1962. Each atmospheric nuclear test was filmed by Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc., using between 20 to 40 cameras per test. These technical film test data represent a primary source for advancing the knowledge of nuclear weapon output as well as the understanding of nonnuclear high-temperature gases. This manuscript outlines the procedures followed in order to perform two-dimensional temperature calculations for early time nuclear fireballs using digitized film. The digitized optical densities of the film were converted into irradiance on the film that was then used to determine an effective power temperature. The events Wasp Prime and Tesla of Operation Teapot were analyzed using this technique. Film temperature results agreed within uncertainties with historic data collected by calorimeters. Results were also validated by comparison to a thermal heat flux solution that utilizes historic thermal yield values to normalize radiant flux. Additionally, digital imaging and remote sensing image generation was used to demonstrate that the two-dimensional temperature calculation was self-consistent.

  5. Fireball: A very public fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwanethal, J. P.; Paton, M. D.; Pearson, V. K.; Greenwood, R. C.; Watson, J. S.; Morgan, G. H.

    2004-12-01

    An appeal for witnesses to a fireball on 24 September produced an excellent response from the public; 55 eyewitnesses sent accounts. From their observations we calculated the radiant azimuth as 320°, and altitude angle <= 20°. Without video or CCTV footage for control on the fireball's velocity or pre-entry orbit, we used software developed for dust impact experiments, to assess the most likely orbital trajectory. The highest probability solutions have a semimajor axis between 1.6 and 2.0 AU and an eccentricity of 0.4 to 0.5, corresponding to a typical near-Earth asteroid orbit. Of possible comet showers, the κ Aquarids are within the calculated constraints. No fragments were found, despite considerable public interest, consistent with the absence of reports of a dust trail. Public response to this fireball demonstrates the great interest in meteoritic phenomena, particularly when, as in this case, participation in the scientific enquiry is actively encouraged.

  6. The greatest fireballs over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żołądek, Przemysław; Wiśniewski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    A brief description of some most interesting fireballs observed by the Polish Fireball Network is given. All these meteors appeared over Poland in the years 2010-2012. The presented fireballs include a great Perseid fireball over Poznań photographed during the 2010 Perseids maximum, the "Ciechanów" fireball, and the "Myszyniec" Orionid fireball which is exceptional due to its extreme beginning height.

  7. Fireballs from Australian Desert Fireball Network - search for similar orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrbený, L.; Spurný, P.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the fireball activity from the Desert Fireball Network records from 2006 to 2014 and identified a couple of time periods with increased number of fireballs. We searched for orbital similarities among the fireballs in these time periods and have found members of 10 individual meteor showers and two groups of similar orbits that do not correspond to any known meteor shower.

  8. Spectacular Geminid Fireball!

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flaring brighter than the full moon, this spectacular Geminid lit up the sky above Cartersville, Ga., at 2:29 a.m. EST on the morning of Dec. 14. This is one of the brightest fireballs observed by ...

  9. Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Fireballs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piran, Tsvi; Shemi, Amotz; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Many models of gamma-ray bursts involve a fireball, which is an optically thick concentration of radiation energy with a high ratio of energy density to rest mass. We examine analytically and numerically the evolution of a relativistic fireball. We show that, after an early rearrangement phase, most of the matter and energy in the fireball is concentrated within a narrow shell. The shell propagates at nearly the speed of light, with a frozen radial profile, and according to a simple set of scaling laws. The spectrum of the escaping radiation is harder at early times and softer later on. Depending on the initial energy-to-mass ratio, the final outcome of a fireball is either photons with roughly the initial temperature or ultrarelativistic baryons. In the latter case, the energy could be converted back to gamma-rays via interaction with surrounding material.

  10. Meteor fireball sounds identified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keay, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Sounds heard simultaneously with the flight of large meteor fireballs are electrical in origin. Confirmation that Extra/Very Low Frequency (ELF/VLF) electromagnetic radiation is produced by the fireball was obtained by Japanese researchers. Although the generation mechanism is not fully understood, studies of the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) and other fireball data indicate that interaction with the atmosphere is definitely responsible and the cut-off magnitude of -9 found for sustained electrophonic sounds is supported by theory. Brief bursts of ELF/VLF radiation may accompany flares or explosions of smaller fireballs, producing transient sounds near favorably placed observers. Laboratory studies show that mundane physical objects can respond to electrical excitation and produce audible sounds. Reports of electrophonic sounds should no longer be discarded. A catalog of over 300 reports relating to electrophonic phenomena associated with meteor fireballs, aurorae, and lightning was assembled. Many other reports have been cataloged in Russian. These may assist the full solution of the similar long-standing and contentious mystery of audible auroral displays.

  11. Photographic spectra of fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, J.

    2016-01-01

    Two methods of spectroscopy of meteors using image intensified video cameras and classical photographic film cameras are compared. Video cameras provide large number of low resolution spectra of meteors of normal brightness, which can be used for statistical studies. Large format film cameras have been used through the history and provide high resolution spectra, which can be used to derive temperature, density and absolute abundances of various elements in the radiating plasma. The sensitivity of films is, however, low and only spectra of bright meteors (fireballs) can be studied. Examples of photographic fireball spectra are provided.

  12. Bright Fireball Over Georgia

    NASA Video Gallery

    A camera in Cartersville, Ga., captured this view of a bright fireball over Georgia on the night of Mar. 7, 2012, at approx. 10:19:11 EST. The meteor was first recorded at an altitude of 51.5 miles...

  13. Fireball Over Texas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video of the fireball seen over Texas this morning (12/7/12); it was taken by a NASA camera located near Mayhill, New Mexico. It is very unusual for us to see a meteor all the way across Texas. The...

  14. Searching for Fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, G. M.; Klebe, D. I.

    2004-05-01

    Researchers at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) have developed the All Sky Program (ASP) for the purpose of monitoring fireballs across the state of Colorado. The ASP provides a great opportunity for young students (grades 6-12), introducing them to the scientific process wherein they provide valuable astronomical research. A network of fourteen low-light video cameras with wide-angle imaging capabilities have been mounted atop DMNS and several Colorado middle and high schools rooftops. These cameras are spread across Colorado creating nearly complete sky coverage, and making it possible to record the same event from multiple locations allowing for triangulation. When a fireball caused by an incoming meteorite is detected, the system automatically records the event. Participating student teams have assembled these specialized cameras and now filter the data that is collected nightly. This data is used to conduct an inquiry-based investigation of meteors, fireballs, and other solar system objects. The ASP supplies unique scientific information about the statistics of fireballs and meteors. Coordinate data also enables determination of possible meteorite search area and the recreation of original meteoroid orbits. DMNS researchers will display a replica of the ASP instrument and present data from the ASP including video of actual fireball events recorded by the system. Teachers came together to develop this program and create activities that support the Colorado Content Standards in Science, Math, Reading and Writing. Students from all corners of the state are working together remotely, as well as working with DMNS scientists and resources, including Curator of Geology Jack Murphy and the museums exceptional meteorite collection.

  15. Neutral gas dynamics in fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-06-01

    Fireballs are local discharge phenomena on positively biased electrodes in partially ionized plasmas. Electrons, energized at a double layer, heat neutral gas which expands. The gas pressure exceeds the plasma pressure, hence becomes important to the stability and transport in fireballs. The flow of gas moves the electrode and sensors similar to a mica pendulum. Flow speed and directions are measured. A fireball gun has been developed to partially collimate the flow of hot gas and heat objects in its path. New applications of fireballs are suggested.

  16. The NASA Fireball Network Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has been operating an automated video fireball network since late-2008. Since that time, over 1,700 multi-station fireballs have been observed. A database containing orbital data and trajectory information on all these events has recently been compiled and is currently being mined for information. Preliminary results are presented here.

  17. First years of the Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The first attempts of video and photographic meteor observations in Poland are presented. The Polish Fireball Network (PFN) was estabilished in 2004 after a succesfull Leonid campaign and the appearance of the Laskarzew fireball. Typical fireball stations were equiped with CCTV systems, with METREC software running. The first digital fireball stations have been created in 2005. Currently, PFN consists of 20 fireball stations and uses 54 CCTV cameras.

  18. The NASA Fireball Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, the NASA Meteoroid Environments Office (MEO) began to establish a video fireball network, based on the following objectives: (1) determine the speed distribution of cm size meteoroids, (2) determine the major sources of cm size meteoroids (showers/sporadic sources), (3) characterize meteor showers (numbers, magnitudes, trajectories, orbits), (4) determine the size at which showers dominate the meteor flux, (5) discriminate between re-entering space debris and meteors, and 6) locate meteorite falls. In order to achieve the above with the limited resources available to the MEO, it was necessary that the network function almost fully autonomously, with very little required from humans in the areas of upkeep or analysis. With this in mind, the camera design and, most importantly, the ASGARD meteor detection software were adopted from the University of Western Ontario's Southern Ontario Meteor Network (SOMN), as NASA has a cooperative agreement with Western's Meteor Physics Group. 15 cameras have been built, and the network now consists of 8 operational cameras, with at least 4 more slated for deployment in calendar year 2013. The goal is to have 15 systems, distributed in two or more groups east of automatic analysis; every morning, this server also automatically generates an email and a web page (http://fireballs.ndc.nasa.gov) containing an automated analysis of the previous night's events. This analysis provides the following for each meteor: UTC date and time, speed, start and end locations (longitude, latitude, altitude), radiant, shower identification, light curve (meteor absolute magnitude as a function of time), photometric mass, orbital elements, and Tisserand parameter. Radiant/orbital plots and various histograms (number versus speed, time, etc) are also produced. After more than four years of operation, over 5,000 multi-station fireballs have been observed, 3 of which potentially dropped meteorites. A database containing data on all

  19. The Fireball integrated code package

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  20. Southern African Fireball Observations: 2014-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, T.

    2015-12-01

    Catalogue of Recent Sightings: This article continues the sequential numbering of reported fireball sightings from southern Africa, and covers fireballs observed during 2014 and 2015. By definition, a fireball is any meteor event with brightness equal to or greater than visual magnitude (mv) -3.

  1. Feasibility Investigation for Performing Fireball Temperature Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kurtz, Joe

    1997-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested by the Launch Abort Subpanel and the Power Systems Subpanel of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel to investigate the feasibility of using spectroscopic techniques to measure propellant fireball gas temperatures. This report outlines the modeling and experimental approaches and results of this investigation. Descriptions of the theoretical particle temperature and mass effusion models are presented along with the results of the survivability of small plutonium dioxide (less than or equal to 1000 microns diameter) particles entrained in various propellant fireball scenarios. The experimental test systems used to measure the hydroxide radical, water, and particle graybody spectral emissions and absorptions are discussed. Spectral results along with temperatures extracted by analyzing the spectral features are presented for the flames investigated in the laboratory environment. Methods of implementing spectroscopic measurements for future testing using the WSTF Large-scale Hydrogen/Oxygen Explosion Facility are discussed, and the accuracy expected for these measurements is estimated from laboratory measurements.

  2. Annual Occurrence of Meteorite-Dropping Fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalova, Natalia; Jopek, Tadeusz J.

    2016-07-01

    The event of Chelyabinsk meteorite has brought about change the earlier opinion about limits of the sizes of potentially dangerous asteroidal fragments that crossed the Earth's orbit and irrupted in the Earth's atmosphere making the brightest fireball. The observations of the fireballs by fireball networks allows to get the more precise data on atmospheric trajectories and coordinates of predicted landing place of the meteorite. For the reason to search the periods of fireball activity is built the annual distribution of the numbers of meteorites with the known fall dates and of the meteorite-dropping fireballs versus the solar longitude. The resulting profile of the annual activity of meteorites and meteorite-dropping fireballs shows several periods of increased activity in the course of the year. The analysis of the atmospheric trajectories and physical properties of sporadic meteorite-dropping fireballs observed in Tajikistan by instrumental methods in the summer‒autumn periods of increased fireballs activity has been made. As a result the structural strength, the bulk density and terminal mass of the studied fireballs that can survive in the Earth atmosphere and became meteorites was obtained. From the photographic IAU MDC_2003 meteor database and published sources based on the orbit proximity as determined by D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins the fireballs that could be the members of group of meteorite-dropping fireballs, was found. Among the near Earth's objects (NEOs) the searching for parent bodies for meteorite-dropping fireballs was made and the evolution of orbits of these objects in the past on a long interval of time was investigated.

  3. Seismic analysis for the Lanzhou fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailu, Rong; Yarong, Li

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we convert the Lanzhou fireball's trajectory using seismic data according to the analytical method presented in Pujol et al. (2005, 2006). Taking the same assumptions as Pujol et al., the position of the fireball burst at its terminal has been converted using a relative simple independent method. Both the trajectory and the position of burst are roughly coincident.

  4. Another View of June Fireball at Jupiter

    NASA Video Gallery

    Amateur astronomer Christopher Go, of Cebu, Philippines, captured this video of a fireball burning up in the Jupiter atmosphere on June 3, 2010. Go recorded the video at 55 frames per second in blu...

  5. IMO Fireball report form: results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankey, M.; Perlerin, V.

    2015-01-01

    At the 2014 IMC, we presented the new IMO (International Meteor Organization) online, Fireball report (available at fireballs.imo.net). This fireball report form was specifically designed for use by people with no astronomy experience who witnessed a fireball, a bolide or a suspected similar phenomenon. The IMO version of the form has been officially launched in February 2015. Since then, the form has been translated in different languages and customized for organizations around the world. In this paper, we will present preliminary results of the form and provide tips to improve the online presence of local organizations, in order to promote usage. We will also highlight procedures to be followed by local organizations to get a custom version of the form.

  6. Fragmentation of the Chelyabinsk Fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    continue with a velocity of about 10 km/sec and thence undergo secondary fragmentation events above the surface which release most of the remaining energy. This accords well with reports of multiple explosion sounds. The specific energy release at the time of breakup is about 100 MJ/kg, nearly 10 times more than necessary to vaporize silicate rocks, which may account for the very small amount of solid material that finally reached the surface and the 'smoke' (condensed silicate vapor) that accompanied the event. The survival of any material at all (albeit partly melted: Some recovered specimens are remarkable in that their fusion crust is uniform over their entire surface) suggests that these fragments were in the outer part of the fireball. In spite of the simplicity of the pancake model, it can successfully account for the gross observations of the Chelyabinsk event. Nevertheless, the model is very simplistic and much more remains to be done to accurately model fireballs. That fact that most of the mass of the bolide vaporized accords well with the lack of any recovered meteorites from the ca. 10X larger Tunguska event. It appears that in this size range the fireball is energetic enough to largely or completely vaporize the incoming asteroid before it strikes the surface, a result that seems not to have been previously anticipated.

  7. New HANE Fireball Physics: Implications for US Infrastructure Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D W; Larson, D J; Eng, C; Tarwater, A E; Brecht, S H

    2009-01-26

    The vulnerability of the US infrastructure to High altitude Nuclear Explosions (HANEs) continues to be the object of studies by a number of blue-ribbon panels and commissions. In particular, studies suggest an alarming sensitivity of our electronic infrastructure to some types of ElectroMagnetic Pulse (EMP) while other types of EMP threaten our power distribution systems. Equally or perhaps more important is the concern that a large percentage of our satellites will experience 'upsets' or worse from these same HANE effects. Such studies, however, are all based on the sparse data obtained during the last HANE tests conducted in the early 1960's. A weakness in our present understanding is that almost all the conclusions about distributed-electric-current-driven EMP, with time scales 1/2 second or longer, are interpretations of old data guided by the computational MHD/fluid models available at the time. Fluid models make the assumption that the mean-free-path is zero and thus miss important physics regardless of the model used to couple ion motion to the magnetic field. Even when planetary length scales are modeled so that the gyro radius becomes negligible, the early dynamics of the fireball are not properly captured. The facts are, at relevant altitudes, the explosion expansion is almost unimpeded by the tenuous ionospheric background-particle mean-free-paths are of order 10,000 km. The primary impediment to the debris expansion is the earth's magnetic field bending the energetic ion trajectories emanating from the explosion into circular orbits with typical radii that range from 200 km for heavy ions to 10 km or less for the lighter ions in the debris. These particles thus gyrate many times before they are stopped by a collision with the background atmosphere. Only models that track ion gyro-motion can recover the myriad possibilities through which the complicated, energetic, 'fireball' of debris may evolve. Fireball evolution is important because it determines

  8. The Chelyabinsk Fireball and Meteorite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Kolotov, V. P.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kostitsyn, Yu. A.; Kubrakova, I. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; Alekseev, I. A.; Koshkarov, L. L.; Badyukov, D. D.; Sevastyanov, V. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Greenwood, R. C.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Johnson, D.; Tindle, A. G.; Buikin, A.

    2013-09-01

    On 15th February 2013 an extraordinarily large fireball detonated in the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia, with a total energy equivalent to 440 kilotons of TNT. It was the most energetic natural atmospheric occurrence since the Tunguska incident in 1908 and caused many injuries and extensive property damage. Geochemical and isotopic data show that the meteorite samples recovered after the event are LL5 type ordinary chondrites with a S4 shock history. The many thousands of small fragments comprise either of two distinct lithologies: a hondrule-rich light coloured material (~66%) or a less-abundant (~34%) dark shock-melt rather than mixtures. The break-up of the object, i.e. the explosion, appears to have been dictated by the object's pre-entry two component structure, which probably formed during a major collision in the asteroid belt 290 My ago. The Chelyabinsk event demonstrates that effective asteroid-hazard mitigation requires structural knowledge of threatening body similar to that obtained by the Hayabusa spacecraft at asteroid Itokawa. The observations made for Chelyabinsk suggest that the Tunguska bolide may also have been a structurally weakened object. Studies of the samples are still at an early stage. A full petrological description of the meteorite lithologies, geochemical and isotopic analyses, chronological data and fission track information will be available by the time of the conference

  9. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  10. The Valec fireball and predicted meteorite fall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceplecha, Z.; Spurny, P.

    1987-01-01

    A fireball was photographed with a luminous trajectory below a height of 20 km. On Aug. 3, 1984, seven stations photographed this slow moving fireball, which traversed 94 km of luminous trajectory in 9.2 sec and terminated its visible flight at a height of 19.1 km. The computed dark flight trajectory intersected the surface close to Valec, a small village 40 km west of Brno. The Valec fireball was the lowest photographed fireball ever. The Valec fireball was photographed by fish eye cameras. The positional precision of all the records were within the range of 1 to 2 minutes of arc. All computations were done using the FIRBAL program, a set of almost 4000 Fortran statements run on EC 1040 computer. The average computed mass at the terminal point, i.e., the predicted mass of the biggest meteorite, was 16 kg. This number is based on the dynamical data at the terminal point solely. Visual data was also collected from occasional observers. This observed phenomenon is discussed.

  11. CID Post-impact fireball

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Following its controlled impact on posts imbedded in the lakebed, the B-720 is sliding sideways and almost enveloped in the large fireball with only the aircraft's nose and right wing-tip exposed. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General

  12. CID Post-impact fireball

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The B-720 after impact and sliding through the wing openers is becoming enveloped in a fireball. The right wing appears to be folding over as the aircraft continues to slide. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested

  13. Dynamic radio spectra from two fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Lin, C. S.; Dowell, J.; Schinzel, F. K.; Stovall, K.

    2015-11-01

    We present dynamic spectra from the Long Wavelength Array telescope of two large meteors (fireballs) observed to emit between 37 and 54 MHz. These spectra show the first ever recorded broadband measurements of this newly discovered VHF emission. The spectra show that the emission is smooth and steep, getting very bright at lower frequencies. We suggest that this signal is possibly emission of Langmuir waves and that these waves could be excited by a bump-on-tail instability within the trail. The spectra of one fireball display broadband temporal frequency sweeps. We suggest that these sweeps are evidence of individual expanding clumps of emitting plasma. While some of these proposed clumps may have formed at the very beginning of the fireball event, others must have formed seconds after the initial event.

  14. The force exerted by a fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.

    2014-02-15

    The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

  15. The force exerted by a fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.

    2014-02-01

    The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

  16. Lake Erie Fireball Meteor, Tavistock View

    NASA Video Gallery

    This brief video shows a view of the Aug 8 fireball meteor that entered the atmosphere 54 miles above Lake Erie and moved SSE at 25 km/s, or 55,900 mph. This view is from the all sky camera in Tavi...

  17. Lake Erie Fireball Meteor, Mcmaster View

    NASA Video Gallery

    This brief video shows a view of the Aug 8 fireball meteor that entered the atmosphere 54 miles above Lake Erie and moved SSE at 25 km/s, or 55,900 mph. This view is from the all sky camera in Mcma...

  18. Lake Erie Fireball Meteor, Orangeville View

    NASA Video Gallery

    This brief video shows a view of the Aug 8 fireball meteor that entered the atmosphere 54 miles above Lake Erie and moved SSE at 25 km/s, or 55,900 mph. This view is from the all sky camera in Oran...

  19. Thermal dileptons as fireball thermometer and chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Ralf; van Hees, Hendrik

    2016-02-01

    Thermal dilepton radiation from the hot fireballs created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions provides unique insights into the properties of the produced medium. We first show how the predictions of hadronic many-body theory for a melting ρ meson, coupled with quark-gluon plasma emission utilizing a modern lattice-QCD based equation of state, yield a quantitative description of dilepton spectra in heavy-ion collisions at the SPS and the RHIC beam energy scan program. We utilize these results to systematically extract the excess yields and their invariant-mass spectral slopes to predict the excitation function of fireball lifetimes and (early) temperatures, respectively. We thereby demonstrate that future measurements of these quantities can yield unprecedented information on basic fireball properties. Specifically, our predictions quantify the relation between the measured and maximal fireball temperature, and the proportionality of excess yield and total lifetime. This information can serve as a "caloric" curve to search for a first-order QCD phase transition, and to detect non-monotonous lifetime variations possibly related to critical phenomena.

  20. The All Sky Camera Fireball Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, D. A.; Watson, W. T.

    2005-05-01

    A fireball (or bolide) is another name for a very bright meteor due to atmospheric entry of space debris, both natural and man-made. This paper will discuss the technology, methods and results from an All-Sky video camera and custom electronics to record fireball events that occur over Northern California. Images and links to videos will also be presented. The data was captured with Sandia Fireball Network cameras. These systems are operated by the Sierra College Astronomy Dept. and a private observatory in Nevada City, CA. These cameras are automated system which operates from just before dusk to just after dawn. The systems are video cameras, which have a 180o field of view. There is a custom signal processor and memory system, called the Sentinel system, which buffers a few seconds of continuous sky video. The processor compares each video frame to the previous, and when it detects an event (fireball), a few seconds of video (before and after the event) are sent to a host UNIX system. Only data relevant to motion is downloaded to the computer. The system provides a method of recording and study for meteor shower activity. Second, all events captured by both cameras provide the potential to compute the pre-earth encounter orbit, but also to estimate the impact corridor of any meteorites the fireball might have produced. Our experience thus far shows that they occur about once a day and a very bright one every few weeks. The cameras began regular operation around mid-April 2004. To date, no fragments have been recovered from detected events.

  1. Fireballs Masses and Densities: Hypotheses and Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria

    Techniques of determining the masses of meteor bodies have long been discussed in the literature dedicated to meteor studies. Unfortunately the development of methods for evaluating meteors and fireballs parameters from observational data requires much attention since the available literature, including handbooks (e.g., C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, Athlone, London, 1973), contains discrepancies that are of a basic character rather than due to experimental uncertainties. A comprehensive survey and analysis deserve a separate publication. Thus, we will cite here some literary sources. The mass of a fireball is conventionally determined using a photometric formula, by integrating the brightness along the entire luminous segment of the trajectory. The mass can also be estimated using the altitude and rate of fireball deceleration in the atmosphere. The discrepancy of the estimates obtained using these two techniques is usually diminished by selecting "appropriate" values of the fireball density. However, this leads to obviously underestimated values of 0.25 g/cm3 for this density. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, it was proposed to consider a swarm of similar-size fragments instead of a single meteoroid. In this case, it is the photometric-to-dynamic mass ratio that determines the number of such fragments. In the present report, the mass is calculated using the data of actual observations, by selecting the parameters describing deceleration and ablation of fireballs along the luminous segment of the trajectory. New model is based on the best fitting of the observational data by an analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. In doing so, the author tried to take into account all of the peculiarities of the events noted in the literature, as well as the newest results of numerical experiments on the 3D aerodynamics of bodies of complicated shapes. The proximity of results obtained using different dynamic methods implies that observational

  2. DETECTION OF RADIO EMISSION FROM FIREBALLS

    SciTech Connect

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Dowell, J.; Henning, P. A.; Schinzel, F. K.; Stovall, K.; Hartman, J. M.; Ellingson, S. W.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Wilson, T. L.; Kavic, M.; Simonetti, J. H.

    2014-06-20

    We present the findings from the Prototype All-Sky Imager, a back end correlator of the first station of the Long Wavelength Array, which has recorded over 11,000 hr of all-sky images at frequencies between 25 and 75 MHz. In a search of this data for radio transients, we have found 49 long-duration (10 s of seconds) transients. Ten of these transients correlate both spatially and temporally with large meteors (fireballs), and their signatures suggest that fireballs emit a previously undiscovered low frequency, non-thermal pulse. This emission provides a new probe into the physics of meteors and identifies a new form of naturally occurring radio transient foreground.

  3. A 2009 July 28 fireball spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kac, Javor; Govedic, Mitja

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive video CCTV camera was used with the diffraction grating to record meteor spectra. On 2009 July 28 at 22h59m39s UT, a second-order spectrum of a bright fireball was recorded. Eighteen emission lines were identified, with the major lines corresponding to magnesium, calcium, iron and sodium. Only four faint emission lines could be attributed to the atmospheric elements, probably due to the low meteor atmospheric velocity.

  4. Tajikistan fireball network and results of photographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhirova, G. I.; Babadzhanov, P. B.; Khamroev, U. Kh.

    2015-07-01

    The fireball network was created in Tajikistan with the aim of obtaining new data on the near-Earth meteoroid environment concerning large bodies, entering in the Earth's atmosphere and producing fireballs, as well as new observational data on the activity of known meteor/fireball showers. The network consists of five observational stations equipped with the photographic fireball and digital all-sky cameras. Distances between the stations are from 53 to 184 km and the area covered by monitoring is around 11000 km2. For astrometric reduction of fireball photographs, a technique has been developed that allows positions of object details to be determined at an accuracy of about 1', which is a sufficiently good result for negatives of this scale. In the method of photometric reduction, a dependence of measured widths of diurnal star trails on their magnitudes is used. As a result of processing of multi-station photographs of more than 200 fireballs, photographed by the fireball network for 2006-2013, the data on their atmospheric trajectories, coordinates of radiants, velocities, decelerations, orbits in the interplanetary space, light curves, photometric masses, and densities, as well as on the nature of origin of meteoroids which produced the fireballs are obtained; membership of the fireballs to the known fireball/meteor showers is determined. A brightness of the majority of fireballs is within the maximum absolute magnitude range from -5 to -8. It is shown that 62% of fireball-producing meteoroids have a cometary origin and the remaining 38% are of an asteroidal nature. The greater part of the photographed fireballs belongs to the known meteor/fireball showers, while the lesser part (almost 30%) relates to the sporadic background. The obtained results will noticeably replenish the world database with new information on fireballs and are required for solving contemporary astronomy problems associated with studying meteoroid environment in the near-Earth space and

  5. The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Mialle, Pierrick; Brown, David; Herry, Pascal; Brachet, Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    15 February 2013, a large Earth-impacting fireball disintegrated over the Ural Mountains. This extraordinary event is, together with the 1908 Tunguska fireball, among the most energetic events ever instrumentally recorded. It generated infrasound returns, after circling the globe, at distances up to ~85,000 km, and was detected at 20 infrasonic stations of the global International Monitoring System (IMS). For the first time since the establishment of the IMS infrasound network, multiple arrivals involving waves that traveled twice round the globe have been clearly identified. A preliminary estimate of the explosive energy using empirical period-yield scaling relations gives a value of 460 kt of TNT equivalent. In the context of the future verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, this event provides a prominent milestone for studying in detail infrasound propagation around the globe for almost 3 days as well as for calibrating the performance of the IMS network.

  6. Featured Image: Fireball After a Temporary Capture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    This image of a fireball was captured in the Czech Republic by cameras at a digital autonomous observatory in the village of Kunak. This observatory is part of a network of stations known as the European Fireball Network, and this particular meteoroid detection, labeled EN130114, is notable because it has the lowest initial velocity of any natural object ever observed by the network. Led by David Clark (University of Western Ontario), the authors of a recent study speculate that before this meteoroid impacted Earth, it may have been a Temporarily Captured Orbiter (TCO). TCOs are near-Earth objects that make a few orbits of Earth before returning to heliocentric orbits. Only one has ever been observed to date, and though they are thought to make up 0.1% of all meteoroids, EN130114 is the first event ever detected that exhibits conclusive behavior of a TCO. For more information on EN130114 and why TCOs are important to study, check out the paper below!CitationDavid L. Clark et al 2016 AJ 151 135. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/6/135

  7. Observations of Leonids 2009 by the Tajikistan Fireball Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovicka, J.; Borovicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The fireball network in Tajikistan has operated since 2009. Five stations of the network covering the territory of near eleven thousands square kilometers are equipped with all-sky cameras with the Zeiss Distagon "fish-eye" objectives and by digital SLR cameras Nikon with the Nikkor "fish-eye" objectives. Observations of the Leonid activity in 2009 were carried out during November 13-21. In this period, 16 Leonid fireballs have been photographed. As a result of astrometric and photometric reductions, the precise data including atmospheric trajectories, velocities, orbits, light curves, photometric masses and densities were determined for 10 fireballs. The radiant positions during the maximum night suggest that the majority of the fireball activity was caused by the annual stream component with only minor contribution from the 1466 trail. According to the PE criterion, the majority of Leonid fireballs belonged to the most fragile and weak fireball group IIIB. However, one detected Leonid belonged to the fireball group I. This is the first detection of an anomalously strong Leonid individual.

  8. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karl D

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed. PMID:17279961

  9. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-01

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  10. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2006-11-15

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed.

  11. Emission spectrum of a sporadic fireball afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.

    2014-07-01

    A mag. -11 fireball was imaged over southern Spain on April 14, 2013 at 22:35:49.8 ± 0.1s UTC. Its emission spectrum was also obtained. This event was assigned the SPMN code 140413 after the recording date. By the end of its atmospheric path, it exhibited a very bright flare which resulted in a persistent train whose spectrum was recorded. Here we present a preliminary analysis of this event and focus special attention on the evolution of the main emission lines in the spectrum of the afterglow. An array of low-lux CCD video devices (models 902H and 902H Ultimate from Watec Co.) operating from our stations at Sevilla and El Arenosillo was employed to record the SPMN140413 fireball. The operation of these systems is explained in [1,2]. Some of these are configured as spectrographs by attaching holographic diffraction gratings (1000 lines/mm) to the objective lens [3]. To calculate the atmospheric trajectory, radiant, and orbit we have employed our AMALTHEA software, which follows the planes intersection method [4]. The spectrum was analyzed with our CHIMET application [5]. The parent meteoroid impacted the atmosphere with an initial velocity of 28.9 ± 0.3 km/s and the fireball began at a height of 104.4 ± 0.5 km. The event ended at 80.7 ± 0.5 km above the ground level, with the main flare taking place at 83 ± 0.5 km. The calculated radiant and orbital parameters confirm the sporadic nature of the bolide. The calibrated emission spectrum shows that the most important contributions correspond to the Na I-1 (588.9 nm) and Mg I-2 (517.2 nm) multiplets. In the ultraviolet, the contribution from the H and K lines from Ca was also identified. As usual in meteor spectra, most of the lines correspond to Fe I. The train spectrum was recorded during about 0.12 seconds. This provided the evolution with time of the intensity of the emission lines in this signal. The contributions from Mg I, Na I, Ca I, Fe I, Ca II, and O I were identified in the afterglow, with the Na I-1

  12. Latest developments in Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, M.; Żołądek, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Polish Fireball Network started in March 2004. Most of its observers are amateurs, members of the Comets and Meteors Workshop. The network consists of 40 continuously working stations, where nearly 70 sensitive CCTV video and digital cameras operate. The new cameras for digital meteor spectroscopy were tested. We use technology of crossed grids to have better chances to register a meteor spectrum. A resolution of 8 A/pixel + 5.5 A/pixel was achieved. For the meteor patrol we have chosen the DMK 23GX236 with a chip resolution of 1920x1200 pixels. Two new cameras will be able to cover almost the whole sky with a resolution 4'/pixel.

  13. Galileo NIMS Direct Observations of the SL-9 Fireballs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Weissman, P. R.; Hui, J.; Segura, M.; Johnson, T. V.; Smythe, W. D.; Baines, K. H.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Leader, F.; Mehlman, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was situated 1.8 AU from Jupiter, at a phase angle of 51 deg, providing a direct view of the impacts of the comet fragments with the planet. Low resolution infrared spectra in the 1 to 5 micron range were recorded for several of the events, which can be used to study the early evolution of the fireballs. Preliminary analysis of the data received for the G event show an initial fireball temperature of greater than 5000 K and an effective source diameter of less than 10 km. These spectra show absorption by molecular hydrogen and methane which place the upper emitting surface in the stratosphere, above the ammonia cloud level. As time progresses, the fireball cools and the effective diameter of the radiating area increases at roughly 2 km/sec. In 30 seconds, the fireball cools to approximately 1000 k and exhibits a diameter of about 100 km.

  14. The Chelyabinsk Fireball and Meteorite: Implications for Asteroid Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Pillinger, C. T.; Greenwood, R. C.; Kolotov, V. P.; Nazarov, M. A.; Kostitsyn, Y. A.; Buikin, A.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Kubrakova, I. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; Roschina, I. A.; Alekseev, V. A.; Koshkarov, L. L.; Badyukov, D. D.; Sevastyanov, V. S.; Johnson, D.; Tindle, A. G.

    2013-09-01

    The explosive break-up of the Chelyabinsk fireball was probably facilitated by its pre-entry shock-induced structure. The Chelyabinsk event demonstrates that effective asteroid-hazard mitigation requires structural knowledge of the threatening body.

  15. Anomalous sounds from the entry of meteor fireballs.

    PubMed

    Keay, C S

    1980-10-01

    A very bright fireball observed over New South Wales in 1978 produced anomalous sounds clearly audible to some of the observers. An investigation of the phenomenon indicates that bright fireballs radiate considerable electromagnetic energy in the very-low-frequency (VLF) region of the spectrum. A mechanism for the production of VLF emissions from the highly energetic wake turbulence of the fireball is proposed. Trials with human subjects revealed a very extended range of thresholds for the perception of electrically excited sounds among a sample population, particularly when the VLF electric field excites surface acoustic waves in surrounding objects. This fact, together with variable propagation effects and local conditions, can account for the sporadic distribution of reports of anomalous sounds from fireballs and auroras. PMID:17751127

  16. The Status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Moser, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    Established by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, the NASA All Sky Fireball Network consists of 6 meteor video cameras in the southern United States, with plans to expand to 15 cameras by 2013. As of mid-2011, the network had detected 1796 multi-station meteors, including meteors from 43 different meteor showers. The current status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network is described, alongside preliminary results.

  17. Observations of Twilight Fireballs over Kiev in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Steklov, Aleksey; Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Dashkiev, Grigoriy

    2016-07-01

    The phenomenon of "Chelyabinsk bolide" 15.02.2013, resulted in damage to more than 1000 buildings and injure more than 500 people, after the explosion of fireball's body in the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk. The question about the dangers of such astronomical phenomena for life and health of citizens and for the existence of entire countries, arose with renewed vigor. Normally, bolides leave bright trace from ionized gas and dust. Traces of ionization can be seen particularly well at night. If a meteorite invades at the daytime at the cloudless sky and bright sunshine, the phenomenon of the fireball may not be visible. But if the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Typically, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified

  18. Observations of Twilight Fireballs over Kiev in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Steklov, Aleksey; Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Dashkiev, Grigoriy

    2016-07-01

    The phenomenon of "Chelyabinsk bolide" 15.02.2013, resulted in damage to more than 1000 buildings and injure more than 500 people, after the explosion of fireball's body in the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk. The question about the dangers of such astronomical phenomena for life and health of citizens and for the existence of entire countries, arose with renewed vigor. Normally, bolides leave bright trace from ionized gas and dust. Traces of ionization can be seen particularly well at night. If a meteorite invades at the daytime at the cloudless sky and bright sunshine, the phenomenon of the fireball may not be visible. But if the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Typically, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified

  19. Determination of trajectories of fireballs using seismic network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Fireballs, Bolides, which are caused by high velocity passages of meteoroids through the atmosphere, generate shockwaves. Meteor shockwave provide us very important information (arrival time and amplitude) to study meteor physics. The shockwave arrival time data enable us to determine trajectories of the fireballs. On the other hand, the shockwave amplitude tells us size and ablation history of the meteoroid. Infrasound observation is one of the ways of detecting bolide shockwaves. However, we have no infrasound observational networks extends for large area with enough spatial distribution for determination of trajectories and estimate ablation histories. We have only a few infrasound arrays that have three or four elements, in the Japanese islands. Last decade, digital seismic networks are greatly improved for the purpose of monitoring micro earthquakes. Those seismic networks are quite sensitive for detecting micro ground vibration, and then those networks could detect not only seismic wave generated by earthquakes, but also ground oscillations generated by coupling of meteor shockwave with the ground near station. Last years, I analyses this kind of ground motion data recorded by seismic network, as meteor shockwave signals. For example, we estimate some great fireball's aerial path from arrival times of shockwaves (e.g., Ishihara et. al., 2003 Earth Planets, and Space, 2004 Geophysical Research. Letters.; Pujol et al., 2006 Planetary and Space Science), and we estimate sizes and ablation history of some great fireball and a meteorite fall (Ishihara et al., 2004 Meteoroids2004). In Japan, some great fireball falls occurred during 2004 to 2005. In this presentation, I show the trajectories of these fireballs determined from shockwave analysis. Some fireballs trajectories are also determined from photographic records. The trajectories determined from shockwave and that from photos show good agreement.

  20. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.

    1991-11-26

    The mixing necessary to explain the ``Fe`` line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ``fireball,`` a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion.

  1. Status of the Desert Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillepoix, H. A. R.; Bland, P. A.; Towner, M. C.; Cupák, M.; Sansom, E. K.; Jansen-Sturgeon, T.; Howie, R. M.; Paxman, J.; Hartig, B. A. D.

    2016-01-01

    A meteorite fall precisely observed from multiple locations allows us to track the object back to the region of the Solar System it came from, and sometimes link it with a parent body, providing context information that helps trace the history of the Solar System. The Desert Fireball Network (DFN) is built in arid areas of Australia: its observatories get favorable observing conditions, and meteorite recovery is eased thanks to the mostly featureless terrain. After the successful recovery of two meteorites with 4 film cameras, the DFN has now switched to a digital network, operating 51 cameras, covering 2.5 million km2 of double station triangulable area. Mostly made of off-the-shelf components, the new observatories are cost effective while maintaining high imaging performance. To process the data (~70TB/month), a significant effort has been put to writing an automated reduction pipeline so that all events are reduced with little human intervention. Innovative techniques have been implemented for this purpose: machine learning algorithms for event detection, blind astrometric calibration, and particle filter simulations to estimate both physical properties and state vector of the meteoroid. On 31 December 2015, the first meteorite from the digital systems was recovered: Murrili (the 1.68 kg H5 ordinary chondrite was observed to fall on 27 November 2015). Another 11 events have been flagged as potential meteorites droppers, and are to be searched in the coming months.

  2. FIREBALL-2: Pioneering Space UV Baryon Mapping (Lead Institution)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher

    This is the lead proposal of a multi-institutional submission. The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) for low redshift galaxies. This balloon is a modification of FIREBall-1 (FB-1), a path-finding mission built by our team with two successful flights. FB-1 provided the strongest constrains on IGM emission available from any instrument at the time. FIREBall-2 has been significantly upgraded compared to FB-1, and is nearly ready for integration and testing before an anticipated Spring 2016 launch from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The spectrograph has been redesigned and an upgraded detector system including a groundbreaking high QE, low-noise, UV CCD detector is under final testing and will improve instrument performance by more than an order of magnitude. CNES is providing the spectrograph, gondola, and flight support team, with construction of all components nearly complete. The initial FIREBall-2 launch is now scheduled for Spring 2016. FIREBall-2 combines several innovations: -First ever multi-object UV spectrograph -Arcsecond quality balloon pointing system, developed from scratch, improved from FB-1 -Partnership of national space agencies (NASA & CNES); highly leveraged NASA resources -A Schmidt corrector built into the UV grating for better optical performance and throughput -A total of four women trained in space experimental astrophysics, including 3 Columbia Ph.Ds. and 1 Caltech Ph.D. -A total of 7 graduate students trained on FIREBall-1 (3) and FIREBall-2 (4), with opportunities for more in future flights. FIREBall-2 will test key technologies and science strategies for a future mission to map IGM emission. Its flights will provide important training for the next generation of space astrophysicists working in UV instrumentation. Most importantly, FIREBall-2 will detect emission from the CGM of nearby galaxies, providing the first census of the

  3. 250 Fireballs Observed in Norway 100 Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorve, J.

    2014-07-01

    In 1941 the Norwegian Academy of Sciences, presented a study in the Mathematcal-Natural Sciences section, by the Norwegian astronomer Sigurd Einbu. In this report, the information of each fireball is presented in a table containing eight parameters, including their radiants. The report also contains several illustrations. For about 60 of the most interesting fireballs, Einbu included additional information, as describing them in more details. Like, those fireballs producing infrasonic sounds, and/or having superbolide brightness. Also, the strong smell of sulfur, have been reported by a number of persons in a meteorite drop zone. Also, a unique incident of four bright fireballs that were observed within a period of 12 hours, all with the same radiant. During this period, we also experienced the brightest fireball that ever has been observed in Norway, the Trysil superbolide, of 1927. This paper discusses Einbu's report. With respect to when it was published, is surprisingly well suited to also to be read and studied by interested researchers.

  4. Nanoparticle production in arc generated fireballs of granular silicon powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2012-03-01

    Recently we observed buoyant fireballs by arc igniting silicon that drift in air for several seconds and postulated that the low aggregate density was attributed to the formation of a network of nanoparticles that must completely surround the burning silicon core, trapping the heated vapor generated as a result of particle combustion [Ito et al. Phys Rev E 80, 067401 (2009)]. In this paper, we describe the capturing of several of these fireballs in flight, and have characterized their nanostructure by high resolution microscopy. The nanoparticle network is found to have an unusually high porosity (> 99%), suggesting that this arc-ignition of silicon can be a novel method of producing ultra-porous silica. While we confirm the presence of a nanoparticle network within the fireballs, the extension of this mechanism to the production of ball lightning during atmospheric lightning strikes in nature is still the subject of ongoing debate.

  5. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the < 100lb class. Radiometric measurements indicate that the detonation fireball is well approximated as a single temperature blackbody at early time (0 < t <~ 3ms). The effective radius obtained from absolute intensity indicates fireball growth at supersonic velocity during this time. Peak fireball temperatures during this initial detonation range between 3000.3500K. The initial temperature decay with time (t <~ 10ms) can be described by a simple phenomenological model based on radiative cooling. After this rapid decay, temperature exhibits a small, steady increase with time (10 <~ t <~ 50ms) and peaking somewhere between 1000.1500K-likely the result of post-detonation combustion-before subsequent cooling back to ambient conditions . Radius derived from radiometric measurements can be described well (R2 > 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  6. The analysis of casual video records of fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of fireballs is being recorded casually, e.g.; by security cameras or dashboard cameras. In some cases, these records may have high scientific value. Positional calibration must be, however, done before any casual record can be used for fireball trajectory determination. Here, I describe a calibration method based on stellar imagery. Practical hints for taking the calibration images are given, and the required precision of finding the site, where the original record was taken, is discussed. Formulae for converting the image pixel coordinates to astronomical coordinates are provided.

  7. Meteorite search campaigns of the Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbigniew Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Żołądek, Z.; Wiśniewski, M.; Olech, A.; Kubalczak, T.; Zaręba, P.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Polakowski, K.; Kosiński, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Video registrations of bright fireballs capable of producing meteorite falls over Poland have been observed since the Polish Fireball Network was established. The bolides selected as being worthy of further investigation have been those for which the PyFN software analysis indicated that the meteorite fall would have a total mass in the range of about 300 g - 10 kg. This article describes the main meteorite search campaigns of PFN carried out following detailed analyses of such events. Some expeditions originally organized for meteorite search training but which produced positive results are also described.

  8. Computatio of Termi AL Mass for Large Fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M. I.

    2008-09-01

    A problem of determination of terminal mass of meteor bodies is important for correct estimation of the influx of cosmic matter to planets. In turn, these data are widely used in several applications, specifically, in investigation of security from asteroids and comets, in development of planetary defense measures, and in determination of the bodies that can reach Earth's surface. Now we have an opportunity to calculate terminal mass much more precisely than it has been made earlier. So all over again we shall remind that it has been shown in papers (Gritsevich, Stulov, 2006; Gritsevich, 2008) by means of various dynamic approaches that the major part of the luminous segment of the trajectories of large fireballs corresponds to continuous medium flow. Therefore, we can deduce that the fireball brightness under these conditions is mainly due to the emission from air in the compressed shock layer rather than due to the emission from evaporated meteoroid matter which is necessary for the validity of the well-known photometric formula. In other words we should define the terminal mass of a meteor body in these cases strictly by dynamic way. In the present report the terminal mass of large fireballs is calculated using the data of actual observations, by selecting the parameters describing deceleration and ablation of fireballs along the luminous segment of the trajectory. The mathematical model is based on the best fitting of the observational data by an analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. In doing so, the author tried to take into account all of the peculiarities of the events noted in the literature, as well as the newest results of numerical experiments on the 3D aerodynamics of bodies of complicated shapes. The physical theory presented in the report was applied to the bright fireballs observed by the Canadian camera network (Halliday et al., 1996) and to the several well-known meteoriteproducing fireballs. By results of calculation the 13 large

  9. A trace of fireball stream activity in August 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoladek, Przemyslaw; Olech, Arkadiusz; Wisniewski, Mariusz

    2006-08-01

    Four bright meteors and fireballs were observed by photographic and video cameras a few days after the Perseid maximum. All paths of these meteors create a slightly diffuse radiant with coordinates alpha=238 deg and delta=+62 deg. Two approximate orbits are presented. An association with the kappa-Cygnids complex is noticed.

  10. 2013 Russian Fireball Largest Ever Detected by CTBTO Infrasound Sensors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, C.; Ceranna, L.; Le Pichon, A.; Herry, P.; Brachet, N.; Mialle, P.; Brown, D.

    2013-12-01

    On 15 February 2013 at 03h20 UT, a large Earth impacting fireball disintegrated over the Ural Mountains near the city of Chelyabinsk. The bolide produced shock waves that blew out windows, injured hundreds of people and damaged buildings in many surrounding cities. Infrasonic waves generated by the explosion propagated over very long distances. The event was globally detected by 20 arrays part of the 44 operating infrasound IMS (International Monitoring System) stations of the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). This fireball event provides a prominent milestone for studying, in detail, infrasound propagation traveling twice around the globe for almost two days at distances larger than 80000 km. Therefore, its analysis offers a unique opportunity to calibrate detection and location methods and evaluate the global performance of the IMS network. The presentation will provide an overview on the global recordings and analyses. Moreover, in order to explain the detection capability of the overall operating IMS network, range-dependent propagation modeling considering both a point-like explosive source and a line source is performed.

  11. Electrophonic Sound from the Diamond Lake Oregon Fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, R. N.

    1995-09-01

    At 9:16 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, March 28, 1994, a large fire ball exploded near Diamond Lake, South Central, Oregon. The object was five times the diameter of a full moon, casting shadows along the flight path. There were numerous sonic booms near the end point of the fireball. There were fifteen reports of electrophonic sound. These sounds were heard as far away as 340 kilometers. In most cases the observer was near metal objects such as fences or automobiles. There was one report of the fire ball setting off a radar detector in an automobile. This occurred 270 kilometers behind the fireball entry point in the atmosphere. There were several reports of birds who had stopped singing, coyotes that stopped howling, and dogs and cats running for cover.

  12. Collected Extraterrestrial Materials: Constraints on Meteor and Fireball Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    The bulk density and bulk porosity of IDPs and various meteorite classes show that protoplanet accretion and evolution were arrested at different stages as a function of parent body modification. The collected IDPs, micrometeorites and meteorites are aggregates of different structural entities that were inherited from the earliest times of solar system evolution. These structural entities and the extent of parent body lithification will determine the material strength of the meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere. There is a need for measurements of the material strength of collected extraterrestrial materials because they will in part determine the nature of the chemical interactions of descending meteors and fireballs in the atmosphere. High-precision determinations of meteor and fireball compositions are required to search for anhydrous, carbon-rich proto-CI material that has survived in the boulders of comet nuclei.

  13. New methodology to determine the terminal height of a fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Ibáñez, Manuel; Gritsevich, Maria; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.

    2015-04-01

    Despite ablation and drag processes associated with atmospheric entry of meteoroids were a subject of intensive study over the last century, little attention was devoted to interpret the observed fireball terminal height. This is a key parameter because it not only depends on the initial mass, but also on the bulk physical properties of the meteoroids and hence on their ability to ablate in the atmosphere. In this work we have developed a new approach that is tested using the fireball terminal heights observed by the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project operated in Canada between 1970 and 1985 (hereafter referred as MORP). We then compare them to the calculation made. Our results clearly show that the new methodology is able to forecast the degree of deepening of meteoroids in the Earth's atmosphere. Then, this approach has important applications in predicting the impact hazard from cm- to meter-sized bodies that are represented, in part, in the MORP bolide list.

  14. Observations of twilight fireballs over Kiev in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.

    2016-04-01

    If a dust trail of bolide illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon, it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call its the twilight bolides. We have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs

  15. The NASA Fireball Network All-Sky Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Rob M.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of small, inexpensive all-sky cameras designed specifically for the NASA Fireball Network is described. The use of off-the-shelf electronics, optics, and plumbing materials results in a robust and easy to duplicate design. Engineering challenges such as weather-proofing and thermal control and their mitigation are described. Field-of-view and gain adjustments to assure uniformity across the network will also be detailed.

  16. American Meteor Society Fireball reporting system and mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankey, M.

    2014-07-01

    The American Meteor Society (AMS) founded in 1911 pioneered the visual study of meteors and has collected data relating to meteor observations and bright fireballs for over 100 years. In December 2010, the online fireball reporting system was upgraded to an interactive application that utilizes Google Maps and other programmatic methods to pinpoint the observer's location, azimuth and elevation values with a high degree of precision. The AMS has collected 10s of 1000s of witness reports relating to 100s of events each year since the new application was released. Three dimensional triangulation methods that average the data collected from witnesses have been developed that can determine the start and end points of the meteor with an accuracy of <50 km (when compared to published solutions provided by operators of all sky cameras). RA and DEC radiant estimates can also be computed for all significant events reported to the AMS. With the release of the mobile application, the AMS is able to collect more precise elevation angles than through the web application. Users can file a new report directly on the phone or update the values submitted through a web report. After web users complete their fireball report online, they are prompted to download the app and update their observation with the more precise data provided by the sensors in the mobile device. The mobile app also provides an accurate means for the witness to report the elapsed time of the fireball. To log this value, the user drags the device across the sky where they saw the fireball. This process is designed to require no button click or user interaction to start and stop the time recording. A count down initiates the process and once the user's phone crosses the plane of azimuth for the end point of the fireball the velocity timer automatically stops. Users are asked to log the recording three times in an effort to minimize error. The three values are then averaged into a final score. Once enough

  17. Detector performance for the FIREBall-2 UV experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, April D.; Hamden, Erika T.; Ong, Hwei Ru; Hennessy, John; Goodsall, Timothy; Shapiro, Charles; Cheng, Samuel; Jones, Todd; Carver, Alexander; Hoenk, Michael; Schiminovich, David; Martin, Christopher; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2015-08-01

    We present an overview of the detector for the upcoming Faint Intergalactic Red-shifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) experiment, with a particular focus on the development of device-integrated optical coatings and detector quantum efficiency (QE). FIREBall-2 is designed to measure emission from the strong resonance lines of HI, OVI, and CIV, all red-shifted to 195-225 nm window; its detector is a delta-doped electron multiplying charge coupled device (EM-CCD). Delta-doped arrays, invented at JPL, achieve 100% internal QE from the UV through the visible. External losses due to reflection (~70% in some UV regions) can be mitigated with antireflection coatings (ARCs). Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), thin-film optical filters are incorporated with existing detector technologies. ALD offers nanometer-scale control over film thickness and interface quality, allowing for precision growth of multilayer films. Several AR coatings, including single and multi-layer designs, were tested for FIREBall-2. QE measurements match modeled transmittance behavior remarkably well, showing improved performance in the target wavelength range. Also under development are ALD coatings to enhance QE for a variety of spectral regions throughout the UV (90-320 nm) and visible (320-1000 nm) range both for space-based imaging and spectroscopy as well as for ground-based telescopes.

  18. The Mason Gully Meteorite Fall in SW Australia: Fireball Trajectory, Luminosity, Dynamics, Orbit and Impact Position from Photographic Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurny, P.; Bland, P. A.; Borovicka, J.; Towner, M. C.; Shrbeny, L.; Bevan, A. W. R.; Vaughan, D.

    2012-05-01

    We report a new instrumentally recorded meteorite fall, named Mason Gully, which was recorded by photographic cameras of the Desert Fireball Network in SW Australia. The Mason Gully is one of the most precisely determined meteorite dropping fireball.

  19. High-entropy fireballs and jets in gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Two mechanisms whereby compact coalescing binaries can produce relatively 'clean' fireballs via neutrino-antineutrino annihilation are proposed. Preejected mass due to tidal heating will collimate the fireball into jets. The resulting anisotropic gamma-ray emission can be efficient and intense enough to provide an acceptable model for gamma-ray bursts, if these originate at cosmological distances.

  20. High energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborra, Irene

    2016-05-01

    The diffuse high-energy neutrino emission from long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is studied within the fireball emission model. By requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few percents to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, if the latter has a diffuse origin. Our findings suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect neutrinos from GRBs in future stacking searches.

  1. UCM Meteor and Fireball Research group: Results 2012--2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Izquierdo, J.; Pascual, S.; Palos, M. F.; Oré, S.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Zamora, S.; Lorenzo, C.; San Juan, R.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Vázquez, C.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Gallego, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Most of the activity of the group is based on the Fireball Detection Station located at the Observatorio UCM, a system consisting of 6 high-sensitivity videocameras covering the whole sky with wide-angle lenses during nighttime. Another 15 cameras have been placed by the researchers between 10 and 200 km away from Madrid for multiple station observations. It works as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN), a network of similar stations covering the atmosphere over Spain. Besides the continuous monitoring, the group has worked on the recording and analysis of some meteor showers. Most of the attention was focused on the Draconids 2011 campaign at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Madiedo, J. M., Williams, I. P., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 560; Ocaña, F., Palos, M. F., Zamorano, J., et al. 2013, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, 31st IMC, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, 2012, 70), and the 2012 Geminids balloon-borne mission over Spain (Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Madiedo, J. M., et al. 2013, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, 2202). The products of the station have been used for undergraduate thesis projects at the Physics Faculty (Ocaña, F., 2011, UCM e-prints, 13292) and other undergraduate projects. In 2013 the station received new equipment thanks to the Certamen Arquímedes award, complementing the detection with spectroscopic and frame-integrating devices.

  2. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray burst fireballs, revised.

    PubMed

    Hümmer, Svenja; Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2012-06-01

    We review the neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts, which is estimated from gamma-ray observations and used for the interpretation of recent IceCube data, from a particle physics perspective. We numerically calculate the neutrino flux for the same astrophysical assumptions as the analytical fireball neutrino model, including the dominant pion and kaon production modes, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondary muons, pions, and kaons. We demonstrate that taking into account the full energy dependencies of all spectra, the normalization of the expected neutrino flux reduces by about one order of magnitude and the spectrum shifts to higher energies, where we can pin down the exact origin of the discrepancies by the recomputation of the analytical models. We also reproduce the IceCube-40 analysis for exactly the same bursts and same assumptions and illustrate the impact of uncertainties. We conclude that the baryonic loading of the fireballs, which is an important control parameter for the emission of cosmic rays, can be constrained significantly with the full-scale experiment after about ten years. PMID:23003939

  3. TAGISH LAKE METEORITE FALL : INTERPRETATION OF FIREBALL PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P. G.; ReVelle, D. O.

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed available instrumental and eyewitness records associated with the fireball leading to the fall of the Tagish Lake meteorite. Initial chemical and physical studies of this carbonaceous chondrite have shown it to be unique. It is one of the most primitive meteorites yet recovered and extremely friable. By determining the original bodies trajectory, velocity and physical breakup in the atmosphere we can characterise the fireball as intermediate between Type II and Type IIIa, following the classification of Ceplecha et al. Modelling of the object suggests an initial porosity of the pre-atmospheric body in the range 40-60%. The initial fragmentation occurred under less than 0.3 MPa dynamic pressure. Determination of Tagish Lake's orbit suggests a nominal linkage to parent bodies in the main asteroid belt, though association with short-period comets cannot be strictly excluded. It is suggested that Tagish Lake represents an intermediate object between chondritic asteroids and cometary bodies and our results are consistent with a linkage to D-class asteroids based on results from reflectance-spectra work.

  4. Semi-kinematic mount of the FIREBALL large optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossin, C.; Grange, R.; Milliard, B.; Martin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Blanchard, P.; Deharveng, J.-M.; Evrard, J.; Martin, C.; McLean, R.; Schiminovich, D.

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the NASA CNES FIREBALL balloon borne experiment, we present the design of a semi-kinematic mount to hold the 1 meter class mirrors of this mission. To maintain these large optics in a reasonable mass and price budgets we choose thin ULE mirrors with a thickness over diameter ratio of 1/16. Such thin mirrors require a multi support mount to reduce self weight deflection. Classical multi support mount used for ground based telescope would not survive the level of shock observed in a balloon experiment either at parachute opening or landing. To firmly maintain these mirrors in several points without noticeably deforming them we investigated the design of a two stages semi-kinematic mount composed of 24 monopods. We present the detailed design of this innovative mirror mount, the finite element modeling with the deduced optical wavefront deformation. During the FIREBALL integration and flight campaign in July 2007 at CSBF, we confirmed the validity of the mechanical concept by obtaining an image quality well within the required specifications. Variants of this approach are potentially applicable to large thin mirrors on ground-based observatories.

  5. MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST FIREBALLS: NUMERICAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard; Kobayashi, Shiho

    2013-08-01

    The relative strength between forward and reverse shock emission in early gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow reflects that of magnetic energy densities in the two shock regions. We numerically show that with the current standard treatment, the fireball magnetization is underestimated by up to two orders of magnitude. This discrepancy is especially large in the sub-relativistic reverse shock regime (i.e., the thin shell and intermediate regime), where most optical flashes were detected. We provide new analytic estimates of the reverse shock emission based on a better shock approximation, which well describe numerical results in the intermediate regime. We show that the reverse shock temperature at the onset of afterglow is constant, ( {Gamma}-bar{sub d}-1){approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}, when the dimensionless parameter {xi}{sub 0} is more than several. Our approach is applied to case studies of GRB 990123 and 090102, and we find that magnetic fields in the fireballs are even stronger than previously believed. However, these events are still likely to be due to a baryonic jet with {sigma} {approx} 10{sup -3} for GRB 990123 and {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 3 for GRB 090102.

  6. On the interaction between two fireballs in low-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriu, D. G. Irimiciuc, S. A.; Popescu, S.; Agop, M.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. W.

    2015-11-15

    We report experimental results and theoretical modeling showing the interaction between two fireballs excited on two positively biased electrodes immersed in a low-temperature plasma. This interaction leads to a synchronized dynamics of the two fireballs, its frequency depending on the plasma density, the voltages applied on the electrodes, and the distance between the two electrodes. By considering that the plasma particles (electrons, ions, neutrals) move on fractal curves, a theoretical model describing the interaction between the two fireballs is developed. The results of the theoretical model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic model for direct current discharge fireball experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, K. H.; Navia, C. E.; Robba, M. B.; Carneiro, L. T.; Emelin, S. E.

    2006-11-15

    Ball lightning models and corresponding laboratory efforts in generating fireballs are briefly summarized to give an overview of the current status. In particular, emphasis is given to direct current discharge experiments at atmospheric pressure such as capillary discharge with a plasma plume in front of the anode opening [Emelin et al., Tech. Phys. Letters 23, 758 (1997)] and water resistor discharge with fluttering fireball overhead [Egorov and Stepanov, Tech. Phys. 47, 1584 (2002)]. These fireballs are interpreted as laboratory demonstrations of the self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of ball lightning [Tsui, Phys. Plasmas 13, 072102 (2006)].

  8. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic model for direct current discharge fireball experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, K. H.; Navia, C. E.; Robba, M. B.; Carneiro, L. T.; Emelin, S. E.

    2006-11-01

    Ball lightning models and corresponding laboratory efforts in generating fireballs are briefly summarized to give an overview of the current status. In particular, emphasis is given to direct current discharge experiments at atmospheric pressure such as capillary discharge with a plasma plume in front of the anode opening [Emelin et al., Tech. Phys. Letters 23, 758 (1997)] and water resistor discharge with fluttering fireball overhead [Egorov and Stepanov, Tech. Phys. 47, 1584 (2002)]. These fireballs are interpreted as laboratory demonstrations of the self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of ball lightning [Tsui, Phys. Plasmas 13, 072102 (2006)].

  9. Deceleration rate of a fireball as a tool to predict consequences of the impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Kuznetsova, Daria; Stulov, Vladimir; Turchak, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    The correct interpretation of fireball observations is a very important task, since it could promptly confirm a fresh meteorite fall, and, furthermore, provide a link to its parent body. Based on the analysis of the fireball aerodynamic equations, we describe the possible results that might accompany collisions of cosmic bodies with the Earth's atmosphere and surface. After integrating, these equations characterize the body's trajectory in the atmosphere very well, while the exact derived dependency of the body's velocity on the height of the fireball can be further compared to the observations. The solution depends on two key dimensionless parameters defining the meteoroid drag and mass loss rate in the atmosphere.

  10. Hyper-entropic gravitational fireballs (grireballs) with firewalls

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2013-04-01

    Recently there has been much discussion as to whether old black holes have firewalls at their surfaces that would destroy infalling observers. Though I suspect that a proper handling of nonlocality in quantum gravity may show that firewalls do not exist, it is interesting to consider an extension of the firewall idea to what seems to be the logically possible concept of hyper-entropic gravitational hot objects (gravitational fireballs or grireballs for short) that have more entropy than ordinary black holes of the same mass. Here some properties of such grireballs are discussed under various assumptions, such as assuming that their radii and entropies both go as powers of their masses as the one independent parameter, or assuming that their radii depend on both their masses and their entropies as two independent parameters.

  11. Transit time instabilities in an inverted fireball. I. Basic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Gruenwald, J.; Fonda, B.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    A new fireball configuration has been developed which produces vircator-like instabilities. Electrons are injected through a transparent anode into a spherical plasma volume. Strong high-frequency oscillations with period corresponding to the electron transit time through the sphere are observed. The frequency is below the electron plasma frequency, hence does not involve plasma eigenmodes. The sphere does not support electromagnetic eigenmodes at the instability frequency. However, the rf oscillations on the gridded anode create electron bunches which reinforce the grid oscillation after one transit time or rf period, which leads to an absolute instability. Various properties of the instability are demonstrated and differences to the sheath-plasma instability are pointed out, one of which is a relatively high conversion efficiency from dc to rf power. Nonlinear effects are described in a companion paper [R. L. Stenzel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 012105 (2011)].

  12. Atmospheric collection of debris from the Revelstoke and Allende fireballs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1970-01-01

    In two separate events, Revelstoke and Allende, the air through which a fireball had been observed to pass was sampled for meteoritic debris. Particulate matter was collected on fibrous filters, which were mounted on aircraft and flown downwind from the site of the meteorite fall at altitudes of 10,000-12,000 m. From Revelstoke, a highly distinctive assemblage of particles was collected. Included were large numbers of magnetite spherules, transparent siliceous spherules, and several types of irregular nickel-bearing particles. The Allende collections yielded only slightly more magnetite and siliceous spherules than background and no nickel-bearing particles. Revelstoke and Allende are believed to be representative of two different types of events. In the Revelstoke type, large amounts of meteoritic debris are left in the atmosphere and little reaches the ground in large coherent fragments; in the Allende type, little material remains in the atmosphere but large fragments reach the ground in the fall area. ?? 1970.

  13. Sedona Red Rock Cam footage of fireball on June 2, 2016

    NASA Video Gallery

    This footage from the Sedona Red Rock Cam (part of the EarthCam network) shows how brightly the ground was illuminated during the fireball, which entered the atmosphere over Arizona shortly before ...

  14. Evidence for Nanoparticles in Microwave-Generated Fireballs Observed by Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J. B. A.; Le Garrec, J. L.; Sztucki, M.; Narayanan, T.; Dikhtyar, V.; Jerby, E.

    2008-02-15

    The small-angle x-ray scattering method has been applied to study fireballs ejected into the air from molten hot spots in borosilicate glass by localized microwaves [V. Dikhtyar and E. Jerby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 045002 (2006)]. The fireball's particle size distribution, density, and decay rate in atmospheric pressure were measured. The results show that the fireballs contain particles with a mean size of {approx}50 nm with average number densities on the order of {approx}10{sup 9}. Hence, fireballs can be considered as a dusty plasma which consists of an ensemble of charged nanoparticles in the plasma volume. This finding is likened to the ball-lightning phenomenon explained by the formation of an oxidizing particle network liberated by lightning striking the ground [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)].

  15. Evidence for nanoparticles in microwave-generated fireballs observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J B A; LeGarrec, J L; Sztucki, M; Narayanan, T; Dikhtyar, V; Jerby, E

    2008-02-15

    The small-angle x-ray scattering method has been applied to study fireballs ejected into the air from molten hot spots in borosilicate glass by localized microwaves [V. Dikhtyar and E. Jerby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 045002 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.045002]. The fireball's particle size distribution, density, and decay rate in atmospheric pressure were measured. The results show that the fireballs contain particles with a mean size of approximately 50 nm with average number densities on the order of approximately 10(9). Hence, fireballs can be considered as a dusty plasma which consists of an ensemble of charged nanoparticles in the plasma volume. This finding is likened to the ball-lightning phenomenon explained by the formation of an oxidizing particle network liberated by lightning striking the ground [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525]. PMID:18352481

  16. Fireball ejection from a molten hot spot to air by localized microwaves.

    PubMed

    Dikhtyar, Vladimir; Jerby, Eli

    2006-02-01

    A phenomenon of fireball ejection from hot spots in solid materials (silicon, germanium, glass, ceramics, basalt, etc.) to the atmosphere is presented. The hot spot is created in the substrate material by the microwave-drill mechanism [Jerby, Science 298, 587 (2002)10.1126/science.1077062]. The vaporized drop evolved from the hot spot is blown up, and forms a stable fireball buoyant in the air. The experimental observations of fireball ejection from silicate hot spots are referred to the Abrahamson-Dinniss theory [Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525] suggesting a mechanism for ball-lightning initiation in nature. The fireballs observed in our experiments tend to absorb the available microwave power entirely, similarly to the plasmon resonance effect in submicron wavelengths [Nie and Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997)10.1126/science.275.5303.1102]. PMID:16486835

  17. Orbit determination and analysis of meteors recently observed by Finnish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, V.; Lupovla, V.; Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Mineeva, S.

    2015-10-01

    We perform orbit determination and analysis of three fireballs recently observed by Finnish Fireball Network (FFN). Precise orbit determination was performed by using integration of differential equations of motion. This technique was implemented into free distributable software "Meteor Toolkit". Accounting of several perturbing forces are discussed. Also estimation of accuracy of orbital elements was obtained by propagation of observational error with using covariance transformation. Long-term backward integration was provided as well.

  18. Implications of the atmospheric density profile in the processing of fireball observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyytinen, Esko; Gritsevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the atmospheric density, more specifically, the effects that the changes of isobaric altitude have on the accuracy of a fireball's analysis. During winter, especially over high latitude regions like Finland, the true isobaric level may be more than three kilometers below the heights predicted by the US Standard Atmosphere 1976 model. It can differ even more when compared with the heights predicted by the simplified exponential scaled height model. Thus, the true mass of a fireball may differ significantly from those obtained by using either the isobaric altitudes derived from the Standard Atmosphere or the exponential atmospheric model, i.e. without taking into account the corrections for true atmospheric conditions. Likewise, the solutions for the ablation coefficient derived by the generalized models will be less accurate than those that do consider the true atmospheric conditions. This becomes especially crucial for potential meteorite droppers, i.e. low velocity fireballs, with small ablation rates and consequently, high terminal-to-initial mass ratio. We propose an atmospheric height correction method that utilizes real atmospheric data to analysis of the fireball. We demonstrate the proposed method by analyzing the data of three fireballs that were recently recorded by the Finnish Fireball Network and finally, we compare our results against those derived by using the US Standard Atmosphere 1976 model and the exponential atmosphere model.

  19. Numerical simulations of blast/shock wave propagations after nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seungho; Choi, Jung-Il; Li, Yibao; Lee, Changhoon

    2013-11-01

    Pressure waves develop immediately after nuclear explosions and start to move outward from the fireball. The most of initial damages are caused by the blast waves. We performed the blast wave propagations by solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric Euler equations. For shock capturing, inviscid fluxes are discretized using a variant of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and an approximate Riemann solver based on Roe's method is used. A clean air burst of fireball above the ground zero is considered. The initial condition of fireball is given at the point of breakaway that shock waves are appeared on the surface of the fireball. The growth of fireball is also calculated by solving one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) equation from point explosion. Characteristics of the blast wave propagations due to the various heights of burst and amount of the nuclear detonations are investigated. The results of parametric studies will be shown in the final presentation. Supported by Agency for Defense Development.

  20. Formation of Long-Lived Fireballs by Plasma Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, I.

    2001-10-01

    Results of the long-lived plasma structure and fireball formation (so called ``plasmoids") investigations in the atmosphere have been presented and discussed. Lifetimes of these objects considerably (by several orders of magnitude) exceed typical times of their generation by power sources and of plasma decay time. Experiments on the formation of these objects have been carried out by means of different types of pulse erosive plasma injectors in a wide range of energy (100 J - 100 kJ) putted into the plasmoid. Acrylic glass, fabric-based laminate, caprolon, and different organic materials (waxes, paraffines, resins with natural fillers, wood, lignin, etc.) have been used as plasma forming materials. Injection was made both into undisturbed air and into air saturated by organic vapors. It is shown that the formation of plasmoids of different forms (spherical, torus -type, cylindrical and others) with typical sizes 10-20 cm and their lifetime up to ~1 s takes place during pulse plasma injection into the air. In so doing the time of energy input ranged from 10 mcs to 10 ms. Typical temperature's value at the initial stage of the plasmoid existence is 7 - 10 kK. Initial value of the electron concentration reaches ten in (16-17) power per cubic cm. Obtained plasma radiation spectra and their temporary evolution is under the analysis. It is shown that at late stages of the existence of fireballs their radiation spectra correspond to the radiation of solid carbon and metallic oxide particles, and to spectra of burning of organic materials. It is shown that different structures have been formed at the application of the organic plasma forming materials and /or at the injection of plasma jet into the air saturated by organic vapors. One of them with typical sizes 10-20 cm and temperature ~2000 K has a lifetime up to 0.5 s. Undertaken experimental and theoretical investigations have shown a possibility of different ball lightning type realization in nature in the result of

  1. First meteorite recovery based on observations by the Finnish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Lyytinen, Esko; Moilanen, Jarmo; Kohout, Tomáš; Dmitriev, Vasily; Lupovka, Valery; Midtskogen, V.; Kruglikov, Nikolai; Ischenko, Alexei; Yakovlev, Grigory; Grokhovsky, Victor; Haloda, Jakub; Halodova, Patricie; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Aikkila, Asko; Taavitsainen, Aki; Lauanne, Jani; Pekkola, Marko; Kokko, Pekka; Lahtinen, Panu; Larionov, Mikhail

    2014-02-01

    We present a summary of the trajectory reconstruction, dark flight simulations and pre-impact orbit for a bright fireball that appeared in the night sky over the Kola Peninsula, close to the Finnish border, on April 18 2014, at 22h14m13.0s (UTC). The fireball was instrumentally recorded in Finland from Kuusamo, Mikkeli and Muhos observing sites belonging to the Finnish Fireball Network. Additionally, a publicly available video made by Alexandr Nesterov in Snezhnogorsk (Russia), from the opposite side of the fireball track, was carefully calibrated and taken into account in the trajectory reconstruction. Based on a thorough analysis of the fireball, it was concluded that part of the meteoroid survived atmospheric entry and reached the ground. To further specify an impact area for a dedicated expedition, dark flight simulations were done to build a strewn field map showing the most probable distribution of fragments. A 5-day expedition with 4 participants from Russia and Finland took place at the end of May following snow melt and preceding vegetation growth. On May 29, 2014, a first 120.35 g meteorite fragment was found on a local forest road within the predicted impact area. A second 47.54 g meteorite fragment, fully covered with a fusion crust, was recovered nearby on the following day. Both pieces were preserved in very good condition without apparent weathering.

  2. Trajectory of the August 7, 2010 Biwako fireball determined from seismic recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masumi; Mori, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The Biwako fireball on August 7, 2010, produced a strong sonic boom throughout central Japan around 17:00 JST (UTC+9). There were many visual observations and reports of the sound in the Tokai and Kinki regions at that time. We have estimated the trajectory of this fireball and the location of its termination point by analyzing seismograms recorded on a dense local network. The isochrons of the arrival times are close to concentric circles, which suggest that the fireball disappeared due to fragmentation during entry. The fireball trajectory which explains the arrival times of the signal has a relatively high incident angle (55 degrees relative to the horizon) and the source is thought to disappear at a height of 26-km east of Lake Biwa. The azimuthal angle and velocity of the fireball are difficult to determine uniquely from this dataset. We identified an event thought to be due to fragmentation, with a location 3-km ENE and 9-km higher than the termination point. This location is consistent with the trajectory determined from the signal arrival. Based on this trajectory model, the source of the signal spans a horizontal range of 26 to 70 km, and the altitude of the source producing the sonic boom is about 30 to 50 km.

  3. Transit time instabilities in an inverted fireball. II. Mode jumping and nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Gruenwald, J.; Fonda, B.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    A fireball is formed inside a highly transparent spherical grid immersed in a dc discharge plasma. The ambient plasma acts as a cathode and the positively biased grid as an anode. A strong nearly current-free double layer separates the two plasmas. Electrons are accelerated into the fireball, ionize, and establish a discharge plasma with plasma potential near the grid potential. Ions are ejected from the fireball. Since electrons are lost at the same rate as ions, most electrons accelerated into the fireball just pass through it. Thus, the electron distribution contains radially counterstreaming electrons. High-frequency oscillations are excited with rf period given by the electron transit time through the fireball. Since the frequency is well below the electron plasma frequency, no eigenmodes other than a beam space-charge wave exists. The instability is an inertial transit-time instability similar to the sheath-plasma instability or the reflex vircator instability. In contrast to vircators, there is no electron reflection from a space-charge layer but counterstreaming arises from spherical convergence and divergence of electrons. While the basic instability properties have been presented in a companion paper [R. L. Stenzel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 012104 (2011)], the present paper focuses on observed mode jumping and nonlinear effects. The former produce frequency jumps and different potential profiles, the latter produce harmonics associated with electron bunching at large amplitudes. In situ probe measurements are presented and interpreted.

  4. Transit time instabilities in an inverted fireball. II. Mode jumping and nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Gruenwald, J.; Fonda, B.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-15

    A fireball is formed inside a highly transparent spherical grid immersed in a dc discharge plasma. The ambient plasma acts as a cathode and the positively biased grid as an anode. A strong nearly current-free double layer separates the two plasmas. Electrons are accelerated into the fireball, ionize, and establish a discharge plasma with plasma potential near the grid potential. Ions are ejected from the fireball. Since electrons are lost at the same rate as ions, most electrons accelerated into the fireball just pass through it. Thus, the electron distribution contains radially counterstreaming electrons. High-frequency oscillations are excited with rf period given by the electron transit time through the fireball. Since the frequency is well below the electron plasma frequency, no eigenmodes other than a beam space-charge wave exists. The instability is an inertial transit-time instability similar to the sheath-plasma instability or the reflex vircator instability. In contrast to vircators, there is no electron reflection from a space-charge layer but counterstreaming arises from spherical convergence and divergence of electrons. While the basic instability properties have been presented in a companion paper [R. L. Stenzel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 012104 (2011)], the present paper focuses on observed mode jumping and nonlinear effects. The former produce frequency jumps and different potential profiles, the latter produce harmonics associated with electron bunching at large amplitudes. In situ probe measurements are presented and interpreted.

  5. FIREBall, CHaS, and the diffuse universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamden, Erika Tobiason

    the CGM. Other ways of probing the CGM including direct detection via emission lines. I built a proto-type of the Circumgalactic Halpha Spectrograph (CHalphaS), a wide-field, low-cost, narrow-band integral field unit (IFU) that is designed to observe Halpha emission from the CGM of nearby, low-z galaxies. This proto-type has had two recent science runs, with preliminary data on several nearby galaxies. Additional probes of the CGM are emission lines in the rest ultra-violet. These include OVI, Lyalpha, CIV, SiIII, CIII, CII, FeII, and MgII. Such lines are accessible for low redshift galaxies in the space UV, historically a difficult wavelength range in which to work due in part to low efficiency of the available detectors. I have worked with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop advanced anti-reflection (AR) coatings for use on thinned, delta-doped charge coupled device (CCD) detectors. These detectors have achieved world record quantum efficiency (QE) at UV wavelengths (>50% between 130 nm and 300nm), with the potential for even greater QE with a more complex coating. One of these AR coated detectors will be used on the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2), a balloon-born UV spectrograph designed to observe the CGM at 205 nm via redshifted Lyalpha (at z=0.7), CIV (at z=0.3), and OVI (at z=1.0). FIREBall-2 will launch in the fall of 2015.

  6. dynamical evolution of an ultra-relativistic fireball colliding with a freely expanding gas

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the hydrodynamical evolution of an ultra-relativistic fireball colliding with a freely expanding gas. The hydrodynamical interaction of the fireball and the gas results in the formation of a geometrically thin shell. We study the dynamical evolution of the shell analytically and perform a numerical simulation equipped with adaptive mesh refinement to investigate the internal structure of the shell. The shocked gas can give rise to bright emission in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy range. We propose that the breakout emission from the forward shock and the photospheric emission from the reverse-shocked fireball contribute to early gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Evidence for Nanoparticles in Microwave-Generated Fireballs Observed by Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. B. A.; Legarrec, J. L.; Sztucki, M.; Narayanan, T.; Dikhtyar, V.; Jerby, E.

    2008-02-01

    The small-angle x-ray scattering method has been applied to study fireballs ejected into the air from molten hot spots in borosilicate glass by localized microwaves [V. Dikhtyar and E. Jerby, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 96 045002 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.045002]. The fireball’s particle size distribution, density, and decay rate in atmospheric pressure were measured. The results show that the fireballs contain particles with a mean size of ˜50nm with average number densities on the order of ˜109. Hence, fireballs can be considered as a dusty plasma which consists of an ensemble of charged nanoparticles in the plasma volume. This finding is likened to the ball-lightning phenomenon explained by the formation of an oxidizing particle network liberated by lightning striking the ground [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525].

  8. Fireball Kościerzyna - 2009.05.31 20:49:38 UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, M.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Zolcadek, P.; Dygos, P.; Krasnowski, M.; Polakowski, K.

    2010-01-01

    On the night of May 31, 2009, at 20:49:38 UT an extremely bright fireball occurred over northern Poland. Three cameras of Polish Fireball Network recorded this event. Images from PFN24 Gniewowo was completely saturated by meteor flash. We use data from PFN05 Poznan and PFN22 Czernice Borowe for calculations. We develop Meteor Identification Software (MIS) to detect meteor in series of images, estimate position and luminosity of the event. Our software is capable to analyse each sub-frame of interlaced images. Positions determined by MIS software have much smaller dispersion than estimated by MetRec. Koscierzyna Fireball have no chance to produce meteorite due to high entry speed and composition.

  9. Seismic and infrasonic analysis of the 9 March 2014 fireball passage over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Kim, Geunyoung; Lee, Hee-Il

    2015-04-01

    A bright fireball was observed by many people on the evening of 9 March 2014 in South Korea, and the energy associated with the fireball event was also recorded at 19 seismic stations and 7 infrasound stations in the country. Using the impulsive seismic signals, we calculated the possible extent of the sonic source of the fireball by assuming point- and line-source models. A comparison of the observed arrival times of the seismic signals with predicted arrival times from two simplifying source models indicated that the source extent of the sounds was better explained by a line-source model than by a single-point-source model in the atmosphere. The estimated parameters of the fireball's sonic trajectory, incorporating propagation dependent on the speed of the shock wave, were estimated to be an azimuth arrival angle of 313.5° clockwise from the north and an elevation arrival angle of 44.5° above the Earth's surface, with a source time of 11:04:51 UTC at which the predicted trajectory met the Earth's surface. The estimated ground impact point was about 2 km offset from locations where meteorites associated with the fireball were found. Infrasound signals from the fireball event had different features depending on the propagation distances. For stations locating more than 300 km away, multiple ray paths made the signals appear to be dispersed and of long duration because the rays were predominantly refracted from the stratosphere. In nearby infrasound stations, the pulse N-waves indicated a direct impact from the shockwave, with little refraction in atmosphere. The kinetic local-source energy generating the sound was estimated to be about 0.8 tons TNT, based on the infrasound measurements and semi-empirical relations developed for the point- and line-source models.

  10. Galileo Infrared Observations of the Shoemaker Levy 9 G and R Fireballs and Splash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Weissman, P. R.; Hui, J.; Segura, M.; Baines, K. H.; Johnson, T. V.; Dossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Leader, F.; Mehlman, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was fortuitously situated for a direct view of the impacts of comet Shoemaker(ka)evy 9 in Jupiter's atmosphere and measurements were recorded by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) instrument for several of the impact events. Seventeen discrete wavelength channels were used between 0.7 to 5.0 microns, obtained with a time resolution of 5 seconds. Two phases of the impact phenomena are found in the data: the initial fireball, which was evident for one minute, and subsequent fallback of impact ejecta onto the atmosphere, starting six minutes after fireball initiation.

  11. 2015 Southern Taurid fireballs and asteroids 2005 UR and 2005 TF50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, A.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Rudawska, R.; Bęben, M.; Krzyżanowski, T.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Stolarz, M.; Gawroński, M.; Gozdalski, M.; Suchodolski, T.; Węgrzyk, W.; Tymiński, Z.

    2016-09-01

    On the night of October 31, 2015 two bright Southern Taurid fireballs occurred over Poland, being one of the most spectacular bolides of this shower in recent years. The first fireball - PF311015a Okonek - was detected by six video stations of Polish Fireball Network (PFN) and photographed by several bystanders, allowing for precise determination of the trajectory and orbit of the event. The PF311015a Okonek entered Earth's atmosphere with the velocity of 33.2 ± 0.1 km s-1 and started to shine at height of 117.88 ± 0.05 km. The maximum brightness of -16.0 ± 0.4 mag was reached at height of 82.5 ± 0.1 km. The trajectory of the fireball ended at height of 60.2 ± 0.2 km with terminal velocity of 30.2 ± 1.0 km s-1. The second fireball - PF311015b Ostrowite - was detected by six video stations of PFN. It started with velocity of 33.2 ± 0.1 km s-1 at height of 108.05 ± 0.02 km. The peak brightness of -14.8 ± 0.5 mag was recorded at height of 82.2 ± 0.1 km. The terminal velocity was 31.8 ± 0.5 km s-1 and was observed at height of 57.86 ± 0.03 km. The orbits of both fireballs are similar not only to orbits of Southern Taurids and comet 2P/Encke, but even closer resemblance was noticed for orbits of 2005 UR and 2005 TF50 asteroids. Especially the former object is interesting because of its close flyby during spectacular Taurid maximum in 2005. We carried out a further search to investigate the possible genetic relationship of Okonek and Ostrowite fireballs with both asteroids, that are considered to be associated with Taurid complex. Although, we could not have confirmed unequivocally the relation between fireballs and these objects, we showed that both asteroids could be associated, having the same origin in a disruption process that separates them.

  12. Fireball observations in central Europe and western Australia: instruments, methods, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurny, P.

    2012-01-01

    Penetration of larger meteoroids through the atmosphere which gives rise to spectacular luminous events - fireballs or even superbolides - is of the greatest interest. Their registrations, especially photographic and newly also photoelectric recordings, provide excellent means to examine physical properties as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of extraterrestrial matter in near-Earth space. The most efficient tools for registration of these very scarce events are the fireball networks: systems covering large areas of the Earth's surface, with multiple camera stations designed to image a large fraction of the night sky. Such camera networks for fireball observations have been set up in several nations at various times in the past (European Fireball Network (EN) in the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, and Slovakia; the Prairie Network in the USA; and the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) in Canada). Of these networks, only the European fireball network is still in operation, and this continuously since it was started up, but recently new networks were established in South-West Australia and in Ontario, Canada. The two main scientific aims of all these programs remain the same as in the very beginning - first, to constrain the flux of extraterrestrial material to the Earth over a range of masses, and second, to provide a statistically significant group of meteorites with accurate orbits. This contribution was focused on the current work and some particular recent results from the European Fireball Network, especially from its Czech part (current status is described, for example, by Spurny et al., 2006) and from the Desert Fireball Network in the Nullarbor Plains of South-West Australia (Bland, 2004; Spurny et al., 2012; and Bland et al., 2012). The mode of operation of both networks and the analysis methods used were described in detail and illustrated by some examples. Similarly, the most important recent results, especially from the

  13. 2015 Southern Taurid fireballs and asteroids 2005 UR and 2005 TF50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, A.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Rudawska, R.; Bęben, M.; Krzyżanowski, T.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Stolarz, M.; Gawroński, M.; Gozdalski, M.; Suchodolski, T.; Węgrzyk, W.; Tymiński, Z.

    2016-05-01

    On the night of Oct 31, 2015 two bright Southern Taurid fireballs occurred over Poland, being one of the most spectacular bolides of this shower in recent years. The first fireball - PF311015a Okonek - was detected by six video stations of Polish Fireball Network (PFN) and photographed by several bystanders, allowing for precise determination of the trajectory and orbit of the event. The PF311015a Okonek entered Earth's atmosphere with the velocity of 33.2 ± 0.1 km/s and started to shine at height of 117.88 ± 0.05 km. The maximum brightness of -16.0 ± 0.4 mag was reached at height of 82.5 ± 0.1 km. The trajectory of the fireball ended at height of 60.2 ± 0.2 km with terminal velocity of 30.2 ± 1.0 km/s. The second fireball - PF311015b Ostrowite - was detected by six video stations of PFN. It started with velocity of 33.2 ± 0.1 km/s at height of 108.05 ± 0.02 km. The peak brightness of -14.8 ± 0.5 mag was recorded at height of 82.2 ± 0.1 km. The terminal velocity was 31.8 ± 0.5 km/s and was observed at height of 57.86 ± 0.03 km. The orbits of both fireballs are similar not only to orbits of Southern Taurids and comet 2P/Encke, but even closer resemblance was noticed for orbits of 2005 UR and 2005 TF50 asteroids. Especially the former object is interesting because of its close flyby during spectacular Taurid maximum in 2005. We carried out a further search to investigate the possible genetic relationship of Okonek and Ostrowite fireballs with both asteroids, that are considered to be associated with Taurid complex. Although, we could not have confirmed unequivocally the relation between fireballs and these objects, we showed that both asteroids could be associated, having the same origin in a disruption process that separates them.

  14. Galileo Infrared Observations of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 G Impact Fireball: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Weissman, P. R.; Segura, M.; Hui, J.; Smythe, W. D.; Johnson, T.; Baines, K. H.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Leader, F. E.; Team, NIMS Science

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft was fortuitously situated for a direct view of the impacts of the fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in Jupiter's atmosphere. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer instrument observed several of the impact events in several discrete bands and with a temporal resolution of roughly five seconds. This report provides a preliminary description of the fireball phase.

  15. Remote and automatic small-scale observatories: experience with an all-sky fireball patrol camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a remote, automatic all-sky camera for capturing bright meteor trails based on a DSLR camera combined with Liquid Crystal shutter technology for angular velocity measurement. Design, performance and first results are discussed, as well the up scaling towards a large autonomous network for accurate fireball orbit determination and meteorite recovery.

  16. The results of observations of the twilight fireballs over Kiev and their classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, E. A.; Dashkiev, G. N.

    2015-08-01

    If fireball's track illuminated by rays of the just-gone sun, it can be visible as a bright silvery stripe against the twilight sky. We therefore called them twilight fireballs. In recent years the US geostationary satellites has repeatedly registered in Earth's atmosphere flash brighter -17m. The characteristic initial size of such stony body is 1-3 m. If these meteoroids are composed of ice and snow, their size increases up to tens of meters. After the event of Chelyabinsk bolide researchers suggested that such sight should be expected in 100-150 years. But in the evening of 29.03.2013 we were able to register a rare phenomenon of three fireball traces in the twilight sky over Kiev. They were formed during the 22 seconds after falling of three large fragments perhaps of cometary nucleus. Traces were visible for about 20 minutes. In the evening of 10/27/2013 we again observed a falling of bright (-16m) fireball over Kiev. Its dust trail was visible about 50 minutes. Over 2 years we have received several thousands of different "tracks in the sky." We propose to classify them into the following four types: AMT - aerometeorological tracks, ATT - aero-technical, AKT - aerospace, UNT - traces of unknown nature, not yet classified.

  17. Onset of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation in a double plasma system near a plasma fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma fireballs are generated due to a localized discharge and appear as a luminous glow with a sharp boundary, which suggests the presence of a localized electric field such as electrical sheath or double layer structure. The present work reports the observation of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation phenomena in plasma oscillations that are excited in the presence of fireball in a double plasma device. The controlling parameters for these observations are the ratio of target to source chamber (nT/nS) densities and applied electrode voltage. Homoclinic bifurcation is noticed in the plasma potential fluctuations as the system evolves from narrow to long time period oscillations and vice versa with the change of control parameter. The dynamical transition in plasma fireball is demonstrated by spectral analysis, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and statistical measures, viz., skewness and kurtosis. The increasing trend of normalized variance reflects that enhancing nT/nS induces irregularity in plasma dynamics. The exponential growth of the time period is strongly indicative of homoclinic bifurcation in the system. The gradual decrease of skewness and increase of kurtosis with the increase of nT/nS also reflect growing complexity in the system. The visual change of recurrence plot and gradual enhancement of RQA variables DET, Lmax, and ENT reflects the bifurcation behavior in the dynamics. The combination of RQA and spectral analysis is a clear evidence that homoclinic bifurcation occurs due to the presence of plasma fireball with different density ratios. However, inverse bifurcation takes place due to the change of fireball voltage. Some of the features observed in the experiment are consistent with a model that describes the dynamics of ionization instabilities.

  18. Trajectory and Analysis of Fireball-Meteorite ``2010.02.28 Kosice'' from Security Cameras and from Electomicroscopic Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubovics, I.; Vizi, P. G.

    2012-03-01

    We show our investigation about the 2010.02.28. fireball and meteorite Košice. Included trajectory analysis from security cameras (meteorite cameras were off because of cloudy sky) and detailed electronmicroscopic examination of meteorite.

  19. Analysis of the Bright Fireball over Kola Peninsula on April 19, 2014 Followed by Successful Meteorite Recovery Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Kohout, T.; Moilanen, J.; Midtskogen, S.; Kruglikov, N.; Ischenko, A.; Yakovlev, G.; Grokhovsky, V.; Haloda, J.; Halodova, P.; Lupovka, V.; Dmitriev, V.; Peltoniemi, J.; Aikkila, A.; Taavitsainen, A.; Lauanne, J.; Pekkola, M.; Kokko, P.; Lahtinen, P.

    2014-09-01

    The bright fireball on April 19, 2014 was imaged from Kuusamo, Mikkeli and Muhos (Finland), as well as from Snezhnogorsk (Russia). Based on these observations we present results on trajectory reconstruction which led to recovered meteorite fragments.

  20. The results of observations of the twilight fireballs over Kyiv and their classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, E. A.; Dashkiev, G. N.

    2015-09-01

    Fireball - a meteoritic phenomenon brighter -4m. If such dust track illuminated by rays of the just-gone sun, it can be visible as a bright silvery stripe against the twilight sky. We therefore called them twilight fireballs. In recent years the US geostationary satellites has repeatedly registered in Earth's atmosphere flash brighter -17m. The characteristic initial size of such stony body is 1-3 m. If these meteoroids are composed of ice and snow (fragments of comet nuclei), their size increases up to tens of meters. After the event of Chelyabinsk bolide researchers suggested that such sight should be expected in 100-150 years. But in the evening of 29.03.2013 we were able to register a rare phenomenon of three fireball traces in the twilight sky over Kiev. They were formed during the 12 seconds after falling of three large fragments perhaps of cometary nucleus [1]. Traces were visible for about 20 minutes. In the evening of 10/27/2013 we again observed a falling of bright (-16m) fireball over Kiev. Its dust trail was visible about 50 minutes. Over 2 years we have received several thousands of different "tracks in the sky." We propose [2] to classify them into the following four types: AM - aerometeorological, AT - aero-technical, AK - aerospace, others - not yet classified. A detailed study of our photo library allows to make such conclusions. 1. We have discovered a new class of astronomical objects - fragments of cometary nuclei, "scratching" the Earth (erdgreyzery). 2. is proposed and tested a new class of effective twilight observations of fireballs. References. [1] Churjumov K. I., Vidmachenko A. P., Steklov A. F., Steklov E. A. Three bright bolides in Kiev sky on 29 March 2013 // Conference "Meteoroids 2013". Program and abstracts. 26-30 Aug. 2013, Poznan;, Poland P. 77. [2] Churyumov K. I., Steklov O. F., Vidmachenko A. P., Steklov E. A. Traces on sky: the classification and the results of regular observations of twilight fireballs // Astronomical School

  1. Noise and dark performance for FIREBall-2 EMCCD delta-doped CCD detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamden, Erika T.; Lingner, Nicole; Kyne, Gillian; Morrissey, Patrick; Martin, D. Christopher

    2015-09-01

    The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is an experiment designed to observe low density emission from HI, CIV, and OVI in the circum-galactic medium around low-redshift galaxies. To detect this diffuse emission, we use a high-efficiency photon-counting EMCCD as part of FIREBall-2's detector. The flight camera system includes a custom printed circuit board, a mechanical cryo-cooler, zeolite and charcoal getters, and a Nüvü controller, for fast read-out speeds and waveform shaping. Here we report on overall detector system performance, including pressure and temperature stability. We describe dark current and CIC measurements at several temperatures and substrate voltages, with the flight set-up.

  2. Structure of the plasma fireball produced by a CO2 laser.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, E. V.; Bekefi, G.; Ya'akobi, B.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the space and time resolved structure of a helium plasma produced with a repetitive CO2 laser during the first 15 microsec of the afterglow period. The spectra of several neutral and ionized helium lines are used in the determination of the density and temperature profiles of the luminous fireball. It is found that the plasma is comprised of a dense hot core, which emits primarily ionic lines, and a well-defined tenuous outer shell, which is primarily the source of neutral emission lines. This ?two-component' plasma structure develops at about 0.4 microsec after breakdown, at about the time when the luminous fireball dissipates its expansion energy and comes to a virtual standstill.

  3. Vigie Ciel a collaborative project to study fireballs and organise meteorite recoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Lewin, E.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Rotaru, M.; Labenne, L.; Julien, J. F.; Linares, M.; Steinhausser, A.; Rault, J. L.; Vernazza, P.

    2015-10-01

    Research on fireballs and meteorites has always been of interest to the public, due to the beauty of shooting stars in the night sky and to the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. A fireball observation network called FRIPON [1] (Colas et al, 2015) is currently being setup, funded by ANR (Agence Nationale pour la Recherche). It will cover France with 100 cameras and is expected to be operational for the end of 2015. FRIPON will detect fireballs and hence allow us to define meteorite strewn fields within 24h, so that meteorite searches can be launched very early on. Because of the need to search all over France, including in private land, it is important that the general public be aware of our project and be willing to help or participate. Indeed, as the main goal of FRIPON is to recover fresh meteorites (within a few days), our aim is to be able to organize a search with at least 50 persons to scan an area of a few km2 within a week. Help from the public would hence be most helpful but it is also important to have an operational and trained research team. This project thus appears as a unique occasion to involve the public in a scientific project while promoting informal scientific education. This prompted us to set up Vigie-Ciel, a citizen science network centered on meteorite recovery. FRIPON is an open network based on open-source software, it will accept citizenrun cameras. In addition to fireballs, it will allow scientists and Vigie-Ciel participants to study anything that can be observed by all-sky cameras: bird migrations, bats, clouds, lightning, etc. The data will be freely available to all.

  4. The UV multi-object slit-spectrograph FIREBall-2 simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, P.; Pascal, S.; Quiret, S.; Corlies, L.; Vibert, D.; Grange, R.; Milliard, B.

    2015-08-01

    The FIREBall-2 Instrument Model (FIREBallIMO) is a piece of software simulating the optical behaviour of the Multi-Object Two-Curved Schmidt Slit Spectograph of FIREBall-2 (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission BALLoon), a balloon-borne telescope (40 km in alt.) designed to perform a direct detection of the faint Circum Galactic Medium (CGM) in emission around low-z galaxies. The spectrograph has been optimized to operate in a narrow UV band [195-225] nanometers, the so-called atmospheric sweet spot, where the sky background presents no emission lines and can be considered approximately flat, a value of 500 continnum units, seen through an optical transmission of 50% at an atmospheric pressure of 3 millibars. This paper gives an overview of the software current modular architecture after a year of productive effort (in terms of parametric model space definition, associated data cubes generation and digital processing) starting from the instrument initial optical model designed under Zemax software to the final 2D-detected image. A special emphasis is put on the design of a cython-wrapped driver able to retrieve dense ray-sampled PSFs out of the Zemax box efficiently. The optical mappings and distortions from the sky to the spectrograph's entrance slit plane and from the sky to the detection plane are presented, as well as some end-to-end simulations leading to Signal-to-Noise Ratio estimates computed on artificial point-like or extended test sources.

  5. A novel approach to fireball modeling: The observable and the calculated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Eleanor Kate; Bland, Philip; Paxman, Jonathan; Towner, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Estimating the mass of a meteoroid passing through the Earth's atmosphere is essential to determining potential meteorite fall positions. High-resolution fireball images from dedicated camera networks provide the position and timing for fireball bright flight trajectories. There are two established mass determination methods: the photometric and the dynamic. A new approach is proposed, based on the dynamic method. A dynamic optimization initially constrains unknown meteoroid characteristics which are then used in a parametric model for an extended Kalman filter. The extended Kalman filter estimates the position, velocity, and mass of the meteoroid body throughout its flight, and quantitatively models uncertainties. Uncertainties have not previously been modeled so explicitly and are essential for determining fall distributions for potential meteorites. This two-step method aims to automate the process of mass determination for application to any trajectory data set and has been applied to observations of the Bunburra Rockhole fireball. The new method naturally handles noisy raw data. Initial and terminal bright flight mass results are consistent with other works based on the established photometric method and cosmic ray analysis. A full analysis of fragmentation and the variability in the heat-transfer coefficient will be explored in future versions of the model.

  6. Bright fireballs associated with the potentially hazardous asteroid 2007LQ19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, José M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Ortiz, José L.; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Cabrera-Caño, Jesús

    2014-09-01

    We analyse here two very bright fireballs produced by the ablation in the atmosphere of two large meteoroids in 2009 and 2010. These slow-moving and deep-penetrating events were observed over Spain in the framework of our Spanish Fireball Network continuous meteor monitoring campaign. The analysis of the emission spectrum imaged for one of these fireballs has provided the first clues about the chemical nature of the progenitor meteoroids. The orbital parameters of these particles suggest a likely association with the recently identified July ρ-Herculid (JRH) meteoroid stream. In addition, considerations about the likely parent body of this stream are also made on the basis of orbital dissimilarity criteria. This orbital analysis reveals that both meteoroids and PHA 2007LQ19 exhibit a similar evolution during a time period of almost 8000 years, which suggests that either this near Earth object (NEO) is the potential parent of these particles or that this NEO and both meteoroids had a common progenitor in the past.

  7. Meteor reporting made easy- The Fireballs in the Sky smartphone app

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, E.; Ridgewell, J.; Bland, P.; Paxman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using smartphone technology, the award-winning 'Fireballs in the Sky' app provides a new approach to public meteor reporting. Using the internal GPS and sensors of a smartphone, a user can record the start and end position of a meteor sighting with a background star field as reference. Animations are used to visualize the duration and characteristics of the meteor. The intuitive application can be used in situ, providing a more accurate eye witness account than after-the-fact reports (although reports may also be made through a website interface). Since its launch in 2013, the app has received over 2000 submissions, including 73 events which were reported by multiple users. The app database is linked to the Desert Fireball Network in Australia (DFN), meaning app reports can be confirmed by DFN observatories. Supporting features include an integrated meteor shower tool that provides updates on active showers, their visibility based on moon phase, as well as a tool to point the user toward the radiant. The locations of reports are also now shown on a live map on the Fireballs in the Sky webpage.

  8. A Bright Multiple Fragmentation Fireball and Meteorite Fall at Buzzard Coulee, Saskatchewan, Canada, November 20, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Milley, E. P.; Brown, P. G.; McCausland, P. J.; Edwards, W. N.; Beech, M.; Ling, A.; Sarty, G.; Paulson, M.; Maillet, L. A.; Jones, S. F.; Stauffer, M. R.; Hutson, M. L.; Ruzicka, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    A bright fireball was widely observed across Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Montana during late twilight on November 20, 2008. The fireball and subsequent dust trail, or shadows cast by the fireball, were widely recorded. The meteoroid had a below average initial velocity and sufficient data exist to constrain the orbit. The fireball fragmented multiple times over ~ 3 seconds with significant fragmentation continuing deep within the atmosphere to ~ 12 km altitude. After the initial meteorite recovery in Buzzard Coulee, SK, Nov. 27, 2008, a strewn field ~ 10 kilometers long and ~ 3 km wide with a wind drift tail of an additional ~ 3 km eastwards has been crudely outlined. Buzzard Coulee is an H4 chondrite at the low end of the thermal range and may be transitional to type 3. Two lithologies are contrasted by variation in the chondrule sizes; the finer grained phase has a abundance of > 200 micron cryptocrystalline chondrules. The meteorite is also distinguished by the presence of light coloured igneous-textured inclusions up to /sim 5 mm in size. Brecciation is only rarely visible in hand specimen, but where observable the inclusions are found only in the matrix. The meteorites are distinguished by the large number of specimens with immature surfaces (angular shapes with numerous small piezoglypts) presumably reflecting the meteoroids' late stage fragmentation low in the atmosphere. The general lack of veins and brecciation is consistent with the relatively low S2 shock state. Densities measured on six specimens span 3.26 gcm-3 to 3.45 gcm-3 with some evidence for a bimodal distribution. Abundant sonic phenomena were reported by witnesses including anomalous sounds, explosion booms, staccato cracks, and late-stage whirring sounds. The staccato cracks are interpreted as closely spaced arrivals of discrete sonic booms from individual fragments while the latter were still supersonic in the early portion of their dark flight; this type of sound was reported only

  9. The physical-chemical properties of substance of the bright fireball EN171101 Turyi Remety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Belevtsev, Rudolf; Sobotovich, Emlen; Spivak, Svitlana; Churyumova, Tetyana

    2015-03-01

    In 2007-2011 searches were conducted for mineralogical and geochemical studies of the soil in the region of fall down of a bright fireball EN171101 ``Turyi Remety`` matter in Perechyn district of Transcarpathian. In the assumed location of the fall of a meteorite material for analysis was taken from the bottom of streams of Transcarpathian Mountains. In this matter we have been found numerous small magnetic spheres (microspherul) and fused segments, which have enough large sizes - up to 5 mm in diameter, which probably are fragments of the Turyi Remety meteoroid. One of the known signs of fireballs are sand-sized magnetic balls (by diameter 0.1-1.0 mm), which are often found in the magnetic concentrate fraction. This small balls, together with fragments of fused iotsit (FeO) are formed during the ablation of the meteoroid, and their sizes decreases during the motion of the meteoroid in the Earths atmosphere. From the east to the west, the radius of the balls in the study area decreased from an average of 0.7-0.5 mm to 0.1-0.3 mm. The sizes of such balls, as glowing molten particles of the meteoroid, are in good agreement with calculations based on the energy loss of the Turyi Remety meteoroid. This confirms the cosmic origin of these found small balls. Pre-calculated physical parameters of the Turyi Remety meteoroid are the velocity, mass, kinetic energy, the resistance force during ablation, the average fireball particle radius along trajectory path of a meteoroid fragments depending from the mass and size. Rapid mass loss of the meteoroid in more than 10 times, stronger, shorter ablation and damping fireball at the high altitude say about instability and the participation of the meteoroid gas in ablation. Perhaps the presence of ice, and other fireball gases in the meteoroid composition shows that its composition was close to comet one or to a chondrite with ice (gas hydrates). Especially likely gaseous hydrates of heavy gases such as CO2, H2S, hydrocarbons

  10. FIREBALL: Fusion Ignition Rocket Engine with Ballistic Ablative Lithium Liner

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Lee, Michael H.; Fimognari, Peter J.

    2006-01-20

    Thermo-nuclear fusion may be the key to a high Isp, high specific power propulsion system. In a fusion system energy is liberated within, and imparted directly to, the propellant. In principle, this can overcome the performance limitations inherent in systems that require thermal power transfer across a material boundary, and/or multiple power conversion stages (NTR, NEP). A thermo-nuclear propulsion system, which attempts to overcome some of the problems inherent in the Orion concept, is described. A dense FRC plasmoid is accelerated to high velocity (in excess of 500 km/s) and is compressed into a detached liner (pulse unit). The kinetic energy of the FRC is converted into thermal and magnetic-field energy, igniting a fusion burn in the magnetically confined plasma. The fusion reaction serves as an ignition source for the liner, which is made out of detonable materials. The energy liberated in this process is converted to thrust by a pusher-plate, as in the classic Orion concept. However with this concept, the vehicle does not carry a magazine of autonomous pulse-units. By accelerating a second, heavier FRC, which acts as a piston, right behind the first one, the velocity required to initiate the fusion burn is greatly reduced.

  11. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  12. Phenomenological model for infrared emissions from high-explosive detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Kevin C.

    Prior to this work, a phenomenological description of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) emissions from high-explosive (HE) detonation fireballs did not exist, hampering efforts to classify the type and size of HEs from their electro-optical signatures. In recent field tests, temporally-resolved infrared spectra (0.05 ≤ Delta t ≤ 0.12 s, 2 ≤ Deltanu ≤ 8 cm -1) were collected via a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) from the detonation fireballs of two types of conventional military munitions (CMM) as well as uncased TNT and four types of enhanced novel explosives (ENEs). The FTS data is not appreciably corrupted by artifacts due to scene changes resulting from the fast transient events. The CMM spectra are dominated by continuum emission, and a single-temperature Planckian distribution, modified for atmospheric attenuation, captures most of the variation in the data. Fitted CMM temperatures are well described by an exponential decay to ambient at an approximate rate of 0.8 s-1. A two-temperature fit to CMM spectra improved results, suggesting variations in the temperature field are important. Some evidence of selective emission is identified by systematic patterns in the fit residuals. The behavior of these systematic residuals affords a distinction between the two types of CMMs studied. The uncased TNT and ENE spectra appear strongly influenced by both continuum and selective emission. For the purpose of dimensionality reduction, a physics-based spectral model is developed consisting of seven parameters---fireball size, temperature, particulate absorption coefficient, and gas concentrations for H2O, CO2, CO, and HCl. Fitting this model to the observed MWIR spectra affords a compact, high-fidelity representation with physically-constrained features that correlate with both the type and weight of the HE. For example, the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (R) estimated from the fitted concentrations separates the TNT and ENE events. Spectrally-determined R values are somewhat

  13. These are images of the fireball associated with the R fragment of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, obtained

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are images of the fireball associated with the R fragment of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, obtained with the MIRAC Mid Infrared Array Camera at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea. The three images are 2-second exposures at 7.85, 10.3, and 12.2 microns, characteristic of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, respectively. They were obtained about 15 minutes after the predicted impact time during the rise in brightness of the explosion fireball. At maximum, the fireball surface brightness was about 50 times that of Jupiter. The images are displayed with logrithmic scaling in order to display the full range of brightness. The multiple thermal wavelengths will help determine the temperature evolution of the plume and distinguish between gasous and particulate emission. The images were obtained by the NASA/IRTF Shoemaker-Levy Science Team.

  14. Fireball on 6 July 2002 over the Mediterranean Sea is a fragment of the comet's nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim; Kruchinenko, Vitaly G.; Churyumova, Tetyana; Mozgova, Alyona

    2015-03-01

    Today has been known for a considerable number of cases, the explosion of large meteoroids in Earth's atmosphere. This is confirmed by the data of registrations of fireballs by devices and the results of measurements in the atmosphere of bright light flashes by photodiodes Corporation ``Sandia Laboratories", which were installed on geostationary satellites of the United States, and also by data of measurements of acoustic-gravitational waves from the thermal explosions of meteoroids [ReVelle D.O. Historical detection of atmospheric impacts by large bolides using acoustic-gravity waves, Near-Earth Objects, Ed. Remo J. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 882, 284-302, 1997]. The work [Brown P., Spalding R.E., ReVelle D.O. et al. The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth, Nature 420, 314-316, 2002.] shows the results of processing the observations of flashes of large meteoroids in Earth's atmosphere, obtained with the help of geostationary satellites of the United States. Over 8.5 years (from February 1994 to September 2002) 300 such events were registered. On July 6, 2002 r over the Mediterranean Sea a bright fireball was registered. The energy of the meteoroid explosion that caused the phenomenon of the car, was 26 kilotons of TNT [Brown et al., 2002]. We believe that this energy refers to the height of the full bracking of the meteoroid. At a speed of 20.3 km/s adopted by the authors, body mass at this height is 5 × 108 g, and when entering the Earth's atmosphere, it was about 7 × 108 g. Based on the obtained values of the mass, we conclude that the exploded meteoroid, causing a phenomenon of the fireball was a fragment of the comet nucleus. In processing the density of the body were taken 1 g/cm 3 and the initial velocity (~30 km/s).

  15. Fireball data analysis: bridging the gap between small solar system bodies and meteorite studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Moreno-Ibáñez, Manuel; Kuznetsova, Daria; Bouquet, Alexis; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Koschny, Detlef

    2015-08-01

    One of the important steps in identification of meteorite-producing fireballs and prediction of impact threat to Earth raised by potentially hazardous asteroids is the understanding and modeling of processes accompanying the object’s entry into the terrestrial atmosphere (Gritsevich et al., 2012). Such knowledge enables characterization, simulation and classification of possible impact consequences with further reommendation for potential meteorite searches. Using dimensionless expressions, which involve the pre-atmospheric meteoroid parameters, we have built physically based parametrisation to describe changes in mass, height, velocity and luminosity of the object along its atmospheric path (Gritsevich and Koschny, 2011; Bouquet et al., 2014). The developed model is suitable to estimate a number of crucial unknown values including shape change coefficient, ablation rate, and surviving meteorite mass. It is also applicable to predict the terminal height of the luminous flight and therefore, duration of the fireball (Moreno-Ibáñez et al., 2015). Besides the model description, we demonstrate its application using the wide range of observational data from meteorite-producing fireballs appearing annually (such as Košice) to larger scale impacts (such as Chelyabinsk, Sikhote-Alin and Tunguska).REFERENCESBouquet A., Baratoux D., Vaubaillon J., Gritsevich M.I., Mimoun D., Mousis O., Bouley S. (2014): Planetary and Space Science, 103, 238-249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2014.09.001Gritsevich M., Koschny D. (2011): Icarus, 212(2), 877-884, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.033Gritsevich M.I., Stulov V.P., Turchak L.I. (2012): Cosmic Research, 50(1), 56-64, http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0010952512010017Moreno-Ibáñez M., Gritsevich M., Trigo-Rodríguez J.M. (2015): Icarus, 250, 544-552, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.12.027

  16. Traces on sky: the classification and the results of regular observations of twilight fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, Klim I.; Steklov, Alexei F.; Vidmachenko, Anatoliy P.; Steklov, E.

    2014-12-01

    We propose to organize a small basic Observatory aerospace monitoring of dangerous fireballs for a detailed study of the Earth interaction with space environment. During the observation from March 2013 to July 2014 we recorded fall at least a dozen of comet nuclei fragments, at least five large and dozens of smaller fragments of meteoroids. So, like most countries in Europe and America, Ukraine needs to create a network of small basic aerospace monitoring observatories equipped with wide-angle lenses with a simple compact camera to measure these phenomena on a personal computer. These simple inexpensive hardware complexes should be equipped a professional observatory and university, school and amateur observation points.

  17. Detection of the large meteoroid/NEO flux using infrasound: Recent detection of the November 21, 1995 Colorado fireball

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D.O.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    During the early morning of November 21, 1995, a fireball as bright as the full moon entered the atmosphere over southeastern Colorado and subsequently produced audible sonic boom reports from Texas to Wyoming. The event was detected locally by a security video camera which showed the reflection of the fireball event on the hood of a truck. The camera also recorded tree shadows cast by the light of the fireball. This recording includes the audio signal of a strong double boom as well. Subsequent investigation of the array near Los Alamos, New Mexico operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of its commitment to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty negotiations, showed the presence of an infrasonic signal from the proper direction at about the correct time for this fireball. The Los Alamos array is a four-element infrasonic array in near-continuous operation on the Laboratory property. The preliminary characteristics of the signal include the signal onset arrival time of 0939:20 UT (0239:20 MST), with a maximum timing uncertainty of {+-} 2 minutes, the signal onset time delay from the appearance of the fireball of 19 minutes, 20 seconds, the total signal duration of 2 minutes 10 seconds, the source location toward 31 degrees from true north, the horizontal trace velocity of 429 m/sec, the signal velocity of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 km/sec, assuming a 400 km horizontal range to the fireball, the dominant signal frequency content of 0.25 to 0.84 Hz (analyzed in the frequency interval from 0.2 to 2.0 Hz), the maximum signal cross-correlation of 0.97 and the maximum signal amplitude of 2.0 {+-} 0.1 microbars. Also, on the basis of the signal period at maximum amplitude, we estimate a source energy for this event of between 10 to 100 tons of TNT (53.0 tons nominal).

  18. Buoyancy of the ''Y2K'' Persistent Train and the Trajectory of the 04:00:29 UT Leonid Fireball

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Rairden, Rick L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric trajectory is calculated of a particularly well studied fireball and train during the 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. Less than a minute after the meteor's first appearance, the train curves into a '2'-shape, which persisted until at least 13 minutes after the fireball. We conclude that the shape results because of horizontal winds from gravity waves with a scale height of 8.3 km at 79-91 km altitude, as well as a westerly wind gradient with altitude. In addition, there is downward drift that affects the formation of loops in the train early on.

  19. Precise multi-instrument data on exceptional fireballs recorded over Central Europe in the period 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurny, P.; Borovicka, J.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Instrumental recordings of fireballs provide an excellent means of examining the physical and structural properties of larger meteoroids, as well as their temporal and spatial distribution in the Solar System. Except direct information about this component of interplanetary bodies this study also yields very valuable knowledge about their parent bodies, asteroids and comets. In some special and very rare cases, when such instrumentally observed fireball terminates by a meteorite fall, we have even direct information about the composition, structure and mineralogy not only of this particular meteorite but also of its parent body. The most efficient systems for systematic fireball observations are so-called fireball networks. In this work we present precise and complex data on several exceptional fireballs based on photographic and photoelectric records taken by the Czech Fireball Network, which is the longest continuously operated and the most developed part of the European Fireball Network (EN). Instruments and data processing: The Czech part of the EN has been entirely modernized in the last decade and its operation was in the large extent automatized [1]. This change significantly increased not only efficiency but also quality and complexity of our observations. However, this observing system, which provides us with photographic and photoelectric data about fireballs brighter than -4 magnitude, still uses photographic films, which brings some limitations for the data processing. Primarily it implies a non-negligible delay between data acquisition and their analysis as we had to transport photographic films physically from remote stations and only then to develop and digitize them. There is also much lower efficiency of observations during the full Moon period than during moonless nights. Taking the advantage of fast progress of digital photography, we have constructed a new generation of the Digital Autonomous Fireball Observatory (DAFO), which

  20. Chelyabinsk, Zond IV, and a possible first-century fireball of historical importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2015-03-01

    The well-recorded Chelyabinsk event, the Tunguska event, and the re-entry of the Zond IV vehicle offer opportunities to compare reactions of modern eyewitnesses to eyewitness accounts of possible ancient fireball events. The first-century book, Acts of the Apostles, gives three separate descriptions of a bright light "from heaven," which occurred probably in the 30s (C.E.) near Damascus, Syria. The details offer a strikingly good match to a Chelyabinsk-class or Tunguska-class fireball. Among the most impressive, unexpected consistencies with modern knowledge is the first-century description of symptoms of temporary blindness caused by exposure to intense radiation, matching a condition now known as photokeratitis. An analysis of the re-entry of debris from the Russian Zond IV over the eastern United States in 1968 shows how actual perceived phenomena in an unfamiliar natural celestial apparition are often conceived by the observer in terms of current cultural conceptions, and it is suggested that this happened also in the first-century case.

  1. On the dispersion relation of the transit time instability in inverted fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, J.

    2014-08-15

    Recently discovered inverted fireballs are non-linear plasma phenomena, which are formed in hollow grid anodes with high transparency in an existing background plasma. If a sufficiently large potential is applied, accelerated electrons from the bulk start to oscillate through the grid. Experimental investigations have shown that they produce different types of plasma instabilities. One of those oscillations is a transit time instability which originates from strong electron beams that travel through the inverted fireball. This type of instability is similar to vircator reflex oscillations and produces radio frequency waves. Hence, it is suitable to convert DC signals into signals oscillating in the MHz range. This paper analyses the dispersion relation of the transit time instability for three different plasma regimes. The regimes can be divided into a collision less regime, a regime with high collisionality and one in between those former two. It is demonstrated that the plasma properties of the surrounding background plasma have a strong influence on the behavior of the instability itself.

  2. On the dispersion relation of the transit time instability in inverted fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenwald, J.

    2014-08-01

    Recently discovered inverted fireballs are non-linear plasma phenomena, which are formed in hollow grid anodes with high transparency in an existing background plasma. If a sufficiently large potential is applied, accelerated electrons from the bulk start to oscillate through the grid. Experimental investigations have shown that they produce different types of plasma instabilities. One of those oscillations is a transit time instability which originates from strong electron beams that travel through the inverted fireball. This type of instability is similar to vircator reflex oscillations and produces radio frequency waves. Hence, it is suitable to convert DC signals into signals oscillating in the MHz range. This paper analyses the dispersion relation of the transit time instability for three different plasma regimes. The regimes can be divided into a collision less regime, a regime with high collisionality and one in between those former two. It is demonstrated that the plasma properties of the surrounding background plasma have a strong influence on the behavior of the instability itself.

  3. Noise and dark performance for the FIREBall-2 EMCCD delta-doped UV optimized CCD detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamden, Erika T.; Lingner, Nicole; Kyne, Gillian; Morrissey, Patrick; Martin, Christopher D.; FIREBall-2 Team

    2016-01-01

    The Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is a UV multi-object spectrograph experiment designed to observe low-density emission from HI, CIV, and OVI in the circum-galactic medium (CGM) around low-redshift galaxies (z=0.3-1.0) from a high altitude balloon. To detect this diffuse emission, we have chosen to use a high-efficiency photon-counting EMCCD as part of FIREBall-2's detector system. The flight camera system includes a custom printed circuit board, a mechanical cryo-cooler, zeolite and charcoal getters, and a NUVU controller, for fast read-out speeds and waveform shaping. Here we report on overall detector system performance. We describe our characterization of detector noise from a delta-doped, anti-reflection-coated, electron-multiplying e2v CCD201-20. We describe our use of a NUVU controller to create custom waveforms that reduce clock-induced charge (CIC). We detail the clock frequencies, waveform shapes, and well depths required to reduce parallel and serial CIC to acceptable levels for our application (~10-3 events/pix/frame), at a range of substrate voltages. We also describe dark current measurements at several temperatures, including at our operating temperature of -115°C, with the flight set-up.

  4. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  5. SPA Meteor Section Results: Unusual Long-Lived Fireball, 2012 March 3, 21h41m-21h42m UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair

    2012-06-01

    An analysis based on 376 eye-witness reports and details from 15 images and videos is presented of a remarkably persistent natural fireball which was widely-observed from the British Isles on 2012 March 3. The meteor survived for about 45+-15 s, and likely ended around 62 km altitude near Bozeat, Northamptonshire in southeast England. Simultaneous sounds were reported from seventeen places associated with the fireball, which probably peaked in the magnitude -9 to -15 range. Notes on six other fireball-class meteors reported from the UK on March 3-4 are given too.

  6. The Dresden (Ontario) H6 Chondrite, Part II: Classification Estimated Fireball Trajectory, and Possible Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, Phil J. A.; Brown, Peter G.; Wilson, Graham C.

    2006-06-01

    The Dresden (Ontario) meteorite fell in southwestern Ontario on the early evening of July 11, 1939. We re-examine this historic Canadian fall, consider the mineralogy, physical properties, and bulk chemistry of the meteorite, and estimate its trajectory and pre-atmospheric orbit based on visual accounts of the event. Mineralogical examination of several fragments of the meteorite reveals poor definition of chondrule margins, lack of glass, and the presence of minor feldspar, confirming Dresden (Ontario) to be an H6 ordinary chondrite. The bulk of the stone has undergone a low level of shock (S2) as indicated by generally clean extinction of silicate grains. A 12-g bulk sample of the Dresden (Ontario) main mass has elemental abundances that agree well with the H-chondrite average. The bulk density for Dresden (3.48+/-0.07 g/cm3) and porosity (4.9%) are also typical of H chondrites. Several accounts of the fall event constrain the Dresden fireball to have had a ground projection azimuth of ~050, passing from north of London, Ontario southwestwards toward Dresden. The tightly grouped strewnfield of fusion-encrusted fragments recovered ~10 km southwest of Dresden, Ontario suggests that the fireball trajectory was steep. Dark-flight simulations using the 050 azimuth best reproduce the recovered strewnfield distribution with an entry angle of >70°. The range of potential orbits derived from this inferred steep trajectory is consistent with previous orbits measured for meteorite-producing fireballs, and suggest that the Dresden meteoroid had an Apollo asteroid-type orbit, with a perihelion just inside that of the Earth's and a low-to-moderate inclination. The Dresden (Ontario) H6 chondrite is thus petrologically and dynamically similar to other H chondrites with known orbits. A comparison of the known H-chondrite orbits with a modelled debiased distribution of near-Earth objects indicates that the H chondrites were most likely delivered to the Earth via the v6 and the 3

  7. Specification of atmospheric density profiles for the fireball observations in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyytinen, E.; Gritsevich, M.

    2014-07-01

    This study is focused on the effects of the atmospheric density or constant pressure height changes on fireball entry modeling. When meteoroid entry into the atmosphere is registered instrumentally, many details may be revealed, including its velocity and deceleration values. The calculated meteoroid mass value is, however, proportional to the third power of the surrounding atmospheric density. Especially in high northern latitudes, like Finland, in winter a given pressure may be at least three kilometers below the standard atmosphere heights and differ even more from the simplified exponential scale-height atmosphere model. Thus the real mass value may significantly differ from calculations, if the atmospheric model correction is not taken into account. Furthermore, if the situation strongly changes with the change to stratospheric altitudes, this may also result in an erroneous ablation coefficient value revealed from the observations. This is especially crucial for low-velocity meteorite droppers with small ablation rate and consequently high terminal-to-initial mass ratio. Besides the general description of importance of the atmospheric corrections, we demonstrate how to introduce them in the model published in [1]. The input data in this model are velocity values at different heights, supplemented with times of the records or entry slope angle. Since the method [1] is general and can be applied to a large number of different meteor observations at once, the air-density-height relation is also generalized as a known exponential density law. Here we suggest more rigorous approach allowing to handle each particulate case in a greater details based on the real corresponding atmospheric measurements provided by weather services. In the improved model the velocity at each height is introduced as a function of the air mass above meteoroid, calculated along the path (i.e. with account for the trajectory slope). The air mass at each height is accurately calculated

  8. NEO fireball diversity: energetics-based entry modeling and analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Douglas O.

    2007-05-01

    Observations of fireballs reveal that a number of very different types of materials are routinely entering the atmosphere over a very large height and corresponding mass and energy range. There are five well-known fireball groups. The compositions of these groups can be reliably deduced on a statistical basis based entirely on their observed end-heights in the atmosphere (Ceplecha and McCrosky, 1970, Wetherill and ReVelle, 1981). ReVelle (1983, 2001, 2002, 2005) has also reinterpreted these observations in terms of the properties of porous meteoroids, using the degree to which the observational data can be reproduced using a modern hypersonic aerodynamic entry dynamics approach for porous as well as homogeneous bodies. These data and modeled parameters include the standard properties of drag, deceleration, ablation and fragmentation as well as most recently a model of the panchromatic luminous emission from the fireball during progressive atmospheric penetration. Using a recently developed bolide entry modeling code, ReVelle (2005) has systematically examined the behavior of meteoroids using their semi-well known physical properties. In order to illustrate this, we have investigated a sampling of four of the possible extremes within the NEO bolide population: 1) Type I: Antarctic bolide of 2003: A "small" Aten asteroid, 2) Type I: Park Forest meteorite fall: March 27, 2003, 3) Type I: Mediterranean bolide June 6, 2002, 4) Type II: Revelstoke meteorite fall: March 31, 1965 (with no luminosity data available), and 5) Type II/III: Tagish Lake meteorite fall: January 18, 2000 (with infrasonic data questionable?) In addition to the entry properties, each of these events (except possibly Tagish Lake) also had mechanical, acoustic-gravity waves generated that were subsequently detected following their entry into the atmosphere. Since these waves can also be used to identify key physical properties of these unusual objects, we will also report on our ability to model such

  9. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and its use for the identification of fireball fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, Ivan; Tomasik, Boris; Torrieri, Giorgio; Vogel, Sascha; Bleicher, Marcus; Korony, Samuel; Gintner, Mikulas

    2009-08-15

    We propose an application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for rapidity distributions of individual events in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The test is particularly suited to recognizing nonstatistical differences between the events. Thus when applied to a narrow centrality class it could indicate differences between events that would not be expected if all events evolved according to the same scenario. In particular, as an example we assume here a possible fragmentation of the fireball into smaller pieces at the quark/hadron phase transition. Quantitative studies are performed with a Monte Carlo model capable of simulating such a distribution of hadrons. We conclude that the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is a very powerful tool for the identification of the fragmentation process.

  10. First scientific results of the Fireball Detection Station at UCM Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Izquierdo, J.; Gallego, J.; Palos, M. F.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; García, R.; Santamaría, A.; Vázquez, C.; Menéndez, D.; González-Rodríguez, M. A.; de la Cruz, J. M.; Gonález-Escudero, R.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.; Mondragón, E.

    2013-05-01

    Observatorio UCM is one of the nodes of the Spanish Meteor Network (SPMN), an interdisciplinary research project on interplanetary matter. Since 2008 we are operating a high sensitivity camera in double station with UCLM in Toledo, and since 2010 we are operating the full station with 12 additional cameras. We present the scientific results of the UCM Fireball Detection Station during its 2 first years of operation. The main event was the observational campaign of the Draconids 2011 outburst with a mobile station and a stratospheric balloon. This campaign joins the general exploitation of the data generated continuously by the station in collaboration with SPMN. In addition to our outreach efforts in this field and the results obtained, the project has opened up itself even more to the society and students of Bachelor Degree in Physics from the UCM who have participated in the reduction and analysis of the data, some graduations projects and collaborations.

  11. Thermodynamics of Hot Nuclear Matter: 1978 in the Statistical Bootstrap Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann; Hagedorn, Rolf

    We formulate the statistical bootstrap model for nuclear matter, and study its resulting thermodynamic properties at nuclear densities below the saturation density. We discuss the relevance of limiting temperature and the phase transition gas-`liquid' when the volume of the fireball grows with its energy.

  12. Thermal dileptons from coarse-grained transport as fireball probes at SIS energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatyuk, Tetyana; Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf; Seck, Florian; Stroth, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Utilizing a coarse-graining method to convert hadronic transport simulations of Au+Au collisions at SIS energies into local temperature, baryon and pion densities, we compute the pertinent radiation of thermal dileptons based on an in-medium ρ spectral function that describes available spectra at ultrarelativistic collision energies. In particular, we analyze how far the resulting yields and slopes of the invariant-mass spectra can probe the lifetime and temperatures of the fireball. We find that dilepton radiation sets in after the initial overlap phase of the colliding nuclei of about 7fm/ c, and lasts for about 13fm/ c. This duration closely coincides with the development of the transverse collectivity of the baryons, thus establishing a direct correlation between hadronic collective effects and thermal EM radiation, and supporting a near local equilibration of the system. This fireball "lifetime" is substantially smaller than the typical 20-30fm/ c that naive considerations of the density evolution alone would suggest. We furthermore find that the total dilepton yield radiated into the invariant-mass window of M=0.3 -0.7GeV/ c^2 normalized to the number of charged pions, follows a relation to the lifetime found earlier in the (ultra-) relativistic regime of heavy-ion collisions, and thus corroborates the versatility of this tool. The spectral slopes of the invariant-mass spectra above the φ -meson mass provide a thermometer of the hottest phases of the collision, and agree well with the maximal temperatures extracted from the coarse-grained hadron spectra.

  13. Using optical techniques to measure aluminum burning in post-detonation explosive fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peuker, Jennifer Mott

    The objectives of the current study are twofold: (1) to further the understanding of aluminum combustion in an explosive fireball, specifically where, when, and with what the aluminum is reacting; and (2) to characterize AlO emission measurements from aluminized explosive fireballs in order to determine when and how AlO emission can be used as an indicator of aluminum combustion. Experiments were completed in six different environments using four distinct aluminized charges of varying aluminum particle size---3 microm, 10 microm and 40 microm---and loading amount---20 and 50 percent by mass---to determine with what the aluminum is reacting. In addition, a charge containing 20 percent aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was used as an inert comparison. The effect of the aluminum particle location with respect to the explosive material was tested by using end-loaded charges, and by placing a layer of grease on the aluminized charge tip. Time-resolved overpressure measurements are used to determine when the aluminum is burning. Experiments employing an air-gap between the explosive charge and aluminum powder aid in determining how and when aluminum is activated and combusted in the initial blast wave and the subsequent fireball containing high pressure and high temperature detonation products. Tests in four environments show that even when AlO emission intensity is lower by 90 percent in N2 or CO2 than it is in air for a charge, it is possible to have significant---60 to 70 percent---aluminum particle oxidation. In addition, substantial AlO emission was measured in the absence of unburned aluminum---almost half of the peak AlO emission measured when unburned aluminum was present. Results show that AlO emission intensity measurements are skewed to higher AlO intensities by high transient temperatures within the first 30 micros when the peak AlO emission is usually measured. The aluminum particle location also affects the amount of AlO emission measured such that when more particles

  14. Shock wave dynamics of novel aluminized detonations and empirical model for temperature evolution from post-detonation combustion fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, J. Motos

    Optical forensics of explosion events can play a vital role in investigating the chain of events leading up to the explosion by possibly identifying key spectral characteristics and even molecules in the post-detonation fireball that may serve as the fingerprint for a particular explosive type used. This research characterizes the blast wave and temperature evolution of an explosion fireball in order to improve the classification of aluminized conventional munitions based on a single explosive type such as RDX. High speed 4 kHz visible imagery is collected for 13 field detonations of aluminized novel munitions to study fireball and shock wave dynamics. The 238 mus temporal resolution visible imagery and the 12 ms temporal resolution FTS spectra are the data sets upon which shock wave dynamics and the time dependence of the fireball temperature are studied, respectively. The Sedov-Taylor point blast theory is fitted to data where a constant release (s = 1) of energy upon detonation suggests shock energies of 0.5--8.9 MJ corresponding to efficiencies of 2--15 percent of the RDX heats of detonation with blast dimensionalities indicative of the spherical geometry observed in visible imagery. A drag model fit to data shows initial shock wave speeds of Mach 4.7--8.2 and maximum fireball radii ranging from 4.3--5.8 m with most of the radii reached by 50 ms upon detonation. Initial shock speeds are four times lower than theoretical maximum detonation speed of RDX and likely contributes to the low efficiencies. An inverse correlation exists between blast wave energy and overall aluminum or liner content in the test articles. A two-color best fit Planckian is used to extract temperature profiles from collected Fourier-transform spectrometer spectra. The temperatures decay from initial values of 1290--1850 K to less than 1000 K within 1 s after detonation. A physics-based low-dimensionality empirical model is developed to represent the temperature evolution of post

  15. Detection of the large meteoroid/NEO flux using infrasound: recent detection of the November 21, 1995, Colorado fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Douglas O.; Whitaker, Rodney W.

    1996-10-01

    During the early morning of November 21, 1995, a fireball as bright as the full moon entered the atmosphere over southeastern Colorado and initially produced audible sonic boom reports from Texas to Wyoming. The event was detected locally by a security video camera which showed the reflection of the fireball event on the hood of a truck. The camera also recorded tree shadows cast by the light of the fireball. This recording includes the audio signal of a strong double boom as well. Subsequent investigation of the array near Los Alamos, New Mexico operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of its commitment to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty negotiations, showed the presence of an infrasonic signal from the proper direction at about the correct time for this fireball. The Los Alamos array is a four-element infrasonic system in near-continuous operation on the laboratory property. The nominal spacing between the array elements is 212 m. The basic sensor is a Globe Universal Sciences Model 100C microphone whose response is flat from about 0.1 to 300 Hz (which we filter at the high frequency end to be limited to 20 Hz). Each low frequency microphone is connected to a set of twelve porous hoses to reduce wind noise. The characteristics of the observed signal include the onset arrival time of 0939:20 UT (0239:20 MST), with a maximum timing uncertainty of plus or minus 2 minutes, the signal onset time delay from the appearance of the fireball of 21 minutes, 20 seconds, total signal duration of 2 minutes 10 seconds, the source location determined to be toward 31 degrees from true north, the horizontal trace velocity of 429 m/sec, the signal velocity of 0.29 plus or minus 0.03 km/sec, assuming a 375 km horizontal range to the fireball, the dominant signal frequency content of 0.25 to 0.84 Hz (analyzed in the frequency interval from 0.2 to 2.0 Hz), the maximum signal cross-correlation of 0.97 and the maximum signal amplitude of 2.0 plus or minus 0.1 microbars

  16. ICECUBE NONDETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: CONSTRAINTS ON THE FIREBALL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    He Haoning; Liu Ruoyu; Wang Xiangyu; Dai Zigao; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Murase, Kohta E-mail: ryliu@nju.edu.cn

    2012-06-10

    The increasingly deep limit on the neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with IceCube observations has reached a level that could place useful constraints on the fireball properties. We first present a revised analytic calculation of the neutrino flux that predicts a flux of one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by the IceCube Collaboration. For the benchmark model parameters (e.g., the bulk Lorentz factor is {Gamma} = 10{sup 2.5}, the observed variability time for the long GRBs is t{sup ob}{sub v} = 0.01 s, and the ratio between the energy in the accelerated protons and in the radiation is {eta}{sub p} = 10 for every burst) in the standard internal shock scenario, the predicted neutrino flux from 215 bursts during the period of the 40- and 59-string configurations is a factor of {approx}3 below the IceCube sensitivity. However, if we accept the recently found inherent relation between the bulk Lorentz factor and the burst energy, then the expected neutrino flux significantly increases and the spectral peak shifts to a lower energy. In this case, the nondetection implies that the baryon-loading ratio should be {eta}{sub p} {approx}< 10 if the variability time of the long GRBs is fixed to t{sup ob}{sub v} = 0.01 s. Instead, if we relax the standard internal-shock scenario but still assume {eta}{sub p} = 10, then the nondetection constrains the dissipation radius, R {approx}> 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm, assuming the same dissipation radius for every burst and benchmark parameters for the fireballs. We also calculate the diffuse neutrino flux from the GRBs for different luminosity functions from the literature. The expected flux exceeds the current IceCube limit for some of the luminosity functions, and, thus, the nondetection constrains {eta}{sub p} {approx}< 10 when the variability time of the long GRBs is fixed at t{sup ob}{sub v} = 0.01 s.

  17. A web-deployed interface for performing ab initio molecular dynamics, optimization, and electronic structure in FIREBALL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, J. Brandon; Fennick, Jacob R.; Junkermeier, Chad E.; Nelson, Daniel R.; Lewis, James P.

    2009-03-01

    FIREBALL is an ab initio technique for fast local orbital simulations of nanotechnological, solid state, and biological systems. We have implemented a convenient interface for new users and software architects in the platform-independent Java language to access FIREBALL's unique and powerful capabilities. The graphical user interface can be run directly from a web server or from within a larger framework such as the Computational Science and Engineering Online (CSE-Online) environment or the Distributed Analysis of Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE) framework. We demonstrate its use for high-throughput electronic structure calculations and a multi-100 atom quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Program summaryProgram title: FireballUI Catalogue identifier: AECF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 279 784 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 836 145 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: PC and workstation Operating system: The GUI will run under Windows, Mac and Linux. Executables for Mac and Linux are included in the package. RAM: 512 MB Word size: 32 or 64 bits Classification: 4.14 Nature of problem: The set up and running of many simulations (all of the same type), from the command line, is a slow process. But most research quality codes, including the ab initio tight-binding code FIREBALL, are designed to run from the command line. The desire is to have a method for quickly and efficiently setting up and running a host of simulations. Solution method: We have created a graphical user interface for use with the FIREBALL code. Once the user has created the files containing the atomic coordinates for each system that they are

  18. On tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the earth's magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Lepping, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma instrumentation (the Lepedea) and the magnetometer aboard IMP 8 performed correlative measurements of magnetic fields and plasmas within the geomagnetic tail at geocentric radial distances of about 23-46 R-E during March-October 1974. The hot tenuous plasmas within the plasma sheet were found to be in a state of almost continuous flow and were threaded with northward, or closed geomagnetic lines. The satellite encountered a region of acceleration in the magnetotail, the 'fireball' which exhibits strong jetting of plasmas in excess of 1000 km/s, proton temperatures of about 10 to the 7th K, disordered magnetic fields, southward magnetic fields during tailward jetting of plasmas, and northward magnetic fields for fast plasma flows toward earth. In addition, the magnetosheath plasmas within the boundary layers which are contiguous to the plasma sheet display evidence of plasma heating, great changes in bulk flow velocities, and acceleration of energetic electrons with an energy of greater than 45 keV.

  19. First scientific results of the Fireball Detection Station at UCM Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocana, Francisco; Zamorano, Jaime; Sanchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Izquierdo, Jaime; Palos, Mario F.; Rodriguez-Coira, Gustavo; Garcia, Raul; Vazquez, Cristian; Munoz-Ibanez, Barbara; Santamaria, Alejandro; Gallego, Jesus; Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep Maria; Madiedo, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    Observatorio UCM is one of the nodes of the Spanish Meteor Network (SPMN), an inter-disciplinary research project on interplanetary matter. Since 2008, we are operating a high-sensitivity camera in double-station with UCLM in Toledo, and, since 2010, we are operating the full station with 6 additional cameras. We present the scientific results of the UCM Fireball Detection Station during its first two years of operation. The main event was the observational campaign for the Draconids 2011 outburst with the addition of a mobile station and a stratospheric balloon. This campaign joins the general exploitation of the data generated continuously by the station in collaboration with SPMN. In addition to our outreach efforts in this field and the results obtained, the project has opened up itself even more to the society and students of the Bachelor Degree in Physics at UCM, who have participated in the reduction and analysis of the data as well as in some graduation projects and collaborations.

  20. Iron Minerals Formed by a Nuclear Explosion in a Salt Bed.

    PubMed

    Nathans, M W; Smith, D K; Kahn, J S

    1965-11-19

    The nuclear event, Gnome, was carried out in halite in the Salado formation and yielded a varied mineral assemblage. The iron suppor members reacted in the salt melt and formed several iron oxide phases. The magnetite which formed during the fireball stage reached in various ways with the environment to form higher oxides and hydrated oxides. PMID:17810111

  1. Heavy flavours production in quark-gluon plasma formed in high energy nuclear reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloskinski, J.

    1985-01-01

    Results on compression and temperatures of nuclear fireballs and on relative yield of strange and charmed hadrons are given . The results show that temperatures above 300 MeV and large compressions are unlikely achieved in average heavy ion collision. In consequence, thermal production of charm is low. Strange particle production is, however, substantial and indicates clear temperature - threshold behavior.

  2. Hot Electromagnetic Outflows. III. Displaced Fireball in a Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Gill, Ramandeep

    2014-08-01

    The evolution of a dilute electron-positron fireball is calculated in the regime of strong magnetization and high compactness (l ~ 103-108). Heating is applied at a low effective temperature (<25 keV), appropriate to breakout from a confining medium, so that relaxation to a blackbody is inhibited by pair annihilation. The diffusion equation for Compton scattering by thermal pairs is coupled to a trans-relativistic cyclo-synchrotron source. We find that the photon spectrum develops a quasi-thermal peak at energy ~0.1 mec 2 in the comoving frame, with a power-law slope below it that is characteristic of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; F ω ~ const). The formation of a thermal high-energy spectrum is checked using the full kinetic equations. Calculations for a baryon-dominated photosphere reveal a lower spectral peak energy, and a harder low-energy spectrum, unless ion rest mass carries <~ 10-5 of the energy flux. We infer that (1) the GRB spectrum is inconsistent with the neutron-rich wind emitted by a young magnetar or neutron torus, and points to an event horizon in the engine; (2) neutrons play a negligible role in prompt gamma-ray emission; (3) the relation between observed peak frequency and burst energy is bounded below by the observed Amati relation if the Lorentz factor ~(opening angle)-1 at breakout, and the jet is surrounded by a broader sheath that interacts with a collapsing stellar core; (4) X-ray flashes are consistent with magnetized jets with ion-dominated photospheres; (5) high-frequency Alfvén waves may become charge starved in the dilute pair gas; (6) limitations on magnetic reconnection from plasma collisionality have been overestimated.

  3. Characterization of Mason Gully (H5): The second recovered fall from the Desert Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyl, Kathryn A.; Benedix, Gretchen K.; Bland, Phil A.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Spurný, Pavel; Towner, Martin C.; O'Keefe, Mary Claire; Howard, Kieren; Greenwood, Richard; Macke, Robert J.; Britt, Daniel T.; Halfpenny, Angela; Thostenson, James O.; Rudolph, Rebecca A.; Rivers, Mark L.; Bevan, Alex W. R.

    2016-03-01

    Mason Gully, the second meteorite recovered using the Desert Fireball Network (DFN), is characterized using petrography, mineralogy, oxygen isotopes, bulk chemistry, and physical properties. Geochemical data are consistent with its classification as an H5 ordinary chondrite. Several properties distinguish it from most other H chondrites. Its 10.7% porosity is predominantly macroscopic, present as intergranular void spaces rather than microscopic cracks. Modal mineralogy (determined via PS-XRD, element mapping via energy dispersive spectroscopy [EDS], and X-ray tomography [for sulfide, metal, and porosity volume fractions]) consistently gives an unusually low olivine/orthopyroxene ratio (0.67-0.76 for Mason Gully versus ~1.3 for typical H5 ordinary chondrites). Widespread "silicate darkening" is observed. In addition, it contains a bright green crystalline object at the surface of the recovered stone (diameter ≈ 1.5 mm), which has a tridymite core with minor α-quartz and a rim of both low- and high-Ca pyroxene. The mineralogy allows the calculation of the temperatures and ƒ(O2) characterizing thermal metamorphism on the parent body using both the two-pyroxene and the olivine-chromite geo-oxybarometers. These indicate that MG experienced a peak metamorphic temperature of ~900 °C and had a similar ƒ(O2) to Kernouvé (H6) that was buffered by the reaction between olivine, metal, and pyroxene. There is no evidence for shock, consistent with the observed porosity structure. Thus, while Mason Gully has some unique properties, its geochemistry indicates a similar thermal evolution to other H chondrites. The presence of tridymite, while rare, is seen in other OCs and likely exogenous; however, the green object itself may result from metamorphism.

  4. Multi-wavelength Observations of GRB 111228A and Implications for the Fireball and its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Li-Ping; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Lin, Ting-Ting; Liang, En-Wei; Lü, Hou-Jun; Zhong, Shu-Qing; Urata, Yuji; Zhao, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Chao; Wei, Jian-Yan; Huang, Kui-Yun; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Jin-Song

    2016-02-01

    Observations of very early multi-wavelength afterglows are critical to reveal the properties of the radiating fireball and its environment as well as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We report our optical observations of GRB 111228A from 95 s to about 50 hr after the burst trigger and investigate its properties of the prompt gamma-rays and the ambient medium using our data and the data from the Swift and Fermi missions. Our joint optical and X-ray spectral fits to the afterglow data show that the ambient medium features a low dust-to-gas ratio. Incorporating the energy injection effect, our best fit to the afterglow light curves with the standard afterglow model via the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique shows that {ɛ }e=(6.9+/- 0.3)× {10}-2, {ɛ }B=(7.73+/- 0.62)× {10}-6,{E}K=(6.32+/- 0.86)× {10}53 {erg}, n=0.100+/- 0.014 cm-3. The low medium density likely implies that the afterglow jet may be in a halo or in a hot ISM. A chromatic shallow decay segment observed in the optical and X-ray bands is well explained with the long-lasting energy injection from the central engine, which would be a magnetar with a period of about 1.92 ms inferred from the data. The Ep of its time-integrated prompt gamma-ray spectrum is ˜26 KeV. Using the initial Lorentz factor ({{{Γ }}}0={476}-237+225) derived from our afterglow model fit, it is found that GRB 111228A satisfies the {L}{{iso}}-{E}p,z-{{{Γ }}}0 relation and bridges the typical GRBs and low luminosity GRBs in this relation.

  5. Hot electromagnetic outflows. III. Displaced fireball in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Christopher; Gill, Ramandeep

    2014-08-10

    The evolution of a dilute electron-positron fireball is calculated in the regime of strong magnetization and high compactness (ℓ ∼ 10{sup 3}-10{sup 8}). Heating is applied at a low effective temperature (<25 keV), appropriate to breakout from a confining medium, so that relaxation to a blackbody is inhibited by pair annihilation. The diffusion equation for Compton scattering by thermal pairs is coupled to a trans-relativistic cyclo-synchrotron source. We find that the photon spectrum develops a quasi-thermal peak at energy ∼0.1 m{sub e}c {sup 2} in the comoving frame, with a power-law slope below it that is characteristic of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; F{sub ω} ∼ const). The formation of a thermal high-energy spectrum is checked using the full kinetic equations. Calculations for a baryon-dominated photosphere reveal a lower spectral peak energy, and a harder low-energy spectrum, unless ion rest mass carries ≲ 10{sup –5} of the energy flux. We infer that (1) the GRB spectrum is inconsistent with the neutron-rich wind emitted by a young magnetar or neutron torus, and points to an event horizon in the engine; (2) neutrons play a negligible role in prompt gamma-ray emission; (3) the relation between observed peak frequency and burst energy is bounded below by the observed Amati relation if the Lorentz factor ∼(opening angle){sup –1} at breakout, and the jet is surrounded by a broader sheath that interacts with a collapsing stellar core; (4) X-ray flashes are consistent with magnetized jets with ion-dominated photospheres; (5) high-frequency Alfvén waves may become charge starved in the dilute pair gas; (6) limitations on magnetic reconnection from plasma collisionality have been overestimated.

  6. Propagation and neutrino oscillations in the base of a highly magnetized gamma-ray burst fireball flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fraija, N.

    2014-06-01

    Neutrons play an important role in the dynamics of gamma-ray bursts. The presence of neutrons in the baryon-loaded fireball is expected. If the neutron abundance is comparable to that of protons, important features may be observed, such as quasi-thermal multi-GeV neutrinos in coincidence with a subphotospheric γ-ray emission, nucleosynthesis at later times, and rebrightening of the afterglow emission. Additionally, thermal MeV neutrinos are created by electron-positron annihilation, electron (positron) capture on protons (neutrons), and nucleonic bremsstrahlung. Although MeV neutrinos are difficult to detect, quasi-thermal GeV neutrinos are expected in cubic kilometer detectors and/or DeepCore and IceCube. In this paper, we show that neutrino oscillations have outstanding implications for the dynamics of the fireball evolution and also that they can be detected through their flavor ratio on Earth. For that, we derive the resonance and charged-neutrality conditions as well as the neutrino self-energy and effective potential up to the order of m{sub W}{sup −4} at strong, moderate, and weak magnetic field approximations to constrain the dynamics of the fireball. We found important implications: (1) resonant oscillations are suppressed for high baryon densities as well as neutron abundance larger than that of protons, and (2) the effect of magnetic field is to decrease the proton-to-neutron ratio aside from the number of multi-GeV neutrinos expected in the DeepCore detector. Also, we estimate the GeV neutrino flavor ratios along the jet and on Earth.

  7. Robotic systems for the determination of the composition of solar system materials by means of fireball spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, José M.

    2014-12-01

    The operation of the automated CCD spectrographs deployed by the University of Huelva at different observatories along Spain is described. These devices are providing information about the chemical nature of meteoroids ablating in the atmosphere. In this way, relevant physico-chemical data are being obtained from the ground for materials coming from different bodies in the Solar System (mainly asteroids and comets). The spectrographs, which work in a fully autonomous way by means of software developed for this purpose, are being employed to perform a systematic fireball spectroscopic campaign since 2006. Some examples of meteor spectra obtained by these devices are also presented and discussed.

  8. PF131010 Ciechanów fireball: the body possibly related to near earth asteroids 2010 TB54 and 2010 SX11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, A.; Żołądek, P.; Wiśniewski, M.; Rudawska, R.; Laskowski, J.; Polakowski, K.; Maciejewski, M.; Krzyżanowski, T.; Fajfer, T.; Tymiński, Z.

    2015-12-01

    On 2010 October 13, the Apollo-type 20-m asteroid 2010 TB54 passed within 6.1 lunar distances from the Earth. On the same date, but 11.4 h earlier, exactly at 02:52:32 UT, the sky over central Poland was illuminated by the -8.6 mag PF131010 Ciechanów fireball. The trajectory and orbit of the fireball were computed using multi-station data from the Polish Fireball Network. The results indicate that the orbit of the meteoroid that caused the PF131010 fireball is similar to the orbit of asteroid 2010 TB54 and both bodies may be related. Moreover, 2 d before the appearance of the Ciechanów fireball, another small asteroid, 2010 SX11, passed close to the Earth-Moon system. Its orbit is even more similar to the orbit of the Ciechanów fireball's parent body than 2010 TB54. PF131010 Ciechanów entered Earth's atmosphere with a velocity of 12.9 ± 0.2 km s-1 and started to shine at a height of 82.5 ± 0.3 km. Clear deceleration started after the first 3 s of flight, and the terminal velocity of the meteor was only 5.8 ± 0.2 km s-1 at a height of 29.3 ± 0.1 km. Such a low terminal velocity indicates that fragments with a total mass of around 2 kg could survive the atmospheric passage and cause a fall of meteorites. The predicted area of possible meteorite impact is computed as being near Grabowo village south of Ostrołęka city.

  9. The fall of the Grimsby meteorite—I: Fireball dynamics and orbit from radar, video, and infrasound records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; McCausland, P. J. A.; Fries, M.; Silber, E.; Edwards, W. N.; Wong, D. K.; Weryk, R. J.; Fries, J.; Krzeminski, Z.

    2011-03-01

    The Grimsby meteorite (H4-06) fell on September 25, 2009. As of mid-2010, 13 fragments totaling 215 g have been recovered. Records of the accompanying fireball from the Southern Ontario Meteor Network, including six all-sky video cameras, a large format CCD, infrasound and radar records, have been used to characterize the trajectory, speed, orbit, and initial mass of the meteoroid. From the four highest quality all-sky video records, the initial entry velocity was 20.91 ± 0.19 km s-1 while the derived radiant has a local azimuth of 309.40° ± 0.19° and entry angle of 55.20° ± 0.13°. Three major fragmentation episodes are identified at 39, 33, and 30 km height, with corresponding uncertainties of approximately 2 km. Evidence for early fragmentation at heights of approximately 70 km is found in radar data; dynamic pressure of this earliest fragmentation is near 0.1 MPa while the main flare at 39 km occurred under ram pressures of 1.5 MPa. The fireball was luminous to at least 19.7 km altitude and the dynamic mass estimate of the largest remaining fragment at this height is approximately several kilograms. The initial mass is constrained to be <100 kg from infrasound data and ablation modeling, with a most probable mass of 20-050 kg. The preatmospheric orbit is typical of an Apollo asteroid with a likely immediate origin in either the 3:1 or ν6 resonances.

  10. Photosphere emission in the X-ray flares of swift gamma-ray bursts and implications for the fireball properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Hou, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Jin E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-11-10

    X-ray flares of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are usually observed in the soft X-ray range and the spectral coverage is limited. In this paper, we present an analysis of 32 GRB X-ray flares that are simultaneously observed by both Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope on board the Swift mission, so that a joint spectral analysis with a wider spectral coverage is possible. Our results show that the joint spectra of 19 flares are fitted with the absorbed single power law or the Band function models. More interestingly, the joint spectra of the other 13 X-ray flares are fitted with the absorbed single power-law model plus a blackbody component. Phenomenally, the observed spectra of these 13 flares are analogous to several GRBs with a thermal component, but only with a much lower temperature of kT = 1 ∼ 3 keV. Assuming that the thermal emission is the photosphere emission of the GRB fireball, we derive the fireball properties of the 13 flares that have redshift measurements, such as the bulk Lorentz factor Γ{sub ph} of the outflow. The derived Γ{sub ph} range from 50 to 150 and a relation of Γ{sub ph} to the thermal emission luminosity is found. It is consistent with the Γ{sub 0} – L {sub iso} relations that are derived for the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss the physical implications of these results within the content of jet composition and the radiation mechanism of GRBs and X-ray flares.

  11. Physical Properties of Fireball-Producing Earth-Impacting Meteoroids and Orbit Determination through Shadow Calibration of the Buzzard Coulee Meteorite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milley, Ellen Palesa

    The physical properties of the meteoroid population were investigated through combining data from a number of fireball camera networks. PE values, as a measure of meteoroid strength, were calculated and linked with other observational criteria (Tisserand parameter, meteor shower identification). The historic divisions for fireball types based on the PE criterion were not observed in the large data set, but a correlation with source region was recognized. Meteor showers demonstrated different amounts of variation in PE values potentially related to the materials found in each parent comet. The trajectory and pre-fall orbit for the Buzzard Coulee meteoroid were determined through the calibration of shadows cast by the fireball. The method of using shadows to triangulate a trajectory was developed and evaluated. The best fit trajectory was coupled with an initial velocity of 18.0 km/s to compute the heliocentric orbit. Buzzard Coulee fell from a modestly inclined near-Earth Apollo orbit. It is the 12th fallen meteorite to be associated with an orbit.

  12. Signatures of α Clustering in Light Nuclei from Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniowski, Wojciech; Ruiz Arriola, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    We argue that relativistic nuclear collisions may provide experimental evidence of α clustering in light nuclei. A light α-clustered nucleus has a large intrinsic deformation. When collided against a heavy nucleus at very high energies, this deformation transforms into the deformation of the fireball in the transverse plane. The subsequent collective evolution of the fireball leads to harmonic flow reflecting the deformation of the initial shape, which can be measured with standard methods of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We illustrate the feasibility of the idea by modeling the C12-Pb208 collisions and point out that very significant quantitative and qualitative differences between the α-clustered and uniform C12 nucleus occur in such quantities as the triangular flow, its event-by-event fluctuations, or the correlations of the elliptic and triangular flows. The proposal offers a possibility of studying low-energy nuclear structure phenomena with "snapshots" made with relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Transformation of a Virgo Cluster dwarf irregular galaxy by ram pressure stripping: IC3418 and its fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Geha, Marla; Jáchym, Pavel; Dague, William; Crowl, Hugh H.; Chung, Aeree; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Vollmer, Bernd

    2014-01-10

    We present optical imaging and spectroscopy and H I imaging of the Virgo Cluster galaxy IC 3418, which is likely a 'smoking gun' example of the transformation of a dwarf irregular into a dwarf elliptical galaxy by ram pressure stripping. IC 3418 has a spectacular 17 kpc length UV-bright tail comprised of knots, head-tail, and linear stellar features. The only Hα emission arises from a few H II regions in the tail, the brightest of which are at the heads of head-tail UV sources whose tails point toward the galaxy ('fireballs'). Several of the elongated tail sources have Hα peaks outwardly offset by ∼80-150 pc from the UV peaks, suggesting that gas clumps continue to accelerate through ram pressure, leaving behind streams of newly formed stars which have decoupled from the gas. Absorption line strengths, measured from Keck DEIMOS spectra, together with UV colors, show star formation stopped 300 ± 100 Myr ago in the main body, and a strong starburst occurred prior to quenching. While neither Hα nor H I emission are detected in the main body of the galaxy, we have detected 4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} of H I from the tail with the Very Large Array. The velocities of tail H II regions, measured from Keck LRIS spectra, extend only a small fraction of the way to the cluster velocity, suggesting that star formation does not happen in more distant parts of the tail. Stars in the outer tail have velocities exceeding the escape speed, but some in the inner tail should fall back into the galaxy, forming halo streams.

  14. Substorm processes in the magnetotail - Comments on 'On hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the earth's magnetotail' by L. A. Frank, K. L. Ackerson, and R. P. Lepping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Various theories regarding the magnetotail are reviewed and discussed. These include the work of Dungey (1961) and Eastman et al., (1976) regarding the generation of the magnetotail, Frank et al., (1976) concerning the so-called magnetotail fireball and its characteristics, and Hones et al., (1976 and 1976a) on the formation of a neutral line across the near-earth plasma sheet near the substorm onset. A detailed discussion of a fireball encounter during 0900-1400 UT in April 1974 is presented, noting plasma and magnetic phenomena observed, and magnetic records from the earth. A critique is made by Hones of the interpretation of this fireball made by Frank et al. In an accompanying reply, Frank et al. comment on the observations made by Hones, with attention to the most evident discrepancy between the two theories, i.e., the generation of large closed magnetic loops in the plasma sheet during magnetic substorms.

  15. Thermodynamics for a hadronic gas of fireballs with internal color structures and chiral fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zakout, Ismail; Greiner, Carsten

    2008-09-15

    The thermodynamic partition function for a gas of color-singlet bags consisting of fundamental and adjoint particles in both U(N{sub c}) and SU(N{sub c}) group representations is reviewed in detail. The constituent particle species are assumed to satisfy various thermodynamic statistics. The gas of bags is probed to study the phase transition for nuclear matter in extreme conditions. These bags are interpreted as the Hagedorn states, and they are the highly excited hadronic states produced below the phase transition point to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The hadronic density of states has the Gross-Witten critical point and exhibits a third-order phase transition from a hadronic phase dominated by the discrete low-lying hadronic mass spectrum particles to another hadronic phase dominated by the continuous Hagedorn states. The Hagedorn threshold production is found just above the highest known experimental discrete low-lying hadronic mass spectrum. The subsequent Hagedorn phase undergoes a first-order deconfinement phase transition to an explosive QGP. The role of the chiral phase transition in the phases of the discrete low-lying mass spectrum and the continuous Hagedorn mass spectrum is also considered. It is found to be crucial in the phase transition diagram. Alternative scenarios are briefly discussed for the Hagedorn gas undergoing a higher order phase transition through multiple processes of internal color-flavor structure modification.

  16. CTBT infrasound network performance to detect the 2013 Russian fireball event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars; Ross, J. Ole; Le Pichon, Alexis; Mialle, Pierrick; Garcés, Milton A.

    2015-04-01

    The explosive fragmentation of the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteorite generated a large airburst with an equivalent yield of 500 kT TNT. It is the most energetic event recorded by the infrasound component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty-International Monitoring System (CTBT-IMS), globally detected by 20 out of 42 operational stations. This study performs a station-by-station estimation of the IMS detection capability to explain infrasound detections and nondetections from short to long distances, using the Chelyabinsk meteorite as global reference event. Investigated parameters influencing the detection capability are the directivity of the line source signal, the ducting of acoustic energy, and the individual noise conditions at each station. Findings include a clear detection preference for stations perpendicular to the meteorite trajectory, even over large distances. Only a weak influence of stratospheric ducting is observed for this low-frequency case. Furthermore, a strong dependence on the diurnal variability of background noise levels at each station is observed, favoring nocturnal detections.

  17. Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, M.; Żołądek, P.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Krasnowski, M.; Polakowski, K.; Krygiel, H.; Laskowski, J.; Krzyżanowski, T.; Tyminski, Z.; Zaręba, P.; Gozdalski, M.; Maciejewski, M.

    2012-09-01

    The PFN started in March 2004. Most of its observers are amateurs, members of Comets and Meteors Workshop. The network consists of 24 continuously working stations, where 46 sensitive CCTV video cameras and 3 DSLR Canon photo cameras with wide angle lenses operate. We create the PyFN software for trajectory and orbit calculation.

  18. Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, M.; Żołądek, P.; Olech, A.; Tyminski, Z.; Maciejewski, M.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Zaręba, P.; Gozdalski, M.; Krzyżanowski, T.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Gawroński, M. P.; Polakowski, K.

    2015-10-01

    The PFN started in March 2004. Most of its observers are amateurs, members of Comets and Meteors Workshop. The network consists of 38 continuously working stations, where nearly 70 sensitive CCTV video and digital cameras operate. We create the PyFN software for trajectory and orbit calculation.

  19. When the dust settles: stable xenon isotope constraints on the formation of nuclear fallout.

    PubMed

    Cassata, W S; Prussin, S G; Knight, K B; Hutcheon, I D; Isselhardt, B H; Renne, P R

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear weapons represent one of the most immediate threats of mass destruction. In the event that a procured or developed nuclear weapon is detonated in a populated metropolitan area, timely and accurate nuclear forensic analysis and fallout modeling would be needed to support attribution efforts and hazard assessments. Here we demonstrate that fissiogenic xenon isotopes retained in radioactive fallout generated by a nuclear explosion provide unique constraints on (1) the timescale of fallout formation, (2) chemical fractionation that occurs when fission products and nuclear fuel are incorporated into fallout, and (3) the speciation of fission products in the fireball. Our data suggest that, in near surface nuclear tests, the presence of a significant quantity of metal in a device assembly, combined with a short time allowed for mixing with the ambient atmosphere (seconds), may prevent complete oxidation of fission products prior to their incorporation into fallout. Xenon isotopes thus provide a window into the chemical composition of the fireball in the seconds that follow a nuclear explosion, thereby improving our understanding of the physical and thermo-chemical conditions under which fallout forms. PMID:25014883

  20. Photo-induced reactions from efficient molecular dynamics with electronic transitions using the FIREBALL local-orbital density functional theory formalism.

    PubMed

    Zobač, Vladimír; Lewis, James P; Abad, Enrique; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús I; Hapala, Prokop; Jelínek, Pavel; Ortega, José

    2015-05-01

    The computational simulation of photo-induced processes in large molecular systems is a very challenging problem. Firstly, to properly simulate photo-induced reactions the potential energy surfaces corresponding to excited states must be appropriately accessed; secondly, understanding the mechanisms of these processes requires the exploration of complex configurational spaces and the localization of conical intersections; finally, photo-induced reactions are probability events, that require the simulation of hundreds of trajectories to obtain the statistical information for the analysis of the reaction profiles. Here, we present a detailed description of our implementation of a molecular dynamics with electronic transitions algorithm within the local-orbital density functional theory code FIREBALL, suitable for the computational study of these problems. As an example of the application of this approach, we also report results on the [2 + 2] cycloaddition of ethylene with maleic anhydride and on the [2 + 2] photo-induced polymerization reaction of two C60 molecules. We identify different deactivation channels of the initial electron excitation, depending on the time of the electronic transition from LUMO to HOMO, and the character of the HOMO after the transition. PMID:25791682

  1. Photo-induced reactions from efficient molecular dynamics with electronic transitions using the FIREBALL local-orbital density functional theory formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobač, Vladimír; Lewis, James P.; Abad, Enrique; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús I.; Hapala, Prokop; Jelínek, Pavel; Ortega, José

    2015-05-01

    The computational simulation of photo-induced processes in large molecular systems is a very challenging problem. Firstly, to properly simulate photo-induced reactions the potential energy surfaces corresponding to excited states must be appropriately accessed; secondly, understanding the mechanisms of these processes requires the exploration of complex configurational spaces and the localization of conical intersections; finally, photo-induced reactions are probability events, that require the simulation of hundreds of trajectories to obtain the statistical information for the analysis of the reaction profiles. Here, we present a detailed description of our implementation of a molecular dynamics with electronic transitions algorithm within the local-orbital density functional theory code FIREBALL, suitable for the computational study of these problems. As an example of the application of this approach, we also report results on the [2 + 2] cycloaddition of ethylene with maleic anhydride and on the [2 + 2] photo-induced polymerization reaction of two C60 molecules. We identify different deactivation channels of the initial electron excitation, depending on the time of the electronic transition from LUMO to HOMO, and the character of the HOMO after the transition.

  2. Exceptionally Persistent Fireball Over the British Isles 2012 September 21, 21h55m-21h58m UT 2012 September 21, 21h55m-21h58m UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair; Lyytinen, Esko; Langbroek, Marco; Matson, Robert D.

    2014-06-01

    Details from trajectory and orbital analyses are presented and discussed concerning an unusually long-lasting, heavily fragmenting, fireball which flew from above northern Germany across the central British Isles between 21h55m and 21h58m UT on 2012 September 21, ending over the North Atlantic Ocean. The fireball was observed for more than 2m40s and its complete visible flight may have lasted five minutes. Its approach angle was shallow, causing it to show a period with a rising trajectory within the atmosphere, before descending again to a probable splashdown point roughly 1500 km off western Ireland about eight minutes after it first became luminous. Meteorites may have fallen on land during the flight, although none were recovered. A comparison between the projected surface tracks determined independently using visual and imaging data was possible, to test the general accuracy of the visual findings. Some discussion of the associated sonics, both electrophonic and acoustic is given too, as well as identifying difficulties found during the analyses, including with some of the imaging data, and the effort involved in sifting through a final 995 individual observations of this meteor.

  3. Spinodal density enhancements in nuclear collisions at the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinheimer, J.; Koch, V.; Randrup, J.; Bleicher, M.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss a novel approach to describe the evolution of a fireball, created in a high-energy nuclear collision, experiencing spinodal instabilities due to the first-order deconfinement phase transition of quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). We show that initial density fluctuations in these collisions are enhanced in the mechanically unstable region of the QCD phase diagram. In our study we find that the most favorable energy range for observing these density enhancements is at the lower end of the SIS100 accelerator at FAIR, currently under construction. Furthermore we discuss how one can distinguish and constrain different types of QCD phase transitions, one of hadron-quark type and one of liquid-gas type, leading to strong differences in the dynamical evolution of the QCD medium.

  4. Centrality dependence of the parton bubble model for high-energy heavy-ion collisions and fireball surface substructure at energies available at the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbaum, S. J.; Longacre, R. S.

    2008-11-01

    In an earlier paper we developed a QCD-inspired theoretical parton bubble model (PBM) for RHIC/LHC. The motivation for the PBM was to develop a model that would reasonably quantitatively agree with the strong charged particle pair correlations observed by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC in Au+Au central collisions at sNN=200 GeV in the transverse momentum range 0.8 to 2.0 GeV/c. The model was constructed to also agree with the Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) observed small final-state source size ~2 fm radii in the transverse momentum range above 0.8 GeV/c. The model assumed a substructure of a ring of localized adjoining ~2 fm radius bubbles perpendicular to the collider beam direction, centered on the beam, at midrapidity. The bubble ring was assumed to be located on the expanding fireball surface of the Au+Au collision. These bubbles consist almost entirely of gluons and form gluonic hot spots on the fireball surface. We achieved a reasonable quantitative agreement with the results of both the physically significant charge-independent (CI) and charge-dependent (CD) correlations that were observed. In this paper we extend the model to include the changing development of bubbles with centrality from the most central region where bubbles are very important to the most peripheral where the bubbles are gone. Energy density is found to be related to bubble formation and as centrality decreases the maximum energy density and bubbles shift from symmetry around the beam axis to the reaction plane region, causing a strong correlation of bubble formation with elliptic flow. We find reasonably quantitative agreement (within a few percent of the total correlations) with a new precision RHIC experiment that extended the centrality region investigated to the range 0% 80% (most central to most peripheral). The characteristics and behavior of the bubbles imply they represent a significant substructure formed on the surface of the fireball at kinetic freezeout.

  5. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  6. Disturbances in the lower ionosphere caused by a low altitude nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xunjie, Zhang; Xueqin, Ruan; Wenzhen, Wang

    1995-03-01

    Observations of the lower ionospheric disturbance caused by a low altitude nuclear explosion are presented. A forward scatter radar, frequency 41 MHz, power 2.5 kW, was used to study these disturbances. The first radar scattering signal consisting of three peaks appeared 40 s after the explosion. It was due to early ionization by delayed gamma rays. The second kind of disturbance generated after 190 s was clearly different from the first. The scattering signal had a constant component which indicated a strong specular reflection. The field strength increased by more than 20 db. This disturbance was produced by the direct shock wave. The third kind of disturbance began after 8 min, lasted 5.0 min, and was probably dominated by the fireball/smoke cloud oscillation when it reached its stabilization altitude and approached hydrodynamical equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Using numerical computation techniques, we have explained the above results well.

  7. Toward the Limits of Matter: Ultra-relativistic Nuclear Collisions at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukraft, Jurgen; Stock, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Strongly interacting matter as described by the thermodynamics of QCD undergoes a phase transition, from a low temperature hadronic medium, to a high temperature quark-gluon plasma state. In the early universe this transition occurred during the early microsecond era. It can be investigated in the laboratory, in collisions of nuclei at relativistic energy, which create "fireballs" of sufficient energy density to cross the QCD phase boundary. We describe three decades of work at CERN, devoted to the study of the QCD plasma and the phase transition. From modest beginnings at the SPS, ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is today a central pillar of contemporary nuclear physics and forms a significant part of the LHC programme.

  8. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  9. Thermal Radiation from Nuclear Detonations in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R E; Moss, W C; Whitlock, B

    2007-06-04

    There are three principal causes of ''prompt'' casualties from a nuclear detonation: nuclear (gamma-ray and neutron) radiation, thermal radiation, and blast. Common estimates of the range of these prompt effects indicate that thermal radiation has the largest lethal range [1]. Non-lethal skin burns, flash blindness, and retinal burns occur out to much greater range. Estimates of casualties from thermal radiation assume air bursts over flat terrain. In urban environments with multiple buildings and terrain features, the extent of thermal radiation may be significantly reduced by shadowing. We have developed a capability for calculating the distribution of thermal energy deposition in urban environments using detailed 3D computer models of actual cities. The size, height, and radiated power from the fireball as a function of time are combined with ray tracing to calculate the energy deposition on all surfaces. For surface bursts less than 100 kt in locations with large buildings or terrain features, the calculations confirm the expected reduction in thermal damage.

  10. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  11. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  12. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  13. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  14. Numerical Model for Atmospheric Contaminant Clouds from Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanarska, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Our numerical approach includes fluid mechanical model which is the combination of a compressible GEODYN code and a Low Mach code (LMC). The first one is an explicit code and it is intended to simulate early stages of nuclear explosions up to 15 s. The second one is an implicit code based on a pressure projection method and it is intended to simulate subsequent cloud rise events up to few hours. We perform series of cloud rise scenarios ranging from idealized bubble rise problem to realistic air bursts. We analyze effects of compressible dynamics and different turbulent parameterizations on the cloud evolution. It is found that in a realistic configuration interaction of a reflected shock wave from the ground with a fireball affects significantly cloud evolution in contrast to idealized bubble rise simulations. We show that by providing initial source from compressible GEODYN code, later times flow evolution can be successfully simulated with fast and efficient LMC code. Finally, we develop formalism for tracer particles and their fallout and present some preliminary results. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  15. Charged particle spectra in [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p[sub T] dN/dp[sub T] and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be [Delta]y [approximately] 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p[sub T]. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T[sub f] [approximately] 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  16. Charged particle spectra in {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p{sub T} dN/dp{sub T} and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be {Delta}y {approximately} 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p{sub T}. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T{sub f} {approximately} 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  17. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  18. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  19. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  20. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  1. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  2. Current status of Polish Fireball Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiśniewski, M.; Żołądek, P.; Olech, A.; Tyminski, Z.; Maciejewski, M.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Gozdalski, M.; Gawroński, M. P.; Suchodolski, T.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Stolarz, M.; Polakowski, K.

    2016-01-01

    The PFN started in March 2004. Most of its observers are amateurs, members of the Comets and Meteors Workshop. The network consists of 40 continuously working stations, where nearly 80 sensitive CCTV video and digital cameras operate. During the years 2011-2015 PFN cameras recorded 215049 single events. Using this data 34608 trajectories and orbits have been calculated.

  3. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomena that allows to extract information of the produced thermal medium. This was believed to be due to the screening of the static potential but recently perturbative computations and some lattice studies have pointed out the possibility of having an imaginary part of the potential that would also contribute to dissociation. In recent years a program to study heavy quarkonium with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) has been started, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. However until now these studies have been done assuming thermal equilibrium. In this work we will discuss what happens in the EFT formalism when heavy quarkonium is in a medium that is not in thermal equilibrium and what is the expected suppression when a medium with a time dependent effective temperature that follows Bjorken evolution is considered. This will be done adapting previous results from different temperature regimes.

  4. Chelyabinsk fireball and Dyatlov pass tragedy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk bolide as well as the Kunashak meteorite in 1949 (Fig. 3, black square) hit ground in ectonically peculiar place in the Ural Mountains. The main explosion was followed by a series of weaker bangs. The long Uralian fold belt (Pz) separates two subsectors (1 & 2, Fig. 1) of the Eurasian sector (1+2) of the Eastern hemisphere sectoral structure (Fig. 1). At the Pamirs-Hindukush massif (the "Pamirs' cross") meet four tectonic sectors of this structure: two opposite differently uplifted (Africa-Mediterranean ++ and Asian +) and separating them two opposite differently subsided (Eurasian - and Indooceanic - -). Tectonic bisectors divide the sectors into two differently tectonically elevated subsectors. The Ural Mountains is one of these bisectors dividing the somewhat risen East-European subsector and the relatively fallen West-Siberian one. Even more important is the sharp tectonic boundary between subsided Eurasian sector and uplifted Asian one (between 2 and 3, Fig. 1). Fig. 3 shows distribution of electrophonic bolides over USSR [1]. Observations numbers are in circles. The total of 343 observations is distributed at relevant districts; accompanied meteorites were found only in 23-24 cases; in the chart are excluded background values of 1-2 observations per district. Two areas are obviously anomalous. These of the Urals, and the Eurasia-Asia sectoral contact (Novosibirsk - Yenisei R. - Tunguska). A location in the long Uralian belt is determined by its intersection with the Timan fold belt coming from the northwest (Fig. 3). The catastrophic Dyatlov pass where nine people mysteriously died at once occurs there (triangle in Fig. 3). Mancy aborigines know this place as deadly where killing white shining spheres appear. Moreover this belt intersection is well known among hunters for UFO as the Permian triangle (Fig. 2). They meet there to observe unusual atmospheric shining and other anomalous phenomena. In the Yenisei-Tunguska-Baikal region lightning balls appear regularly causing broken trees [2]. In conclusion, these two tectonically distinctive regions are famous by anomalously often appearance of bolides part of which is accompanied by meteorite falls. Out of 343 observations meteorites accompanied less than 10 %. Unclear remains a strange attraction of bolides by very pronounced tectonic features.

  5. The Leonid Fireball Night from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, V.; Berinde, S.

    1999-02-01

    An overview of the 1998 Leonid activity as seen from Romania by SARM members, with a description of the event on November 16-17 as seen by Valentin Grigore (GRIVA) at Targoviste, lambda=25deg 29' 00'' E, phi=44deg 57' 18'' N, h=350m.

  6. The expanding fireball of Nova Delphini 2013.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, G H; ten Brummelaar, T; Gies, D R; Farrington, C D; Kloppenborg, B; Chesneau, O; Monnier, J D; Ridgway, S T; Scott, N; Tallon-Bosc, I; McAlister, H A; Boyajian, T; Maestro, V; Mourard, D; Meilland, A; Nardetto, N; Stee, P; Sturmann, J; Vargas, N; Baron, F; Ireland, M; Baines, E K; Che, X; Jones, J; Richardson, N D; Roettenbacher, R M; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H; Tuthill, P; van Belle, G; von Braun, K; Zavala, R T; Banerjee, D P K; Ashok, N M; Joshi, V; Becker, J; Muirhead, P S

    2014-11-13

    A classical nova occurs when material accreting onto the surface of a white dwarf in a close binary system ignites in a thermonuclear runaway. Complex structures observed in the ejecta at late stages could result from interactions with the companion during the common-envelope phase. Alternatively, the explosion could be intrinsically bipolar, resulting from a localized ignition on the surface of the white dwarf or as a consequence of rotational distortion. Studying the structure of novae during the earliest phases is challenging because of the high spatial resolution needed to measure their small sizes. Here we report near-infrared interferometric measurements of the angular size of Nova Delphini 2013, starting one day after the explosion and continuing with extensive time coverage during the first 43 days. Changes in the apparent expansion rate can be explained by an explosion model consisting of an optically thick core surrounded by a diffuse envelope. The optical depth of the ejected material changes as it expands. We detect an ellipticity in the light distribution, suggesting a prolate or bipolar structure that develops as early as the second day. Combining the angular expansion rate with radial velocity measurements, we derive a geometric distance to the nova of 4.54 ± 0.59 kiloparsecs from the Sun. PMID:25363778

  7. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  9. Nuclear APC.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Kristi L

    2009-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) is thought to be an initiating step in the progression of the vast majority ofcolorectal cancers. Attempts to understand APC function have revealed more than a dozen binding partners as well as several subcellular localizations including at cell-cell junctions, associated with microtubules at the leading edge of migrating cells, at the apical membrane, in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The present chapter focuses on APC localization and functions in the nucleus. APC contains two classical nuclear localization signals, with a third domain that can enhance nuclear import. Along with two sets of nuclear export signals, the nuclear localization signals enable the large APC protein to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear APC can oppose beta-catenin-mediated transcription. This down-regulation of nuclear beta-catenin activity by APC most likely involves nuclear sequestration of beta-catenin from the transcription complex as well as interaction of APC with transcription corepressor CtBP. Additional nuclear binding partners for APC include transcription factor activator protein AP-2alpha, nuclear export factor Crm1, protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL and perhaps DNA itself. Interaction of APC with polymerase beta and PCNA, suggests a role for APC in DNA repair. The observation that increases in the cytoplasmic distribution of APC correlate with colon cancer progression suggests that disruption of these nuclear functions of APC plays an important role in cancer progression. APC prevalence in the cytoplasm of quiescent cells points to a potential function for nuclear APC in control of cell proliferation. Clear definition of APC's nuclear function(s) will expand the possibilities for early colorectal cancer diagnostics and therapeutics targeted to APC. PMID:19928349

  10. Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Lefebvre, Jordan P

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

  11. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  12. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  13. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  14. Nuclear Science Division annual report for the period October 1, 1987--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, J.

    1989-10-01

    Highlights of the low energy research program included the identification of new super-deformed bands in gadolinium and palladium isotopes using the HERA array. Other work at the 88-Inch Cyclotron involved studies of the fragmentation of light nuclei; the spectroscopy of nuclear far from stability and interesting new experiments on the properties of the heaviest elements. Two other programs deserve special mention, the new program in Nuclear Astrophysics and the spectroscopic studies being carried out at OASIS. This isotope separator is now in full operation at the SuperHILAC after many yeas of development. At the Bevalac, important new results were obtained on the properties of hot dense nuclear matter produced in central collisions of heavy ions. First measurements were made using the di-lepton spectrometer which provide the most direct access to the conditions at the earliest stage of the reaction. New results on pion interferometry have been obtained using the Janus spectrometer and surprises continue to be found in careful analysis of data from the Plastic Ball detector, most recently the identification of a new component of hydrodynamic flow. Also at the Bevalac the intermediate energy program continued to grow, studying the evolution of the reaction mechanism from incomplete fusion to the fireball regime, as did the spectroscopic studies using secondary radioactive beams. The third major component of the experimental program is the study of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions using the CERN SPS. This year saw the completing of analysis of the first round of experiments with important results being obtained on general particle production, the space-time evolution of the system and strangeness production.

  15. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  16. Nuclear forces

    SciTech Connect

    Machleidt, R.

    2013-06-10

    These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  18. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  19. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  20. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  1. Numerical simulations of cloud rise phenomena associated with nuclear bursts: compressible and low Mach approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Antoun, T.

    2008-12-01

    The nuclear cloud rise is a two stage phenomenon. The initial phase (fireball expansion) of the cloud formation is dominated by compressible flow effects and propagation of shock waves. At the later stage, shock waves become weak, the Mach number decreases and the time steps required by an explicit code to model the acoustic waves make simulation of the late time cloud dynamics with a compressible code very expensive. The buoyant cloud rise at this stage can be efficiently simulated by low Mach-number approximation. In this approach acoustic waves are removed analytically, compressible effects are included as a non-zero divergence constraint due to background stratification and the system of equations is solved implicitly using pressure projection methods. Our numerical approach includes fluid mechanical models that are able to simulate both compressible, incompressible and low Mach regimes. Compressible dynamics is simulated with the explicit high order Eulerian code GEODYN (Lomov et al., 2001). It is based on the second-order Godunov method of Colella and Woodward (1984) that is extended for multiple dimensions using operator-splitting. The code includes the material interface tracking based on a volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach of Miller and Puckett (1996). The code we use for the low Mach approximation (LMC) is based on the incompressible solver of Bell et al., (2003). An unsplit second-order Godunov method and the MAC projection method (Bell et al., 2003) are used. An algebraic slip multiphase model is implemented to describe fallout of dust particles. Both codes incorporate adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Additionally, the codes are explicitly coupled via input/output files. First, we compared solutions for an idealized buoyant bubble rise problem, that is characterized by low Mach numbers, in GEODYN and LMC codes. While the cloud evolution process is reproduced in both codes, some differences are found in the cloud rise speed and the cloud interface structure

  2. Predictions of Elliptic flow and nuclear modification factor from 200 GeV U+U collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Masui, Hiroshi; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Xu, Nu

    2010-07-07

    Predictions of elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) and nuclear modification factor (R{sub AA}) are provided as a function of centrality in U + U collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. Since the {sup 238}U nucleus is naturally deformed, one could adjust the properties of the fireball, density and duration of the hot and dense system, for example, in high energy nuclear collisions by carefully selecting the colliding geometry. Within our Monte Carlo Glauber based approach, the v{sub 2} with respect to the reaction plane v{sub 2}{sup RP} in U + U collisions is consistent with that in Au + Au collisions, while the v{sub 2} with respect to the participant plane v{sub 2}{sup PP} increases {approx}30-60% at top 10% centrality which is attributed to the larger participant eccentricity at most central U + U collisions. The suppression of R{sub AA} increases and reaches {approx}0.1 at most central U + U collisions that is by a factor of 2 more suppression compared to the central Au + Au collisions due to large size and deformation of Uranium nucleus.

  3. Spatially-Resolved Analyses of Aerodynamic Fallout from a Uranium-Fueled Nuclear Test

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lewis, L. A.; Knight, K. B.; Matzel, J. E.; Prussin, S. G.; Zimmer, M. M.; Kinman, W S; Ryerson, F. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-07-28

    The fiive silicate fallout glass spherules produced in a uranium-fueled, near-surface nuclear test were characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis, autoradiography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Several samples display compositional heterogeneity suggestive of incomplete mixing between major elements and natural U (238U/235U = 0.00725) and enriched U. Samples exhibit extreme spatial heterogeneity in U isotopic composition with 0.02 < 235U/238U < 11.84 among all five spherules and 0.02 < 235U/238U < 7.41 within a single spherule. Moreover, in two spherules, the 235U/238U ratio is correlated with changes in major element composition, suggesting the agglomeration ofmore » chemically and isotopically distinct molten precursors. Two samples are nearly homogenous with respect to major element and uranium isotopic composition, suggesting extensive mixing possibly due to experiencing higher temperatures or residing longer in the fireball. Linear correlations between 234U/238U, 235U/238U, and 236U/238U ratios are consistent with a two-component mixing model, which is used to illustrate the extent of mixing between natural and enriched U end members.« less

  4. Spatially-Resolved Analyses of Aerodynamic Fallout from a Uranium-Fueled Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L. A.; Knight, K. B.; Matzel, J. E.; Prussin, S. G.; Zimmer, M. M.; Kinman, W S; Ryerson, F. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-07-28

    The fiive silicate fallout glass spherules produced in a uranium-fueled, near-surface nuclear test were characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis, autoradiography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Several samples display compositional heterogeneity suggestive of incomplete mixing between major elements and natural U (238U/235U = 0.00725) and enriched U. Samples exhibit extreme spatial heterogeneity in U isotopic composition with 0.02 < 235U/238U < 11.84 among all five spherules and 0.02 < 235U/238U < 7.41 within a single spherule. Moreover, in two spherules, the 235U/238U ratio is correlated with changes in major element composition, suggesting the agglomeration of chemically and isotopically distinct molten precursors. Two samples are nearly homogenous with respect to major element and uranium isotopic composition, suggesting extensive mixing possibly due to experiencing higher temperatures or residing longer in the fireball. Linear correlations between 234U/238U, 235U/238U, and 236U/238U ratios are consistent with a two-component mixing model, which is used to illustrate the extent of mixing between natural and enriched U end members.

  5. Spatially-resolved analyses of aerodynamic fallout from a uranium-fueled nuclear test.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L A; Knight, K B; Matzel, J E; Prussin, S G; Zimmer, M M; Kinman, W S; Ryerson, F J; Hutcheon, I D

    2015-10-01

    Five silicate fallout glass spherules produced in a uranium-fueled, near-surface nuclear test were characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis, autoradiography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Several samples display compositional heterogeneity suggestive of incomplete mixing between major elements and natural U ((238)U/(235)U = 0.00725) and enriched U. Samples exhibit extreme spatial heterogeneity in U isotopic composition with 0.02 < (235)U/(238)U < 11.84 among all five spherules and 0.02 < (235)U/(238)U < 7.41 within a single spherule. In two spherules, the (235)U/(238)U ratio is correlated with changes in major element composition, suggesting the agglomeration of chemically and isotopically distinct molten precursors. Two samples are nearly homogenous with respect to major element and uranium isotopic composition, suggesting extensive mixing possibly due to experiencing higher temperatures or residing longer in the fireball. Linear correlations between (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U, and (236)U/(238)U ratios are consistent with a two-component mixing model, which is used to illustrate the extent of mixing between natural and enriched U end members. PMID:26225462

  6. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  7. Nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  8. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  9. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  10. Nuclear power: Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear Power. Electricity produced by coal; Electricity produced by nuclear fuel; Nuclear plant sites in the United States; Short History of Commercial Nuclear Power; U.S. nuclear submarines, Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants; Licensing process, Nuclear Power Plant Operator Training; Nuclear power plant simulator, Are Nuclear Plants Safe.; Containment structure, Nuclear Power Plant Insurance; Is Radiation Dangerous.; Man-made radiation, What is Nuclear Fuel.; Fuel cycle for commercial nuclear power plants; Warm Water Discharge; Cooling tower; Protection of Radioactive Materials; Plutonium and Proliferation; Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; Are Alternate Energy Sources Available.; Nuclear Opposition; and Nuclear Power in the Future.

  11. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  12. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  13. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments. PMID:21180342

  14. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  15. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  17. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  19. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  20. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  1. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  2. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  3. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened. PMID:20873683

  4. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.

    1963-01-01

    This patent covers a power-producing nuclear reactor in which fuel rods of slightly enriched U are moderated by heavy water and cooled by liquid metal. The fuel rods arranged parallel to one another in a circle are contained in a large outer closed-end conduit that extends into a tank containing the heavy water. Liquid metal is introduced into the large conduit by a small inner conduit that extends within the circle of fuel rods to a point near the lower closed end of the outer conduit. (AEC) Production Reactors

  6. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  7. Nuclear "waffles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  8. Objections to nuclear defence

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, N.; Pole, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include nuclear warfare, nuclear deterrence and the use of the just war doctrine, political aspects, human survival, moral aspects, the nuclear arms race, the ideology of nuclear deterrence, arms control, proliferation, and public opinion.

  9. Trends in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  14. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  15. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  16. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  17. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  19. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  20. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  1. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Five viewgraphs are presented that outline the objectives and elements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program, mission considerations, propulsion technologies, and the logic flow path for nuclear propulsion development.

  2. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  3. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities of nuclear transport receptors, nucleoporins, and elements of the Ran GTPase cycle. In addition to directional and possibly selective protein and RNA nuclear import and export, the nuclear pore gains increasing prominence as a spatial organizer of cellular processes, such as sumoylation and desumoylation. Individual nucleoporins and whole nuclear pore subcomplexes traffic to specific mitotic locations and have mitotic functions, for example at the kinetochores, in spindle assembly, and in conjunction with the checkpoints. Mutants of nucleoporin genes and genes of nuclear transport components lead to a wide array of defects from human diseases to compromised plant defense responses. The nuclear envelope acts as a repository of calcium, and its inner membrane is populated by functionally unique proteins connected to both chromatin and—through the nuclear envelope lumen—the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton. Plant nuclear pore and nuclear envelope research—predominantly focusing on Arabidopsis as a model—is discovering both similarities and surprisingly unique aspects compared to the more mature model systems. This chapter gives an overview of our current knowledge in the field and of exciting areas awaiting further exploration. PMID:22303264

  4. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  5. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  6. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  7. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  8. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  10. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  11. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  12. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  13. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, E. R.

    2009-06-01

    Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

  15. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests. PMID:9041734

  16. Nuclear Sphingolipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lucki, Natasha C.; Sewer, Marion B.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear lipid metabolism is implicated in various processes, including transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. Sphingolipids play roles in numerous cellular functions, and an emerging body of literature has identified roles for these lipid mediators in distinct nuclear processes. Different sphingolipid species are localized in various subnuclear domains, including chromatin, the nuclear matrix, and the nuclear envelope, where sphingolipids exert specific regulatory and structural functions. Sphingomyelin, the most abundant nuclear sphingolipid, plays both structural and regulatory roles in chromatin assembly and dynamics in addition to being an integral component of the nuclear matrix. Sphingosine-1-phosphate modulates histone acetylation, sphingosine is a ligand for steroidogenic factor 1, and nuclear accumulation of ceramide has been implicated in apoptosis. Finally, nuclear membrane–associated ganglioside GM1 plays a pivotal role in Ca2+ homeostasis. This review highlights research on the factors that control nuclear sphingolipid metabolism and summarizes the roles of these lipids in various nuclear processes. PMID:21888508

  17. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  18. Multiparticle Production in Particle and Nuclear Collisions. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanki, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Takagi, F.

    The dominant phenomenon in high-energy particle and nuclear collisions is multiple production of hadrons. This had attracted may physicists in 1950's, the period of the first remarkable development of particle physics. Multiparticle production was already observed in cosmic-ray experiments and expected to be explained as a natural consequence of the strong Yukawa interaction. Statistical and hydrodynamical models were then proposed by Fermi, Landau and others. These theories are still surviving even today as a prototype of modern ``fire-ball'' models. After twenty years, a golden age came in this field of physics. It was closely related to the rapid development of accelerator facilities, especially, the invention of colliding-beam machines which yield high enough center-of-mass energies for studying reactions with high multiplicity. Abundant data on final states of multiparticle production have been accumulated mainly by measuring inclusive cross sections and multiplicity distributions. In super high-energy bar{p}p collisions at CERN S pmacr pS Collider, we confirmed the increasing total cross section and found violations of many scaling laws which seemed to be valid at lower energies. This suggests a fundamental complexity of the multiparticle phenomena and offers new materials for further development of theoretical investigations. In the same period, studies of constituent (quark-gluon) structure of hadrons had also been develped. Nowadays, pysicists believe that the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental law of the hadronic world. Multiparticle dynamics should also be described by QCD. We have known that the hard-jet phenomena are well explained by the perturbative QCD. On the other hand, the soft processes are considered to be non-perturbative phenomena which have not yet been solved, and related to the mechanism of the color confinement and formation of strings or color-flux tubes. Multiparticle production would offer useful information on this

  19. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for...

  20. Intergenerational issues regarding nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear power, nuclear waste, and nuclear weapons raise substantial public concern in many countries. While new support for nuclear power can be found in arguments concerning greenhouse gases and global warming, the long-term existence of radioactive waste has led to requirements for 10,000-year isolation. Some of the support for such requirements is based on intergenerational equity arguments. This, however, places a very high value on lives far in the future. An alternative is to use discounting, as is applied to other resource applications. Nuclear weapons, even though being dismantled by the major nations, are growing in number due to the increase in the number of countries possessing these weapons of mass destruction. This is an unfortunate legacy for future generations. PMID:11314726

  1. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  2. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  3. Nuclear materials in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    The incident at Fukushima Daiichi brought materials in the nuclear industry into the spotlight. Nature Materials talks to Tatsuo Shikama, Director of the International Research Centre for Nuclear Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, about the current situation.

  4. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  5. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  6. Clinical nuclear medicine. [Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Matin, P.

    1981-01-01

    ''Clinical Nuclear Medicine'' is an update to the author's ''Handbook of Clinical Nuclear Medicine.'' Sections on placental imaging, bone marrow imaging, biliary tract imaging and scintigraphy are included in the volume. (JMT)

  7. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  8. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  9. Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis, Rich, James, Spiro, Michael

    This course on nuclear physics leads the reader to the exploration of the field from nuclei to astrophysical issues. Much nuclear phenomenology can be understood from simple arguments such as those based on the Pauli principle and the Coulomb barrier. This book is concerned with extrapolating from such arguments and illustrating nuclear systematics with experimental data. Starting with the basic concepts in nuclear physics, nuclear models, and reactions, the book covers nuclear decays and the fundamental electro-weak interactions, radioactivity, and nuclear energy. After the discussions of fission and fusion leading into nuclear astrophysics, there is a presentation of the latest ideas about cosmology. As a primer this course will lay the foundations for more specialized subjects. This book emerged from a series of topical courses the authors delivered at the Ecole Polytechnique and will be useful for graduate students and for scientists in a variety of fields.

  10. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  11. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  12. Nuclear Stress Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Echocardiography Electrocardiogram Electrophysiology Studies Exercise Stress Test Holter Monitoring Intravascular Ultrasound Nuclear Ventriculography Optical ...

  13. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  14. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  16. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  17. Effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the subject rising the following topics and subtopics: I. Nuclear explosions: heat, nuclear radiation, and radioactive fallout; II. Effects: radiation sickness, burns, blast injuries, and equivalent areas of death; III. Nuclear war: battlefield, regional, intercontinental - counterforce, and intercontinental - counter-city and industry. There are two appendices. 34 references, 32 figures.

  18. Nuclear energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  19. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  1. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  2. Launch Vehicle Fire Accident Preliminary Analysis of a Liquid-Metal Cooled Thermionic Nuclear Reactor: TOPAZ-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G.; Zhao, S.; Ruan, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, launch vehicle propellant fire accident analysis of TOPAZ-II reactor has been done by a thermionic reactor core analytic code-TATRHG(A) developed by author. When a rocket explodes on a launch pad, its payload-TOPAZ-II can be subjected to a severe thermal environment from the resulting fireball. The extreme temperatures associated with propellant fires can create a destructive environment in or near the fireball. Different kind of propellants - liquid propellant and solid propellant which will lead to different fire temperature are considered. Preliminary analysis shows that the solid propellant fires can melt the whole toxic beryllium radial reflector.

  3. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  5. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  6. Overview of nuclear data

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2003-06-30

    For many years, nuclear structure and decay data have been compiled and disseminated by an International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) evaluators under the auspices of the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this lecture I will discuss the kinds of data that are available and describe various ways to obtain this information. We will learn about some of the publications that are available and Internet sources of nuclear data. You will be introduced to Isotope Explorer software for retrieving and displaying nuclear structure and radioactive decay data. The on-line resources Table of Radioactive Isotopes, PGAA Database Viewer, Nuclear Science Reference Search, Table of Isotopes Educational Website, and other information sources will be discussed. Exercises will be provided to increase your ability to understand, access, and use nuclear data.

  7. Back-to-back correlations for finite expanding fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Padula, Sandra S.; Krein, G.; Csoergo'', T.; Hama, Y.; Panda, P.K.

    2006-04-15

    Back-to-back correlations of particle-antiparticle pairs are related to the in-medium mass-modification and squeezing of the quanta involved. They are predicted to appear when hot and dense hadronic matter is formed in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The survival and magnitude of the back-to-back correlations (BBC) of boson-antiboson pairs generated by in-medium mass modifications are studied here in the case of a thermalized, finite-sized, spherically symmetric expanding medium. We show that the BBC signal indeed survives the finite-time emission, as well as the expansion and flow effects, with sufficient intensity to be observed at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

  8. Fireballs: Detonation Initiation on the Microsecond Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassoy, D. R.; Wojciechowski, K.

    2003-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed for detonation initiation following a time and spatially resolved burst of thermal power from an external source into a spherical target of reactive gas. The objective is to produce a detonation in or near the target with the least possible energy input. Source heating occurs on a sub-microsecond time scale, short compared to the acoustic time of the millimeter-sized target. This leads to a period of near inertial confinement, where the pressure rises with temperature, the density change is very small and local Mach number is extremely subsonic. As a result the thermal enegy change is maximized while the induced kinetic energy is minimized. The large temperature increase within the localized high pressure spot initiates a high activation energy, exothermic reaction which spreads hypersonically from the maximum temperature point. The chemical front is co-located with a large localized pressure gradient, responsible for rapid gas acceleration. A detonation appears at the edge of target, in the form of a strong shock with a coupled reaction zone. The evolutionary process differs fundamentally from that in a DDT and that in a traditional model of direct initiation.

  9. Extra dimensions, black holes and fireballs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taliotis, Anastasios

    2013-05-01

    The collision of two gravitationally interacting, ultra-relativistic, extended sources is being examined. This investigation classifies the transverse distributions that are collided for fixed collision energy, according to whether one or two (a small and a large) apparent horizons may or may not be formed in a flat background in 4 dimensions. The study extends to the thermodynamical properties of the objects that are created, which exhibit a universal behavior in their entropy, and, suggests the elimination of the possibility in observing black holes (BHs) at the LHC in the absence of extra dimensions. On the other hand, including extra dimensions, and assuming that the matter is localized (dense) enough in those directions, opens new avenues in creating BHs at energies of the order of TeV. The investigation is carried further to AdS 5 backgrounds and makes connections with the implications for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation in heavy ion collisions. In particular, classes of the geometries found suggest that a BH is formed if and only if the (central collision) energy is sufficiently large compared to the transverse scale of the corresponding gauge theory side stress-tensor. This implies that when the scattering in the gravity description is mapped onto a heavy ion collision problem yields a result, which is in accordance with the current intuition and data: QGP is formed only at high enough energies compared to ΛQCD, even for central processes. Incorporating weak coupling physics and in particular the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) model, a satisfactory fitting with the RHIC and the LHC data for multiplicities may be established.

  10. NASA Meteor Cam Video of June 2, 2016 Arizona Fireball

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video obtained from the NASA meteor camera situated at the MMT Observatory on the site of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, located on Mount Hopkins, Arizona, in the Santa Rita Mountains. Cred...

  11. NUCLEAR DATABASES FOR REACTOR APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    PRITYCHENKO, B.; ARCILLA, R.; BURROWS, T.; HERMAN, M.W.; MUGHABGHAB, S.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; SONZOGNI, A.A.; TULI, J.; WINCHELL, D.F.

    2006-06-05

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC): An overview of nuclear databases, related products, nuclear data Web services and publications. The NNDC collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic research and applied nuclear technologies. The NNDC maintains and contributes to the nuclear reaction (ENDF, CSISRS) and nuclear structure databases along with several others databases (CapGam, MIRD, IRDF-2002) and provides coordination for the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) and the US Nuclear Data Program (USNDP). The Center produces several publications and codes such as Atlas of Neutron Resonances, Nuclear Wallet Cards booklets and develops codes, such as nuclear reaction model code Empire.

  12. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  13. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise. PMID:17794111

  14. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants.

  15. Ongoing Space Nuclear Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    Most ongoing US activities related to space nuclear power and propulsion are sponsored by NASA. NASA-spons0red space nuclear work is currently focused on evaluating potential fission surface power (FSP) systems and on radioisotope power systems (RPS). In addition, significant efforts related to nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been completed and will provide a starting point for potential future NTP work.

  16. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  17. Nuclear power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Written and verbal testimony presented before the House Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development is documented. Current research efforts related to space nuclear power are discussed including the SP-100 Space Reactor Program, development of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and the Advanced Nuclear Systems Program. Funding, research and test facilities, specific space mission requirements, and the comparison of solar and nuclear power systems are addressed. Witnesses included representatives from DOD, NASA, DOE, universities, and private industry.

  18. Wild atom: Nuclear terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear explosives are no longer beyond the reach of terrorists. The wild Atom simulation demonstrated that, because interdiction is difficult, governments must combat illicit possession of nuclear weapons, improve working relationships among domestic agencies, and curb rivalries among national and international counterproliferation and counterterrorism officials. If a nuclear incident occurs, officials must be trained for consequence management; the national security community and the national disaster medical community should be well practiced in working together and with experts in other countries.

  19. Nuclear power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Aftergood, S. ); Hafemeister, D.W. ); Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N. ); Primack, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space.

  20. Assessing the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ackland, L.; McGuire, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include historical aspects, the arms race, nuclear power, flaws in the non-proliferation treaty, North-South issues, East-West confrontation, Soviet decision making with regard to national defense, US and Soviet perspectives on national security, ballistic missile defense (''Star Wars''), political aspects, nuclear winter, stockpiles, US foreign policy, and military strategy.

  1. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  2. Nuclear Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-05-24

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances.

  3. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  7. Space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are considered for use in those particular spacecraft applications for which nuclear power systems offer unique advantages over solar and/or chemical space power systems. Both isotopic and reactor heated space electrical power units are described in an attempt to illustrate their operating characteristics, spacecraft integration aspects, and factory-to-end of mission operational considerations. The status of technology developments in nuclear power systems is presented. Some projections of those technologies are made to form a basis for the applications of space nuclear power systems to be expected over the next 10-15 years.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  9. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  10. Nuclear power attitude trends

    SciTech Connect

    Nealey, S.M.

    1981-11-01

    The increasing vulnerability of nuclear power to political pressures fueled by public concerns, particularly about nuclear plant safety and radioactive waste disposal, has become obvious. Since Eisenhower's Atoms-for-Peace program, utility and government plans have centered on expansion of nuclear power generating capability. While supporters have outnumbered opponents of nuclear power expansion for many years, in the wake of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident the margin of support has narrowed. The purpose of this paper is to report and put in perspective these long-term attitude trends.

  11. Controlling nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1981-07-17

    Nuclear non-proliferation policy depends on the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty, in which countries promise not to acquire nuclear weapons in exchange for open access to peaceful nuclear technology, and a system of international safeguards that are imposed on exported nuclear equipment and facilities operated by parties to the treaty. Critics have feared all along that non-nuclear countries might circumvent or exploit the system to obtain nuclear weapons and that the Atoms for Peace plan would spread the very technology it sought to control. The nuclear weapons states would like everyone else to believe that atomic bombs are undesirable, but they continue to rely on the bombs for their own defense. Israel's raid on Iraq's nuclear reactor focused world attention on the proliferation problem and helped to broaden and sterengthen its prospects. It also highlighted the weakness that there are no effective sanctions against violators. Until the international community can ageee on enforcement measures powerful enough to prevent nuclear proliferation, individual countries may be tempted to follow Israel's example, 19 references.

  12. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

  14. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  15. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  16. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  17. Clinical Nuclear Pharmacy Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)

  18. Nuclear Charge Radii Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Krassimira

    2015-09-15

    This paper is a brief overview of the existing systematics on nuclear mean square charge radii, obtained by a combined analysis of data from different types of experiment. The various techniques yielding data on nuclear charge radii are summarized. Their specific feature complexities and the accuracy and precision of the obtained information are also discussed.

  19. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is provided. (MDH)

  20. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  1. Vented nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  2. TRAINING NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVNER, EDGAR A.

    PROBLEMS CONFRONTED BY PLANNERS OF NUCLEAR PROGRAMS AT THE TECHNICIAN LEVEL INCLUDE (1) LACK OF PRECEDENT IN CURRICULUM, COURSE OUTLINES, AND GRADUATE PLACEMENT, (2) DIFFICULTY IN DETERMINING COSTS OF LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT, AND OPERATION, AND (3) REQUIREMENT OF ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION LICENSES IN NUCLEAR OCCUPATIONS. A 92-SEMESTER…

  3. Under the Nuclear Umbrella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Leon F.

    1987-01-01

    Entertains the thesis that social work has a stake in the technological-humanistic debate and should greet the recent and spectacular technological failures with protest and alarm. Discusses relationship of nuclear issue and social work, effects of nuclear issue on children, and Chernobyl. Advocates pacifism, activism, and a coherent conception of…

  4. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  5. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  6. Lipid droplets go nuclear.

    PubMed

    Farese, Robert V; Walther, Tobias C

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are sometimes found in the nucleus of some cells. In this issue, Ohsaki et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201507122) show that the nuclear membrane, promyelocytic leukemia bodies, and the protein PML-II play a role in nuclear LD formation, suggesting functional relationships between these structures. PMID:26728852

  7. Nuclear Taskforce Summation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    At the end of 1978, there were approximately 230 nuclear-fueled electric generating plants around the world; 72 of these were in the United States. Each plant requires an operations-and-maintenance workforce of 92 people, and attrition occurs at a rate of 8% per year. Requirements for a nuclear taskforce and job training, in view of current…

  8. High energy nuclear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  9. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  11. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  12. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  13. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  14. Nuclear illusion and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Lord Zuckerman describes how we can extricate ourselves from nuclear dread. Reviewing the history, technology, the strategies and threats of nuclear weaponry, he argues that the inability to unlearn how to split the atom does not mean there is either sanity or safety in further stockpiling or refining of nuclear weapons. He challenges our beliefs that the use of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe cannot be kept from excalating, our fear of sudden superweapons and defenses, and the premise that scientists, technologists, and arms makers should keep the race going rather than the military because of their vested interests. Given the political will, he contends, a comprehensive ban should not be a difficult treaty to agree to, although efforts to slow down the nuclear arms race have been admittedly disappointing. 92 references.

  15. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  16. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  17. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  18. US nuclear weapons policy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  19. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... (10 CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  20. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear... CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear...

  1. 77 FR 8904 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No....

  2. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  4. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2013-05-29

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  5. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  6. Student Reactions to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Nelson, Linden

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on the psychological impact of nuclear education curriculum on middle school students. Concluded that instruction about nuclear issues rarely increases students' fear or worry about nuclear war. (RT)

  7. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  8. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  9. The new nuclear nations

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.

    1985-01-01

    Using 251 pages of text, 66 pages of references and 26 pages of appendixes, Spector delves into a world of new nuclear suppliers whose voracious hunger for profits may lead them to provide unwise assistance to countries that are unduly interested in nuclear weaponry. He assails a new dragon, a 'nuclear netherworld' that would illicitly supply such items for profit or political gain. Spector's book tells of covert dealings in nuclear technologies and materials. For him, the buyers have but one goal: '... to gain possession of the knowledge and materials necessary for development of nuclear weapons'. He warns of dangers from this illicit trade, of the loopholes in existing controls and the need to close them. His warnings come wrapped in stories of undercover transactions, many about Pakistan's efforts to get what it needs for its centrifuge enrichment plant. Recognizing the tightening of controls over nuclear trade since the 1970s, including those for dual-use items, Spector is nonetheless pessimistic that these efforts are sufficient to irradicate the nuclear netherworld or to deter newcomers from it.

  10. Virtual nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  11. Fictions of nuclear disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work is critical study of literary interpretations of the nuclear holocaust. The author examines more than 250 stories and novels dealing with the theme of nuclear power and its devastating potential implications. Addressing such topics as the scientist and Armageddon, the role of religion, future evolution and mutation, and the postnuclear society, the author assesses the response of Bradbury, Lessing, Malamud, Shute, Huxley, Vonnegut, Heinlein, and others to the threat of nuclear apocalypse, with in-depth analyses of Alter Miller's A canticle for Leibowitz and Russell Hoban's Riddley Walker.

  12. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  13. Space nuclear technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. V.

    1992-12-01

    Member of Industry-Lab-Government delegation invited to visit the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to attend Nuclear Rocket Engines Conference in Semipalatinsk-21, Kazakhstan; visit a number of nuclear facilities; participate in technical discussions at several Russian organizations involved with space nuclear technology; discuss possibilities of Sandia participation in US/CIS programs. Significant programs exist in the CIS in these areas, but appear to have slowed due to funding difficulties and national priorities. The CIS possesses valuable technologies of significant relevance to current US interests and programs which they seem willing to make available to the US as relations between the US and the CIS improve.

  14. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of research: Pion double charge exchange and the role of meson exchange currents, including vector mesons, deltas, and nuclear correlations. K{sup +}-nucleus scattering and the role of meson exchange currents in supplying missing cross section.'' Pion excess distributions in nuclei, and the role of nuclear correlations. Interactions of two hyperons and the possibility of an H dibaryon. Shell model spectra and the NN tensor interaction. Statistical nuclear spectroscopy, including state densities and expectation values evaluated in terms of one-point and two-point (correlation) functions.

  15. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  16. Nuclear regulation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  17. Nuclear power after Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, J F

    1987-05-01

    The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes. PMID:3576192

  18. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.

    2006-05-19

    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  19. The nuclear option

    SciTech Connect

    Herken, G.

    1992-03-01

    A development history and current status evaluation are presented for nuclear-thermal rocket propulsion systems applicable to interplanetary flight. While the most advanced current chemical rocket engines, such as the SSMEs of the Space Shuttle, produce specific impulses of the order of 450 secs, a nuclear-thermal rocket engine tested at Los Alamos in 1969 generated 845 secs; such specific impulse improvements could represent weeks or months of interplanetary travel time. Attention is given to the achievements of the historical Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, Helios, and Orion design programs, as well as to the current Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications, which is fusion-based.

  20. Nuclear reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlman, H

    1989-11-01

    According to the author, the first sustained nuclear fission chain reaction was not at the University of Chicago, but at the Oklo site in the African country of Gabon. Proof of this phenomenon is provided by mass spectrometric and analytical chemical measurements by French scientists. The U.S. experience in developing power-producing reactors and their related fuel and fuel cycles is discussed.

  1. Nuclear lipid droplets: a novel nuclear domain.

    PubMed

    Layerenza, J P; González, P; García de Bravo, M M; Polo, M P; Sisti, M S; Ves-Losada, A

    2013-02-01

    We investigated nuclear neutral-lipid (NL) composition and organization, as NL may represent an alternative source for providing fatty acids and cholesterol (C) to membranes, signaling paths, and transcription factors in the nucleus. We show here that nuclear NL were organized into nonpolar domains in the form of nuclear-lipid droplets (nLD). By fluorescent confocal microscopy, representative nLD were observed in situ within the nuclei of rat hepatocytes in vivo and HepG2 cells, maintained under standard conditions in culture, and within nuclei isolated from rat liver. nLD were resistant to Triton X-100 and became stained with Sudan Red, OsO4, and BODIPY493/503. nLD and control cytosolic-lipid droplets (cLD) were isolated from rat-liver nuclei and from homogenates, respectively, by sucrose-gradient sedimentation. Lipids were extracted, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and quantified. nLD were composed of 37% lipids and 63% proteins. The nLD lipid composition was as follows: 19% triacylglycerols (TAG), 39% cholesteryl esters, 27% C, and 15% polar lipids; whereas the cLD composition contained different proportions of these same lipid classes, in particular 91% TAG. The TAG fatty acids from both lipid droplets were enriched in oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids. The TAG from the nLD corresponded to a small pool, whereas the TAG from the cLD constituted the main cellular pool (at about 100% yield from the total homogenate). In conclusion, nLD are a domain within the nucleus where NL are stored and organized and may be involved in nuclear lipid homeostasis. PMID:23098923

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 23: Nuclear Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 5: Introduction to Nuclear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Redefining Interrelationship between Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having “aggressors” as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests “SSN” which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called “SSST” in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards.

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  7. Atlas of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D. ); Baum, S. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding on the atlas of nuclear medicine. Topics covered include: Radionuclide esophageal transit studies, Iodine-131 neck and chest scintigraphy, Indium-111 white blood cell imaging, and Pediatric radionuclide lymphography.

  8. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  9. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  10. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  11. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  12. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as cosmic radiation, is in the upper atmosphere due to solar and galactic emissions. A typical ... used in medical procedures. 4 Cosmic Radiation Sun - - + - Atmosphere - + +- + + Earth How many nuclear medicine procedures are performed ...

  13. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  14. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  15. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  16. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  17. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  18. Nuclear Mechanics in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zwerger, Monika; Ho, Chin Yee; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the biomechanical properties of cells have emerged as key players in a broad range of cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Although much of the attention has focused on the cytoskeletal networks and the cell’s microenvironment, relatively little is known about the contribution of the cell nucleus. Here, we present an overview of the structural elements that determine the physical properties of the nucleus and discuss how changes in the expression of nuclear components or mutations in nuclear proteins can affect not only nuclear mechanics but also modulate cytoskeletal organization and diverse cellular functions. These findings illustrate that the nucleus is tightly integrated into the surrounding cellular structure. Consequently, changes in nuclear structure and composition are highly relevant to normal development and physiology and can contribute to many human diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, (premature) aging, and cancer. PMID:21756143

  19. Mechanotransduction and nuclear function.

    PubMed

    Graham, David M; Burridge, Keith

    2016-06-01

    Many signaling pathways converge on the nucleus to regulate crucial nuclear events such as transcription, DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Although the vast majority of research in this area has focused on signals generated in response to hormones or other soluble factors, the nucleus also responds to mechanical forces. During the past decade or so, much has been learned about how mechanical force can affect transcription, as well as the growth and differentiation of cells. Much has also been learned about how force is transmitted via the cytoskeleton to the nucleus and then across the nuclear envelope to the nuclear lamina and chromatin. In this brief review, we focus on some of the key proteins that transmit mechanical signals across the nuclear envelope. PMID:27018929

  20. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  1. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  2. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  3. Nuclear power cap opposed

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-17

    This article is a review of litigation in Canada that challenges the country`s Nuclear Liability Act. Both parties agree that repeal of this law would raise operating costs, lead to earlier closing of older units, and reduce the likelihood of future plant construction. The suit is brought by the city of Toronto and the Energy Probe watchdog group. Comments by the plaintiffs and several Canadian nuclear utilities are offered.

  4. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  6. Nuclear Energy's Renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear energy is about to enter its renaissance. After almost 30 years of new plant construction dormancy, utilities are seriously preparing for ordering new plants in the next two years. This resurgence in interest is based on improved plant performance, new Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing processes, significant incentives introduced by Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to encourage new orders, and new technologies that are competitive, simpler to operate and safer. These new evolutionary light water reactors will pave the way to more advanced high temperature gas reactors such as the pebble bed or prismatic reactors that will provide improved efficiency and safety leading to more process heat applications in oil extraction or hydrogen production. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) also authorized by the Energy Policy act will provide the fundamental technical basis for the future of these technologies. Progress continues on the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste disposal site enabling this expansion. When coupled with the long term strategy of waste minimization through reprocessing and actinide destruction as proposed in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, the future of nuclear energy as part of this nation's energy mix appears to be assured.

  7. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  8. Nuclear disengagement in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Lodgaard, S.; Thee, M.

    1983-01-01

    A combined withdrawal of nuclear and major conventional arms from central Europe would not only raise the nuclear threshold but also reduce the danger of surprise attack. In northern and southern Europe, nuclear weapon-free zones (NWFZs) would aim at enhancing stability and inducing confidence. In the North, limitations on nuclear weapons deployed in the vicinity of the zone, and particularly suited for use against targets within it, would have to be part of the arrangement. This might reduce the risk of inadvertent escalation in an area where conventional, tactical and strategic nuclear weapons are intermingled. Whereas 20 years ago Nordic NWFZ proposals were aimed at shielding the Nordic area from the repercussions of arms buildup in central Europe and concomitant East-West tension, today they also have to be designed so as to stabilize relations between the major powers in an area of great strategic significance. This book comprises 18 contributions discussing the possibilities for and ways of arriving at nuclear weapon-free zones in Europe.

  9. Nuclear and radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Yates, S.W.

    1988-06-15

    In this, their second fundamental review under the present authorship and title, they have chosen to continue their emphasis on topics representing the use of nuclear properties for chemical analysis. Excluded are topics in the areas of health physics, nuclear spectroscopy (unless directly related to analysis), nuclear engineering, fusion, radioactive waste disposal, fallout, and nuclear and particle physics. Other topics such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), plasma desorption mass spectrometry, radioimmunoassay, Moessbauer spectroscopy, nuclear dating methods, and radiotracer applications are treated briefly here, since they are adequately covered in other current reviews in this or other major journals. Only a brief mention is made of well logging, since many of the advances in this field do not currently appear in the open literature. As in their previous review, they finish with short comments on some interesting developments in nuclear and radiochemistry that are not strictly analytical in nature. This review is based largely on a computerized keyword search of Chemical Abstracts (CA) for the period from mid-November 1985 through December 31, 1987.

  10. Superpower nuclear minimalism

    SciTech Connect

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in building weapons -- now it seems like America and Russia are competing to get rid of them the fastest. The lengthy process of formal arms control has been replaced by exchanges of unilateral force reductions and proposals for reciprocal reductions not necessarily codified by treaty. Should superpower nuclear strategies change along with force postures President Bush has yet to make a formal pronouncement on post-Cold War American nuclear strategy, and it is uncertain if the Soviet/Russian doctrine of reasonable sufficiency formulated in the Gorbachev era actually heralds a change in strategy. Some of the provisions in the most recent round of unilateral proposals put forth by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin in January 1992 are compatible with a change in strategy. Whether such a change has actually occurred remains to be seen. With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, mutual assured destruction (MAD) which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war- fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  11. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  12. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  13. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  14. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  15. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  17. NESST: A nuclear energy safety and security treaty-Separating nuclear energy from nuclear weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Fission and Fusion energy is matched by the need to completely separate civilian energy programmes from the production of nuclear weapons. The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT, 1968) muddles these issues together. The case is presented here for making a new Nuclear Energy Security Treaty (NESST) which is rigorous, enforceable without violence, and separate from the political quagmire of nuclear weapons.

  18. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  19. Extremes of nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    With the advent of medium and large gamma detector arrays, it is now possible to look at nuclear structure at high rotational forces. The role of pairing correlations and their eventual breakdown, along with the shell effects have showed us the interesting physics for nuclei at high spins - superdeformation, shape co-existence, yrast traps, alignments and their dramatic effects on nuclear structure and so on. Nuclear structure studies have recently become even more exciting, due to efforts and possibilities to reach nuclei far off from the stability valley. Coupling of gamma ray arrays with 'filters', like neutron wall, charged particle detector array, gamma ray total energy and multiplicity castles, conversion electron spectrometers etc gives a great handle to study nuclei produced online with 'low' cross-sections. Recently we studied, nuclei in mass region 80 using an array of 8 germanium detectors in conjunction with the recoil mass analyser, HIRA at the Nuclear Science Centre and, most unexpectedly came across the phenomenon of identical bands, with two quasi-particle difference. The discovery of magnetic rotation is another highlight. Our study of light In nucleus, 107In brought us face to face with the 'dipole' bands. I plan to discuss some of these aspects. There is also an immensely important development - that of the 'radioactive ion beams'. The availability of RIB, will probably very dramatically influence our 'conventional' concept of nuclear structure. The exotic shapes of these exotic nuclei and some of their expected properties will also be touched upon.

  20. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  1. Nuclear ``pasta'' formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Hughto, J.; Berry, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of complex nonuniform phases of nuclear matter, known as nuclear pasta, is studied with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations containing 51200 nucleons. A phenomenological nuclear interaction is used that reproduces the saturation binding energy and density of nuclear matter. Systems are prepared at an initial density of 0.10fm-3 and then the density is decreased by expanding the simulation volume at different rates to densities of 0.01fm-3 or less. An originally uniform system of nuclear matter is observed to form spherical bubbles (“swiss cheese”), hollow tubes, flat plates (“lasagna”), thin rods (“spaghetti”) and, finally, nearly spherical nuclei with decreasing density. We explicitly observe nucleation mechanisms, with decreasing density, for these different pasta phase transitions. Topological quantities known as Minkowski functionals are obtained to characterize the pasta shapes. Different pasta shapes are observed depending on the expansion rate. This indicates nonequilibrium effects. We use this to determine the best ways to obtain lower energy states of the pasta system from MD simulations and to place constraints on the equilibration time of the system.

  2. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  3. Europe's nuclear dominos

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J. )

    1993-06-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe.

  4. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  6. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-01

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  7. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  8. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  10. Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions

    SciTech Connect

    I. Schienbein, J.Y. Yu, C. Keppel, J.G. Morfin, F. Olness, J.F. Owens

    2009-06-01

    We study nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering in the framework of a {chi}{sup 2} analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). We extract a set of iron PDFs which are used to compute x{sub Bj}-dependent and Q{sup 2}-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. We compare our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for charged-lepton--iron scattering. We find that, except for very high x{sub Bj}, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering.

  11. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  12. Nuclear Neighborhoods and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Bodnar, Megan S.; Spector, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The eukaryotic nucleus is a highly compartmentalized and dynamic environment. Chromosome territories are arranged non-randomly within the nucleus and numerous studies have indicated that a gene’s position in the nucleus can impact its transcriptional activity. Here, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the influence of specific nuclear neighborhoods on gene expression or repression. Nuclear neighborhoods associated with transcriptional repression include the inner nuclear membrane/nuclear lamina and peri-nucleolar chromatin, whereas neighborhoods surrounding the nuclear pore complex, PML nuclear bodies, and nuclear speckles seem to be transcriptionally permissive. While nuclear position appears to play an important role in gene expression, it is likely to be only one piece of a flexible puzzle that incorporates numerous parameters. We are still at a very early, yet exciting stage in our journey toward deciphering the mechanism(s) that govern the permissiveness of gene expression/repression within different nuclear neighborhoods. PMID:19339170

  13. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  14. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated on such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.

  15. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  16. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities.

  17. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, John Howard; Allen, Todd Randall; Hildebrandt, Philip Clay; Baker, Suzanne Hobbs

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.

  18. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  19. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  20. Friction in nuclear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1985-03-01

    The problem of dissipation in nuclear dynamics is related to the breaking down of nuclear symmetries and the transition from ordered to chaotic nucleonic motions. In the two extreme idealizations of the perfectly Ordered Regime and the fully Chaotic Regime, the nucleus should behave as an elastic solid or an overdamped fluid, respectively. In the intermediate regime a complicated visco-elastic behaviour is expected. The discussion is illustrated by a simple estimate of the frequency of the giant quadrupole resonance in the Ordered Regime and by applications of the wall and window dissipation formulae in the Chaotic Regime. 51 refs.

  1. Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-07-01

    Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures.

  2. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  3. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  4. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  5. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  6. Introduction to nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Patton, J A

    1998-01-01

    Photons for counting or imaging applications in nuclear medicine result from several processes. Gamma rays are produced from excited state transitions after beta decay and electron capture. Annihilation photons result from positron decay. The de-excitation of the atom after electron capture results in the production of characteristic x rays or Auger electrons. Metastable state transitions result in gamma ray emission or internal conversion electrons. All radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine applications are tagged with radionuclides that emit photons as a result of one of these processes. PMID:9672982

  7. Trident and nuclear law.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, R

    1998-01-01

    On 8 July 1996, the International Court of Justice gave its Advisory Opinion on the legality of the use or threat of nuclear weapons, in response to a resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations. This paper considers the status of Trident, now the United Kingdom's only nuclear weapon system, in the light of the Opinion. While it cannot be concluded definitively that the threat or use of Trident is illegal, at the very least the legality of the programme is brought into considerable doubt. The continued deployment of Trident raises important legal and military issues, which must be addressed urgently. PMID:9838889

  8. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  9. Manipulating nuclear architecture

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wulan; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome is highly organized in the nucleus. Genes can be localized to specific nuclear compartments in a manner reflecting their activity. A plethora of recent report has described multiple levels of chromosomal folding that can be related to gene-specific expression states. Here we discuss studies designed to probe the causal impact of genome organization on gene expression. The picture that emerges is that of a reciprocal relationship in which nuclear organization is not only shaped by gene expression states but also directly influences them. PMID:24584091

  10. Combinedatomic-nuclear decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyublik, A. Ya.

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed in details the combined decay of the atomic-nuclear state, which consists of the excited 3/2+ level of 63 153 Eu and K hole, formed in the K capture by 153Gd. This decay proceeds in two stages. First, the nucleus transfers its energy to 2 p electron, which flies into the continuum spectrum, and then returns into 1s hole, emitting γ quantum with the energy equal to the sum of energies of the nuclear and atomic transitions. We estimated the decay probability to be 2.2 × 10-13, that is much less than the recent experimental findings.

  11. Nuclear effects in Neutrino Nuclear Cross-sections

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. K.; Athar, M. Sajjad

    2008-02-21

    Nuclear effects in the quasielastic and inelastic scattering of neutrinos(antineutrinos) from nuclear targets have been studied. The calculations are done in the local density approximation which take into account the effect of nucleon motion as well as renormalisation of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium. The inelastic reaction leading to production of pions is calculated in a {delta} dominance model taking into account the renormalization of {delta} properties in the nuclear medium.

  12. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  15. Nuclear testing: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.

    1995-08-01

    The authors have examined the experimental and analytic bases for understanding the performance of each of the weapon types that are currently planned to remain in the US enduring nuclear stockpile. They have also examined whether continued underground tests at various nuclear yield thresholds would add significantly to the confidence in this stockpile in the years ahead. The starting point for this examination was a detailed review of past experience in developing and testing modern nuclear weapons, their certification and recertification processes, their performance margins, and evidence of aging or other trends over time for each weapon type in the enduring stockpile. The findings, as summarized in Conclusions 1 through 6, are consistent with US agreement to enter into a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) of unending duration, that includes a standard ``supreme national interest`` clause. Recognizing that the challenge of maintaining an effective nuclear stockpile for an indefinite period without benefit of underground tests is an important and also a new one, the US should affirm its readiness to invoke the supreme national interest clause should the need arise as a result of unanticipated technical problems in the enduring stockpile.

  16. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  17. Topics in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  18. Topics in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  19. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  20. Nuclear Radiation Damages Minds!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Professors Ernest Sternglass (University of Pittsburgh) and Steven Bell (Berry College) have assembled cogent, conclusive evidence indicating that nuclear radiation is associated with impaired cognition. They suggest that Scholastic Aptitude Scores (SATs), which have declined steadily for 19 years, will begin to rise. Their prediction is based on…

  1. Second Nuclear Era

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Spiewak, I.; Barkenbus, J.N.; Livingston, R.S.; Phung, D.L.

    1984-03-01

    The Institute for Energy Analysis with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has studied the decline of the present nuclear era in the United States and the characteristics of a Second Nuclear Era which might be instrumental in restoring nuclear power to an appropriate place in the energy options of our country. The study has determined that reactors operating today are much safer than they were at the time of the TMI accident. A number of concepts for a supersafe reactor were reviewed and at least two were found that show considerable promise, the PIUS, a Swedish pressurized water design, and a gas-cooled modular design of German and US origin. Although new, safer, incrementally improved, conventional reactors are under study by the nuclear industry, the complete lack of new orders in the United States will slow their introduction and they are likely to be more expensive than present designs. The study recommends that supersafe reactors be taken seriously and that federal and private funds both be used to design and, if feasible, to build a prototype reactor of substantial size. 146 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Nuclear Medical Technology Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H., Ed.

    This 1-day colloquium, attended by 23 participants representing societies, government agencies, colleges and universities, and other training programs, was conducted for the purpose of reporting on and discussing the curriculums developed at the University of Cincinnati for training nuclear medical technologists. Pilot programs at both the…

  3. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  4. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  5. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-25

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Thailand; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary; (4) Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua; (5) India, Iran, Bangladesh, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  7. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  8. Restructuring nuclear regulations.

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear regulations are a subset of social regulations (laws to control activities that may negatively impact the environment, health, and safety) that concern control of ionizing radiation from radiation-producing equipment and from radioactive materials. The impressive safety record among nuclear technologies is due, in no small part, to the work of radiation safety professionals and to a protection system that has kept pace with the rapid technologic advancements in electric power generation, engineering, and medicine. The price of success, however, has led to a regulatory organization and philosophy characterized by complexity, confusion, public fear, and increasing economic costs. Over the past 20 years, regulatory costs in the nuclear sector have increased more than 250% in constant 1995 U.S. dollars. Costs of regulatory compliance can be reduced sharply, particularly when health and environmental benefits of risk reduction are questionable. Three key regulatory areas should be closely examined and modified to improve regulatory effectiveness and efficiency: a) radiation protection should be changed from a risk-based to dose-based system; b) the U.S. government should adopt the modern metric system (International System of Units), and radiation quantities and units should be simplified to facilitate international communication and public understanding; and c) a single, independent office is needed to coordinate nuclear regulations established by U.S. federal agencies and departments. PMID:12515683

  9. Targeting Nuclear Envelope Repair.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Migrating cancer cells undergo repeated rupture of the protective nuclear envelope as they squeeze through small spaces in the surrounding tissue, compromising genomic integrity. Inhibiting both general DNA repair and the mechanism that seals these tears may enhance cell death and curb metastasis. PMID:27130435

  10. Nuclear light bulb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear light bulb engine is a closed cycle concept. The nuclear light bulb concept provides containment by keeping the nuclear fuel fluid mechanically suspended in a cylindrical geometry. Thermal heat passes through an internally cooled, fused-silica, transparent wall and heats hydrogen propellant. The seeded hydrogen propellant absorbs radiant energy and is expanded through a nozzle. Internal moderation was used in the configuration which resulted in a reduced critical density requirement. This result was supported by criticality experiments. A reference engine was designed that had seven cells and was sized to fit in what was then predicted to be the shuttle bay mass and volume limitations. There were studies done of nozzle throat cooling schemes to remove the radiant heat. Elements of the nuclear light bulb program included closed loop critical assembly tests done at Los Alamos with UF6 confined by argon buffer gas. It was shown that the fuel region could be seeded with constituents that would block UV radiation from the uranium plasma. A combination of calculations and experiments showed that internal moderation produced a critical mass reduction. Other aspects of the research are presented.

  11. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-19

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Panama; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Israel, Afghanistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Turkey, Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  12. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-05

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Czechoslovakia; (4) Argentina, Brazil; (5) India, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom; and (8) Ghana, Mauritius.

  13. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-04

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Peru; (5) India, Iraq, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Mauritania, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, Canada, Italy, Spain; and (8) South Africa.

  14. Nuclear Power in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  15. Evaluated nuclear data library

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1981-10-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collection of evaluated data for neutron-, photon-, and charged-particle-induced reactions is maintained in a computer-oriented system. In this report we recount the history of Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, describe the methods of evaluation, and give examples of input and output representation of the data.

  16. Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Bob

    2008-02-05

    When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most don’t really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

  17. Nuclear Cluster Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    2011-05-06

    Predictive power of theory needs good models and accurate calculation methods to solve the Schroedinger equations of the systems concerned. We present some examples of successful predictions based on the nuclear cluster models of light nuclei and hypernuclei and on the calculation methods that have been developed by Kyushu group.

  18. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  19. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  20. Nuclear and radiochemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Robertson, J.D.; Yates, S.W.

    1992-06-15

    This is the fourth in a series of periodic reviews on the subject of nuclear and radiochemical analysis. The review covers material found in books and journals concerning radiochemical, neutron activation, charged-particle activation, ion beam, isotope dilution, direct counting, transmission, attenuation, scattering, tracer, and isotopic dating methods.

  1. NUCLEAR FUEL COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.

    1960-05-31

    A novel reactor composition for use in a self-sustaining fast nuclear reactor is described. More particularly, a fuel alloy comprising thorium and uranium-235 is de scribed, the uranium-235 existing in approximately the same amount that it is found in natural uranium, i.e., 1.4%.

  2. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  3. Viewpoints on Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Committee on the Present Danger, Inc., the Committee of Atomic Bomb Survivors in the United States, the World Friendship Center in Hiroshima, two authors, physics and education professors, an English and history teacher, and a high school student comment on nuclear education. (RM)

  4. Nuclear cardiograph and scintigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive advances in the technology of detectors, data analysis systems, and tracers used have resulted in greatly expanded applications of radioisotopes to the assessment of cardiac function and disease. The development of nuclear cardiology has proceeded along four lines: (1) radionuclide angiography, (2) myocardial perfusion imaging, (3) intracoronary microsphere imaging, and (4) regional myocardial blood flow determination using inert gases.

  5. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  6. Nuclear weapons at sea

    SciTech Connect

    Fieldhouse, R.

    1987-09-01

    It is important to consider naval strategy in the context of the forces available to implement it: any strategy not based on existing force capabilities is just talk. An examination of US and Soviet naval forces reveals two important points: First, the current US naval force structure provides significant advantages over the Soviet Union and permits an aggressive forward strategy, while Soviet naval force structure and practice require the Soviet Navy to stay closer to home. Second, for different reasons both navies are thoroughly armed with tactical nuclear weapons; this creates a risk that any superpower naval conflict will escalate to the use of nuclear weapons. This risk may be increasing because of disparities between US and Soviet naval forces and strategies: whereas the US Navy concentrates its offensive power in its aircraft carriers, for forward operations, the Soviet Navy concentrates its offensive power in land-based aircraft and in its submarines, for operations closer to home. Any US naval advantages pertain exclusively to conventional forces and conflict. Once nuclear weapons are used any superiority will evaporate. The full implications and dangers of this fact have been ignored in the proposed US maritime strategy, which overlooks the probability of the use of nuclear weapons and focuses exclusively on a conventional war. 10 references.

  7. First nuclear clock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-06-01

    A nuclear clock that is more precise than any atomic clock available today could soon be a reality after physicists in Germany detected a crucial low-energy transition in the thorium-229 nucleus, which could be used to create a new frequency standard.

  8. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  9. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  10. Teaching About Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Accuses the National Education Association (NEA) of encouraging its teacher-members to indoctrinate children on the benefits of a nuclear freeze. Holds that a new study guide, produced by the Union of Concerned Scientists in conjunction with the NEA, is political propaganda. (GC)

  11. Nuclear weapons and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.B.; Markusen, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 12 sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the section titles are: Is Hiroshima Our Text.; Nuclear Weapons and Their Effects; Can Nuclear War be Survived.; The Debate Over U.S. Strategic Nuclear Weapons Policy; and Costs of the Arms Race.

  12. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  13. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  14. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  15. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  16. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  17. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    ScienceCinema

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2013-05-28

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-09

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  19. A Career in Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear chemist Dr. Marsha Lambregts talks about the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and the benefits of a nuclear energy career. For more information about careers at INL, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements and Joint Society Statements Member Login Enter Forgot your password? Meetings & ...