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Sample records for nuclear industry workers

  1. Industry's Struggle for Skilled Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Don

    1979-01-01

    The growing shortage of skilled workers in industrial maintenance, the growing complexity of equipment, and the automation of production processes call for improved and increased employee training and retraining. A General Motors training supervisor notes how education and industry can cooperate to provide this education and training. (MF)

  2. Cancer incidence among Finnish nuclear reactor workers.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Hyvönen, Hannu; Hakama, Matti; Rytömaa, Tapio

    2002-07-01

    Because of their well-documented exposures to repeated low doses of ionizing radiation, nuclear reactor workers offer an opportunity to assess cancer risk from low-dose radiation. A cohort of all 15,619 Finnish nuclear reactor workers was established through dose-monitoring records. A questionnaire survey revealed no substantial differences in consumption of tobacco or alcohol between different exposure groups nor between nuclear power company employees and contract workers. In the follow-up for cancer incidence, no clear excess in cancer incidence was observed overall, nor was any observed in any of the specific cancer types studied. There was little evidence for an association between cancer incidence and cumulative radiation dose, but the statistical power was limited. More precise estimates will be available from an international collaborative study of nuclear industry workers, including our cohort. PMID:12134527

  3. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors. PMID:24590022

  4. INDUSTRIAL INJURIES OF FARM WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    LaTourette, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    Most industrial employees receive physical examinations to evaluate their physical fitness in relation to their work. The farm worker is neglected in this matter, in that he is hired for almost any type of work without physical evaluation. As a result, his accident rate is high. His efficiency at his work is low. His time loss from work because of sickness and accident is high, and the employer pays a very high rate of insurance for the patient's care and his own legal protection. Physical fitness cards should be carried by all farm laborers so that they would be put in properly graded jobs. PMID:13460719

  5. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  6. Decreasing the aging velocity in industry workers.

    PubMed

    Kristjuhan, Ulo

    2010-06-01

    We carried out physiological and ergonomic studies in industry from 1965 to 2000. Participants (2147) were workers in different jobs, such as light industry and the dairy, automotive, and building materials industries. Most of the groups studied included 30-50 male and female workers. In the studies we used a combination of methods and paid much attention to the quantitative assessment of discomfort during working hours. One of the aims was to avoid or postpone various age-related diseases (cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, etc.) of workers. We provided recommendations to managers and individuals: changing the technology, work organization, corrective measures of ergonomics, self-care procedures or doctor visits, correct diet, preventive exercises, and improving labor productivity. Changes based on our studies postponed age-related changes up to 20 years and pointed to close connections between the environment and aging peculiarities in the human organism. PMID:20536833

  7. A Look into the Temporary Employment Industry and Its Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Belovics, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a brief overview of the contingent worker industry and its employees. In addition to defining temporary worker, the authors describe the importance of the temporary worker industry to the U.S. economy and the forces that have driven this industry's rapid growth. The changing profile of temporary workers, the benefits and…

  8. Effects of low doses and low dose rates of external ionizing radiation: Cancer mortality among nuclear industry workers in three countries

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.; Kato, I.; Lave, C.; Gilbert, E.S.; Fix., J.; Carpenter, L.; Howe, D.; Armstrong, B.K.; Bereal, V.

    1995-05-01

    Studies of the mortality among nuclear industry workforces have been carried out, and nationally combined analyses performed, in the U.S., the UK and Canada. This paper presents the results of internationally combined analyses of mortality data on 95,673 workers (85.4% men) monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and employed for 6 months or longer in the nuclear industry of one of the three countries. These analyses were undertaken to obtain a more precise direct assessment of the carcinogenic effects of protracted low-level exposure to external, predominantly {gamma}, radiation. The combination of the data from the various studies increases the power to study associations between radiation dose and mortality from all causes or from all cancers. Mortality from leukemia, excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-the cause of death most strongly and consistently related to radiation dose in studies of atomic bomb survivors and other populations exposed at high dose rates-was significantly associated with cumulative external radiation dose (one-sided P value = 0.046; 119 deaths). Among the 31 other specific types of cancer studied, a significant association was observed only for multiple myeloma (one-sided P value = 0.037; 44 deaths), and this was attributable primarily to the associations reported previously between this disease and radiation dose in the Hanford (U.S.) and Sellafield (UK) cohorts. The excess relative risk (ERR) estimates for all cancers excluding leukemia, and leukemia excluding CLL, the two main groupings of causes of death for which risk estimates have been derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors, were -0.07 per Sv [90% confidence interval (CI):-0.4,0.3] and 2.18 per Sv (90% CI:0.1,5.7), respectively. These values correspond to a relative risk of 0.99 for all cancers excluding leukemia and 1.22 for leukemia excluding CLL for a cumulative protracted dose of 100 mSv compared to O mSv. 53 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  9. Hearing parameters in noise exposed industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Celik, O; Yalçin, S; Oztürk, A

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out in a group of noise-exposed workers in a hydro-electric power plant. Thus, the main focus of the study is on 130 industrial workers who were exposed to high level of noise. The control group was consisted of 33 subjects with normal hearing. Hearing and acoustic reflex thresholds were obtained from all subjects and the results from age-matched subgroups were compared. The sensorineural hearing loss which were detected in 71 workers were bilateral, symmetrical and affected mainly frequencies of 4-6 kHz. In essence, the hearing losses were developed within the first 10 years of noise exposure and associated with slight progress in the following years. When acoustic reflex thresholds derived from the study and control groups were compared, statistically significant difference was determined only for the thresholds obtained at 4 kHz (p < 0.0005). PMID:9853659

  10. Women workers in the health service industry.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A

    1975-01-01

    The health service industry is unusual in that most of the skilled as well as unskilled workers are women, although the industry is largely controlled by men. Women are hired because they constitute an inexpensive, available, and seemingly powerless work force. Women enter health service because they have few alternatives to the low-paying, dead-end jobs found there. Health service occupations are organized like craft unions, with rigid hierarchical separations and control by the top occupation. Conflicts between men and women-between management and workers-are often played out as conflicts between occupations. Challenges to physicians come from various nursing specialties as well as from technical professions. Physicians in turn create lower-level occupations which challenge the nurses' status. Increasing industrialization alters the pattern of conflict, creating opportunities for individual bureaucratic mobility as well as favorable conditions for unionization drives. Unionism is often held back by sex, race, and professional conflicts, which must be overcome if the status of women is to be changed in the industry. PMID:1181296

  11. Analysis of the Mortality Experience amongst U.S. Nuclear Power Industry Workers after Chronic Low-Dose Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Geoffrey R.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Fix, Jack J.; Egel, John N.; Buchanan, Jeffrey A.

    2004-11-01

    Workers employed in 15 utilities that generate nuclear power in the United States have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997. Their cumulative dose from whole-body ionizing radiation has been determined from the dose records maintained by the facilities themselves and the REIRS and REMS systems maintained by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy, respectively. Mortality in the cohort from a number of causes has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and noncancer mortality than the general population. Based on 26 and 368 deaths, respectively, positive though statistically nonsignificant associations were seen for mortality from leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and all solid cancers combined, with excess relative risks per sievert of 5.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.56, 30.4) and 0.596 (95% CI -2.01, 4.64), respectively. These estimates are very similar to those from the atomic bomb survivors study, though the wide confidence intervals are also consistent with lower or higher risk estimates. A strong positive and statistically significant association between radiation dose and deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease including coronary heart disease was also observed in the cohort, with an ERR of 8.78 (95% CI 2.10, 20.0). While associations with heart disease have been reported in some other occupational studies, the magnitude of the present association is not consistent with them and therefore needs cautious interpretation and merits further attention. At present, the relatively small number of deaths and the young age of the cohort (mean age at end of follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up and the inclusion of the present data in an ongoing IARC combined analysis of nuclear workers from 15 countries will have greater power for testing the main hypotheses

  12. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, G W; Stewart, A M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as controlling for all the usual factors also allowed for possible effects of three cancer modulating factors (exposure age, cancer latency, and year of exposure). This analysis was first applied to three distinct cohorts, and then to two sets of pooled data. RESULTS--From each study cohort there was evidence of a risk of cancer related to dose, and evidence that the extra radiogenic cancers had the same overall histological manifestations as naturally occurring cancers and were largely the result of exposures after 50 years of age causing deaths after 70 years. There were, however, significant differences between the five sets of risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS--Although the risks of cancer in nuclear workers were appreciably higher than estimates based on the cancer experiences of survivors of the atomic bomb, some uncertainties remained as there were non-uniform standards of dosimetry in the nuclear sites. The differences between nuclear workers and survivors of the atomic bomb were largely the result of relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer being totally different for workers and survivors and, in the occupational data, there were no signs of the special risks of leukaemia found in atomic bomb data and other studies of effects of high doses. PMID:7663636

  13. Aluminium in the blood and urine of industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Lundberg, I; Lidums, V

    1983-01-01

    Blood and urine aluminium concentrations were studied in industrially exposed workers using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Welders and workers making aluminium powder and aluminium sulphate had higher concentrations in blood and urine than non-exposed referents. Workers in the electrolytic production of aluminium had higher urine but not blood concentrations than the referents. Thus aluminium was found to be absorbed by all industrially exposed workers. Blood concentrations were lower than those presumably associated with aluminium induced encephalopathy in patients receiving dialysis. PMID:6871119

  14. Hand exposure in nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Chruscielewski, W; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J; Cygan, M

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the gamma radiation emitted by radioactive elements (e.g. 99mTc and 131I) used in nuclear medicine laboratories for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, nuclear medicine workers are exposed to whole-body doses. These doses arc usually measured by using individual film dosemeters. Lead or lead glass shields used during the handling of radioisotopes minimise the whole-body doses received. Nevertheless, part of the job has to be performed manually, hence the hands are more exposed to radiation. This paper presents the results of measuring the equivalent dose to the hands of workers employed in five selected nuclear medicine laboratories where technetium and iodine radioisotopes are in common use. Sixty workers, including physicians, nurses, radiopharmacists and technicians, were included in the study. Doses were measured at 1 month intervals. The study indicated that, in some instances, the danger of radiation dose to the hand may be significant. Monthly doses exceeded 50 mSv, which may suggest that an annual dose may be higher than 500 mSv. PMID:12382741

  15. Mortality study of beryllium industry workers' occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, T.F.

    1980-02-01

    A cohort of 3685 white males employed during 1937 to 1948 in two major industries manufacturing beryllium was followed to the end of 1976 to evaluate lung cancer mortality experience. Lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers was contrasted with that of workers employed in the viscose rayon industry. Study results demonstrated that lung cancer mortality among berylliumm-exposed workers was significantly greater than that expected on the basis of lung cancer mortality experience of workers in the viscose rayon industry having similar employment patterns. The results of the present study are consistent with earlier animal bioassay studies and recent epidemiologic studies indicating that beryllium is carcinogenic. The results of the present study are not consistent with speculation attributing the excessive lung cancer mortality among beryllium-exposed workers to personal characteristics of individuals having unstable employment patterns.

  16. Matching Older Workers to Jobs: The Industrial Health Counseling Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossofsky, Eula W.

    1986-01-01

    GULHEMP, an occupational health system used by the Industrial Health Counseling Service (IHCS) in Portland, Maine, improves the match between middle-aged and older workers' abilities and the demands of specific jobs. It provides objective criteria upon which to base decisions to hire, promote, transfer, or terminate workers. (JOW)

  17. Detecting the hypersusceptible worker: genetics and politics in industrial medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the development of the concept of the hypersusceptible worker, as advanced by H. E. Stokinger and his associates. It is argued that this concept enabled industrial toxicologists to organize knowledge about workers' reactions to toxicity so as to sustain a professional and methodological ideology which reflects the relationship between industrial toxicology and capitalist industry. Moreover, it is argued that it is this aspect of hypersusceptibility, rather than its practical utility to specific corporations, that is most important. Constraints on implementation of screening programs based on the ideas of genetic hypersusceptibility are also discussed.

  18. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

  19. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  20. [THE CHOLINESTERASE OF BLOOD SERUM IN WORKERS OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE].

    PubMed

    Radamishina, G G; Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G; Valeeva, O V

    2015-08-01

    The biochemical study of activity of serum cholinesterase in workers of industrial enterprise was carried out on the example of petrochemical industry. The indicators of average activity of enzyme and prevalence of indicators going beyond limits of reference values were analyzed depending on manufacturing-labor experience, profession and diseases established in workers. The main diseases, professional and labor experience groups were identified where activity of cholinesterase significantly changes. The impact of labor experience and profession on level of activity ofenzyme in blood serum is demonstrated. PMID:26596043

  1. [Ways of improving health care of industrial workers of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Petrov, P P; Asylbekova, G O; Zhakashov, N Zh; Kul'zhanov, M K

    1992-01-01

    The health of industrial workers should be considered from the point of view of broad social positions and primarily from the working and living conditions and the state of health services. Environmental factors should also be taken into consideration. Periodic medical check-ups of industrial workers indicate that their health is improving. Despite the success achieved, this problem in Kazakhstan is not being adequately solved, there are only 61 health units. Hospital beds in these institutions do not have necessary specialization corresponding to the profile of industrial enterprises. Numerous industrial enterprises, oil-and-gas extracting works pollute the environment, which has been confirmed by respective examples. The authors provide evidence for the necessity of economic education for the population. Preliminary results of experimental introduction of a new economic mechanism and medical insurance in Kazakhstan are being considered as factors contributing to the improvement of public health financing resources. PMID:1470989

  2. The High-Tech Industry and Its Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James; Belovics, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide counselors, academic advisers, and career coaches with a basic understanding of the current state of the high-technology (high-tech) industry in the United States and the people who work in it. A profile of a high-tech worker is presented, several high-tech career developments are described, and selected…

  3. Older Workers' Workplace Learning in Manufacturing Industries: Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliore, Maria-Cristina Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to older workers (OWs)' subjective engagement in working and learning in the manufacturing industry. Workplace learning (WPL) literature rarely considers the subjective side of learning from a cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) account. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a…

  4. Clerical Workers on Flexitime: A Survey of Three Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, J. Carroll

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of flexitime programs in three industries: banking, insurance, and public utilities. It addresses these questions: To what extent is flexitime in use among clerical workers? What are flexitime's effects on employee and organizational performance? Survey results concern work quality, absenteeism, overtime, job…

  5. Lung Cancer and Vehicle Exhaust in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Rosner, Bernard; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Background An elevated risk of lung cancer in truck drivers has been attributed to diesel exhaust exposure. Interpretation of these studies specifically implicating diesel exhaust as a carcinogen has been limited because of limited exposure measurements and lack of work records relating job title to exposure-related job duties. Objectives We established a large retrospective cohort of trucking company workers to assess the association of lung cancer mortality and measures of vehicle exhaust exposure. Methods Work records were obtained for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. We assessed lung cancer mortality through 2000 using the National Death Index, and we used an industrial hygiene review and current exposure measurements to identify jobs associated with current and historical use of diesel-, gas-, and propane-powered vehicles. We indirectly adjusted for cigarette smoking based on an industry survey. Results Adjusting for age and a healthy-worker survivor effect, lung cancer hazard ratios were elevated in workers with jobs associated with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. Mortality risk increased linearly with years of employment and was similar across job categories despite different current and historical patterns of exhaust-related particulate matter from diesel trucks, city and highway traffic, and loading dock operations. Smoking behavior did not explain variations in lung cancer risk. Conclusions Trucking industry workers who have had regular exposure to vehicle exhaust from diesel and other types of vehicles on highways, city streets, and loading docks have an elevated risk of lung cancer with increasing years of work. PMID:18941573

  6. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes. PMID:25793365

  7. Lung Cancer and Elemental Carbon Exposure in Trucking Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Davis, Mary E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diesel exhaust has been considered to be a probable lung carcinogen based on studies of occupationally exposed workers. Efforts to define lung cancer risk in these studies have been limited in part by lack of quantitative exposure estimates. Objective: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess lung cancer mortality risk among U.S. trucking industry workers. Elemental carbon (EC) was used as a surrogate of exposure to engine exhaust from diesel vehicles, traffic, and loading dock operations. Methods: Work records were available for 31,135 male workers employed in the unionized U.S. trucking industry in 1985. A statistical model based on a national exposure assessment was used to estimate historical work-related exposures to EC. Lung cancer mortality was ascertained through the year 2000, and associations with cumulative and average EC were estimated using proportional hazards models. Results: Duration of employment was inversely associated with lung cancer risk consistent with a healthy worker survivor effect and a cohort composed of prevalent hires. After adjusting for employment duration, we noted a suggestion of a linear exposure–response relationship. For each 1,000-µg/m3 months of cumulative EC, based on a 5-year exposure lag, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.15] with a similar association for a 10-year exposure lag [HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.20)]. Average exposure was not associated with relative risk. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality in trucking industry workers increased in association with cumulative exposure to EC after adjusting for negative confounding by employment duration. PMID:22739103

  8. Foundations for Excellence in the Chemical Process Industries. Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstader, Robert; Chapman, Kenneth

    This document discusses the Voluntary Industry Standards for Chemical Process Industries Technical Workers Project and issues of relevance to the education and employment of chemical laboratory technicians (CLTs) and process technicians (PTs). Section 1 consists of the following background information: overview of the chemical process industries,…

  9. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a tyre industry worker.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Vinaya S; Joshi, J M

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with severe pulmonary hypertension in a 46-year-old man, nonsmoker, tyre industry worker. CPFE is commonly reported to be associated with tobacco smoking. This case highlights the possible role of environmental dust exposure (talc) in the pathogenesis of the disease and confirms the clinical characteristics of CPFE described in previous studies. PMID:22919169

  10. Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office work. Cancer mortality and incidence in workers were observed from 1992 to 2007 and 1997-2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios and standardized incidence ratios were calculated according to the five job classifications. Results There was an increased standardized incidence ratio for stomach cancer of 1.56 (27/17.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26) in production workers. The standardized mortality ratio for lung cancer increased in production workers. However, was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our result suggests a potential association between cement exposure and stomach cancer. Hexavalent chromium contained in cement might be a causative carcinogen. PMID:22953208

  11. Irregular Workers and the Vocational Education and Training: Centered on the Laborer in the Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hong-geun

    A study examined irregular workers and vocational education and training (VET) centered on laborers in the Korea's manufacturing industry. The study established that, despite the increasing number of irregular workers in Korea, existing VET programs for them fall far short of those for regular workers. Compared with regular workers, irregular…

  12. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  13. Caution! NRC as protector of worker health and safety at nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Dunn, M L

    1999-01-01

    Congress may soon face a decision about what agency will take responsibility for worker and facility safety at Department of Energy (DOE) sites as the DOE moves to external regulation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) occupies a prominent place on the short list of candidates. Thus, an examination of the NRC's historical record on health and safety, in particular, its record in protecting workers, is warranted. This look at the record shows that the NRC does not adopt a strong regulatory stance; exposure standards for workers have not changed despite evidence of harmful effects at low doses of radiation exposure; record-keeping and worker monitoring are lax; the NRC is blind to internal cultural problems; it appears more concerned about its public image than about entrenched problems; it is too lenient to the industry it is supposed to regulate. The NRC's history of recent problems has caused some critics to call for Congressional hearings or additional oversight of the agency. PMID:17208795

  14. Cancer incidence of workers in the Swedish petroleum industry.

    PubMed Central

    Järvholm, B; Mellblom, B; Norrman, R; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of cancer due to occupational exposure to petroleum products in the Swedish transport and refinery industries. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study the cancer incidence in 4128 men and 191 women, who had worked for at least one year in the petroleum industry, was compared with the incidence in the general population. The job titles and employment times for each person were found in personal files in the industries. The men had on average worked in jobs exposed to petroleum for 11.6 years at the end of the observation period. The cases of cancer were identified by record linkage with the Swedish cancer register. RESULTS: In total there were 146 cases of cancer v 157.6 expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.93 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.80 to 1.1). Operators at refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia (6 cases v 1.7 expected, 90% CI of relative risk (RR) 1.5 to 7.0). Five of the six cases had started to work at the refineries in the 1950s or later. No other significantly increased risk of cancer was found. Distribution workers had a decreased incidence of lung cancer (no cases, 90% CI of RR 0 to 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Operators at Swedish refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia. A possible cause is exposure to benzene. There was no increased risk of leukaemia in distribution workers. Distribution workers had a decreased risk of lung cancer. PMID:9423584

  15. [Radioepidemiological studies in the nuclear industry of China].

    PubMed

    Sun, S Q; Li, S Y; Yuan, L Y

    1996-12-01

    The results of retrospective-cohort radioepidemiological studies on workers of mines and plants governed by China National Nuclear Corporation was reported. The total number was 40,122 persons and 575,411 person-years. The accumulated personal dose in workers of reactor, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and research units was 57 mSv on the average. For fuel element fabrication and diffusion plants, it was about 5 mSv. Mortality of cancers, especially the non-cancerous diseases was not higher but lower than the controlled group and national values, showing the so-called health worker effect. 31,786 off springs of workers in the nuclear plants were examined. There were no significant difference in the incidence of hereditary-congenital diseases among exposed and controlled groups. The results mentioned above provide the direct medical evidences of the safety of nuclear industry in China. Owing to the high concentration of radon in the uranium prospective and mining tunnels in early years, the average cumulative exposure to radon progeny was about 80 WLM for miners who had the history of working underground. The relative risk of lung cancer was about 2. The excess relative risk per WLM was similar to the value reported abroad. PMID:9387596

  16. Mortality among workers in the diatomaceous earth industry.

    PubMed Central

    Checkoway, H; Heyer, N J; Demers, P A; Breslow, N E

    1993-01-01

    A cohort mortality study was conducted among workers from two plants in the diatomaceous earth mining and processing industry in California. Diatomaceous earth consists of the skeletal remains of diatoms. Exposure to amorphous (non-crystalline) and crystalline silica in the form of quartz results from open pit mining and exposure to crystalline silica (principally cristobalite) occurs in the processing of the material. Lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory diseases have been the health outcomes of greatest concern. The main study cohort included 2570 white men (533 Hispanic and 2017 non-Hispanic workers) who were employed for at least 12 months cumulative service in the industry and who had worked for at least one day during the follow up period, 1942-87. Vital status was ascertained for 91% of the cohort and death certificate information was retrieved for 591 of 628 (94%) identified deaths. The all causes combined standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was slightly increased (SMR = 1.12; 628 observed) compared with rates among US white males. The principal contributors to this excess were increased risks from lung cancer (SMR = 1.43; 59 observed) and non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD) excluding infectious diseases and pneumonia (SMR = 2.59; 56 observed). The excess of lung cancer persisted when local county rates were used for comparison (SMR = 1.59). Internal rate comparisons by Poisson regression analysis were conducted to assess potential dose-response relations for lung cancer and NMRDs. Mortality trends were examined in relation to duration of employment in dust exposed jobs and with respect to an index of cumulative exposure to crystalline silica. The crystalline silica index was a semiquantitative measure that combined information on duration of exposure, differences in exposure intensity between jobs and calendar periods, the crystalline content of the various product mixes, and the use of respiratory protection devices. Increasing gradients of risk

  17. A Study of Reasons for Participation in Continuing Professional Education in the U.S. Nuclear Power Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamey, Randy B.

    2003-01-01

    The need for workers in the U.S. nuclear power industry to continually update their knowledge, skills, and abilities is critical to the safe and reliable operation of the country's nuclear power facilities. To improve their skills, knowledge, and abilities, many professionals in the nuclear power industry participate in continuing professional…

  18. Quantity and quality in nuclear engineering professional skills needed by the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Slember, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the challenge of work force requirements in the context of the full range of issues facing the nuclear power industry. The supply of skilled managers and workers may be a more serious problem if nuclear power fades away than if it is reborn in a new generation. An even greater concern, however, is the quality of education that the industry needs in all its future professionals. Both government and industry should be helping universities adapt their curricula to the needs of the future. This means building a closer relationship with schools that educate nuclear professionals, that is, providing adequate scholarships and funding for research and development programs, offering in-kind services, and encouraging internships and other opportunities for hands-on experience. The goal should not be just state-of-the-art engineering practices, but the broad range of knowledge, issues, and skills that will be required of the nuclear leadership of the twenty-first century.

  19. Remembering Arthur Kornhauser: industrial psychology's advocate for worker well-being.

    PubMed

    Zickar, Michael J

    2003-04-01

    Arthur Kornhauser was an early industrial psychologist whose contributions have been neglected in written histories of applied psychology. Throughout his career, he was a staunch advocate for an industrial psychology that concentrated on improving workers' lives. This article describes his contributions to improving worker well-being in the research areas of testing, employee attitude surveying, labor unions, and mental health of workers. His most enduring quality was his outspoken advocacy for an industrial psychology that addressed workers' issues instead of management's prerogatives. On the basis of Kornhauser's accomplishments, a case can be made for him as one of industrial and organizational psychology's most important early figures. PMID:12731721

  20. Cancer mortality among male workers in the Polish rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Kaczmarek, T; Szymczak, W

    1991-01-01

    The rubber industry, acknowledged by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to be a cancer risk technology is, because of difficulty in identifying causal factors, the subject of intensive epidemiological studies in many countries. In the presented study, cancer risk in the rubber industry was evaluated on the basis of long-term observation (1945-1985) of a cohort of 6978 male workers employed in a rubber goods factory, predominantly engaged in producing rubber footwear. The reference group was the general male population of Poland. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), calculated by means of the person-years method, were used in the evaluation of death risk. The observation of a whole cohort indicated an excess of cancer, in general (approx 12%), lung cancer (approx 40%) and gallbladder cancer (approx fourfold). In the subcohorts, distinguished according to peculiarities of individual production sections, cancer risk of the large intestine and larynx was significantly increased. The highest cancer risk was found in compounding, mixing, milling and vulcanizing sections. Hence, beta-naphthylamine, benzidine and solvents (benzene) were used in technological processes in the past, bladder cancer and leukemia were considered as most specific for the rubber industry. In the cohort observed, the risk of death from bladder cancer was significantly increased only in those who had been employed during the years 1945-1953, namely during the period when beta-naphthylamine was in use. No excess of deaths from leukemia was observed. PMID:1799640

  1. Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.; Biswas, S.; Nayak, K.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Chakraborty, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. Results and Conclusion: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here. PMID:23580836

  2. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

  3. Supporting Our Nation's Nuclear Industry

    ScienceCinema

    Lyons, Peter

    2013-05-29

    On the 60th anniversary of the world's first nuclear power plant to produce electricity, Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Peter Lyons discusses the Energy Department's and the Administration's commitment to promoting a nuclear renaissance in the United States.

  4. Necessary Skills for Entry-Level Workers in Service Industries: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Mike; Sanford, Barry; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Boswell, James

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 13 service industry representatives identified the skills needed for employment in entry-level jobs. Employers wanted workers who would be on time, get along with co-workers, work effectively with customers, and were willing to follow company policies. Few advancement opportunities exist for entry workers because very few have the…

  5. Concrete waterproofing in nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Scherbyna, Alexander N; Urusov, Sergei V

    2005-01-01

    One of the main points of aggregate safety during the transportation and storage of radioactive materials is to supply waterproofing for all constructions having direct contact with radiating substances and providing strength, seismic shielding etc. This is the problem with all waterside structures in nuclear industry and concrete installations in the treatment and storage of radioactive materials. In this connection, the problem of developing efficient techniques both for the repair of operating constructions and the waterproofing of new objects of the specified assignment is genuine. Various techniques of concrete waterproofing are widely applied in the world today. However, in conditions of radiation many of these techniques can bring not a profit but irreparable damage of durability and reliability of a concrete construction; for instance, when waterproofing materials contain organic constituents, polymers etc. Application of new technology or materials in basic construction elements requires in-depth analysis and thorough testing. The price of an error might be very large. A comparative analysis shows that one of the most promising types of waterproofing materials for radiation loaded concrete constructions is "integral capillary systems" (ICS). The tests on radiation, thermal and strength stability of ICS and ICS-treated concrete samples were initiated and fulfilled in RFNC-VNIITF. The main result is--ICS applying is increasing of waterproofing and strength properties of concrete in conditions of readiation The paper is devoted to describing the research strategy, the tests and their results and also to planning of new tests. PMID:16604701

  6. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  7. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. Objectives: (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Materials and Methods: All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). Results: All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes

  8. [Changes in the forms of industrial production and their effects on workers' health].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to identify determinants of health in workers of plastic industries. Production organization, machinery from maintenance and productive areas, and workers' characteristics of 14 plastic industries from Greater Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were described. Data were collected about development policy of each company; marketing, operational procedures; production and quality requirements, and formal rules of work organization. High strain management techniques for production time reduction have been implemented. The increase of work rhythm, reduction of break time, and a situation of high cognitive demand impose to workers anomalous body positioning for performing tasks that imply repetitive movements. Physical and psychosocial demands (repetitive work, lower control of the worker on his own tasks, time pressure and job dissatisfaction) compose a complex of conditions adverse to workers' health. Changes in production management, personnel and business impose new strains into the development of task by the workers and bringing in new risk factors to workers' health. PMID:20640318

  9. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples.

  10. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D K; Bromet, E J

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident. PMID:6635612

  11. Long-Term Nuclear Industry Outlook - 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.

    2004-09-30

    The nuclear industry has become increasingly efficient and global in nature, but may now be poised at a crossroads between graceful decline and profound growth as a viable provider of electrical energy. Predicted population and energy-demand growth, an increased interest in global climate change, the desire to reduce the international dependence on oil as an energy source, the potential for hydrogen co-generation using nuclear power reactors, and the improved performance in the nuclear power industry have raised the prospect of a “nuclear renaissance” in which nuclear power would play an increasingly more important role in both domestic and international energy market. This report provides an assessment of the role nuclear-generated power will plan in the global energy future and explores the impact of that role on export controls.

  12. [Cancer risk in asbestos-cement industry workers in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    A cohort study was carried out in order to evaluate the cancer risk in the asbestos-cement industry workers. The cohort consisted of workers employed in four asbestos-cement plants. One of those plants was established in 1924, the other three in the 1960s and 1970s. Currently only two of these plants continue their production. The plants used mainly chrysotile asbestos as well as crocidolite and amosite. Amphibolite asbestos was used before the mid-nineteen eighties in production of pressure pipes utilising about 15% of the total quantity of asbestos used. The measurements of the asbestos fibre concentration at work-sites have been taken occasionally since the mid 1980s, thus, the determination of a cumulative dose for individual persons in the cohort and the evaluation of the dose-effect relationship were not feasible. It could only be supposed that the concentrations at the preparatory work-site during first years of the plants' operation accounted for several tens fibres/cm3 in the production that employed the dry method. The cohort consisted of workers employed in the plant for at least three months between beginning of the plant during the post-war period, and 1980, that is during the period when amphibolite asbestos was in use. The retrospective observation was completed on 31 December 1991. The analysis of the death risk by causes was based on a standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated using the person-years method. Statistical significance of SMRs was assessed by means of Poisson distribution one-sided test. The general population of Poland was used as the reference population to estimate the death risk. The cohort comprised 4,712 persons (3,563 males and 1,149 females). Of this number 4,500 persons (3,405 males and 1,095 females) were followed. The cohort availability were 95.5%. Male mortality, both total (473 deaths; SMR = 83) and due to malignant neoplasms (108 deaths; SMR = 86) was lower than in the general population. An excess of deaths from

  13. Older Workers' Communication Satisfaction in the Lodging Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Yao-Yi; Mount, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Usable responses from 374 hotel employees compared the satisfaction with workplace communications of younger (n=80) and older workers (n=81). Differences in terms of downward and vertical communication, corporate information, communication climate, feedback, and coworker communication suggest different ways to manage workers. (Contains 33…

  14. Trends in Worker Hearing Loss by Industry Sector, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Bertke, Stephen; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Methods Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981–2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. Results The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. Conclusions While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. PMID:25690583

  15. The relationship between worker satisfaction and productivity in a repetitive industrial task.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Das, Biman

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the manner by which production standards or goals, performance or production feedback and monetary or wage incentive affected or moderated the relationship between worker satisfaction and productivity in a repetitive production task in a fishing industry. The industrial study was conducted to measure worker satisfaction and productivity under various experimental conditions involving production standards, performance feedback and monetary incentive. Only the participative standard and performance feedback condition affected the worker satisfaction-productivity relationship significantly for the fish-trimming task. The positive correlation coefficient (0.87) for this condition was found to be highly significant. This has an important implication for setting a strategy for achieving higher worker satisfaction and productivity in such an industry. Production standards with feedback generally improved worker satisfaction and productivity. Monetary incentive further improved worker performance but added no incremental satisfaction gain. The incorporation of production standards, performance feedback and monetary incentive affected worker satisfaction and productivity differently and this had an effect on the worker satisfaction-productivity relationship. In an earlier laboratory study, no significant worker satisfaction-productivity relationship was found when subjects (college students) were provided with similar experimental conditions. PMID:14559421

  16. Why Workers Are Reluctant Learners: The Case of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, John A.

    2001-01-01

    In the Canadian pulp/paper industry, management is focused on worker flexibility for productivity. Unions view workplace learning as a threat to job control and security. Although learning new skills enhances individual workers' flexibility and employability, collectively it weakens the union through job losses. (Contains 56 references.) (SK)

  17. Mortality among workers at a nuclear fuels production facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.; Qualters, J.R.; Hickey, J.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Lushbaugh, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted in a population of workers employed at a facility with the primary task of production of nuclear fuels and other materials. Data for hourly and salaried employees were analyzed separately by time period of first employment and length of employment. The hourly (N = 6687 with 728 deaths) and salaried (N = 2745 with 294 deaths) employees had a mortality experience comparable to that of the United States and, in fact, exhibited significant fewer deaths in many categories of diseases that are traditionally associated with the healthy worker effect. Specifically, fewer deaths were noted in the categories of all causes, all cancers, cancer of the digestive organs, lung cancer, brain cancer (hourly workers only), diabetes, all diseases of the circulatory system, all respiratory diseases, all digestive system diseases, all diseases of the genitourinary system (hourly only), and all external causes of death. A statistically significant, and as yet unexplained increase in leukemia mortality (6 observed vs. 2.18 expected) appeared among a subset of the hourly employees, first hired before 1955, and employed between 5-15 years.

  18. Graphite for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Fuller, E.L.; Romanoski, G.R.; Strizak, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite finds applications in both fission and fusion reactors. Fission reactors harness the energy liberated when heavy elements, such as uranium or plutonium, fragment or fission''. Reactors of this type have existed for nearly 50 years. The first nuclear fission reactor, Chicago Pile No. 1, was constructed of graphite under a football stand at Stagg Field, University of Chicago. Fusion energy devices will produce power by utilizing the energy produced when isotopes of the element hydrogen are fused together to form helium, the same reaction that powers our sun. The role of graphite is very different in these two reactor systems. Here we summarize the function of the graphite in fission and fusion reactors, detailing the reasons for their selection and discussing some of the challenges associated with their application in nuclear fission and fusion reactors. 10 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Cancer risk of petrochemical workers exposed to airborne PAHs in industrial Lanzhou City, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Xianying; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the connections between red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers and their exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), as the biomarker of PAHs exposure, was adopted to assess the exposure risk of the petrochemical workers to PAHs in Xigu, the west suburb of Lanzhou where petrochemical industries are located. Fifty-three workers, sub-grouped to 36 petrochemical workers and 17 office workers, participated in this investigation. Logistic regression model and spearman correlation analysis were performed to estimate the associations between PAHs exposure levels and red blood cells abnormality risk of petrochemical workers. Strong associations between some red cell indices (MCH, MCHC, RDW) and 1-OHP concentration were found. Results also show that the red blood cells abnormality risk increased with increasing PAHs exposure level. Compared with office workers, risk level of red blood cells abnormality in petrochemical workers was higher by 41.7 % (OR, 1.417; 95 % CI: 0.368-5.456) than that in office workers. This result was verified by the tissue-to-human blood partition coefficient for pyrene and 1-OHP. The quantitative assessments of the potential health risk through inhalation exposure to PAHs were conducted using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model. It was found the ILCR from inhalation exposure to PAHs for the petrochemical workers ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) with 95 % probability, indicating that petrochemical plant workers were under a high potential cancer risk level. PMID:26282442

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085

  1. The "Industrial Worker" and Its Rhetoric: Working Class Identification in the San Diego Free Speech Fight of 1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Jerilyn

    A study examined the news coverage given by the "Industrial Worker" to the San Diego free speech fight of 1912, the last of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) union's free speech fights on the West Coast. The "Worker," a publication of the IWW, devoted columns of coverage to that conflict in the form of reports, letters, editorials,…

  2. 76 FR 30393 - Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 9282). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage, the Department is amending... Employment and Training Administration Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express... Adjustment Assistance on February 10, 2011, applicable to workers of Bush Industries, Inc., including...

  3. Housing Seasonal Workers for the Minnesota Processed Vegetable Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebarth, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The place where we live and work is a reflection of a complex set of economic conditions and social relationships. Very little information is available regarding housing for Minnesota's migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people migrate to Minnesota each summer to work in the production and processing of green peas and sweet…

  4. Micronuclei Frequencies and Nuclear Abnormalities in Oral Exfoliated Cells of Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Babannavar, Roopa; Lohra, Abhishek; Kodgi, Ashwin; Bapure, Sunil; Rao, Yogesh; J., Arun; Malghan, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear abnormalities (NA) from exfoliated oral mucosal cells in Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers. Materials and Methods: Micronucleus frequencies in oral exfoliated cells were done from individuals not known to be exposed to either environmental or occupational carcinogens (Group I). Similarly samples were obtained from full-time Nuclear Power Station (NPS) workers with absence of Leukemia and any malignancy (Group II) and workers diagnosed as leukemic patients and undergoing treatment (Group III). Results: There was statistically significant difference between Group I, Group II & Group III. MN and NA frequencies in Leukemic Patients were significantly higher than those in exposed workers &control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with malignancies. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work in NPS about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:25654022

  5. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitization and disease in nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiss, K.; Mroz, M.M.; Zhen, B.; Martyny, J.W.; Newman, L.S. )

    1993-10-01

    We examined the epidemiology of chronic beryllium disease among a stratified, random sample (n = 895) of nuclear weapons workers using the blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation (BeLT) test and chest radiograph for case identification. Of 18 new cases of beryllium sensitization, 12 had beryllium disease, and three more developed pulmonary granulomas on lung biopsy over the succeeding 2 yr. Beryllium-sensitized cases did not differ from noncases in age, gender, race, ethnicity, smoking, most respiratory symptoms, spirometric or radiographic abnormalities, or job tenure. The six sensitized cases without initial disease differed from beryllium disease cases in having greater pack-years of smoking. Sensitization occurred among workers with inadvertent or bystander exposure, such as a secretary and security guard. However, beryllium sensitization risk was higher for machinists (4.7%) and for persons reporting measured overexposure (7.4%, odds ratio 5.1); exposure beginning before 1970 (3.6%, odds ratio 2.7); consistent beryllium exposure (3.4%); and sawing (4.7%) or band sawing (6.0%) of beryllium metal. We conclude that both individual susceptibility to sensitization and exposure circumstances are important in developing disease.

  6. Natural Resources. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Forest Industry Worker. Resource Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile lists 155 competencies that have been identified by employers as core competencies for inclusion in programs to train forest industry and resource conservation workers. The core competencies are organized into 10 units dealing the following: general safety precautions, natural resource industry operations, soil…

  7. Occupational dermatitis in a milk industry worker due to Kathon CG.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Toribio, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    The allergenic properties of the preservative Kathon CG have been well known since 1980. Kathon CG is regularly used in many industrial processes because of its germicidal powers. The most common sources of exposure for people are cosmetics and toiletries. Occupational contact dermatitis is unusual among milk industry workers because of the high level of factory automation. PMID:15473332

  8. The Right to Learn: The Continuing Education Opportunities for Workers in Industries in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji, Sydney Nwanakponna

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the Industrial Training Fund, which was established to provide skill-oriented continuing education opportunities for industrial workers in Nigeria. Based on the critical examination of the provisions of the decree and the activities of the fund, suggestions are given towards the improvement of the policy and implementation.…

  9. Thermography in mass screening investigations of industrial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehter, A. I.; Ginsburg, L. I.; Traktinsky, A. G.

    1993-11-01

    The role of thermography in screening, directed to diagnose breast diseases, chronic tonsillitis, neurocirculatory dystonia, gall bladder dyskinesia, sinusitis, and to detect the character of influence of harmful factors on workers organisms is studied. The investigations demonstrate a possibility of a successful utilization of thermography in mass prophylactive examinations in order to diagnose these diseases, but the problem of breast tumors diagnostics demands the following investigations.

  10. Histone Methylation in Nickel-Smelting Industrial Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Gou, Faxiang; Dai, Min; Wang, Hui; He, Jie; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cheng, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Nickel is an essential trace metal naturally found in the environment. It is also common in occupational settings, where it associates with various levels of both occupational and nonoccupational exposure In vitro studies have shown that nickel exposure can lead to intracellular accumulation of Ni2+, which has been associated with global decreases in DNA methylation, increases in chromatin condensation, reductions in H3K9me2, and elevated levels of H3K4me3. Histone modifications play an important role in modulating chromatin structure and gene expression. For example, tri-methylation of histone H3k4 has been found to be associated with transcriptional activation, and tri-methylation of H3k27 has been found to be associated with transcriptional repression. Aberrant histone modifications have been found to be associated with various human diseases, including cancer. The purpose of this work was to identify biomarkers for populations with occupational nickel exposure and to examine the relationship between histone methylation and nickel exposure. This may provide a scientific indicator of early health impairment and facilitate exploration of the molecular mechanism underlying cancer pathogenesis. Methods One hundred and forty subjects with occupational exposure to Ni and 140 referents were recruited. H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation levels were measured in subjects’ blood cells. Results H3K4me3 levels were found to be higher in nickel smelting workers (47.24±20.85) than in office workers (22.65±8.81; P = 0.000), while the opposite was found for levels of H3K27me3(nickel smelting workers, 13.88± 4.23; office workers, 20.67± 5.96; P = 0.000). H3K4me3 was positively (r = 0.267, P = 0.001) and H3K27 was negatively (r = -0.684, P = 0.000) associated with age and length of service in smelting workers. Conclusion This study indicated that occupational exposure to Ni is associated with alterations in levels of histone modification. PMID:26474320

  11. Industrial workers' health and environmental pollution under the new international division of labor: the Taiwan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Huang, C L

    1997-01-01

    Using Taiwan as an example, this paper conducts a historical analysis of the relationship between economic development in the new international division of labor and environmental pollution and industrial workers' health. Three industries-asbestos, plastic, and dye-were chosen for case studies. We trace the emergence of each industry in Taiwan and study each industry's protection of workers' health and environmental quality. Under the new international division of labor, the state's prioritization of economic development leads to lenient regulation. Under such state policies, employers have few incentives to invest in the protection of their workers' health and in the control of environmental pollution. Workers and the public are constrained in their efforts to protect their own health and prevent environmental pollution. This situation is exemplified by the deplorable working conditions and inadequate environmental pollution controls in the asbestos, plastic, and dye industries. Workers' health and the public's health are greatly compromised by economic development in the new international division of labor. Images p1228-a p1228-b PMID:9240119

  12. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    PubMed

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system. PMID:24236362

  13. The health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers in the Toronto sportswear industry.

    PubMed

    Gannagé, C M

    1999-01-01

    Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers. PMID:10379459

  14. [Influence of industrial factors on the health status of heat and power plant workers].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S I; Burtseva, T I; Skal'nyĭ, A V; Notova, S V; Vibartseva, E V; Chadova, L A; Burlutskaia, O I

    2009-01-01

    The hair levels of chemical elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, V, and Zn) were studied in Orenburg heat and power plant workers. The specific features of the elemental composition of biosubstrates were revealed in relation to the physical and chemical exposures of the workers to industrial factors. The peculiarities of element-to-element relations were established in man under different working conditions. PMID:19358351

  15. Health profile of workers in a ship building and repair industry

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Vaishali R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The modern ship building industry, which encompasses the ship yards and marine equipment manufacturing, is an important and strategic industry. The various activities in modern ship building, maintenance, and repair have to be carried out at heights, or in closed confined spaces along with the added risk of exposure to chemicals and metal fumes. These activities expose the workers to various health hazards. Aims: This study was carried out with an aim to assess the health profile of workers in the ship building industry and to assess the occupational health issues related to ship building. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study carried out on 100 randomly selected workers in a ship building yard in Mumbai, and their health profile was studied. Materials and Methods: The workers were enquired for history of co-morbidities, addictions and personal protective equipment use, health-related complaints, and were examined systemically as well as for bedside tests for hearing and detailed systemic examination as per the history or co-morbidity. Results: The important observations were those of prevalence of addictions (69%), irregular use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) among 50% of paint workers, presence of hypertension (20%), overweight (53%), osteoarthritis (10%), hearing loss (25%), and poor self-care. Conclusions: Health education to the workers regarding occupational hazards and lifestyle diseases along with more emphasis on the use of PPEs with regular health examination needs reinforcement. PMID:25568604

  16. Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva.

    PubMed Central

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M

    1987-01-01

    A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than one year between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During the period of study, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR = 120), all cancers (SMR = 127), lung cancer (SMR = 186), and violent death (SMR = 179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employment (less than two months) and it decreased significantly with longer duration. Such mortality excesses had not been recorded among the 1168 workers of the same industry employed one year or more, previously studied in similar fashion. Interviews among a random sample of 52 workers employed for less than two months seem to indicate that the prevalence of smoking, exposures to asbestos, and occupational accidents in other hazardous industries were higher for these workers than for the reference population. Furthermore, unmarried men were overrepresented among the study cohort. These findings support previous observations indicating that short term workers share atypical features related to high mortality from various causes. It is suggested that mortality in this subgroup should be analysed separately in occupational studies. PMID:3663526

  17. Exposure of workers in a mineral processing industry in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Julião, Lígia M Q C; Melo, Dunstana R; Sousa, Wanderson O; Santos, Maristela S; Fernandes, Paulo César; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil there are many regions where the extraction mining and processing of ores containing elements of great economical importance as tin, niobium and tantalum. Some of these ores have uranium and thorium natural decay series associated. This study was carried out in a niobium mine, where is obtained concentrates of niobates-tantalates, cassiterite and zirconite. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the occupational exposure to uranium, thorium, niobium and tin through urine bioassay data. In order to have it, 105 urine samples were analysed: 17 samples of exposed workers collected after a working day, 49 samples of exposed workers collected before a working day and 39 samples of local non-exposed people, assigned as a control group. The samples were analysed by mass spectrometry. The obtained results showed that the average concentration of Nb, Sn and U in the exposed group is statistically higher than those found in the control group indicating an occupational exposure. For Th there were no statistically difference between the exposed and the control group. PMID:17369613

  18. Oral health of workers in the modern Finnish confectionery industry.

    PubMed

    Masalin, K; Murtomaa, H; Meurman, J H

    1990-06-01

    The association between type of work and dental findings and the relevance of sugar dust as an occupational hazard to dental health was studied in workers producing sweets, biscuits, and bakery products, and in controls in a work environment not concerned with sugar. 298 employees, 42 +/- 11 yr of age, were investigated clinically and by means of chemical and microbiological tests of their saliva. Mean total time of work on the production line in question was 10 +/- 8.5 yr. Periodontal treatment needs increased similarly with increasing age in all subgroups. Subjects concerned with biscuit production had significantly higher DMFS values than subjects in the other groups. They also had significantly higher numbers of untreated cavities: 79.6% compared with 54.7% in those making sweets, 48.3% in bakery workers, and 62.6% in the controls not exposed to sugar. High levels of lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans were found equally in all subgroups. Because work hygiene measurements have previously shown that sugar and flour dust concentrations were below accepted limits in the confectionery factory studied, the results do not seem to support the hypothesis that airborne sugar is an occupational dental health hazard. Some other factors need to be accounted for to explain the findings. PMID:2190754

  19. A Lesson from the Nuclear Industry: Professionalism and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.; Widen, W. C.

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on an innovative approach to instill professionalism in workers such as reactor operators and other nuclear power workers. It may be used by technology instructors to send a message to their students: regardless of the advanced state of technology, the human element provides the key to desirable outcomes. (Author/JOW)

  20. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  1. Cancer incidence among workers in the Norwegian ferroalloy industry.

    PubMed Central

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S; Knudsen, K E

    1986-01-01

    The total mortality and the incidence of cancer was studied among a cohort of employees at the six oldest ferrosilicon and ferromanganese plants in Norway. The cohort consisted of 6494 men employed for more than 18 months before 1970 and has been followed up from 1953 to 1982. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for cancer (all sites) was 0.94. The observed number of cancers was as expected for lung cancer (SIR = 0.99) and for most of the other cancer sites studied. A statistically significant reduction of stomach cancer was found (SIR = 0.72). There was an increased incidence of lung cancer (SIR = 1.75) and cancer of the prostate (SIR = 1.56) in the workers at one ferrosilicon plant and of colonic cancer (SIR = 1.90) at another ferrosilicon plant. PMID:3964571

  2. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  3. Mortality and industrial employment. II. Industries with high mortality among young workers based on a social security sample.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J R

    1977-04-01

    Goldsmith and Hirschberg have published a preliminary report on mortality among a sample of social security recipients employed in 1965 and whose mortality experience was available through 1972. Among white males, but not among blacks or white females, mortality was higher among those age 16-20 in 1965 than among those 21-25. Among the industrial populations tabulated, young workers showed in a few cases significantly elevated standard mortality ratios, even when overall mortality was not increased. Accordingly, we have examined mortality for 1960-72 for those employed in 1960 for all the industrial groups (two digit SIC codes) to look for industries in which young workers have high mortality. Only those industries have been considered in which observed deaths at ages 11-30 (in 1960) exceed 10 and population at risk exceeds 200. Young workers appear to have significantly elevated mortality in: agricultural production (white males), metal mining (white males), real estate (white males), military and reserves (white males), miscellaneous business services (white females), and eating and drinking establishments (white females). For such industries, preventive measures should be considered. PMID:856954

  4. 77 FR 31643 - AI-Shreveport, LLC A Subsidiary of Android Industries Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 6, 2011 (76 FR 76186). The workers are engaged in the... Employment and Training Administration AI-Shreveport, LLC A Subsidiary of Android Industries Including On... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on November 22, 2011, applicable to workers of...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-vested worker covered under Social Security? 404.1402 Section 404.1402 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a non-vested worker, we (the Social Security Administration) will consider your services in the...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-vested worker covered under Social Security? 404.1402 Section 404.1402 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a non-vested worker, we (the Social Security Administration) will consider your services in the...

  7. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan Steel Industry, Iran.

    PubMed

    Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saqira, Mohammad; Zavar, Reihaneh; Sadeghifar, Mostafa; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated association of exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in the workers of the steel industry. Fifty male workers of the agglomeration and coke-making parts of the Esfahan Steel Company were randomly selected (n = 50). Workers in the administrative parts were studied as controls (n = 50). Those with known history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes, and active smokers were not included. Data of age, body mass index, employment duration, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile were gathered. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in workers of the agglomeration/coke-making parts than in controls (mean difference = 5 to 5.5 %, P < 0.001). Mild right ventricular dilatation and grade I pulmonary hypertension were present in three (12 %) workers of the coke-making part, but none of the controls (P = 0.010). According to these results, occupational air pollution exposure in workers of the steel industry is associated with left heart systolic dysfunction. Possible right heart insults due to air pollution exposure warrant further investigations. PMID:26946505

  8. Young workers in the construction industry and initial OSH-training when entering work life.

    PubMed

    Holte, Kari Anne; Kjestveit, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Studies have found that young workers are at risk for injuries. The risk for accidents is high within construction, indicating that young workers may be especially vulnerable in this industry. In Norway, it is possible to enter the construction industry as a full time worker at the age of 18. The aim of this paper was to explore how young construction workers are received at their workplace with regards to OHS-training. The study was designed as a qualitative case study. Each case consisted of a young worker or apprentice (< 25 years), a colleague, the immediate superior, the OHS manager, and a safety representative in the company. The interviews were recorded and analyzed through content analysis. The results showed that there were differences between large and small companies, where large companies had more formalized routines and systems for receiving and training young workers. These routines were however more dependent on requirements set by legislators and contractors more than by company size, since the legislation has different requirements with impact on OHS. PMID:22317356

  9. The relation between shift work, sleepiness, fatigue and accidents in Iranian Industrial Mining Group workers.

    PubMed

    Halvani, Gholam Hossein; Zare, Mohsen; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Jalil

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the rate of fatigue and sleepiness around the shift and non-shift workers and its relation to occupational accidents. This was a cross-sectional study on the workers of Iranian Industrial Mining Group. They included 137 shift workers as the case and 130 non-shift workers as the control. A multi-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, Piper Fatigue Scale and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were applied. The chi(2) test and t-test were used to measure differences between variables. The mean of PFS scores in the two groups was significantly different (p=0.045), but the difference in the mean of ESS scores was not significant. Shift workers with the reported accident had a higher score on fatigue than shift workers with no accident (p<0.001) whereas the difference in the number of accidents in the two groups was not related significantly to the rate of sleepiness. The rate of fatigue and the number of the work accidents was more in the shift workers. Also, fatigue had a stronger relationship with the occupational accidents as compared to sleepiness. It seems that evaluation of fatigue as compared to sleepiness is a more accurate factor for preventing work accidents. PMID:19367041

  10. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Construction Industry Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  11. Older Workers in the Hospitality Industry: Valuing Experience and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Roy

    2011-01-01

    The research sets out to identify the learning processes adopted by older workers in the hospitality and visitor attraction industry in Scotland, with a view to determining how employers may better support their education and training within enterprises. The study was undertaken as part of the ESRC project on "Sustaining the employability of older…

  12. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; Walline, James

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), sponsored by the United Auto Workers at General Motors (GM), which employs teachers, school administrators, and college faculty each summer at GM assembly plants. Participation in QEP allows educators and those in industry to interact and demonstrates quality networks in practice. (SLD)

  13. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  14. 76 FR 19467 - Mueller Steam Specialty Formerly Known As Core Industries Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65519). ] At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Mueller Steam Specialty Formerly Known As Core Industries Including... Assistance on October 7, 2010, applicable to workers of Mueller Steam Specialty, including on-site...

  15. Adult Education for Industrial Workers; The Contribution of Sheffield University Extramural Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael Barratt

    Focusing on efforts to devise recruitment and teaching methods relevant to British industrial workers, an account is given of the day release time courses provided by the Sheffield University Extramural Department in association with trade unions and management among miners, steelworkers, and technologists in South Derbyshire, South Yorkshire, and…

  16. Young Workers and Their Dispositions towards Mathematics: Tensions of a Mathematical Habitus in the Retail Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen Zebenbergen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of contemporary retail industry and the ways in which young workers participate in that field. Public perceptions of low numeracy among young people provided the catalyst for the study. Drawing on a mixed-method approach involving survey, case studies, stimulated recall, observations, and interviews, it was found…

  17. The Adaptation of Workers to Industrial Change. European Seminar (Toulouse, France, January 22-23, 1996). Summary of the Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Europe, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the debates that occurred at a European seminar on the adaptation of workers to industrial change. The document begins with the following three speeches: "The Challenges of Adapting Workers to Industrial Change" (Dominique Balmary); "Objective 4 of the Structural Funds: A Response to the Double Challenge of Employment and…

  18. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41526). At the request of the State... Employment and Training Administration Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from QPS Employment Group and...

  19. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer mortality in 40,761 employees of three UK nuclear industry facilities who had been monitored for external radiation exposure was examined according to whether they had also been monitored for possible internal exposure to tritium, plutonium or other radionuclides (uranium, polonium, actinium or other unspecified). Death rates from cancer were compared both with national rates and with rates in radiation workers not monitored for exposure to any radionuclides. Among workers monitored for tritium exposure, overall cancer mortality was significantly below national rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 83, 165 deaths; 2P = 0.02] and none of the cancer-specific death rates was significantly above either the national average or rates in non-monitored workers. Although the overall death rate from cancer in workers monitored for plutonium exposure was also significantly low relative to national rates (SMR = 89, 581 deaths; 2P = 0.005), mortality from pleural cancer was significantly raised (SMR = 357, nine deaths; 2P = 0.002); none of the rates differed significantly from those of non-monitored workers. Workers monitored for radionuclides other than tritium or plutonium also had a death rate from all cancers combined that was below the national average (SMR = 86, 418 deaths; 2P = 0.002) but prostatic cancer mortality was raised both in relation to death rates in the general population (SMR = 153, 37 deaths; 2P = 0.02) and to death rates in radiation workers who had not been monitored for exposure to any radionuclide [rate ratio (RR) = 1.65; 2P = 0.03]. Mortality from cancer of the lung was also significantly increased in workers monitored for other radionuclides compared with those of radiation workers not monitored for exposure to radionuclides (RR = 1.31, 164 deaths; 2P = 0.01). For cancers of the lung, prostate and all cancers combined, death rates in monitored workers were examined according to the timing and duration of monitoring for radionuclide

  20. Sweat or no sweat: foreign workers in the garment industry in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Crinis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade factory owners, in response to brand-name Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) parameters, have joined associations that verify (through a monitoring and audit system) that management does not exploit labour. There have been no reports of violations of codes of conduct concerning Malaysian workers but for foreign workers on contract there are certain areas that have been reported. These areas, including trade union membership, the withholding of workers' passports and unsuitable accommodation, generally escape notice because auditors who monitor factory compliance do not question the terms of contracts as long as they comply with national labour standards. This paper is based on research with foreign workers in Malaysia and argues that despite the success of the anti-sweatshop movement in a global context, the neo-liberal state in Malaysia continues to place certain restrictions on transnational labour migrants which breach garment industry codes of conduct. Available evidence does not support the assumption that CSR practices provide sufficient protection for both citizen and foreign workers on contract in the garment industry. PMID:20845568

  1. Respiratory function in female workers occupationally exposed to organic dusts in food processing industries.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegović, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J; Ivanković, D; Heimer, S

    2000-01-01

    Respiratory consequences of work in food processing industry were studied in 764 female workers exposed to organic dusts associated with the processing of green and roasted coffee, tea, spices, dried fruits, cocoa and flour. A group of 387 female workers not exposed to respiratory irritants served as controls for the prevalence of acute (during work shift) and chronic respiratory symptoms. A greater prevalence of all acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was consistently found among exposed workers than among control workers. The highest prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded for chronic cough (40%), followed by acute symptoms of dry cough (58.7%). The difference in the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms between the exposed and control workers was in general significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Mean acute reductions of lung function over the work shift were recorded in all of the studied groups; the mean across-shift decrease as a percentage of preshift values was particularly marked in FEF25 (-26.7%), FEF50 (-21.6%), followed by FEV1 (-9.9%) and FVC (-3.7%). The preshift (baseline) values of ventilatory capacity were decreased in comparison to the predicted ones, and were lowest for FEF50 and FEF25. This finding indicated an effect of organic dust on small airways. Our analysis suggested that both dust exposure and smoking history contributed independently to these respiratory findings. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) significantly diminished across-shift reductions for FEF50 and FEF25 in a subgroup of the examined workers. Our data suggested the female workers employed in food processing industry to be at risk of developing both acute and chronic respiratory symptoms as well as ventilatory capacity impairment as the result of occupational exposures. PMID:11379483

  2. Ischemic heart disease mortality and years of work in trucking industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evidence from general population based studies and occupational cohorts has identified air pollution from mobile sources as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In a cohort of US trucking industry workers, with regular exposure to vehicle exhaust, we previously observed elevated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for ischemic heart disease compared to members of the general US population. Therefore, we examined the association of increasing years of work in jobs with vehicle exhaust exposure and ischemic heart disease mortality within the cohort. Methods We calculated years of work in eight job groups for 30,758 workers using work records from four nationwide companies. Proportional hazard regression was used to examine relationships between ischemic heart disease mortality 1985–2000 and employment duration in each job group. Results Hazard ratios for at least one year of work in each job were elevated for dockworkers, long-haul drivers, pick-up and delivery drivers, combination workers, hostlers, and shop workers. There was a suggestion of an increased risk of IHD mortality with increasing years of work as a long-haul driver, pick-up and delivery driver, combination worker, and dockworker. Conclusions These results suggest an elevated risk of ischemic heart disease mortality in workers with a previous history of regular exposure to vehicle exhaust. PMID:22992341

  3. The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Vinholes, Daniele B.; Melo, Ione M. F.; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. Results. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2 of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50–76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. Conclusion. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits. PMID:22701097

  4. [Effect of industrial noise on cardiac systolic cycle in exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, J; Popović, V; Jovanović, M; Popović, A

    1991-01-01

    First the working conditions in the "Ratko Pavlović-Niteks" textile industry were studied and analysed. It was found that industrial noise was one of the dominant noci, grading from 81 to 105 dB (A). It belonged to the group of high-frequency continued noises. The highest noise was recorded in the section "Tkacnica" (101 +/- 3.9 dB). Then the carotide artery curve was recorded before and after work in 411 workers exposed to noise of different intensity. At the same time a control group of 153 workers was studied. They worked in a relatively calmer section (section of dress cutting and control of finished goods). In workers exposed to noise a significant decrease of Q-I sound, I-II sound, ICT, IPEP intervals and PEP/LVET was recorded. However, ILVET was insignificantly increased after the work in comparison with its level before work. These results suggested the existence of significant haemodymanic changes due to industrial noise. Values of these parameters were closely related to the general noise level at working place. The greatest changes were observed in workers working under the effect of the greatest noise (95-105 dB), and the smallest in those working in the smallest noisy areas (75-85 dB). Thus, the intensity of haemodynamic changes depended on the level of general noise atworking place. Therefore appropriate preventive measures should be applied in practice in order to reduce the level of general noise. PMID:17974374

  5. [Risk communication in analysis of occupational health risk for industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Barg, A O; Lebedeva-Nesevrya, N A

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of risk communication system function on industrial enterprise. Sociologic study in machinery construction enterprise of Perm area helped to consider main procedures of informing on occupational risk for health of workers exposed to occupational hazards, to describe features and mechanisms of risk communication, to specify its model. The authors proved that main obstacles for efficient system of occupational risks communication are insufficiently thorough legal basis, low corporative social responsibility of the enterprise and low social value of health for workers. This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-16-59011). PMID:26596113

  6. A study of distance education for the needs of the nuclear power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckline, Sigmund Joseph

    This research presents an examination of student satisfaction related to online training for adult learners in the nuclear power industry. Both groups, the nuclear industry and its associated workforce, have demonstrable needs which might be met by such programs. The nuclear industry itself faces an expansion of facilities and services combined with an aging workforce and reduction in traditional sources for skilled workers. The workforce, in turn, must deal with tightening economic conditions and the difficulty of matching available time to possible training. This research studies one Bachelor of Applied Sciences degree begun initially as a blended and later as a distance education platform. By means of a survey, built on An Assessment of Training Needs in the Use of Distance Education for Instruction by Sherry and Morse (January, 1995), it examines the reactions to the program and gauges overall success. From the analysis of this typical population, it demonstrates the utility of such online specialty learning programs for the target group.

  7. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.; Barnes, V.; Hauth, J.; Wilson, R.; Fawcett-Long, J.; Toquam, J.; Baker, K.; Wieringa, D.; Olson, J.; Christensen, J.

    1989-05-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine (PCP).

  8. Malondialdehyde–Deoxyguanosine Adducts among Workers of a Thai Industrial Estate and Nearby Residents

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Ceppi, Marcello; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Background Humans living near industrial point emissions can experience high levels of exposures to air pollutants. Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate in Thailand is the location of the largest steel, oil refinery, and petrochemical factory complexes in Southeast Asia. Air pollution is an important source of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species, which interact with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Objective We measured the levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, in petrochemical workers, nearby residents, and subjects living in a control district without proximity to industrial sources. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of malondialdehyde-dG adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degrees of air pollution. Results The multivariate regression analysis shows that the adduct levels were associated with occupational and environmental exposures to air pollution. The highest adduct level was observed in the steel factory workers. In addition, the formation of DNA damage tended to be associated with tobacco smoking, but without reaching statistical significance. A nonsignificant increase in DNA adducts was observed after 4–6 years of employment among the petrochemical complexes. Conclusions Air pollution emitted from the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate complexes was associated with increased adduct levels in petrochemical workers and nearby residents. Considering the mutagenic potential of DNA lesions in the carcinogenic process, we recommend measures aimed at reducing the levels of air pollution. PMID:20056580

  9. Risks for heart disease and lung cancer from passive smoking by workers in the catering industry.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Anthony J; McGhee, Sarah M; Repace, James L; Wong, Lai-Chin; Yu, Marcus Y S; Wong, Tze-Wai; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2006-04-01

    Workers in the catering industry are at greater risk of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) when smoke-free workplace policies are not in force. We determined the exposure of catering workers to SHS in Hong Kong and their risk of death from heart disease and lung cancer. Nonsmoking catering workers were provided with screening at their workplaces and at a central clinic. Participants reported workplace, home, and leisure time exposure to SHS. Urinary cotinine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay. Catering facilities were classified into three types: nonsmoking, partially restricted smoking (with nonsmoking areas), and unrestricted smoking. Mean urinary cotinine levels ranged from 3.3 ng/ml in a control group of 16 university staff through 6.4 ng/ml (nonsmoking), 6.1 ng/ml (partially restricted), and 15.9 ng/ml (unrestricted smoking) in 104 workers who had no exposures outside of work. Workers in nonsmoking facilities had exposures to other smoking staff. We modeled workers' mortality risks using average cotinine levels, estimates of workplace respirable particulates, risk data for cancer and heart disease from cohort studies, and national (US) and regional (Hong Kong) mortality for heart disease and lung cancer. We estimated that deaths in the Hong Kong catering workforce of 200,000 occur at the rate of 150 per year for a 40-year working-lifetime exposure to SHS. When compared with the current outdoor air quality standards for particulates in Hong Kong, 30% of workers exceeded the 24-h and 98% exceeded the annual air quality objectives due to workplace SHS exposures. PMID:16428261

  10. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sheldon; Ramesh, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10–12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose–response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18–36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace. PMID:26257479

  11. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in flour processing workers in the baking industry.

    PubMed

    Shamssain, M H

    1995-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 63 flour processing male bakery workers in Umtata, Transkei, Southern Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The studied population was nonsmoking and no significant difference was noted in age, race, sex, or height between the groups. The exposed workers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean percent predicted values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FMF), forced expiratory flow between the first 200 ml and 1,200 ml of FVC (FEF 200-1,200), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) were, respectively, 11.2%, 20.0%, 31.0%, 27.4%, and 36.1% lower in the exposed group compared with the controls. The prevalence of forced expiratory ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37% while in the controls it was 8%. The prevalence of PEF rate less than 5 1/s in the exposed group was 32% while in the controls it was 11%. The exposed workers reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the controls. The prevalence of nasal symptoms, phlegm, and cough in the exposed workers was 53.9%, 30.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that exposure to flour dust in flour processing workers in the baking industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary functions and a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and that these workers show signs of airway obstruction, compared to workers not exposed to flour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747742

  12. Anomalies in Proposed Regulations for the Release of Redundant Material from Nuclear and Non-nuclear Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, S.

    2002-02-26

    Now that increasing numbers of nuclear power stations are reaching the end of their commercially useful lives, the management of the large quantities of very low level radioactive material that arises during their decommissioning has become a major subject of discussion, with very significant economic implications. Much of this material can, in an environmentally advantageous manner, be recycled for reuse without radiological restrictions. Much larger quantities--2-3 orders of magnitude larger--of material, radiologically similar to the candidate material for recycling from the nuclear industry, arise in non-nuclear industries like coal, fertilizer, oil and gas, mining, etc. In such industries, naturally occurring radioactivity is artificially concentrated in products, by-products or waste to form TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material). It is only in the last decade that the international community has become aware of the prevalence of T ENORM, specially the activity levels and quantities arising in so many nonnuclear industries. The first reaction of international organizations seems to have been to propose ''double'' standards for the nuclear and non-nuclear industries, with very stringent release criteria for radioactive material from the regulated nuclear industry and up to a hundred times more liberal criteria for the release/exemption of TENORM from the as yet unregulated non-nuclear industries. There are, however, many significant strategic issues that need to be discussed and resolved. An interesting development, for both the nuclear and non-nuclear industries, is the increased scientific scrutiny that the populations of naturally high background dose level areas of the world are being subject to. Preliminary biological studies have indicated that the inhabitants of such areas, exposed to many times the permitted occupational doses for nuclear workers, have not shown any differences in cancer mortality, life expectancy

  13. Development and reduction of hypertension and oxidative stress among detergent industry workers.

    PubMed

    Boojar, Massod M A; Goodarzi, Faranak; Boojar, Manochehr M A

    2004-12-01

    Hypertension status and oxidative stress parameters were assessed in 291 workers (hypertensive workers were divided into three grades, non-equivalently) at two detergent production plants, one of which included enzymes in the detergent (n=138) and another which did not (n=153), and 45 control workers in another industry three times (at the time of employment, 7 yrs later at the time of installation of a filter system, and about 3 yrs later). Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, antioxidant enzymes and lipid status by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, trace elements by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and blood pressure using an oscilometric device. Prior to filter system installation, enzyme-exposed workers had significantly higher MDA, antioxidant enzyme activities, and prevalence of hypertension, compared with controls. The filter system reduced airborne detergent and enzyme dusts, resulting in a decreased prevalence of hypertension and a significant improvement in workers' oxidative stress indicators. Alterations in antioxidant status may result from the cumulative effect of high levels of detergent and enzyme in airborne dust in the workplace. PMID:16789480

  14. Zinc toxicity among galvanization workers in the iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    El Safty, Amal; El Mahgoub, Khalid; Helal, Sawsan; Abdel Maksoud, Neveen

    2008-10-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with zinc, allowing complete protection against corrosion. The ultimate goal of this work was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to zinc in the galvanization process on different metals in the human body and to detect the association between zinc exposure and its effect on the respiratory system. This study was conducted in 111 subjects in one of the major companies in the iron and steel industry. There were 61 subjects (workers) who were involved in the galvanization process. Fifty adult men were chosen as a matched reference group from other departments of the company. All workers were interviewed using a special questionnaire on occupational history and chest diseases. Ventilatory functions and chest X rays were assessed in all examined workers. Also, complete blood counts were performed, and serum zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and magnesium levels were tested. This study illustrated the relation between zinc exposure in the galvanization process and high zinc levels among exposed workers, which was associated with a high prevalence rate of metal fume fever (MFF) and low blood copper and calcium levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups with regards to the magnesium level. No long-term effect of metals exposure was detected on ventilatory functions or chest X rays among the exposed workers. PMID:18991923

  15. Prevalence of Workers with Shifts in Hearing by Industry: A Comparison of OSHA and NIOSH Hearing Shift Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Sweeney, Marie Haring; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Wall, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of workers with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health significant threshold shifts (NSTS), Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard threshold shifts (OSTS), and with OSTS with age correction (OSTS-A), by industry using North American Industry Classification System codes. Methods 2001-2010 worker audiograms were examined. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios for NSTS were estimated by industry. NSTS, OSTS and OSTS-A prevalences were compared by industry. Results 20% of workers had an NSTS, 14% had an OSTS and 6% had an OSTS-A. For most industries, the OSTS and OSTS-A criteria identified 28-36% and 66-74% fewer workers than the NSTS criteria, respectively. Conclusions Use of NSTS criteria allowing for earlier detection of shifts in hearing is recommended for improved prevention of occupational hearing loss. PMID:24662953

  16. [The social and hygienic aspects in the protection of the health of forest industry workers].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanov, L M

    1990-01-01

    The study of social and hygiene aspects in the industry of forest exploitation permitted to point out the changes that occurred in the field of mechanization and automation of production processes, which radically influenced the working conditions and characteristics, as well as the health indices. The study approaches some economic, social and hygiene problems. Proposals are made regarding the improvement of medical care organization for workers, for example the drawing up of a complex programme of prophylaxis of diseases in the enterprises for wood industrialization and of utilization of the computation technique. PMID:2218810

  17. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease Among Workers at aNuclearWeaponsResearchandDevelopmentFacility

    PubMed Central

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B.; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P.; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E.; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. Methods We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. Results The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. Conclusions These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD. PMID:20523233

  18. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs) on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level. PMID:26780955

  20. Worker exposure for at-reactor management of spent nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Weck, Philippe F

    2013-09-01

    The radiological impact on workers associated with spent nuclear fuel dry storage operations at reactor sites is discussed. The resulting doses to workers exposed to external radiation include the dose during dry storage system loading, unloading and handling activities, the dose associated with independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) operations, maintenance and surveillance activities, and the dose associated with additional ISFSI construction. Comprehensive dose estimates are reported based on previous radiation surveys. PMID:23564883

  1. Psychological Effects of Early versus Late Referral to the Vocational Rehabilitation Process: The Case of Mexican Origin Industrially Injured Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Robert J.; Leal, Anita

    1988-01-01

    Sixty industrially injured workers of Mexican origin were examined to determine the psychological effects of early versus late referral to the California workers' compensation vocational rehabilitation system. Depression and dependency scores were significantly lower and self-esteem scores were higher for the early referral group compared to the…

  2. The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of South Africa (1919-circa 1934)--The Rise and Fall of a Great Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John

    1989-01-01

    The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union (ICWU), active from 1919-1930, was one of South Africa's first trade unions for Black and Colored workers and the ICWU and its leaders were prominent throughout the 1920s. This article attempts to outline and analyze the history of ICWU. (JOW)

  3. Nuclear industry will be short of engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-09-13

    This article discusses the potential shortage of nuclear engineers due to reduction of educational and training facilities and difficulty in attracting minorities into nuclear engineering. The article reports on recommendations from the National Research Council Nuclear Education Study Committee on attracting minorities to nuclear engineering, increasing DOE fellowships, funding for research and development, involvement of utilities and vendors, and support of the American Nuclear Society's advocacy of nuclear engineering education.

  4. Dose Estimation for a Study of Nuclear Workers in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: Methods for the International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS).

    PubMed

    Thierry-Chef, I; Richardson, D B; Daniels, R D; Gillies, M; Hamra, G B; Haylock, R; Kesminiene, A; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K; Moissonnier, M; O'Hagan, J; Schubauer-Berigan, M K; Cardis, E

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [H(p)(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so, whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses. PMID:26010707

  5. Dose Estimation for a Study of Nuclear Workers in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America: Methods for the International Nuclear Workers Study (INWORKS)

    PubMed Central

    Thierry-Chef, I.; Richardson, D. B.; Daniels, R. D.; Gillies, M.; Hamra, G. B.; Haylock, R.; Kesminiene, A.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K.; Moissonnier, M.; O'Hagan, J.; Schubauer-Berigan, M. K.; Cardis, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the International Nuclear Workers Study conducted in France, the UK and the U.S. (INWORKS), updated and expanded methods were developed to convert recorded doses of ionizing radiation to estimates of organ doses or individual personal dose equivalent [Hp(10)] for a total number of 308,297 workers, including 40,035 women. This approach accounts for differences in dosimeter response to predominant workplace energy and geometry of exposure and for the recently published ICRP report on dose coefficients for men and women separately. The overall mean annual individual personal dose equivalent, including zero doses, is 1.73 mSv [median = 0.42; interquartile range (IQR): 0.07, 1.59]. Associated individual organ doses were estimated. INWORKS includes workers who had potential for exposure to neutrons. Therefore, we analyzed neutron dosimetry data to identify workers potentially exposed to neutrons. We created a time-varying indicator for each worker, classifying them according to whether they had a positive recorded neutron dose and if so, whether their neutron dose ever exceeded 10% of their total external penetrating radiation dose. The number of workers flagged as being exposed to neutrons was 13% for the full cohort, with 15% of the cohort in France, 12% of the cohort in the UK and 14% in the U.S. We also used available information on in vivo and bioassay monitoring to identify workers with known depositions or suspected internal contaminations. As a result of this work, information is now available that will allow various types of sensitivity analyses. PMID:26010707

  6. Radiation exposure control from the application of nuclear gauges in the mining industry in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Darko, E O; Awudu, A R; Schandorf, C; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Glover, E T; Kattah, V K

    2010-05-01

    The use of nuclear gauges for process control and elemental analysis in the mining industry in Ghana, West Africa, is wide spread and on the increase in recent times. The Ghana Radiation Protection Board regulates nuclear gauges through a system of notification and authorization by registration or licensing, inspection, and enforcement. Safety assessments for authorization and enforcement have been established to ensure the safety and security of radiation sources as well as protection of workers and the general public. Appropriate training of mine staff is part of the efforts to develop the necessary awareness about the safety and security of radiation sources. The knowledge and skills acquired will ensure the required protection and safety at the workplaces. Doses received by workers monitored over a period between 1998 and 2007 are well below the annual dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:20386190

  7. [Contemporary state of work conditions and occupational morbidity of workers engaged into rubber, mechanical rubber and tire industries].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E G; Galiullina, É F; Samsonov, V M; Kudriavtsev, V P; Davletgareeva, G R; Shakirova, É D; Khasanov, B G; Buliakov, R T; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F

    2014-01-01

    Based on analysis of materials provided by occupational safety department PC "UZEMiK" and JSC "Kauchuk", the authors evaluate contemporary work conditions and occupational morbidity in workers engaged into rubber, mechanical rubber and tyre industries. PMID:25335420

  8. Evaluation of Dust Exposure among the Workers in Agricultural Industries in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Krishna N; Patil, Mahesh R

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to quantify dust exposure among the workers in four different industrial settings: rice mills, flour mills, oil mills, and tea factories and to compare the obtained data with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of Indian Union Ministry of Labour as well as to compare the dust exposure across activities and seasons. RespiCon(TM) particle sampler was used for collecting dust concentration in the breathing zone of the workers. In total, 149 workers participated in the study and 204 samples were collected. Samples were collected in the vicinity of different processing operations. Samples in the rice mills were collected for two consecutive years in two seasons; however samples from other industries were collected for 1 year. The results indicate that geometric mean (GM) of dust exposure was significantly (P < 0.0001) different among industrial settings. Respirable dust were 8.22, 5.76, 2.98, and 6.34mg m(-3) and total dust exposure were 81.05, 111.02, 56.68, and 39.85mg m(-3) in the rice mills, oil mills, flour mills, and tea factories, respectively. Considerable variations in dust exposure were observed in different activities in the rice and oil mills; however variation was relatively less in the flour mills and tea factories. In the rice mills, dust concentration was higher in winter than those obtained in autumn and it is significantly different (P < 0.05) for inhalable dust and total dust. Positive correlation was obtained in thoracic dust (r (2) = 0.94) and inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.97) with total dust and thoracic dust with inhalable dust (r (2) = 0.89). The results show that majority of the workers are exposed to higher level of respirable dust as compared to the PEL, while total dust exposure to all the workers were higher than the PEL; thus, immediate reduction of dust exposure among the workers is necessary for preventing respiratory system impairment. PMID:26324828

  9. Evaluation by industrial workers of passive and level-dependent hearing protection devices.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Hamilton, Mark A; Ucci, Amanda J; Rubas, James

    2011-01-01

    Level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs) provide protection from intense sound, while offering amplification for speech and other signals in lower levels of noise. These HPDs have been developed in response to the communication and operational needs of noise-exposed persons in industry and the military. This study was conducted to examine industrial workers' perceptions of the performance of two level-dependent HPDs (one with integrated radio communication capability and one without it) and their customary passive HPDs. This research took place at a plastic film manufacturing plant in Rhode Island, USA, following a mixed-measures design. Fifteen maintenance technicians at the plant evaluated the two level-dependent HPDs, plus their customary passive HPDs, in three separate trial periods. Data were collected via a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on all dependent measures. Linear and quadratic effect sizes were assessed with eta. Results revealed that the two level-dependent HPDs offered better perceived communication and situational awareness than the workers' customary passive HPDs. However, the level-dependent HPDs were rated lower than the passive HPDs in terms of usability and comfort. To increase workers' acceptance of level-dependent HPDs, usability issues must be addressed by the HPD manufacturers. PMID:21173484

  10. Lead exposure and hair lead level of workers in a lead refinery industry in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaraei, Seyed Reza Azimi

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out on the workers of a lead refinery industry and two control groups in Zanjan city in Iran. The scalp hair samples were collected from 25 workers who were occupationally exposed to lead contamination as a case group and from 25 subjects among the staff of the same industry and 25 subjects among Zanjan citizens as the first and second control groups respectively. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer used to determine lead level in all of the samples. The age of all subjects in the three groups was matched. The mean concentrations of hair lead in the workers (case group), the staff (control groupA) and the citizens (control group B) were 131.7±93.4 µgr/gr, 21.1±13.2 µgr/gr and 27.9±14.1 µgr/gr respectively. The mean concentration of hair lead in the case group was more than hair lead of normal range found in humans (0-30 µgr/gr). The mean of hair lead level in the citizens who had used gas vehicles was statistically higher than who had not used it (36.9±12.2 µgr/gr vs. 16.6±4.9 µgr/gr, P<0.001). PMID:21957365

  11. DNA methylation differences in exposed workers and nearby residents of the Ma Ta Phut industrial estate, Rayong, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Marco; Bollati, Valentina; Munnia, Armelle; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Boffetta, Paolo; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse biological effects from airborne pollutants are a primary environmental concern in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies linked air pollution exposures with altered blood Deoxyribo-nucleic acid (DNA) methylation, but effects from industrial sources and underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unexplored. Methods The Ma Ta Phut industrial estate (MIE) in Rayong, Thailand hosts one of the largest steel, oil refinery and petrochemical complexes in south-eastern Asia. We measured a panel of blood DNA methylation markers previously associated with air pollution exposures, including repeated elements [long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu] and genes [p53, hypermethylated-in-cancer-1 (HIC1), p16 and interleukin-6 (IL-6)], in 67 MIE workers, 65 Ma Ta Phut residents and 45 rural controls. To evaluate the role of DNA damage and oxidation, we correlated DNA methylation measures with bulky DNA and 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M1dG) adducts. Results In covariate-adjusted models, MIE workers, compared with rural residents, showed lower LINE-1 (74.8% vs 78.0%; P < 0.001), p53 (8.0% vs 15.7%; P < 0.001) and IL-6 methylation (39.2% vs 45.0%; P = 0.027) and higher HIC1 methylation (22.2% vs 15.3%, P < 0.001). For all four markers, Ma Ta Phut residents exhibited methylation levels intermediate between MIE workers and rural controls (LINE-1, 75.7%, P < 0.001; p53, 9.0%, P < 0.001; IL-6, 39.8%, P = 0.041; HIC1, 17.8%, P = 0.05; all P-values vs rural controls). Bulky DNA adducts showed negative correlation with p53 methylation (P = 0.01). M1dG showed negative correlations with LINE-1 (P = 0.003) and IL-6 methylation (P = 0.05). Conclusions Our findings indicate that industrial exposures may induce alterations of DNA methylation patterns detectable in blood leucocyte DNA. Correlation of DNA adducts with DNA hypomethylation suggests potential mediation by DNA damage. PMID:23064502

  12. Manpower Requirements in the Nuclear Power Industry, 1982-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ruth C.

    A study projected employment needs created by growth and employee turnover for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Only employment by electric utilities in the commercial generation of nuclear power was investigated. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey of 60 member utilities of the Institute of Nuclear Power…

  13. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, V.; Fleming, I.; Grant, T.; Hauth, J.; Hendrickson, J.; Kono, B.; Moore, C.; Olson, J.; Saari, L.; Toquam, J.; Wieringa, D.; Yost, P.; Hendrickson, P.; Moon, D.; Scott, W.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas in nuclear power plants are fit for duty. The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in the report is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other sources of impairment on the job are discussed. The report examines the prevalence of fitness-for-duty problems and discusses the use and effects of illicit drugs, prescription drugs, over-the-counter preparations and alcohol. The ways in which fitness-for-duty concerns are being addressed in both public- and private-sector industries are reviewed, and a description is provided of fitness-for-duty practices in six organizations that, like the nuclear industry, are regulated and whose operations can affect public health and safety. Methods of ensuring fitness for duty in the nuclear industry are examined in detail. The report also addresses methods of evaluating the effectiveness of fitness-for-duty programs in the nuclear power industry.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs) on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level. PMID:26780955

  15. Relationship between productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorder risk among deboning workers in a Chilean salmon industry.

    PubMed

    Ilardi, Juan S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this ergonomic investigation is to establish a relationship between quality, productivity and risk of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) in manual bone-removal process in the salmon fish industry. The method consists in a follow up study of 14 workers in a lane that processes salmon steak. Time between each steak (work cycle), quality of the steak's meat through inspection of deepness and length of the gapping generated by the manual bone-removal process and risk for musculoskeletal disorders through OCRA method were considered for this study. IMC and musculoskeletal Nordic Questionnaire of Kourinka were applied to the workers evaluated. Fourteen women worker's completed the evaluation, age 37.67 ± 8.1, with 65.27 ± 34.41 months of experience, with an IMC of 27.18 ± 3.87 (1.52 ± 0.057 meters of height) at the time of the evaluation. Time for deboning per steak averaged 38 ± 14 seconds with 68.33 ± 14.79 steaks per hour per worker. In quality terms, 74% of the steaks were qualified as "premium steaks" and 26% as "grade or industrial" (lower category and cheapest price). OCRA index for the right hand average 13.79 ± 4.59 and 3.59 ± 0.41 for the left hand. From Nordic questionnaire 80% of the workers manifested musculoskeletal symptoms in the right hand/wrist, followed up by shoulder with 60% of the workers and arm/elbow with over 50%. There was no statistically significant relationship between productivity and quality of the steak after manual bone removal process and between quality and MSD risk. However, there was a statistically significant relationship between productivity and MSD risk (p<0.05). Discussion around the results allows to see complementary results that did have strong correlation between MSD risk and the presence of lower grade salmon steaks and between areas that present musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and the intensity of the MSS (p<0.05). The results showed that further research is needed to validate these relationships, due to

  16. Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry--California, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-04-27

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) received the first report of a bronchiolitis obliterans diagnosis in a flavor-manufacturing worker in California. In April 2006, a second report was received of a case in a flavor-manufacturing worker from another company. Neither worker was employed in the microwave-popcorn industry; both were workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry, which produces artificial butter flavoring and other flavors such as cherry, almond, praline, jalapeno, and orange. Both workers had handled pure diacetyl, an ingredient in artificial butter and other flavorings, and additional chemicals involved in the manufacturing process. Studies have indicated that exposure to diacetyl causes severe respiratory epithelial injury in animals. Because the manufacture of flavorings involves more than 2,000 chemicals, workers in the general flavor-manufacturing industry are exposed to more chemicals than workers in the microwave-popcorn industry, which primarily uses butter flavorings. Food flavorings are designated "generally recognized as safe" when approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; flavorings are not known to put consumers at risk for lung disease. This report describes the first two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor-manufacturing workers in California, the findings of the public health investigation, and the actions taken by state and federal agencies to prevent future cases of occupational bronchiolitis obliterans. To identify cases and reduce risk for lung disease from occupational exposure to flavorings, a timely, effective

  17. Half-century archives of occupational medical data on French nuclear workers: a dusty warehouse or gold mine for epidemiological research?

    PubMed

    Garsi, Jerome-Philippe; Samson, Eric; Chablais, Laetitia; Zhivin, Sergey; Niogret, Christine; Laurier, Dominique; Guseva Canu, Irina

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the availability and completeness of medical data on workers from the AREVA NC Pierrelatte nuclear plant and their possible use in epidemiological research on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders related to internal exposure to uranium. We created a computer database from files on 394 eligible workers included in an ongoing nested case-control study from a larger cohort of 2897 French nuclear workers. For each worker, we collected records of previous employment, job positions, job descriptions, medical visits, and blood test results from medical history. The dataset counts 9,471 medical examinations and 12,735 blood test results. For almost all of the parameters relevant for research on cardiovascular risk, data completeness and availability is over 90%, but it varies with time and improves in the latest time period. In the absence of biobanks, collecting and computerising available good-quality occupational medicine archive data constitutes a valuable alternative for epidemiological and aetiological research in occupational health. Biobanks rarely contain biological samples over an entire worker's carrier and medical data from nuclear industry archives might make up for unavailable biomarkers that could provide information on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:25720028

  18. [The characteristics of morbidity of workers of nuclear power engineering enterprise].

    PubMed

    Pischugina, A V; Ivanov, A G; Belyakova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the morbidity endocrine, pathology included, of workers of nuclear power station and body-abled population of the district employed in other areas of professional activities. The statistically reliable exceeding of the level of primarily diagnosed endocrine morbidity in the group of working population of the district as compared with the group of workers of nuclear power station is established. In the compared groups, the structure of pathology of endocrine system is characterized by the prevalence of diseases of thyroid gland and obesity. The official statistics data reflects the level of morbidity of working population depending on appealability to curative preventive institutions, ratio and scope of the periodic medical examinations, availability of shop therapeutic service and possibility to involve physicians-specialists to health posts enterprises. Therefore, the foundation of enhancement of quality of medical care to workers is the improvemnent of organizational activities at the level of primary health care. PMID:23672064

  19. A Radiological Assessment Skills Training Program for the Radiation Worker at Shoreham Nuclear Power Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Leonard, Jr.

    Radiation workers, by law, have the responsibility to maintain their exposure to radiation levels as low as possible. This responsibility has not been accepted. Instead, they have relied solely on the policing action of health physics (HP) technicians, thereby delegating their lawful responsibility. Continued overexposure in the U.S. nuclear power…

  20. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels among office workers living in industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Kawanami, Shoko; Nguyen, Thi-To-Uyen; Inoue, Jinro; Kawai, Kazuaki; Horie, Seichi

    2014-03-01

    We examined exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among non-smoking office workers in 2 countries living in the vicinity of a coke-oven factory by measuring their levels of urinary 1-OHP, a known metabolite of PAHs. Subjects included 10 non-smoking office workers in Kitakyushu city (Japan) and 20 workers in Thai Nguyen city (Vietnam). Measurement was optimized by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method developed by Jongeneelen et al. This method required only a small amount of urine and had a short incubation time, and its detection limit was very low (0.00448 ng/ml), which was practical and highly sensitive.The median urinary 1-OHP concentration in the Vietnamese subjects (0.417 ng/mg creatinine) was six times as high as that in the Japanese subjects (0.069 ng/mg creatinine) (P < 0.001). However, both concentrations were significantly below the guideline level, below which there is no genotoxic effect, implying a low probability of any adverse health effects.Our measurements from both countries showed higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than in previous studies from locations without factories, indicating that ambient air pollution from industrial emissions is an important source of PAH exposure. Finally, the urinary 1-OHP concentrations did not correlate with gender or lifestyle factors. PMID:24633179

  1. [Mortality among workers of the rubber industry. III. Results of further observation of the male cohort].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Strzelecka, A; Sobala, W

    1995-01-01

    Mortality among workers of the rubber industry was assessed following the observation of the cohort comprised of 6,978 male workers who had started their employment in the plant producing rubber footwear during the years 1945-1973, and worked for, at least, three months. The condition of the cohort was assessed for December 31, 1990. Standardised mortality rate (SMR) was used as a measurement tool and it was calculated by means of the man-year method. The general population of Poland was taken as the reference population. General mortality in the cohort was significantly higher than in the reference population (2020 death, SMR = 110). Significant excess mortality due to atherosclerosis (205 deaths, SMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (48 deaths, SMR = 170) was also noted. Total number of deaths due to malignant neoplasms-421-was slightly higher than expected. Significant excess of the bladder cancer (13 deaths, SMR = 357), the larynx cancer (23 deaths, SMR = 180) and the lung cancer (148 deaths, SMR = 122) was revealed. Significantly increased risk of the large intestine cancer (15 deaths, SMR = 242) was observed in the subcohort of workers employed in direct production departments. PMID:7476145

  2. Self-reported hearing loss among workers potentially exposed to industrial noise-United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.

  3. Evaluating Effects of Heat Stress on Cognitive Function among Workers in a Hot Industry

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mahmood Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Zeinab; Hosseini, Mostafa; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background:Heat stress, as one of the most common occupational health problems, can impair operators' cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on cognitive function among workers in a hot industry. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Malibel Saipa Company in 2013, workers were assigned into two groups: one group were exposed to heat stress (n=35), working in casting unit and the other group working in machining unit (n=35) with a normal air conditioning. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature was measured at three heights of ankle, abdomen, and head. In order to evaluate the effects of heat stress on attention and reaction time, Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3 were conducted before starting the work and during the work. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between WBGT and test duration (P=0.01) and reaction time of Stroop test 3 (P=0.047), and between number of errors in Stroop tests 1, 2, and 3, during the work (P= 0.001). Moreover, Stroop test 3 showed a significant higher score for both test duration and reaction time of workers in case group. Conclusion: Results of the present study, conducted in a real work environment, confirmed the impairment of cognitive functions, including selective attention and reaction time, under heat stress conditions. PMID:25649311

  4. Dynamic Impact of Fluoride Dust on Industrial Workers in Thermal Power Plant and its Feasibility Study on Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Swati; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-07-01

    Fluorine is a common element that does not occur in the elemental state in nature because of its high reactivity. It accounts for about 0.3 g kg-1 of the Earth's crust and exists in the form of fluorides in a number of minerals, of which fluorspar, cryolite and fluorapatite are the most common. This paper focuses on the analysis of flouride on the industrial workers in various working conditions on troposphere. To check the impact of flouride on workers various samples were taken from different conditions of aluminum plant industries like pot room workers and non-pot room workers as fluoride has both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health. 50 workers in pot room and 10 workers in non pot room were chosen for taking urine and serum samples. 0.09 to 3.77 mg Kg -1 and 0.39 to 1.15 mg Kg-1 (of ash weight) was recorded in the nails of pot room and non pot room workers respectively. The average flouride content was recorded as 1.10 mg Kg -1 and 0.65 mg Kg -1 in pot room and non pot room workers respectively. The outcome results clearly indicated the ill effect and dangerous for the dental health as well as physical health of the workers. A preventive measure or precaution should be taken by the management or persons to avoid the impact of flouride on the body. The clinical significance lie in the maintaining hygienic condition while preventing the any possible effect of flouride on the workers of the industries, as this will affect the production as well as the human value in term of physical capabilities and social aspects in providing medical facilities. Keywords: Fluoride, Ecosystem, Dynamic impact, Air pollutant, detrimental effects.

  5. 76 FR 21033 - Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Helpmates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 10, 2011 (75 FR 13230). At the request of the company, the... Employment and Training Administration Core Industries, Inc., DBA Star Trac, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Helpmates, Mattson, and Empire Staffing, Irvine, CA and Core Industries, Inc., DBA...

  6. An Assessment of Need for Developing and Implementing Technical and Skilled Worker Training for the Solar Energy Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsak, Charles G.; And Others

    A Navarro College, Texas, study determined the quantitative and qualitative needs for developing skilled manpower for the solar industry and secondarily identified the (present) solar industry manpower populations and tasks performed by solar technical and skilled workers. Results from three initial working groups addressing equipment, market…

  7. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1402 When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1402 When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non... Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1402 When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are...

  10. A sensitive method of monitoring exposure to 3-bromobenzanthrone in industrial dyestuff workers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra P; Khanna, Raj; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2002-01-01

    3-Bromobenzanthrone (3-BBA) is an anthraquinone dye intermediate widely used for the synthesis of a variety of dyes. The monitoring of 3-BBA exposure in dyestuff industry workers has not been possible until now as no procedure has been available. In this article, the fluorescence properties of 3-BBA has been utilized to develop a quantitative method for the detection of this dye intermediate. The procedure allows the measurement of trace quantities of 3-BBA in biological specimens, including urine, serum, liver, and feces, in experimental studies. The method involves extraction of biological samples with an equal volume of a chloroform-methanol mixture (1:1, v/v) followed by measurement of the relative fluorescence intensity at excitation maxima of 400 nm and emission maxima of 530 nm. The detection limit was found to be as low as 50 ng of 3-BBA. The procedure can be routinely used to screen for the presence of 3-BBA in biological fluids, especially urine, as a measure of exposure to 3-BBA in dyestuff workers. The authors are thankful to Dr. P. K. Seth, Director, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, for his keen interest in this study. The secretarial assistance of Mr. K. G. Thomas is duly acknowledged. RPS is thankful to University Grant Commission, New Delhi, for the award of a Senior Research Fellowship. PMID:20021176

  11. AREA FACTOR DETERMINATIONS FOR AN INDUSTRIAL WORKER EXPOSED TO A CONCRETE SLAB END-STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T; Patricia Lee, P; Eduardo Farfan, E; Jesse Roach, J

    2007-02-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik [1]. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m{sup 2}. During deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with (1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM [2], (2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance [3], and (3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual [4].

  12. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  13. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  14. Emergence of the nuclear industry and associated crime. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    Nuclear energy, in weapons production and electrical power generation, is a technology that has endured public scrutiny since the late 1940s. Societal acceptance of this industry has been affected by controversy in the following areas: health effects of exposure to radiation, possible consequences resulting from accidents, and nuclear nonproliferation. The literature review begins in Chapter 2 by examining the changing public perceptions of nuclear energy over the last forty years. Support for the ideals and practices of the industry has often wavered, due to media representation of incidents, accidents, and potential catastrophic events. The second part of the chapter highlights the crimes associated with nuclear energy in a chronological order of concern by nuclear industry security specialists. Research has found certain types of crime to be more prevalent during particular eras than others. Crimes instigated by spies, peace activists, terrorists, and the insider (employee) are reviewed, with an emphasis on insider crime.

  15. Cyber security best practices for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, I.

    2012-07-01

    When deploying software based systems, such as, digital instrumentation and controls for the nuclear industry, it is vital to include cyber security assessment as part of architecture and development process. When integrating and delivering software-intensive systems for the nuclear industry, engineering teams should make use of a secure, requirements driven, software development life cycle, ensuring security compliance and optimum return on investment. Reliability protections, data loss prevention, and privacy enforcement provide a strong case for installing strict cyber security policies. (authors)

  16. Hand exposure to ionising radiation of nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Wrzesień, M; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J

    2008-01-01

    The specific nature of work in nuclear medicine departments involves the use of isotopes and handling procedures, which contribute to the considerable value of an equivalent dose received, in particular, by the fingertips. Standard nuclear medicine department uses ring dosemeters placed usually at the base of the middle finger. The main aim of the study was to find out whether a relationship exists between the doses recorded by thermoluminescent detectors placed at various locations on the radiopharmacists' hands and the doses recorded by the ring detectors, and to determine the character of that relationship. The correction factor represents a correction value to be used to calculate the doses which might be received by locations on the hand from the dose recorded by the ring dosemeter. The dose recorded by the ring dosemeter is on the average five times lower than that received by the fingertips of thumb, index and middle fingers. PMID:18310609

  17. [Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces. PMID:22031197

  18. Korean nuclear industry hit by corruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soo Bin

    2013-12-01

    After a four-month investigation, a court in South Korea has indicted 100 officials and suppliers on corruption charges over bogus safety certifications for parts that were supplied to some of the country's 23 nuclear reactors.

  19. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among workers in selected industries: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Cynthia J; Nilsen Hopf, Nancy B; Deddens, James A; Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Grote, Ardith A; Sammons, Deborah L

    2009-01-01

    Phthalates are used as plasticizers and solvents in industrial, medical and consumer products; however, occupational exposure information is limited. We sought to obtain preliminary information on occupational exposures to diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by analyzing for their metabolites in urine samples collected from workers in a cross-section of industries. We also obtained data on metabolites of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), di-isobutyl phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate. We recruited 156 workers in 2003-2005 from eight industry sectors. We assessed occupational contribution by comparing end-shift metabolite concentrations to the US general population. Evidence of occupational exposure to DEHP was strongest in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film manufacturing, PVC compounding and rubber boot manufacturing where geometric mean (GM) end-shift concentrations of DEHP metabolites exceeded general population levels by 8-, 6- and 3-fold, respectively. Occupational exposure to DBP was most evident in rubber gasket, phthalate (raw material) and rubber hose manufacturing, with DBP metabolite concentrations exceeding general population levels by 26-, 25- and 10-fold, respectively, whereas DBP exposure in nail-only salons (manicurists) was only 2-fold higher than in the general population. Concentrations of DEP and DMP metabolites in phthalate manufacturing exceeded general population levels by 4- and >1000-fold, respectively. We also found instances where GM end-shift concentrations of some metabolites exceeded general population concentrations even when no workplace use was reported, e.g. BzBP in rubber hose and rubber boot manufacturing. In summary, using urinary metabolites, we successfully identified workplaces with likely occupational phthalate exposure. Additional work is needed to distinguish occupational from non-occupational sources in low-exposure workplaces. PMID:18948546

  20. Chronic intermittent high altitude exposure, occupation, and body mass index in workers of mining industry.

    PubMed

    Esenamanova, Marina K; Kochkorova, Firuza A; Tsivinskaya, Tatyana A; Vinnikov, Denis; Aikimbaev, Kairgeldy

    2014-09-01

    The obesity and overweight rates in population exposed to chronic intermittent exposure to high altitudes are not well studied. The aim of the retrospective study was to evaluate whether there are differences in body mass index in different occupation groups working in intermittent shifts at mining industry at high altitude: 3800-4500 meters above sea level. Our study demonstrated that obesity and overweight are common in workers of high altitude mining industry exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. The obesity rate was lowest among miners as compared to blue- and white-collar employees (9.5% vs. 15.6% and 14.7%, p=0.013). Obesity and overweight were associated with older age, higher rates of increased blood pressure (8.79% and 5.72% vs. 1.92%), cholesterol (45.8% and 45.6% vs. 32.8%) and glucose (4.3% and 1.26% vs. 0.57%) levels as compared to normal body mass index category (p<0.0001 for all). There were differences in patterns of cholesterol and glucose levels in men and women employees according to occupation type. In conclusion, obesity and overweight rates are prevalent and associated with increase in blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels in workers of mining industry exposed to intermittent high-altitude hypoxia. Therefore, assessment and monitoring of body mass index seems to be essential in those who live and work at high altitudes to supply the correct nutrition, modify risk factors, and prevent related disorders. PMID:25162204

  1. Mortality of workers at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P G; Douglas, A J

    1986-01-01

    The mortality of all 14,327 people who were known to have been employed at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels at any time between the opening of the site in 1947 and 31 December 1975 was studied up to the end of 1983. The vital state of 96% of the workers was traced satisfactorily and 2277 were found to have died, 572 (25%) from cancer. On average the workers suffered a mortality from all causes that was 2% less than that of the general population of England and Wales and 9% less than that of the population of Cumberland (the area in which the plant is sited). Their mortality from cancers of all kinds was 5% less than that of England and Wales and 3% less than that of Cumberland. In the five years after their first employment Sellafield workers had an overall mortality that was 70% of that of England and Wales, probably due to healthier members of the population being selected for employment. Raised death rates from cancers of several specific sites were found, but only for those of ill defined and secondary sites was the excess statistically significant (30 observed, 19.7 expected). For cancers of the liver and gall bladder there was a significant deficit of deaths (four observed, 10.5 expected). Workers in areas of the plant where radiation exposure was likely were issued with dosimeters to measure their external exposure to ionising radiations. Personal dose records were maintained for workers who entered such areas other than infrequently. Workers with personal dose records ("radiation" workers) had lower death rates from all causes combined than other workers but the death rates from cancer in the two groups were similar. Compared with the general population radiation workers had statistically significant deficits of liver and gall bladder cancer, lung cancer, and Hodgkin's disease. There were excesses of deaths from myeloma (seven observed, 4.2 expected) and prostatic cancer (19 observed, 15.8 expected) but these were not significant and there was

  2. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 3. Causes of death of Scottish oil shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Cowie, H.; Middleton, W.G.; Seaton, A.

    1985-05-01

    The hazards of the Scottish oil shale industry are reported in three volumes. This volume addresses the cause of death for personnel in the oil shale industry. Skin cancer deaths showed a hazard significantly greater than unity. In comparing oil shale workers mortality with that of the population of 2 counties, an increase in death from bronchitis and emphysema was demonstrated. Comparisons of mortality within the study group to determine if any particular jobs in the industry were more hazardous than others showed no significant associations. There appeared to be a slight excess of prostrate cancer among retort workers. In a case-control study, no significant increase in relative hazard of lung cancer was found in association with workers or residents in areas of high shale activity. 21 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs. (DMC)

  3. Attitude towards personal protective equipment in the French nuclear fuel industry.

    PubMed

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Faust, Ségolène; Canioni, Pierre; Collomb, Philippe; Samson, Eric; Laurier, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study examines the compliance of workers from the European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium (EURODIF) with personal protection equipment (PPE) in view of the various hazards in the nuclear fuel industry. The PPE inventory was drawn up by an industrial hygienist in charge of the PPE at EURODIF. Two hundred and twenty seven (10%) randomly selected, active and retired, EURODIF workers filled in a questionnaire on their attitudes towards PPE. Exposure data from the EURODIF job exposure matrix were used to examine whether PPE usage varies according to exposure level. The study suggests a PPE usage profile that varies depending on the hazards present and PPE available. Anti-uranium PPE and gloves were among the best rated, while anti-spray goggles were the least used. We found that, for most hazards known to cause cancer or irreversible health damage, PPE usage varied according to exposure (homogeneity test, p<0.05; trend test, p<0.05). The continuous use of PPE among workers should be encouraged through improvements to the PPE management system. A precise model of individual exposure can only be designed if the use and efficiency of PPE are taken into consideration. PMID:23819938

  4. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Methods Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008–2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Results Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Conclusions Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results. PMID:25938673

  5. Iontophoresis Versus Cyriax-Type exercises in Chronic Tennis Elbow among industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Abdelhamid Akram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the most commonly encountered upper limb conditions. It mainly affects people who use the hand grip against resistance frequently, resulting in microtrauma to the wrist extensors tendon, causing pain. This study was conducted to compare the application of iontophoresis of 0.4% dexamethasone and Cyriax-type exercises in the treatment of chronic tennis elbow (CTE). Methods: Twenty-two industrial worker diagnosed as having CTE participated in this study, and their ages ranged from 25 to 52. They were assigned randomly to two groups, i.e., “group A” in which the workers were treated by iontophoresis of 0.4% Dexamethasone and “group B” in which the workers were treated by conducting Cyriax-type exercises on the affected tendon. Both groups received stretching exercises for the common extensors tendon for 10 minutes in addition to five minutes of pulsed US 1.1 W/cm2 six times over two weeks. The outcome of the treatment was assessed one week after the last session by the visual analog scale (VAS) to assess pain, by the Oxford elbow score (OES) to measure the patient’s satisfaction, and by a handgrip dynamometer to measure the strength of the handgrip. Results: The application of 0.4% dexamethasone iontophoresis and the use of Cyriax-type exercises both provided significant improvement in the pain, patient’s satisfaction, and the power of the handgrip, and there were no significant difference (p > 0.001) in any of the three measures after the first week’s treatment. Conclusions: Both iontophoresis of 0.4% dexamethasone and Cyriax-type exercises were successful as treatment modalities for patients with CTE, and there were no significant differences between both of them in the treatment of those cases. PMID:26435828

  6. A cohort study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the British chemical industry: an update.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M J; Pannett, B; Winter, P D; Cruddas, A M

    1993-09-01

    A cohort study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the British chemical industry in any one of six factories has been extended after the earlier published report in 1984. A further eight years of follow up to the end of 1989 have been included for the originally reported 7660 workers first employed before 1965, and a first follow up to the same date has been carried out for 6357 workers first employed since 1964. Extensive checking of the database has taken place including records at the factories, the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, and the National Health Service Central Register. The updated findings include one death from nasal cancer compared with 1.7 expected in this number of men during the follow up period--which gives no support to the original hypothesis based on animal experimental data that formaldehyde may be a nasal carcinogen in humans. There have been no cases of nasopharyngeal cancer in the cohort compared with an estimated 1.3 expected--which gives no support to the findings in a similarly designed study in the United States of an excess of cancers of the nasopharynx associated with exposure to formaldehyde. There has been a slight excess of about 12% for lung cancer with 402 deaths compared with about 359 expected. This is similar to that found in the United States study, but higher than we reported earlier before the checking procedures and extended follow up. Further analysis gives no definitive indication of this excess of lung cancer being clearly related to formaldehyde exposure, and the increase is within that generally thought consistent with possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking (although no data are available on this point). PMID:8398877

  7. Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Ivan de Picoli; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the “Nova Esperança” Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important. PMID:25991990

  8. Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the garment industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stayner, L.T.; Elliott, L.; Blade, L.; Keenlyside, R.; Halperin, W.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde we conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed for at least three months to formaldehyde in three garment facilities which produced permanent press garments. A total of 11,030 workers contributing 188,025 person-years were included in the study. Vital status was successfully ascertained through 1982 for over 96% of the cohort. The average (TWA) formaldehyde exposure at the three plants monitored in 1981 and 1984 by NIOSH was 0.15 ppm but past exposures may have been substantially higher. In general, mortality from nonmalignant causes was less than expected. A statistically significant excess in mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity (SMR = 343) and connective tissue (SMR = 364) was observed. Statistically nonsignificant excesses in mortality were observed for cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung (SMR = 114), pharynx (SMR = 112), bladder (SMR = 145), leukemia and aleukemia (SMR = 113), and other lymphopoietic neoplasms (SMR = 170). Mortality from cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung was inversely related to duration of exposure and latency. In contrast, mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity, leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms increased with duration of formaldehyde exposure and/or latency. These neoplasms also were found to be highest among workers first exposed during a time period of high potential formaldehyde exposures in this industry (1955-1962). However, it should be recognized that these findings are based on relatively small numbers and that confounding by other factors may still exist. The results from this investigation, although far from conclusive, do provide evidence of a possible relationship between formaldehyde exposure and the development of upper respiratory cancers (buccal), leukemias, and other lymphopoietic neoplasms in humans.

  9. External radiation exposure and mortality in a cohort of French nuclear workers

    PubMed Central

    Telle‐Lamberton, M; Samson, E; Caër, S; Bergot, D; Bard, D; Bermann, F; MGélas, J; Giraud, J M; Hubert, P; Metz‐Flamant, C; Néron, M O; Quesne, B; Tirmarche, M; Hill, C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of external radiation exposure on the mortality of French nuclear workers. Methods A cohort of 29 204 workers employed between 1950 and 1994 at the French Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)) or at the General Company of Nuclear Fuel (COmpagnie GEnérale des MAtières nucléaires (Cogema, now Areva NC)) was followed up for an average of 17.8 years. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed with reference to French mortality rates. Dose‐effect relationship were analysed through trend tests and Poisson regression, with linear and log‐linear models. Results The mean exposure to X and gamma radiation was 8.3 mSv (16.9 mSv for exposed worker population). A total of 1842 deaths occurred between 1968 and 1994. A healthy worker effect was observed, the number of deaths in the cohort being 59% of the number expected from national mortality statistics. Among the 21 main cancer sites studied, a statistically significant excess was observed only for skin melanoma, and an excess of borderline statistical significance was observed for multiple myeloma. A dose‐effect relationship was observed for leukaemia after exclusion of chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). The relative risk observed for non‐CLL leukaemia, n = 20, was 4.1 per 100 mSv (90% CI 1.4 to 12.2), linear model and 2.2 per 100 mSv (90% CI 1.2 to 3.3), log‐linear model. Significant dose‐effect relationship were also observed for causes of deaths associated with alcohol consumption: mouth and pharynx cancer, cirrhosis and alcoholic psychosis and external causes of death. Conclusion The risk of leukaemia increases with increasing exposure to external radiation; this is consistent with published results on other nuclear workers cohorts. PMID:17522135

  10. Older workers in the construction industry: results of a routine health examination and a five year follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Rothenbacher, D; Brenner, H; Fraisse, E; Zschenderlein, B; Daniel, U; Schuberth, S; Fliedner, T M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health status of older construction workers and the occurrence of early retirement due to disability or of mortality within a five year follow up. METHODS: Firstly, a cross sectional study was performed among 4958 employees in the German construction industry, aged 40-64 years, who underwent standardised routine occupational health examinations in 1986-8. The study population included plumbers, carpenters, painters/varnishers, plasterers, unskilled workers, and white collar workers (control group). Job specific prevalence and age adjusted relative prevalence were calculated for hearing loss, abnormal findings at lung auscultation, reduced forced expiratory volume, increased diastolic blood pressure, abnormalities in the electrocardiogram, increased body mass index, hypercholesterolaemia, increased liver enzymes, abnormal findings in an examination of the musculoskeletal system, and abnormalities of the skin. Secondly, follow up for disability and all cause mortality was ascertained between 1992 and 1994 (mean follow up period = 4.5 y). Job specific crude rates were calculated for the occurrence of early retirement due to disability and for all cause mortality. With Cox's proportional hazards model, job specific relative risks, adjusted for age, nationality, and smoking were obtained. RESULTS: Compared with the white collar workers, a higher prevalence of hearing deficiencies, signs of obstructive lung diseases, increased body mass index, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were found among the construction workers at the baseline exam. During the follow up period, 141 men died and 341 men left the labour market due to disability. Compared with white collar workers, the construction workers showed a 3.5 to 8.4-fold increased rate of disability (P < 0.05 for all occupational groups) and a 1.2 to 2.1-fold increased all cause mortality (NS). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the need and possibilities for further health promotion in workers

  11. Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

    1981-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

  12. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors — the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work — the work place is not proper — the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field. PMID:21808496

  13. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors - the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper - the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field. PMID:21808496

  14. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in a sample of Vermont dairymen and industrial workers.

    PubMed Central

    Babbott, F L; Gump, D W; Sylwester, D L; MacPherson, B V; Holly, R C

    1980-01-01

    This study reviews the respiratory status of a sample of Vermont male dairy farmers, and a comparison group from industry, matched for age, sex and smoking. Survey instruments included a standardized questionnaire and simple pulmonary function tests. In general, past and present smokers had more respiratory symptoms than never-smokers; and farmers, in all smoking categories, reported symptoms with greater frequency than did their counterparts from industry. Forced vital capacity (FVC) tended to be lower among men with a history of smoking but, within each smoking category, dairymen and factory workers had very similar FVCs. Farmers who had never smoked or who were current cigarette users had lower FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity) ratios than their controls from industry. Sixteen diarymen demonstrated precipitins to either Micropolyspora faeni (13) or Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, (3), but only one reported a constellation of symptoms compatible with farmer's lung disease. The estimated prevalence of antibodies to thermophilic actinomyces in this farm population was approximately 10 per cent. Although sample sizes were limited, dairymen from small farms tended to be older, have more respiratory symptoms, less satisfactory pulmonary function, and more serologic evidence of exposure to farmer's lung antigens than their counterparts from large farms. PMID:7356085

  15. Effects of customized foot orthoses on manufacturing workers in the metal industry.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, César; Huertas-Talón, José-Luis; Sánchez-Álvarez, Eduardo J; Marín-Zurdo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This 8-week study evaluates the effects of customized foot orthoses on work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) of metal industry workers. These WMSDs were evaluated applying the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) at three different times (start, 4th week and 8th week) and additional questions were also formulated to obtain information about adaptation, fatigue, comfort and possible improvements. According to the NMQ results, statistical significance was found in the improvements after 4 weeks (p < 0.05 in two areas, p < 0.01 in three areas, p < 0.001 in two areas and no significance in the other two) and after 8 weeks (p < 0.01 in three areas, p < 0.001 in four areas and no significance in the other two). The additional questions indicated fatigue reduction (both in general and in lower extremity), comfort level increase (after the adaptation period) and good acceptance, according to workers' answers, suggesting customized orthoses can be effective in reducing and preventing WMSDs in several body regions. PMID:26651384

  16. Field study of age-differentiated strain for assembly line workers in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Börner, Kerstin; Scherf, Christian; Leitner-Mai, Bianca; Spanner-Ulmer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    A field study in an automotive supply industry company was conducted to explore age-differentiated strain of assembly line workers. Subjective and objective data from 23 female workers aged between 27 and 57 years were collected at the workplace belt buckle assembly during morning shifts. Subjects with medication or chronic diseases affecting heart rate and breath rate were excluded. For subjective data generation different questionnaires were used. Before the Work Ability Index and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire were completed by the subjects. Short questionnaires (strain-ratings, NASA-TLX) directly at begin and end of the work were used for obtaining shift-related data. During the whole shift (6 a.m. - 2.45 p.m.) bodily functions were logged with a wireless chest strap. In addition, the motion of the hand-arm-system was recorded for 30 times, 3 minutes each after a fixed time-schedule. First results show that younger subjects need significant less time for assembly (mean = 14.940 s) compared to older subjects (mean = 17.040 s; t(472.026) = -9.278 , p < 0.01). PMID:22317519

  17. Age in Relation to Worker Compensation Costs in the Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Schwatka, Natalie V.; Butler, Lesley M.; Rosecrance, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding of how workers’ compensation (WC) costs are affected by an aging US workforce is needed, especially for physically demanding industries, such as construction. Methods The relationship between age and injury type on claim costs was evaluated using a database of 107,064 Colorado WC claims filed between 1998 and 2008 among construction workers. Results Mean WC costs increased with increasing age for total cost (P < 0.0001), medical costs (P < 0.0001), and indemnity costs (P < 0.0001). For each one-year increase in age, indemnity, and medical costs increased by 3.5% and 1.1%, respectively. For specific injury types, such as strains and contusions, the association between age and indemnity costs was higher among claimants aged ≥65 compared to claimants aged 18–24. Conclusions Our findings suggest that specific injury types may be partially responsible for the higher indemnity costs among older construction workers, compared with their younger coworkers. PMID:22782837

  18. Manpower requirements in the nuclear power industry, 1982-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this study is to project occupational employment needs, created by growth and employee turnover, for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations of its 60 member utilities. The data were analyzed statistically to identify factors that account for variations in power plant staffing and the number of off-site nuclear support personnel employed by a utility. Total employment in the nuclear power industry is predicted to increase from 54,400 in 1981 to 73,600 in 1991. Nuclear generating capacity will increase from 58 to 124 gigawatts, based on the midline forecast of the Energy Information Administration. The projections assume that current regulations will remain in effect and no new plans for additional generating facilities will be initiated.

  19. [Effect of repetitive tasks on workers' sense of well-being in the watch industry].

    PubMed

    Oegerli, K

    1980-12-01

    In an interdisciplinary study, which was carried out in the Swiss watch industry, the influence of different job characteristics on the workers' well-being was investigated. Comparing the ergonomic, psychological and medical data of 120 women and 80 men executing tasks with restricted or enlarged degree of discretion, the following negative effects of repetitive tasks with low variety and little autonomy must be considered important: 1. pains in theeyes and headache 2. pains in the neck, the shoulder and the arms 3. increased intake of analgesics and sedatives 4. strongly experienced qualitative underload 5. a resignative tendency to accept small supplies for need fulfilment in the work situation. In both groups with a restricted degree of dicretion but also in the control group with more autonomy and variety a negative correlation could be found between length of service in job and the test score measuring information processing capacity. PMID:7245925

  20. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    PubMed

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A S; Wilson, H K

    1988-04-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the concentrations were only just above the detection limit. The determination of breath benzene collected before the next shift is non-specific in the case of smokers. The most useful monitor at low concentrations appears to be breath benzene measured at the end-of-shift. PMID:3378002

  1. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A S; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the concentrations were only just above the detection limit. The determination of breath benzene collected before the next shift is non-specific in the case of smokers. The most useful monitor at low concentrations appears to be breath benzene measured at the end-of-shift. PMID:3378002

  2. Psychophysically determined forces of dynamic pushing for female industrial workers: Comparison of two apparatuses.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, Vincent M; Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; O'Brien, Niall V

    2010-01-01

    Using psychophysics, the maximum acceptable forces for pushing have been previously developed using a magnetic particle brake (MPB) treadmill at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces while performing a pushing task at a frequency of 1min(-1) both on a MPB treadmill and on a high-inertia pushcart. This is important because our pushing guidelines are used extensively as a ergonomic redesign strategy and we would like the information to be as applicable as possible to cart pushing. On two separate days, nineteen female industrial workers performed a 40-min MPB treadmill pushing task and a 2-hr pushcart task, in the context of a larger experiment. During pushing, the subjects were asked to select a workload they could sustain for 8h without "straining themselves or without becoming unusually tired, weakened, overheated or out of breath." The results demonstrated that maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces of pushing determined on the high inertia pushcart were 0.8% and 2.5% lower than the MPB treadmill. The results also show that the maximum acceptable sustained force of the MPB treadmill task was 0.5% higher than the maximum acceptable sustained force of Snook and Ciriello (1991). Overall, the findings confirm that the existing pushing data developed by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety still provides an accurate estimate of maximal acceptable forces for the selected combination of distance and frequency of push for female industrial workers. PMID:19628201

  3. Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export-processing industries in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Attanapola, Chamila T

    2004-06-01

    Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles. PMID:15047086

  4. Tackling the nuclear manpower shortage: industry, educators must work together

    SciTech Connect

    Witzig, W.

    1981-10-01

    A 50% decline in graduate enrollment and an increase to 50% of foreign nationals among the nuclear engineering students since 1973 at Pennsylvania State University is typical of national trends, which have led to the closing of 13 undergraduate programs across the country. Penn State's proximity to Three Mile Island had less effect than its interactions with high schools and utilities in keeping the nuclear program as strong as it is. Penn State operates three separate career programs to interest high school students in a nuclear career. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) educational assistance reflects industry interest, but more scholarships are needed to broaden student awareness. (DCK)

  5. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants’ (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  6. A strategy for improving worker satisfaction and job attitudes in a repetitive industrial task: application of production standards and performance feedback.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Das, Biman

    2003-04-15

    Worker satisfaction improved significantly as a consequence of the provision of the assigned and participative standards with performance feedback in a repetitive industrial production task. The maximum improvement in worker satisfaction was found for the participative standard and feedback condition. Only this condition had a significant positive effect on worker job attitudes. Monetary incentive, when provided with an assigned or participative standard with feedback, added no incremental worker satisfaction or job attitudes gain. The participative standard with feedback condition emerges as the optimum strategy for improving worker satisfaction and job attitudes in a repetitive industrial production task. PMID:12745697

  7. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay

    PubMed Central

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. PMID:23536543

  8. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay.

    PubMed

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. PMID:23536543

  9. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals. PMID:11217724

  10. Safety Aspects in a Human-Robot Interaction Scenario: A Human Worker Is Co-operating with an Industrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaeh, Michael; Roesel, Wolfgang

    This paper presents a concept of a smart working environment designed to allow true joint actions of humans and industrial robots. The proposed system perceives its environment with multiple sensor modalities and acts in it with an industrial robot manipulator to assemble workpieces in combination with a human worker. In combination with the reactive behavior of the robot, safe collaboration between the human and the robot is possible. Generally, the application scenario is situated in a factory, where a human worker is supported by a robot to accomplish a given hybrid assembly scenario, that covers manual and automated assembly steps. For an effective human-robot collaboration, new safety methods have to be developed and proven. Human workers as well as objects in the environment have to be detected and a collision avoidance algorithm has to ensure the safety for persons and equipment.

  11. Effect of General Health Status on Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers.

    PubMed

    Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Dehghan, Faezeh; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Khansari, Bahareh; Heidari, Bijan; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Emami Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP) is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated;  they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05). Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05). High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting. PMID:27107527

  12. Cancer by industry: analysis of a population-based cancer registry with an emphasis on blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Hall, N E; Rosenman, K D

    1991-01-01

    This paper uses information on occupation and industry routinely collected in a state-based cancer registry to assess potential associations between work place exposures and cancer incidence. Industry-specific proportional cancer incidence ratios (PCIR) were calculated by race and sex for all individuals and for white males with blue-collar occupations. Expected numbers of cancers were derived both from cancers occurring among all occupations and just among blue-collar occupations. This latter analysis was done as a control for differences in the prevalence of life-style habits between blue- and white-collar workers. Increased lung cancer PCIR were seen in most industries previously reported to be associated with lung cancer risk. The effects of socioeconomic status on these results are discussed. Other results include an increased ratio of melanoma in blue-collar white male rubber and plastic product workers, an increased ratio of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in motor vehicle manufacture workers, and an increased PCIR of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in general construction workers. Uterine cancer was increased in proportion in white females for a number of industries including rubber and plastic product manufacture, apparel manufacture, and electrical equipment manufacture. PMID:1992675

  13. Identification of the Skills Needed by Workers in Various Segments of the Mountain States Graphic Communications Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharavath, H. Naik

    The skills needed now and 5 years from now by workers in the graphic communications industry in New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming were identified through a mail survey of mountain states printing companies. Of the 478 companies to which surveys were mailed, 64 were returned (response rate, 13.40%). A paired t-test was conducted to identify…

  14. 77 FR 53913 - River Bend Industries, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From FirstStaff, Trac Staffing, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... (75 FR 51846). At the request of the State of Arkansas, the Department reviewed the certification for... FirstStaff, Trac Staffing, and Worksource, Inc., Fort Smith, Arkansas; Amended Certification Regarding... Industries, LLC including on-site leased workers from FirstStaff, Trac Staffing, Worksource, Inc., Fort...

  15. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Consequences of Immigration Reform for Low-Wage Workers in the Southeastern U.S.: The Case of the Poultry Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, David

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. poultry industry, which hires predominantly low-wage workers, immigration reform has differentially affected native workers in different industry sectors and different regions. Examines diverse labor recruitment strategies of poultry plant personnel managers, their implications for native and immigrant labor, and their relations to…

  17. [Effect of vibration, noise, physical exertion and unfavorable microclimate on carbohydrate metabolism in workers engaged into mining industry and machine building].

    PubMed

    Lapko, I V; Kir'iakov, V A; Antoshina, L I; Pavlovskaia, N A; Kondratovich, S V

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied influence of vibration, noise, physical overexertion and microclimate on carbohydrates metabolism and insulin resistance in metal mining industry workers. Findings are that vibration disease appeared to have maximal effect on insulin resistance test results and insulin level. The authors suggested biomarkers for early diagnosis of insulin resistance disorders in metal mining industry workers. PMID:25282800

  18. Radiation dose distribution for workers in South Korean nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-il; Kim, So-i; Suh, Dong-hee; Jin, Young-woo; Kim, Jeong-in; Choi, Hoon; Lim, Young-khi

    2010-07-01

    A total of 33 680 nuclear power plants (NPPs) workers were monitored and recorded from 1990 to 2007. According to the record, the average individual radiation dose has been decreasing continually from 3.20 mSv man(-1) in 1990 to 1.12 mSv man(-1) at the end of 2007. After the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 recommendation was generalised in South Korea, no NPP workers received >20 mSv radiation, and the numbers of relatively highly exposed workers have been decreasing continuously. The age distribution of radiation workers in NPPs was composed mainly of 20-30 y olds (83 %) for 1990-1994 and 30-40 y olds (75 %) for 2003-2007. The difference in individual average dose by age was not significant. Most (77 %) of the NPP radiation exposures from 1990 to 2007 occurred mostly during the refueling period. With regard to exposure type, the majority of exposures was external exposures, representing 95 % of the total exposures, whereas internal exposures represented only 5 %. External effective dose was affected mainly by gamma radiation exposure, with an insignificant amount of neutron exposure. As for internal effective dose, tritium in the pressurised heavy water reactor was the biggest cause of exposure. PMID:20223854

  19. Relationship of Occupational and Non-Occupational Stress with Smoking in Automotive Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Somayeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Bahadori, Baharak

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). Conclusion The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone. PMID:25506374

  20. Components and modifiers of the healthy worker effect: evidence from three occupational cohorts and implications for industrial compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.R.; Chiarelli, A.M.; Lindsay, J.P.

    1988-12-01

    The authors examined the components and modifiers of the healthy worker effect using mortality data from three occupational cohorts: the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited followed between 1950 and 1981, a 10% sample of the Canadian labor force followed between 1965 and 1979, and workers at the Eldorado Resources Limited Beaverlodge uranium mine followed between 1950 and 1980. Two important components of the healthy worker effect have been identified in these cohorts, namely, initial selection of and continuing employment of healthy individuals. There is less evidence for a contribution from the existence of differential risk factors among employed individuals as compared with the general population. The healthy worker effect is, however, substantially modified by time since employment, sex, age, specific cause of death, and specific occupation. Because of this variation, it is inappropriate to account for the healthy worker effect by a single parameter, and all of the above factors must be taken into account in any appropriate analysis. When the only available comparison group for an occupational cohort is the general population, the healthy worker effect is unlikely to have any substantial influence on the process of assessing causality for any observed association or attributing cause in an individual case. This would be particularly true for cancer, and even more so for lung cancer, a disease often associated with industrial compensation cases.

  1. 4,4'-Methylenedianiline-induced hepatitis in an industrial worker: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Giouleme, Olga; Karabatsou, Sofia; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Xanthis, Andreas; Tsiaousi, Eleni; Katsaros, Marios; Koliouskas, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    4,4'-Methylenedianiline (MDA) is a chemical used in manufacturing and insulation processes and is a well-known hepatotoxin. We report the case of a 42-year-old construction-site worker who was accidentally exposed to large amounts of MDA and developed acute liver damage. The clinical course is described, with particular emphasis on the timely identification of the underlying cause and prompt management that led to an uneventful recovery. We review the relevant literature and discuss the safety measures necessary to minimize similar occupational hazards in industrial workers. PMID:20621954

  2. Radiation litigation and the nuclear industry--the experience in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Leigh, W J; Wakeford, R

    2001-12-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 places a "strict" statutory duty on the operators of nuclear facilities to ensure that any exposure to radiation resulting from operations does not cause injury or damage. A claimant does not have to prove fault to receive compensation under the Act, only causation. The 1965 Act has been fundamental in shaping litigation involving the nuclear industry in the UK. Civil law cases brought under the Act will be heard before a single judge (with no jury or technical assessor) who must present his or her decision in a reasoned judgment. This process leads to a considerable volume of expert evidence being presented to the court and extensive cross-examination of witnesses. The expense and uncertain outcome of cases involving claims by nuclear workers that occupational exposure to radiation had caused the development of cancer has led to employers and trade unions setting up the voluntary Compensation Scheme for Radiation-linked Diseases as an alternative to litigation. This Scheme has worked well and is held up as a model of alternative dispute resolution. However, a few cases concerning personal injury or damage to property have come before the courts when the defendant nuclear operator considered that the claims were technically unjustified and where settlement was not a policy option. As anticipated, these cases were lengthy, complex, and expensive. The radiation doses assessed to have been received by the individuals who were the subject of claims, whether workers or members of the public, have been crucial to the outcome. The technical expertise of health physicists and allied specialists has been vital in establishing defensible estimates of dose, and this contribution can be expected to remain of high importance in radiation litigation in the UK. PMID:11725882

  3. A Role for Industry in Promoting Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2009-11-01

    Industry has a unique opportunity and critical role to play in strengthening governmental efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear, radiological, and dual-use materials and technologies that could be used in a nuclear or radiological weapon. Governmental regulations and policies are in effect at both the national and international levels to inhibit access to such materials and technologies by illegitimate end-users. However, the discovery of an illegal nuclear network, spearheaded by Pakistani scientist A Q Khan, increased international concern about what more could be done to prevent proliferation. Industry is well-poised and has a strong incentive to take a more proactive role to complement existing governmental efforts. Companies can be a tremendous help in ensuring that illicit diversions do not occur by increasing their oversight over the supply chain.

  4. Online Monitoring of Plant Assets in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh Pham; Richard Rusaw; Randy Bickford

    2013-10-01

    Today’s online monitoring technologies provide opportunities to perform predictive and proactive health management of assets within many different industries, in particular the defense and aerospace industries. The nuclear industry can leverage these technologies to enhance safety, productivity, and reliability of the aging fleet of existing nuclear power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is collaborating with the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Long-Term Operations program to implement online monitoring in existing nuclear power plants. Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using EPRI’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software, a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures used to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. Fault signatures are developed based on the results of detailed technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The Diagnostic Advisor of the FW-PHM Suite software matches developed fault signatures with operational data to provide early identification of critical faults and troubleshooting advice that could be used to distinguish between faults with similar symptoms. This research is important as it will support the automation of predictive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of loneliness among Chinese service industry migrant workers: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Baoliang; Xu, Yanmin; Jin, Dong; Zou, Xiaowei; Liu, Tiebang

    2016-06-01

    Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers (MWs) who are employed in service industry are a rapidly growing population in urban China. Like other MWs, service industry MWs (SIMWs) are generally excluded from the mainstream of city societies, but unlike other MWs, they are more marginalized in cities. Social isolation increases the feelings of loneliness; however, there are little empirical data on the epidemiology of loneliness of SIMWs. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of loneliness among SIMWs in Shenzhen, China. By using respondent-driven sampling, 1979 SIMWs were recruited and administered with standardized questionnaires to collect data on sociodemographics, physical health, and migration-related characteristics. Loneliness and social support were measured with a single-item self-report question "Do you feel lonely often?" and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), respectively. 18.3% of SIMWs reported feeling lonely often. Being aged 60 years or older (odds ratio [OR] = 2.30), marital status of "others" (OR = 2.77), being physically ill in the last 2 weeks (OR = 1.46), migrating alone (OR = 1.97), working >8 hours/day (OR = 1.06), MSPSS inside family subscale score ≤18 (OR = 1.80), and MSPSS outside family subscale score ≤38 (OR = 1.50) were significantly associated with increased risk of loneliness in SIMWs. Loneliness is prevalent in Chinese SIMWs and should be seen as a major public health issue. The high prevalence and many negative health consequences of loneliness highlight the importance of routine screening, evaluation, and treatment of loneliness in this vulnerable population. PMID:27310992

  6. Prevalence and correlates of loneliness among Chinese service industry migrant workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Baoliang; Xu, Yanmin; Jin, Dong; Zou, Xiaowei; Liu, Tiebang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers (MWs) who are employed in service industry are a rapidly growing population in urban China. Like other MWs, service industry MWs (SIMWs) are generally excluded from the mainstream of city societies, but unlike other MWs, they are more marginalized in cities. Social isolation increases the feelings of loneliness; however, there are little empirical data on the epidemiology of loneliness of SIMWs. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of loneliness among SIMWs in Shenzhen, China. By using respondent-driven sampling, 1979 SIMWs were recruited and administered with standardized questionnaires to collect data on sociodemographics, physical health, and migration-related characteristics. Loneliness and social support were measured with a single-item self-report question “Do you feel lonely often?” and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), respectively. 18.3% of SIMWs reported feeling lonely often. Being aged 60 years or older (odds ratio [OR] = 2.30), marital status of “others” (OR = 2.77), being physically ill in the last 2 weeks (OR = 1.46), migrating alone (OR = 1.97), working >8 hours/day (OR = 1.06), MSPSS inside family subscale score ≤18 (OR = 1.80), and MSPSS outside family subscale score ≤38 (OR = 1.50) were significantly associated with increased risk of loneliness in SIMWs. Loneliness is prevalent in Chinese SIMWs and should be seen as a major public health issue. The high prevalence and many negative health consequences of loneliness highlight the importance of routine screening, evaluation, and treatment of loneliness in this vulnerable population. PMID:27310992

  7. Fertility and semen quality of workers exposed to high temperatures in the ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Figà-Talamanca, I; Dell'Orco, V; Pupi, A; Dondero, F; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Lombardo, F; Scavalli, P; Mancini, G

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic occupational exposure to high temperatures may be detrimental to male reproduction. The study was based on 92 healthy ceramics oven operators with a long exposure to high temperatures, and 87 controls, recruited from the shipment department of the same industry. Interviews with all subjects provided data on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and fertility problems. Semen analysis was carried out on 46 of the workers exposed to high temperatures, and 14 of the controls, and included evaluation of the sperm concentration, morphology, and motility, including computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (velocity, linearity, ALH, BCF). The results of the questionnaire showed that exposed individuals had a higher incidence of childlessness and of self-reported difficulty in conceiving than controls. The semen analysis showed no significant differences except in sperm velocity. Although differences in semen parameters, taken singly, were not statistically significant, the overall evaluation of the sperm parameters indicated a higher prevalence of pathologic sperm profiles among the exposed compared to the controls. PMID:1288761

  8. Reduced worker exposure and improved energy efficiency in industrial fume-hoods using an airvest

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reduction in the breathing zone concentration of an experimentally simulated pollutant, by factors ranging from 100 to 800, was observed with the device (called an airvest). With use of the airvest by the worker, the hood face velocity can be reduced, leading to substantial energy savings in conditioning of make up air in the building. The airvest works by elimination or ventilation of the eddy that develops in front of a worker when the worker stands in the open face of a fume hood. Normally this eddy draws some of the pollutant (commonly generated near and in front of the worker) towards the worker`s breathing zone. Experiments sing a heated full-size mannequin were conducted with a full scale walk-in fume hood. Sulfur hexafluoride was used to simulate pollutant generation and exposure during a work situation. Flow visualization with smoke was also undertaken to evaluate the airvest qualitatively. 3 refs.

  9. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 2. Shale workers pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    The world's largest and richest reserves of oil shale occur in the United States. It has not proved possible to obtain reliable data on the health risks to the work force that such a development might entail. While the risks of accidents, explosions, and local pollution may reasonably be estimated by analogy with similar industries, potential specific hazards of shale oil production itself, such as pneumoconiosis and lung and skin cancer, can only be assessed by study of an established shale industry. The volume describes the use of the Provident Fund form in identifying ex-shale workers and subsequent studies aimed at determining the prevalence and respiratory effects of pneumoconiosis and the prevalence of skin disease amongst them.

  10. Effect of different exposure compounds on urinary kinetics of aluminium and fluoride in industrially exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, F; Baruthio, F; Diebold, F; Biette, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To conduct a field study to obtain information on the urinary concentrations of aluminium (Al) and fluoride (F-) depending on the different compounds exposed to in the aluminum industry. METHODS--16 workers from one plant that produced aluminium fluoride (AlF3), and from two plants that produced aluminium electrolytically by two different processes participated in the study for one working week. Pollutants were monitored by eight hour personal sampling every day, and urine samples were collected during the week. Al and F- were analysed in both atmospheric and urine samples by atomic absorption spectrometry and an ion selective electrode. RESULTS--The principal results show different characteristics of kinetic curves of Al and F- excretion in workers with different exposures. Some characteristics of excretory peaks were linked to specific exposures--for instance, after exposure to AlF3 there was one delayed Al peak associated with one delayed F- peak about eight hours after the end of the daily shift, and after mixed exposure to HF and AlF3, two F- peaks were noted, one fast peak at the end of the shift and another delayed peak at 10 hours synchronised with an Al peak. In one of the electrolysis plants, the exposure to Al and F- compounds led to the simultaneous excretion of Al and F- peaks, either as a single peak or two individual ones depending on the type of technology used on site (open or enclosed potlines). The average estimated half life of Al was 7.5 hours, and of F- about nine hours. Quantitative relations between excretion and exposure showed an association between the F- atmospheric limit value of 2.5 mg/m3 with a urinary F- concentration of 6.4 mg/g creatinine at the end of the shift, a peak of 7.4 mg/g creatinine, and 7.4 mg excreted a day. For Al, the exposure to 1.36 mg/m3 during the shift corresponded to a urinary concentration at the end of the shift of 200 microgram/g creatinine. Daily excretion of 200 micrograms corresponded to an

  11. Combined effect of cigarette smoking and occupational exposures on lung function: a cross-sectional study of rubber industry workers.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Afrasyabi, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Zargham; Mohammadi, Saber

    2013-05-01

    Workers in the rubber industry are exposed to pulmonary health hazards. The main purpose of this study was to assess the combined effect of cigarette smoking and occupational exposures on lung function. The exposed group consisted of tire manufacturing workers in production units and the non-exposed group included executives from the same factory. The researchers calculated the synergy index (SI) to determine the combined effect of exposures to cigarette smoke and pulmonary health hazards on lung function. A significant correlation was found between occupational exposures in the rubber industry and abnormal spirometric findings (p < .05). The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and occupational exposures on lung function was significant (SI = 2.25; p < .05). This study demonstrated that occupational exposures and smoking may have a synergistic effect on the respiratory systems of tire manufacturing workers. The results suggest that tire manufacturing companies should consider establishing spirometric surveillance systems in their factories. Also, smoking cessation should be promoted, engineering controls applied, and respiratory protection provided to workers. PMID:23650896

  12. Mortality among workers monitored for radiation exposure at the French nuclear fuel company.

    PubMed

    Metz-Flamant, C; Rogel, A; Caër, S; Samson, E; Laurier, D; Acker, A; Tirmarche, M

    2009-01-01

    A cohort of 9,285 nuclear workers employed at the French company AREVA NC specializing in the nuclear fuel cycle was established. Vital status, causes of death, employment characteristics and annual exposure to ionizing radiation were reconstructed for each individual over the time period 1977-2004. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using national mortality rates as an external reference. Tests for trends in mortality with duration of employment and cumulative external dose were performed. The all-cause and all-cancer mortality was significantly lower than expected from the French population. No significant excess among cancer sites studied was observed. Significant positive trends with cumulative dose were observed for colon and liver cancer and for respiratory diseases. Isolated significant trends should be carefully interpreted and considered in line with the large number of trend tests performed. PMID:20007120

  13. A reanalysis of cancer mortality in Canadian nuclear workers (1956–1994) based on revised exposure and cohort data

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, L B; Lane, R S D; Thompson, P A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A 15-country study of nuclear workers reported significantly increased radiation-related risks of all cancers excluding leukaemia, with Canadian data a major factor behind the pooled results. We analysed mortality (1956–1994) in the updated Canadian cohort and provided revised risk estimates. Methods: Employment records were searched to verify and revise exposure data and to restore missing socioeconomic status. Excess relative risks per sievert (ERR/Sv) of recorded radiation dose and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Results: A significant heterogeneity of the dose–response for solid cancer was identified (P=0.02), with 3088 early (1956–1964) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) workers having a significant increase (ERR/Sv=7.87, 95% CI: 1.88, 19.5), and no evidence of radiation risk for 42 228 workers employed by three nuclear power plant companies and post-1964 AECL (ERR/Sv=−1.20, 95% CI: <−1.47, 2.39). Radiation risks of leukaemia were negative in early AECL workers and non-significantly increased in other workers. In analyses with separate terms for tritium and gamma doses, there was no evidence of increased risk from tritium exposure. All workers had mortality lower than the general population. Conclusion: Significantly increased risks for early AECL workers are most likely due to incomplete transfer of AECL dose records to the National Dose Registry. Analyses of the remainder of the Canadian nuclear workers (93.2%) provided no evidence of increased risk, but the risk estimate was compatible with estimates that form the basis of radiation protection standards. Study findings suggest that the revised Canadian cohort, with the exclusion of early AECL workers, would likely have an important effect on the 15-country pooled risk estimate of radiation-related risks of all cancer excluding leukaemia by substantially reducing the size of the point estimate and its significance. PMID:24231946

  14. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  15. Industrial Workers as Resource Persons: Subjectivity as an Element in Qualification Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjaersgaard, Christian

    A study identified the structural conditions for workers' perceptions of the need for qualifications and education. It defined qualification requirements based on evaluations of work organization in three workplaces in two companies. Evaluations were used to develop a reference framework for understanding workers' subjective value criteria linked…

  16. Adaptation and Training of Rural Workers for Industrial Work, Co-ordination of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbichon, Guy

    The conference organized by the European Productivity Agency in September 1960 and subsequent meetings arranged by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development gave the representatives of workers, employers, administrators, and research workers of many European countries the opportunity to exchange information on the knowledge…

  17. The Impact of Industrial Relocation on Displaced Workers: A Case Study of Cortland, NY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beneria, Lourdes

    1998-01-01

    This report examines a typical case of a small town within a predominantly rural county losing its largest employer of many years. During 1992-95, over 850 workers were laid off in Cortland, New York, as Smith-Corona Corporation transferred its manufacturing operations from Cortland to Tijuana, Mexico. Interviews with laid-off workers, conducted…

  18. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Artalejo, F; Castaño Lara, S; de Andrés Manzano, B; García Ferruelo, M; Iglesias Martín, L; Calero, J R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to ascertain whether mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board (Junta de Energía Nuclear-JEN) was higher than that for the Spanish population overall; and secondly, if this were so, to ascertain whether this difference was associated with exposure to ionising radiation. METHODS: A retrospective follow up of a cohort of 5657 workers was carried out for the period 1954-92. Cohort mortality was compared with that for the Spanish population overall, with standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for sex, age, and calendar period. Also, Poisson models were used to analyse mortality from lung cancer in the cohort by level of exposure to ionising radiation. RESULTS: Workers' median and mean cumulative exposures were 4.04 and 11.42 mSv, respectively. Mean annual exposure was 1.33 mSv. Excess mortality due to bone tumours was found for the cohort as a whole (six deaths observed; SMR 2.95; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08 to 6.43). Among miners, excess mortality was found for non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR 2.94; 95% CI 2.27 to 3.75), and for lung cancer bordering on statistical significance (SMR 1.50; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.23; P = 0.055). Relative risks of dying of lung cancer from ionising radiation in the dose quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus the lowest dose quartile, were 1.00, 1.64, and 0.94, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Excess mortality from lung cancer was found among JEN miners. Nevertheless, no clear relation was found between mortality from lung cancer and level of exposure to ionising radiation in the JEN cohort. Continued follow up of the cohort is required to confirm excess mortality from bone tumours. PMID:9155782

  19. Neurobehavioural effects of industrial mixed solvent exposure in Chinese printing and paint workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, T.P.; Ong, S.G.; Lam, W.K.; Jones, G.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurobehavioural symptoms and performance tests were evaluated in a group of 78 workers exposed to mixed organic solvents (printers, paint sprayers and paint production workers) and a referent group of 145 unexposed subjects (nonproduction factory workers and volunteer postal workers). Both groups were administered a structured symptoms questionnaire and eight neurobehavioural tests for psycho-motor function, visual and auditory memory. An excess of symptoms of fatigue, irritability, depression, poor memory, sleep disturbances and symptoms suggestive of autonomic dysfunction was found in the exposed group. Neurobehavioural test performance was generally worse, and performance on tests of psycho-motor function (choice reaction test and digit symbol) and auditory memory (digit span and associate learning) was significantly poorer in the exposed group. The findings support the view that apparently healthy and actively employed workers exposed to mixed solvents show neurobehavioural deficits.

  20. Workers` compensation for radiation injury?

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, D.E.; Phoebe, T.O.; Wiedis, D.

    1993-10-01

    This article addresses the concern in the nuclear industry over the possible problem of tort actions with regard to cancer incidence among the nuclear workforce. In part there is concern due to recent studies which hint that there is uncertainty in the question of radiation effects due to low-level exposure. Given the uncertainty in such studies, and the fact that approximately 30 percent of any group of workers will show a natural incidence of cancer, there is real concern about the impact tort actions will have on the nuclear industry. The authors examine the choices facing the nuclear utilities in responding to claims of work-related cancers.

  1. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Borofsky, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described.

  2. The new structure and contents of employers' juridical responsibility for workers' health and safety in the post-industrial system.

    PubMed

    Ichino, P

    2006-01-01

    1. The enlargement of the labour law application area in the post-industrial system. 2. The enormous growth of differences in productivity between workers and its consequences on the employer's safety obligation. 3. Depressive disorders as a typical professional risk in the post-industrial system and the employer's prevention responsibility. 4. Harassment in the work-place as a typical pathologic consequence of the de-standardization of jobs. The specific employer's prevention responsibility in this field. 5. A conclusive remark. PMID:17017355

  3. Towards A Unified HFE Process For The Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    As nuclear power utilities embark on projects to upgrade and modernize power plants, they are likely to discover that traditional engineering methods do not typically make provision for the integration of human considerations. In addition, human factors professionals will find that traditional human performance methods such as function allocation, task analysis, human reliability analysis and human-machine interface design do not scale well to the complexity of a large-scale nuclear power upgrade project. Up-to-date human factors engineering processes, methods, techniques and tools are required to perform these kinds of analyses. This need is recognized widely in industry and an important part of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program deals with identifying potential impacts of emerging technologies on human performance and the technical bases needed to address them. However, so far no formal initiative has been launched to deal with the lack of integrated processes. Although human factors integration frameworks do exist in industries such as aviation or defense, no formal integrated human factors process exists in the nuclear industry. As a first step towards creating such a process, a “unified human factors engineering process” is proposed as a framework within which engineering organizations, human factors practitioners and regulatory bodies can ensure that human factors requirements are embedded in engineering activities throughout the upgrade project life cycle.

  4. Worker Safety and Health and Nuclear Safety Quarterly Performance Analysis (January - March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, C E

    2009-10-07

    The DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to 'implement comprehensive management and independent assessments that are effective in identifying deficiencies and broader problems in safety and security programs, as well as opportunities for continuous improvement within the organization' and to 'regularly perform assessments to evaluate implementation of the contractor's processes for screening and internal reporting.' LLNL has a self-assessment program, described in ES&H Manual Document 4.1, that includes line, management and independent assessments. LLNL also has in place a process to identify and report deficiencies of nuclear, worker safety and health and security requirements. In addition, the DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to evaluate 'issues management databases to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions' (page 14, DOE Enforcement Process Overview, December 2007). LLNL requires that all worker safety and health and nuclear safety noncompliances be tracked as 'deficiencies' in the LLNL Issues Tracking System (ITS). Data from the ITS are analyzed for worker safety and health (WSH) and nuclear safety noncompliances that may meet the threshold for reporting to the DOE Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). This report meets the expectations defined by the DOE Office of Enforcement to review the assessments conducted by LLNL, analyze the issues and noncompliances found in these assessments, and evaluate the data in the ITS database to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions. The report attempts to answer three questions: (1) Is LLNL evaluating its programs and state of compliance? (2) What is LLNL finding? (3) Is LLNL appropriately managing what it finds? The analysis in this report focuses on data from the first quarter of 2008 (January through March). This quarter is analyzed within the context of information identified in previous quarters to

  5. Reciprocity of temporary and permanent workers: an exploratory study in an industrial company.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Silvia; Chambel, Maria José

    2012-11-01

    The increasing use of temporary work prompts the need to understand to what degree workers with this type of contract differ from permanent workers as to the relationship they establish with the organization they work for. This study used a sample of temporary workers (N = 78) and permanent workers (N = 196) within the same company of electronics in Portugal. The results show that, regardless of the type of contract, the perception of human resource practices was related to the perception of psychological contract fulfillment by the company. Additionally and according to the norm of reciprocity, we verified that when workers thought the company was fulfilling its obligations they responded favorably showing more affective commitment towards the company. However, we found differences between these two groups of workers: for the permanent performance appraisal, training and rewards were human resources practices that were significantly related to psychological contract fulfillment, while for the temporary ones there weren't any specific practices that had a significant relationship with that variable. The practical implications of these findings for the management of temporary workers are discussed. PMID:23156923

  6. Probabilistic analysis of accident precursors in the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, M; De Gelder, P

    2004-07-26

    Feedback of operating experience has always been an important issue in the nuclear industry. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) can be used as a tool to analyse how an operational event might have developed adversely in order to obtain a quantitative assessment of the safety significance of the event. This process is called PSA-based event analysis (PSAEA). A comprehensive set of PSAEA guidelines was developed by an international project. The main characteristics of this methodology are summarised. This approach to analyse incidents can be used to meet different objectives of utilities or nuclear regulators. The paper describes the main objectives and the experiences of the Belgian nuclear regulatory organisation AVN with the application of PSA-based event analysis. Some interesting aspects of the process of PSAEA are further developed and underlined. Several case studies are discussed and an overview of the obtained results is given. Finally, the interest of a broad and interactive forum on PSAEA is highlighted. PMID:15231351

  7. A Study of Distance Education for the Needs of the Nuclear Power Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckline, Sigmund Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an examination of student satisfaction related to online training for adult learners in the nuclear power industry. Both groups, the nuclear industry and its associated workforce, have demonstrable needs which might be met by such programs. The nuclear industry itself faces an expansion of facilities and services combined…

  8. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  9. Unemployment in the Defense Industry: An Analysis of the Unemployed Worker's Job Search Strategy and the Manpower Policies of the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, James Hickman, Jr.

    The unemployment problem in the defense industry has often had the attention of Federal policy makers over the past several years. Analyzing this problem was accomplished by first examining the job search behavior of skilled unemployed defense workers. This search strategy differs among the unemployed workers and depends on personal…

  10. Determination of uranium 238 in urine samples for workers in the phosphate industry using alpha spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Bitar, A.; Sakhita, K.

    2013-02-01

    An alpha spectrometry method has been developed and validated to assess the internal dose from uranium isotopes for workers in phosphate mines. The method was able to measure levels down to 2 mBq/L. Though the validation results revealed that the mean relative error was about 20%, the method seems to be appropriate and suitable for the application of occupationally exposure monitoring. The method has been used for routine monitoring of workers in the Syrian phosphate mines for 2 years. The results showed that there was some high activity of uranium 238 in urine samples of the first batch which was attributed to samples contamination from the work environment. In the second batch, the results showed that the activity of uranium 238 for most workers were less than the detection limit. Nevertheless, some workers had some exposures but the calculated doses were low or within the occupational dose limit.

  11. The effects of occupational noise on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in an automotive parts industry

    PubMed Central

    Kalantary, Saba; Dehghani, Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Omidi, Leila; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the most important impacts of industrial noise is physiological and psychological effects. The increases in workers’ blood pressure and heart rate were detected during and after exposure to high levels of noise. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the noise exposures have any effects on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in the automotive parts industry. METHODS This case study was done in 2011 at different units of an automotive parts manufacturing in Tehran. Sound pressure level was measured at different units of the factory with a calibrated instrument. Demographic features of workers were gathered with an appropriate questionnaire. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured twice in a day in the start time of work day (before exposure to noise) and middle shift hours (during exposure to noise) in the occupational physician office. For analyzing data, chi-square, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. P < 0.050 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The average age of workers in the case and control groups was 35.71 ± 8.10 and 33.40 ± 10.41 years, respectively. There was no difference between the average age of case and control groups (P = 0.436). The results of ANCOVA revealed the significant differences between the mean changes of heart rate F (1, 37) = 26.68, P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 21.70, P < 0.001, and diastolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 26.20, P < 0.001 of workers in the case and control groups. CONCLUSION Exposure to industrial noise may increase the heart rate of workers. Although rises in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the case group were observed after exposure to noise, the values of heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were in the normal range. Further experimental investigations are needed to determine the relationships between these variables. PMID:26478728

  12. Combined effects of noise and mixed solvents exposure on the hearing function among workers in the aviation industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongyoun; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Eunhee; Jung, Taejin; Paik, Namwon; Yang, Seungleem

    2005-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure to noise and organic solvents on hearing loss in the aviation industry. The study population comprised 542 male workers, who worked in avionics jobs in Kimhae, Korea, who kept records of work environment evaluations and medical examinations. The Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) was constructed to assess the lifetime cumulative exposure of the workers, and pure tone audiometry (PTA) data of the workers from their biannual medical surveillance was used to assess hearing loss. The prevalence of hearing loss found in the group exposed to noise and mixed solvents simultaneously (54.9%) was higher than those in the other groups (6.0% in the unexposed, 17.1% in the noise-only, and 27.8 % in the exposed to only a solvents mixture). The relative risks, adjusted for age, were estimated to be 4.3 (95 % CI 1.7-10.8) for the noise-only group, 8.1 (95% CI 2.0-32.5) for the noise and solvents group, and 2.6 (95 % CI 0.6-10.3) for the solvents-mixture group. These suggest that chronic exposure to mixed solvents had a toxic effect on the auditory system. This raises the issue of whether hearing conservation regulations should be applied to all workers exposed to solvents. PMID:16100934

  13. Industrial-hygiene survey report, worker exposures during sugar cane harvesting, Florida Sugar Cane League, Clewiston, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Boeniger, M.

    1986-12-01

    Literature dealing with commercially important plant species that contain amorphous silica was reviewed. Specifically, results were presented of a field survey of sugar cane field workers in Florida. Determinations were made of the airborne concentration of amorphous silica fibers to which these workers were exposed. The airborne fibers ranged in size from 3.5 to 65 micrometers long with an average diameter of 0.6 micrometers. The concentration of these fibers in the air was as high as 300,000 fibers per cubic meter during cane-cutting activities. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in the burnt leaf, but the concentrations in air were well below the limit of detection. The author recommends that comprehensive monitoring be considered for exposure to biogenic fibers among field workers, as well as refinery workers. The author also suggests that exposure to biogenic silicates in other industries which involve processing of agricultural commodities should be investigated. Solubility and persistence of these particular fibers in biological fluids should be considered.

  14. A Review of Research on Health Outcomes for Workers, Home and Host Communities of Population Mobility Associated with Extractive Industries.

    PubMed

    Carney, Jason G; Gushulak, Brian D

    2016-06-01

    With a growing awareness of the association between extractive industries, the nature of work in remote locations, population mobility and health status, there is a need to advance an evidence-based approach to ensuring the health of migrant and mobile populations, and the home and host communities with whom they interact. Through a narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature, this review examines what is known, and the nature of research activity concerning the range of health impacts determined by the social conditions inherent with population mobility alongside mining and extractive industries; and the extent to which health outcomes impact on workers, and home and host communities. While much of the literature reviewed in the study considered health in a traditional disease or illness based approach, it is clear that many risk factors for the health of mobile workers in the sector reflect broader social determinants. To support the mitigation of individual and population vulnerability to infectious disease endemics, consideration of both the etiology and the social conditions that give rise to adverse health outcomes is required, including an improvement to workers' living conditions, the expansion of diagnostic and medical services, and an approach that ensures the right to health for mobile populations. To further improve upon the rich body of research, resources are required to implement robust data collection including epidemiological surveillance, outbreak monitoring and investigation, and the long term tracking of standardized health information at both origin locations and destination communities. PMID:26902231

  15. Evaluation of the risk of noise-induced hearing loss among unscreened male industrial workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Mary M.; Gilbert, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall J.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2003-02-01

    Variability in background risk and distribution of various risk factors for hearing loss may explain some of the diversity in excess risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This paper examines the impact of various risk factors on excess risk estimates of NIHL using data from the 1968-1972 NIOSH Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). Previous analyses of a subset of these data focused on 1172 highly ``screened'' workers. In the current analysis, an additional 894 white males (609 noise-exposed and 285 controls), who were excluded for various reasons (i.e., nonoccupational noise exposure, otologic or medical conditions affecting hearing, prior occupational noise exposure) have been added (n=2066) to assess excess risk of noise-induced material impairment in an unscreened population. Data are analyzed by age, duration of exposure, and sound level (8-h TWA) for four different definitions of noise-induced hearing impairment, defined as the binaural pure-tone average (PTA) hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB for the following frequencies: (a) 1-4 kHz (PTA1234), (b) 1-3 kHz (PTA123), (c) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA512), and (d) 3, 4, and 6 kHz (PTA346). Results indicate that populations with higher background risks of hearing loss may show lower excess risks attributable to noise relative to highly screened populations. Estimates of lifetime excess risk of hearing impairment were found to be significantly different between screened and unscreened population for noise levels greater than 90 dBA. Predicted age-related risk of material hearing impairment in the ONHS unscreened population was similar to that predicted from Annex B and C of ANSI S3.44 for ages less than 60 years. Results underscore the importance of understanding differential risk patterns for hearing loss and the use of appropriate reference (control) populations when evaluating risk of noise-induced hearing impairment among contemporary industrial populations.

  16. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Penkova, Kalina Ivanova; Rupova, Ivanka Tankova; Panova, Delyana Yonkova; Djounova, Jana Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP) workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th) 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters. PMID:26740807

  17. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O'Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  18. Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) among workers at an Industrial Company exposed to different industrial noise levels in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE are caused by exposure to different levels of noise at different time intervals among workers exposed to noise. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the autumn of 2014 on 45 workers at Gol Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, which is located in Sirjan in southeast Iran. The workers were divided into three groups based on their noise exposure, i.e., 1) 15 office workers as a control group with exposure to low levels of noise, 2) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to a medium level of noise, and 3) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to high levels of noise. The SNRs at the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz were measured in both ears at three different time intervals during the shift work. SNRs of 6 or greater were considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measures, the Spearman rank-order correlation test, and paired t-test analyses were used with α = 0.05 being the level of significance. Results: For all frequencies in the right and left ears, the SNR values were more than 6, thus all SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of time and sound pressure level (SPL) on SNR were significant for the right and left ears (p = 0.027 and < 0.001, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation between the SNR values in the right and left ears for the time intervals 7:30–8:00 A.M. and 13:30–14:00 P.M., which implied that an increase in the duration of exposure led to reduced SNR values (p = 0.024, r = 0.948). Conclusions: The comparison of the SNR values in the right and left ears (for all frequencies and the three different SPLs) indicated that the values decreased during the shift work. PMID:26388979

  19. Protecting contract workers: case study of the US Department of Energy's nuclear and chemical waste management.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Mohr, Sandra

    2007-09-01

    Increased reliance on subcontractors in all economic sectors is a serious occupational health and safety challenge. Short-term cost savings are offset by long-term liability. Hiring subcontractors brings specialized knowledge but also young, inexperienced, inadequately trained workers onto industrial and hazardous waste sites, which leads to increased rates of accidents and injuries. Reliable data on subcontractor occupational health and safety programs and performance are sparse. The US Department of Energy has an excellent safety culture on paper, but procurement practices and contract language deliver a mixed message--including some safety disincentives. Its biphasic safety outcome data are consistent with underreporting by some subcontractors and underachievement by others. These observations are relevant to the private and public sectors. Occupational health and safety should be viewed as an asset, not merely a cost. PMID:17666686

  20. Jobs in Search of Workers. Preparing Students for Textile and Apparel Industry Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Carol L.; Barry, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    At an Alabama conference, state administrators, textile and apparel industry representatives, and community, junior, and technical college faculty identified the skill needs of the industry, existing college programs, and ways for industry and education to cooperate in meeting the labor force development requirements of the industry. (SK)

  1. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  2. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  3. Circadian type, chronic fatigue, and serum IgM in the shift workers of an industrial organization

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Masjedi, Mohsen; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Night shift workers are more vulnerable to immune-related diseases. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a potent activator of complement, and complement has a crucial role in defense against bacterial infections. Circadian type is known as an effective agent on vulnerability and adaptation with shift work due to non-compliance with shift stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of circadian type and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM in a group of shift workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in an industrial organization in Isfahan, Iran. The study population consisted of 221 male employees working at night shifts who were selected by random cluster sampling. The following questionnaires were used: composite morningness (Torsvall and Akerstedt), circadian type (Folkard), and chronic fatigue (Barton and colleagues). The serum concentration of IgM was measured by the nephelometric method. The data were analyzed with the Pearson coefficient correlation and the path analysis for finding the pattern of the structural equations to evaluate the direct and indirect relationships between variables, using the SPSS 15 and LISREL 8.5 statistical software. Results: Significant correlation was documented between morningness, flexibility, languidness, and chronic fatigue with the serum concentration of IgM (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results showed that the shift workers with morningness and languidness experienced more problems during the working hours due to more tiredness, and had decreased serum concentration of IgM. Correct management of shift work may attenuate fatigue in workers and also improve many health issues experienced by the shift workers. PMID:25802830

  4. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  5. ISO 9000 for the U. S. nuclear industry Why not

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.B. )

    1993-01-01

    The growing popularity of the recently developed International Standard for Quality, ISO 9000, is challenging the traditional approach to ensuring quality in the nuclear industry and raising new questions as to whether this standard with its likely worldwide acceptance could become a successor to 10CFR50, Appendix B. The experience of a jointly owned British-American engineering consulting firm may be a harbinger of the future. Halcrow Gilbert Associates, Limited (HGA), was established in the fall of 1988 as a joint venture between two of the world's largest consulting engineering firms, Sir William Halcrow Partners, Ltd., of the United Kingdom and Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., of the United States. Although it initially concentrated on nonpower infrastructure markets, such as environmental, transportation, and alternative energy systems, it has broadened its focus to include the electric power industry over the past 2 yr and expects to play a major role in the U.K. market for this sector.

  6. An Assessment of Remote Visual Testing in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T; Cumblidge, Stephen E; Doctor, Steven R

    2005-02-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, requires that volumetric and/or surface examinations be periodically conducted for certain safety-related components in commercial nuclear power plants. Recently, the U.S. nuclear industry has proposed replacing some of these volumetric and surface examinations with a simpler visual testing (VT) method. PNNL researchers conducted a study of the capabilities of remote visual testing (VT) as related to detecting surface-breaking cracks in nuclear components. This paper describes remote visual testing, performance demonstration standards for camera systems, typical dimensions for service induced cracks in reactor components, and an assessment of the reliability of camera systems at finding these cracks. Included is a discussion of the reliability of visual acuity guidelines for calibration of remote visual systems using two crossed 12-μm diameter wires as a performance demonstration standard. Also, the average dimensions of various types of service-induced cracks in nuclear components are reviewed, with the most critical of these being the crack opening dimension (COD). Because many of these cracks have very small (approximately 30 μm) CODs, the reliability of remote VT may not be adequate to insure component integrity, given the capabilities of current VT systems and application practices.

  7. iDREAM: an industrial detector for nuclear reactor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, I. V.; Gromov, M. B.; Lukjanchenko, G. A.; Novikova, G. J.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Oralbaev, A. Y.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Sukhotin, S. V.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Etenko, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Prototype of industrial reactor antineutrino detector iDREAM is dedicated for an experiment to demonstrate the possibility of remote monitoring of PWR reactor operational modes by neutrino method in real-time in order to avoid undeclared exposure modes for nuclear fuel and unauthorized removal of isotopes. The prototype detector was started up in 2014. To test the detector elements and components of electronics distilled water has been used as a target, which enables the use of Cerenkov radiation from cosmic muons as a physical signal. Also parallel measuring of the long-term stability has been doing for samples of liquid organic scintillator doped with gadolinium and synthesized by different methods

  8. Quantitative risk assessment in aerospace: Evolution from the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1996-12-31

    In 1987, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the aerospace industry relied on failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and hazards analysis as the primary tools for safety and reliability of their systems. The FMEAs were reviewed to provide critical items using a set of qualitative criteria. Hazards and critical items judged the worst, by a qualitative method, were to be either eliminated by a design change or controlled by the addition of a safeguard. However, it is frequently the case that limitations of space, weight, technical feasibility, and cost left critical items and hazards unable to be eliminated or controlled. In these situations, program management accepted the risk. How much risk was being accepted was unknown because quantitative risk assessment methods were not used. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the nuclear industry to NASA and the aerospace industry was the introduction of modern (i.e., post-WASH-1400) quantitative risk assessment concepts and techniques. The concepts of risk assessment that have been most useful in the aerospace industry are the following: 1. combination of accident sequence diagrams, event trees, and fault trees to model scenarios and their causative factors; 2. use of Bayesian analysis of system and component failure data; 3. evaluation and presentation of uncertainties in the risk estimates.

  9. A study of morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers from an industry in central India

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manish J.; Koparkar, Anil R.; Joshi, Mohan P.; Hajare, Shilpa T.; Kasturwar, Nandakishor B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Iron is the world's most commonly used metal and can usually be found with other elements in the form of steel. In this era of machines, it is the inevitable part in production of various materials like eyeglass frames, jet aircraft, the space shuttle, automobiles, and surgical instruments. Occupational factors make an important contribution to the global burden of disease, but the reliable data on occupational disease are much more difficult to obtain. Hence, the current study was carried out to find out the morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. was carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Ethics Committee in an iron and steel factory. Worker's detailed information regarding profile was taken in pretested questionnaire format after obtaining the informed written consent and explaining the purpose of study. Workers were also interviewed regarding their years of job, job satisfaction, usage of protective devices, and history of injuries during work. Worker's detailed general and systemic examination was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of morbidities among the workers was 60%. It was observed that commonest morbidity in the workers was lumbago (musculoskeletal pain), that is, 33.25%which was more in Group B (49.73%) than Group A (18.78%), followed by occupational dermatitis (27%) which more common in Group A (33.33%) than Group B (19.79%). It was seen that occupation-related morbidities were more prevalent in Group A, i.e. Exposed group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that occupation-related morbidities were more common in exposed group (EG) than that of nonexposed group (NEG) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). PMID:25598617

  10. Evaluation of 133Xe radiation exposure dosimetry for workers in nuclear medicine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1982-06-01

    Evaluation of past studies of 133Xe dosimetry and nuclear medicine laboratory air concentrations of 133Xe indicates that significant levels of 133Xe may exist in routine operational environments of a nuclear medicine laboratory. This leads to the question of whether present health physics radiation control methods are adequate to keep occupational personnel exposures within acceptable levels. It would appear that if personnel dosimeters (film and TLD badges) respond properly to the radiation of 133Xe, normal health physics control procedures are probably adequate. If they do not respond adequately, personnel exposures may exceed recommended levels and special instrumentation or administrative procedures are called for. Therefore, the first step in studying potential problems in the subject area is to evaluate the response of a variety of personnel radiation dosimeters to 133Xe. This paper describes the methods and materials used to expose personnel dosimeters to known amounts of 133Xe radiations in an exposure chamber constructed at the BRH Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Also presented are calculated values for Dose Equivalents (D.E.) in a phantom from external radiation resulting from immersion in clouds having a constant concentration of 133Xe but varying cloud radii. This implies the relative importance of the beta and the X + gamma radiation responses of the personnel dosimeters under various exposure conditions. Results of this study indicate that none of the dosimeter systems evaluated provide adequate performance for use as a primary indicator of the D.E. resulting from 133Xe radiations for a worker in a nuclear medicine laboratory, and that personnel dosimetry considerations in 133Xe-containing atmospheres are very dependent on the radii of the 133Xe clouds. PMID:7107291

  11. Cultural ergonomics in Ghana, West Africa: a descriptive survey of industry and trade workers' interpretations of safety symbols.

    PubMed

    Smith-Jackson, Tonya L; Essuman-Johnson, Abeeku

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and technology transfer have led to the diffusion of risk communications to users from cultures that were not initially viewed as the target users. This study examined industry and trade workers' overall impressions of symbols used to convey varying degrees of hazardousness. Six symbols, including symbols from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z535 Standard (ANSI, 1998) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3864:1984 Standard (ISO, 1984) were selected. With the exception of the SKULL symbol, results showed wide discrepancies between users' perceptions of the symbols and their intended meanings. Implications for cross-cultural research on warning components and risk communications are discussed. PMID:11895581

  12. Southern Pennsylvania's Industrial Pipeline: "Pathways" Program Helps Local Manufacturers Find Quality Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, John; Girifalco, Tony; Yakabosky, Walt

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Applied Engineering Technology (AET) Career and Educational Pathways Program, which helps local manufacturers find quality workers. The program features 32 high schools, three community colleges, and 10 four-year institutions offering an integrated regional system of applied engineering education. The goal is to enroll…

  13. The Struggles of Women Industrial Workers To Improve Work Conditions in the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a lesson plan that addresses the working conditions endured by women in the Progressive Era and their struggles for womens rights in the workplace. Strives to demonstrate the similarities between the plights of the Progressive Era women to those of women workers in the 1990s. (CMK)

  14. Benzene exposure and risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers in 25 000 offshore oil industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Stenehjem, J S; Kjærheim, K; Bråtveit, M; Samuelsen, S O; Barone-Adesi, F; Rothman, N; Lan, Q; Grimsrud, T K

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this work was to examine the risk of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancer according to benzene exposure among offshore workers. Methods: Cancer registry data were used to identify 112 cancer cases diagnosed during 1999–2011 in a cohort of 24 917 Norwegian men reporting offshore work between 1965 and 1999. Analyses were conducted according to a stratified case–cohort design with a reference subcohort of 1661 workers. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for other benzene exposure and smoking. Results: Most workers were exposed to benzene for <15 years. The upper range values of average intensity and cumulative exposure were estimated to 0.040 p.p.m. and 0.948 p.p.m.-years, respectively. Risks were consistently elevated among exposed workers for all LH cancers combined and for most subgroups, although case numbers were small and yielded imprecise risk estimates. There was evidence of dose-related risk patterns according to cumulative exposure for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), multiple myeloma (MM) (P trends 0.052 and 0.024, respectively), and suggestively so for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) according to average intensity (P trend 0.094). Conclusions: Our results support an association between cumulative and intensity metrics of low-level benzene exposure and risk for AML, MM, and suggestively for CLL. PMID:25867262

  15. Computer-Based Procedures for Field Workers in Nuclear Power Plants: Development of a Model of Procedure Usage and Identification of Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. As a step toward the goal of improving procedure use performance, researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been looking at replacing the current paper-based procedures with computer-based procedure systems. The concept of computer-based procedures is not new by any means; however most research has focused on procedures used in the main control room. Procedures reviewed in these efforts are mainly emergency operating procedures and normal operating procedures. Based on lessons learned for these previous efforts we are now exploring a more unknown application for computer based procedures - field procedures, i.e. procedures used by nuclear equipment operators and maintenance technicians. The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. commercial nuclear industry are collaborating in an applied research effort with the objective of developing requirements and specifications for a computer-based procedure system to be used by field workers. The goal is to identify the types of human errors that can be mitigated by using computer-based procedures and how to best design the computer-based procedures to do so. This paper describes the development of a Model of Procedure Use and the qualitative study on which the model is based. The study was conducted in collaboration with four nuclear utilities and five research institutes. During the qualitative study and the model development requirements and for computer-based procedures were identified.

  16. Coenzyme Q10-containing composition (Immugen) protects against occupational and environmental stress in workers of the gas and oil industry.

    PubMed

    Korkina, Ludmila; Deeva, Irina; Ibragimova, Galina; Shakula, Alexander; Luci, Antonio; De Luca, Chiara

    2003-01-01

    The manual workers of the gas-and-oil extraction industry are exposed to hostile environmental and occupational conditions, resulting in elevated mortality and disability, due to chronic neurological and cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the degree of oxidative stress, often associated with these pathological features, in the blood of manual and office employees of Russian Siberian extraction plants, and their psycho-physiological conditions. Results showed increased levels of spontaneous (p < 0.05) and PMA-activated (p < 0.01) luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) in the white blood cells (WBC), and decreased peroxynitrite levels (p < 0.05) in the group of manual workers, and less markedly in the clerks and technicians working on spot, vs. a control group of city clerks. Superoxide release by WBC, and plasma/WBC membrane ubiquinol levels did not display major differences in the three groups. A relevant percentage of manual/office workers of extraction platforms presented impaired cardiovascular and neurological functions. The short term administration of a nutraceutical formulation based on coenzyme10, vitamin E, selenium, methionine and phospholipids led to significant improvement of cardiovascular parameters and psycho-emotional status, consistent with the normalization of LDCL and peroxynitrite production by WBC, with a good compliance to treatment confirmed by the increased blood levels of ubiquinol. PMID:14695940

  17. The Role of Ceramics in a Resurgent Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J

    2006-02-28

    With fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs and worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, there is growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Ceramic materials have long played a very important part in the commercial nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, ceramic materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, ceramic processes are also being applied to fuel reprocessing operations. Ceramic materials continue to provide a vital contribution in ''closing the fuel cycle'' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable grout, ceramics, and glass. In the next five years, programs that are currently in the conceptual phase will begin laboratory- and engineering-scale demonstrations. This will require production-scale demonstrations of several ceramic technologies from fuel form development to advanced stabilization methods. Within the next five to ten years, these demonstrations will move to even larger scales and will also include radioactive demonstrations of these advanced technologies. These radioactive demonstrations are critical to program success and will require advances in ceramic materials associated with nuclear energy applications.

  18. Retraining Programs for Displaced Workers in the Post-Industrial Era: An Exploration of Government Policies and Programs in Canada and England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Introduces the problem of widespread worker displacement. Argues the problem is more severe in regions where the employment base centers on a single industry or resource. Considers two government programs developed to address the need resulting from closure of the Canadian northern cod fishery and decline of the mining industry in England. (CAJ)

  19. Urine temperature as an index for the core temperature of industrial workers in hot or cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanami, Shoko; Horie, Seichi; Inoue, Jinro; Yamashita, Makiko

    2012-11-01

    Workers working in hot or cold environments are at risk for heat stroke and hypothermia. In Japan, 1718 people including 47 workers died of heat stroke in 2010 (Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, Japan 2011). While the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommendation lists the abnormal core temperature of workers as a criterion for halting work, no method has been established for reliably measuring core temperatures at workplaces. ISO 9886 (Ergonomics-evaluation of thermal strain by physiological measurements. ISO copyright office, Geneva, pp 3-14; 2004) recognizes urine temperature as an index of core temperature only at normal temperature. In this study we ascertained whether or not urine temperature could serve as an index for core temperature at temperatures above and below the ISO range. We measured urine temperature of 31 subjects (29.8 ± 11.9 years) using a thermocouple sensor placed in the toilet bowl at ambient temperature settings of 40, 20, and 5˚C, and compared them with rectal temperature. At all ambient temperature settings, urine temperature correlated closely with rectal temperature exhibiting small mean bias. Urine temperature changed in a synchronized manner with rectal temperature at 40˚C. A Bland and Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement (mean bias ± 2SD) between rectal and urine temperatures were -0.39 to +0.15˚C at 40˚C (95%CI -0.44 to +0.20˚C) and -0.79 to +0.29˚C at 5˚C (-0.89 to +0.39˚C). Hence, urine temperature as measured by the present method is a practical surrogate index for rectal temperature and represents a highly reliable biological monitoring index for assessing hot and cold stresses of workers at actual workplaces.

  20. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Workers: Co-Exposure to Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals in Nationwide Industries

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. Methods We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. Results In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. Conclusion This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks. PMID:24870407

  1. Industrial relations reform and the occupational transition of Australian workers: a critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Bartolo, Luciano; Sheahan, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 WorkChoices legislation delivered a significant diminution of Australian workers' rights in the form of choice and control over numerous aspects of working life. WorkChoices extended previous neoliberal reforms and consolidated the negative impacts of those reforms on marginalized groups of workers, especially those in precarious employment. This paper reports on the findings of an occupational science-based, critical discourse analysis of a government newspaper advertisement that promotes the reforms. The construction of a WorkChoices discourse, one that was based on and sought to extend neoliberal hegemony, is identified by exploring the ways that particular ideas are presented as natural and mutually beneficial and, in response, the development of a counter-hegemonic argument, based on occupational justice theory, is discussed. The broader application of critical social research is also recommended in extending the occupational justice paradigm. PMID:19478412

  2. The Effects of industrial workers' food choice attribute on sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction with Structural Equcation Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research analyzes the effects of the food choices of industrial workers according to their sugar intake pattern on their job satisfaction through the construction of a model on the relationship between sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS Surveys were collected from May to July 2015. A statistical analysis of the 775 surveys from Kyungsangnam-do was conducted using SPSS13.0 for Windows and SEM was performed using the AMOS 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model was proven to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis in conjunction with AMOS. The results of factor analysis on food choice, sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction were categorized into five categories. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all factors except confection (0.516) and dairy products (0.570). The multicollinearity results did not indicate a problem between the variables since the highest correlation coefficient was 0.494 (P < 0.01). In an attempt to study the sugar intake pattern in accordance with the food choices and job satisfaction of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests confirmed that the model satisfied the recommended levels for the goodness of fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proven to be appropriate. PMID:27478555

  3. DNA-damage response associated with occupational exposure, age and chronic inflammation in workers in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Savina, Natalya V; Smal, Marharyta P; Kuzhir, Tatyana D; Ershova-Pavlova, Alla A; Goncharova, Roza I

    2012-10-01

    The evaluation of genome integrity in populations occupationally exposed to combine industrial factors is of medical importance. In the present study, the DNA-damage response was estimated by means of the alkaline comet assay in a sizeable cohort of volunteers recruited among workers in the automotive industry. For this purpose, freshly collected lymphocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (100μM, 1min, 4°C) in vitro, and the levels of basal and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, and the kinetics and efficiency of DNA repair were measured during a 180-min interval after exposure. The parameters studied in the total cohort of workers were in a range of values prescribed for healthy adult residents of Belarus. Based on the 95th percentiles, individuals possessing enhanced cellular sensitivity to DNA damage were present in different groups, but the frequency was significantly higher among elderly persons and among individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The results indicate that the inter-individual variations in DNA-damage response should be taken into account to estimate adequately the environmental genotoxic effects and to identify individuals with an enhanced DNA-damage response due to the influence of some external factors or intrinsic properties of the organism. Underling mechanisms need to be further explored. PMID:22772077

  4. [Gene polymorphism of xenobiotics in workers of petroleum and chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Makarova, O V; Karimova, L K; Gimranova, G G; Churmantaeva, S Kh; Viktorova, T V

    2004-01-01

    Increasing use of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, known mutagens and carcinogens, in petrochemistry leads to higher number of workers having occupational contact with those chemicals. Most alien chemicals (xenobiotics) incorporated into human body do not demonstrate direct biological effects but undergo various biologic transformations. Humans proved to have genetic control over metabolism of xenobiotics entering the body, so various individuals depending on genetic features could be resistant or otherwise be extremely sensitive to chemical agents. PMID:15152552

  5. Factors associated with hearing loss among workers of the airline industry in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, O S; Kim, M J

    2001-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major occupational hazard. Occupational noise exposure threatens the hearing of many workers. In addition to noise exposure in the workplace, multiple factors affect individual susceptibility to NIHL. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with hearing loss in airport workers. A cross-sectional epidemiological design was used. Study subjects were 255 high noise-exposed full-time male workers at a large metropolitan airport in Korea. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, audiological assessment, and a record review of baseline hearing and noise levels of locations where the employee worked. The result of multivariate analysis showed that both occupational noise exposure (noise exposure level, years of noise exposure) and personal risk factors including non-occupational noise exposure, history of ear disease, ototoxic drug use, cigarette smoking, hypertension, and use of hearing protective devices (HPDs) were significantly associated with hearing loss. An aggressive hearing conservation program is needed at the airport, emphasizing both job-related noise exposure and personal risk factors for hearing loss. PMID:12024523

  6. Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica in the Iranian Mazandaran province industry workers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Rokni, Mohammad; Yosefinejad, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated occupational exposure to silica dust of 48 workers in stone cutting, glass making, ceramic, and sand blasting plants in the north of Iran. Samples were collected from the breathing zone using a personal sampling pump and a size-selective cyclone. Sample filters and blanks were analysed using infrared spectroscopy. The mean sampling period was 4.83 h. Mean exposure of workers to crystalline silica dust in glass making, ceramic, sand blasting, and stone cutting was 0.129 mg m-3, 0.169 mg m-3, 0.313 mg m-3 and 0.318 mg m-3, respectively. As exposure at each of the workplaces is three to 12 times higher than the current national and international thresholds, these workers run a greater risk of lung cancer and mortality. Our findings call for specific ventilation design and personal protection improvements in the four plants as well as stricter enforcement of the existing regulations by the authorities. PMID:23585166

  7. Proportionate mortality study of workers in the garment industry exposed to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Stayner, L.; Smith, A.B.; Reeve, G.; Blade, L.; Elliott, L.; Keenlyside, R.; Halperin, W.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, the authors conducted a proportionate mortality study of garment workers engaged in the production of shirts from formaldehyde-treated cloth. This study included three plants, and was based upon 256 deaths identified from a death-benefit insurance fund. No deaths due to nasal cancer were observed, and the mortality from respiratory cancer (11 cases, PMR = 95) was slightly less than expected. Statistically significant (p less than . 05) elevations in proportionate mortality were observed for malignant neoplasms of the ''buccal cavity'' (three cases, PMR = 750), for ''biliary passages and liver'' (four cases, PMR = 313) and for ''other lymphatic and hematopoietic sites'' (four cases, PMR = 400). A proportionate cancer mortality (PCMR) analysis also was conducted, and cancer of the ''buccal cavity'' (three cases, PCMR = 682), and other ''lymphatic and hematopoietic sites'' (four cases, PCMR = 342) were still significantly elevated. The observed excesses in cancer mortality were primarily experienced by white females, who made up the major portion of the workforce, and workers with more than 10 years of latency and duration of exposure, a criterion for inclusion for most workers in the study group. The neoplasms observed were not equally distributed among the three facilities included in the study. Because of the small number of deaths involved and the lack of consistency with other studies, the authors believe that these findings should be viewed cautiously, pending the outcome of more definitive studies.

  8. Personnel supply and demand issues in the nuclear power industry. Final report of the Nuclear Manpower Study Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The anticipated personnel needs of the nuclear power industry have varied widely in recent years, in response to both increasing regulatory requirements and declining orders for new plants. Recent employment patterns in the nuclear energy field, with their fluctuations, resemble those of defense industries more than those traditionally associated with electric utilities. Reactions to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 by industry and regulators have increased the demand for trained and experienced personnel, causing salaries to rise. Industry, for example, has established several advisory organizations like the Institute for Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). At the same time, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed many new construction and operating requirements in an effort to take advantage of lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident and to respond to the perceived public interest in better regulation of nuclear power. Thus, at present, utilities, architect-engineer firms, reactor vendors, and organizations in the nuclear development community have heavy workloads.

  9. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. II. Mortality in relation to exposure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Cunningham, Michael; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A; Phillips, Margaret L

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (CD) and other substances, including vinyl chloride monomer (VC), we analyzed mortality from all cancers combined, respiratory system (RSC) and liver cancer in relation to CD and VC exposures. Subjects were 12,430 workers ever employed at one of two U.S. sites (Louisville, KY (n=5507) and Pontchartrain, LA (n=1357)) or two European sites (Maydown, Northern Ireland (n=4849) and Grenoble, France (n=717)). Historical exposures for individual workers were estimated quantitatively for CD and VC. For sites L, M, P and G, respectively, average intensity of CD exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) were 5.23, 0.16, 0.028 and 0.149 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 18.35, 0.084, 0.133 and 1.01. For sites L and M, respectively, average intensity of VC exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) was 1.54 and 0.03 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 1.54 and 0.094. We performed relative risk (RR) regression modeling to investigate the dependence of the internal cohort rates for all cancers combined, RSC and liver cancer on combinations of the categorical CD or VC exposure measures with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We categorized exposure measures into approximate quartiles based on the distribution of deaths from all cancers combined. We also considered 5- and 15-year lagged exposure measures and adjusted some RR models for worker pay type (white/blue collar) as a rough surrogate for lifetime smoking history. All modeling was site-specific to account for exposure heterogeneity. We also computed exposure category-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to assess absolute mortality rates. With the exception of a one statistically significant association with duration of exposure to CD and all cancers combined in plant M, we observed no evidence of a positive association with all cancers

  10. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  11. Respiratory symptoms, lung functions, and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in two types of fish processing workers: Russian trawler fishermen and Norwegian salmon industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaeva, Olga; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Straume, Bjørn; Bang, Berit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory outcomes and work-related factors were studied in two seafood worker populations representing different occupational environments. Methods: Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometric values, prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and self-evaluated exposures were compared between 139 Norwegian salmon workers and 127 Russian trawler workers. Results: Increased odds ratios (ORs) of shortness of breath with wheezing and prolonged cough as general respiratory symptoms were found in salmon workers, while increased ORs of work-related dry cough and running nose were found in trawler fishermen. Both worker groups ranked “cold work environment,” “use of disinfectants,” and “contaminated indoor air” as the first, second, and third most important causes of work-related respiratory symptoms, respectively. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in asthmatic trawler workers compared to asthmatic salmon workers. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms commonly associated with obstructive airway diseases were more prevalent in salmon workers, while symptoms commonly associated with asthma and short-term effects of cold air exposure were more prevalent in trawler workers. PMID:25351376

  12. Leukemia risk associated with chronic external exposure to ionizing radiation in a French cohort of nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2012-11-01

    Leukemia is one of the earliest cancer effects observed after acute exposure to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation. Leukemia mortality after external exposure at low doses and low-dose rates has been investigated at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Nuclear Fuel Company (AREVA NC) after an additional follow-up of 10 years. The cohort included radiation-monitored workers employed for at least one year during 1950-1994 at CEA or AREVA NC and followed during 1968-2004. Association between external exposure and leukemia mortality was estimated with excess relative risk (ERR) models and time-dependent modifying factors were investigated with time windows. The cohort included 36,769 workers, followed for an average of 28 years, among whom 73 leukemia deaths occurred. Among the workers with a positive recorded dose, the mean cumulative external dose was 21.7 mSv. Results under a 2-year lag assumption suggested that the risk of leukemia (except chronic lymphatic leukemia) increased significantly by 8% per 10 mSv. The magnitude of the association for myeloid leukemia was larger. The higher ERR/Sv for doses received 2-14 years earlier suggest that time since exposure modifies the effect. The ERR/Sv also appeared higher for doses received at exposure rates ≥20 mSv per year. These results are consistent with those found in other studies of nuclear workers. However, confidence intervals are still wide. Further analyses should be conducted in pooled cohorts of nuclear workers. PMID:23050984

  13. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    PubMed

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  14. Usability of a Daily Noise Exposure Monitoring Device for Industrial Workers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Steven C.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Usability is an important but often overlooked aspect of personal protective equipment technology. As part of a worksite intervention trial of a new technology for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss that allows workers to monitor their noise exposure inside of hearing protection on a daily basis, we studied the usability of the daily noise exposure monitoring device. Methods: We conducted surveys and focus groups for workers enrolled in an intervention trial of daily use of a noise dosimeter with a microphone fitted inside of an individual’s hearing protector (QuietDose). Volunteers completed a baseline and annual survey that included questions about perceived usability of the QuietDose device. Responses to usability questions on the annual survey were abstracted and compared to whether the individual was still using the device. Finally, 16 in-depth focus groups were conducted with subjects to qualitatively explore common themes regarding the usability of the technology. Results: Reported problems downloading data or starting and stopping the monitoring device and/or ear discomfort were associated with whether individuals chose to continue monitoring and downloading their noise exposure data. Perceived benefits of the technology included the perception that it could help preserve hearing. Conclusions: A novel technology that allows workers to record noise exposures inside of hearing protectors on a daily basis has been developed. Current users of the device report positive perception about how the device is helping them prevent noise-induced hearing loss. However, in its current version, users reported a number of usability barriers that are associated with stopping use of the device. These barriers to use should be addressed as the technology progresses. PMID:22459319

  15. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, S; Kripa, SK; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.05). A significant difference in NA was observed in workers exposed to chromium for longer duration. In addition to this, a higher degree of NA was observed among smokers. Conclusion MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:26328050

  16. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers

    PubMed Central

    Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”, Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100–200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  17. [Correlation of ear and extra-ear effects in workers exposed to industrial noise].

    PubMed

    Chkannikov, A N

    1993-01-01

    A morbidity of 600 female twister operators was exposed to a long-standing (over 20 years) study and manifold statistic analysis, data of which are represented. The vascular disorders appeared to correlate with the occupational deafness formation. Cerebral resistance recording (CRR) and EEG in 120 workers with various deafness degrees demonstrated the different grades of impaired cerebral and peripheral blood flow. The manifold analysis and CRR produced basic data so as to classify the vasculogenic lesions caused by the exposure to noise and to evaluate the occupational disablement. PMID:8061961

  18. Sensitive method to monitor trace quantities of benzanthrone in workers of dyestuff industries

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, A.; Khanna, S.K.; Singh, G.B.

    1986-03-01

    Dyestuff workers coming in contact with benzanthrone (an intermediate used for the synthesis of a variety of dyes) develop skin lesions, gastritis, liver malfunctions, and sexual disturbances. A highly sensitive fluorometric method to monitor trace quantities of benzanthrone in urine, serum, and biological tissues for experimental studies, has been developed. Coupled with simple extraction and resolution, optimum fluorescence is obtained in an equal mixture of chloroform:methanol, detecting as low as 2 ng benzanthrone. This method is approximately 250 times more sensitive than currently available colorimetric assay.

  19. Body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose and lipid metabolism among permanent and fixed-term workers in the manufacturing industry: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Temporary employment, a precarious form of employment, is recognized as social determinant of poor health. However, evidence supporting precarious employment as a risk factor for health is mainly obtained from subjective data. Studies using objective clinical measurement data in the assessment of health status are limited. This study compared body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and health-related lifestyle factors between permanent workers and fixed-term workers employed in the manufacturing industry. Methods Data of 1,701 male manufacturing industry workers <50 years old in Japan were collected and analyzed. Anthropometric data were BMI, calculated using measured height and weight of study participants, and blood pressure. For lipid metabolism, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were determined. For glucose metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors was performed. Results BMI was significantly higher in permanent workers (22.9 kg/m2) compared with fixed-term workers (22.4 kg/m2). The leaner population (BMI < 18.5) was greater among fixed-term workers (8.3%) compared with permanent workers (4.0%), whereas the overweight population (BMI ≥ 25.0) was greater among permanent workers (21.4%) compared with fixed-term workers (18.1%). Although fixed-term workers tended not to be overweight, regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors suggested that fixed-term employment was significantly associated with higher blood pressure (systolic β = 2.120, diastolic β = 2.793), triglyceride (β = 11.147), fasting blood glucose (β = 2.218), and HbA1c (β = 0.107) compared with permanent workers (all p < 0.01). Conclusions Fixed-term workers showed more health risks, such as poorer blood pressure and lipid and glucose metabolism

  20. [Occupational risk and its prophylaxis for female workers engaged in radio-electronic instrument industry].

    PubMed

    Frolova, N M

    2003-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation of work conditions and health state of women engaged into radioelectronic instrument-making industry helped to define occupational hazards determining occupational risk that includes criteria for reproductive disorders. PMID:14526602

  1. A longitudinal study of industrial and clerical workers: predictors of upper extremity tendonitis.

    PubMed

    Werner, Robert A; Franzblau, Alfred; Gell, Nancy; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2005-03-01

    Upper extremity tendonitis (UET) associated with work activity is common but the true incidence and risk factors can best be determined by a prospective cohort study. This study followed a cohort of 501 active workers for an average of 5.4 years. Incident cases were defined as workers who were asymptomatic at baseline testing and had no prior history of UET and went on to be diagnosed with an UET during the follow-up period or at the follow-up evaluation. The incident cases were compared to the subset of the cohort who also had no history of an UET and did not develop tendonitis during the study. The cumulative incidence in this cohort was 24.3% or 4.5% annually. The factors found to have the highest predictive value for identifying a person who is likely to develop an UET in the near future included age over 40, a BMI over 30, a complaint at baseline of a shoulder or neck discomfort, a history of CTS and a job with a higher shoulder posture rating. The risk profile identifies both ergonomic and personal health factors as risks and both categories of factors may be amenable to prevention strategies. PMID:15794495

  2. An industry wide mortality study of chemical workers occupationally exposed to benzene. I. General results.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1987-01-01

    The cohort (7676) of this historical prospective study consisted of a group of male chemical workers from seven plants who had been occupationally exposed (continuously or intermittently) to benzene for at least six months and a comparison group of male chemical workers from the same plants who had been employed for at least six months during the same period but were never occupationally exposed to benzene. The observed mortality of the cohort, by cause, was compared with the expected based on the US mortality rates, standardised for age, race, sex, and calendar time. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) from all lymphatic and haematopoietic (lymphopoietic) cancer combined, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphosarcoma, reticulosarcoma, and other lymphoma), and non-Hodgkin's lymphopoietic cancer (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemia) for the exposed group were slightly, but not significantly, raised above the national norm. These SMRs were considerably higher than those in the comparison group. When the group with no occupational exposure was used for direct comparison, the continuously exposed group experienced a relative risk from lymphopoietic cancer of 3.20 (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square showed that the association between continuous exposure to benzene and leukaemia was statistically significant (p less than 0.05). PMID:3606966

  3. Estimation of the temporal distribution and dose dependency of lung cancers among workers of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhriakov, V.F.; Romanov, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    Lung cancer mortality among 4,279 workers at the Mayak nuclear complex who were exposed to chronic irradiation both externally and internally from incorporation of plutonium was analyzed in terms of a linear relative risk model. It is estimated that excess lung cancer risk is about 1.9 Sy{sup {minus}1}, with an average latent period of 24 y. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. The influence of radiation and nonradiation factors on the lung cancer incidence among the workers of the nuclear enterprise Mayak

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Drozhko, E.G.

    1995-09-01

    For the estimation of radiation lung cancer risk for a human being it is important to take into account different etiological factors because of the polyetiology of this disease. This work was the aim of a retrospective investigation ({open_quotes}case-control{close_quotes}) of 500 workers of a nuclear enterprise that had been gamma-irradiated in a wide dose range and had had exposure to airborne {sup 239}Pu. One hundred sixty-two persons contracted lung cancer (morbidity), and 338 persons that had not fallen ill served as pair control. Eleven potential risk factors were evaluated using a logistic regression model, five insignificant factors were excluded, and the remaining factors were arranged (by odds ratio) in decreasing order: smoking > plutonium pneumosclerosis > plutonium incorporation in body > chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) > decrease of body mass > external gamma-irradiation. The percentage of histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma among the nuclear enterprise workers was 74% which is significantly higher than 33% among the population that did not work at the enterprise, particularly in the case of high (more than 11 kBq) plutonium incorporation by the nuclear workers. The localization of tumors in this cohort is more frequently in the lower and middle lung lobes at the periphery. Each of the histological types of lung cancer has manifested a different degree of correlation with particular factors. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Cultural Values and Work Attitudes of Korean Industrial Workers in Comparison with Those of the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Kyuhan; Chung, Chinsung

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 1,299 blue- and white-collar workers in 10 Korean conglomerates was compared with surveys of Japanese and U.S. workers. A discrepancy emerged between Korean workers' expectations and perceptions of their situations. They were more satisfied with work but less proud of their jobs and companies than U.S. and Japanese workers. (SK)

  6. [Carpal tunnel syndrome in workers engaged in the assembly of manufactured products in various industries in the province of Brescia].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G

    1996-01-01

    Tests were carried out on five manual assembly departments in a variety of different factories, in order to assess the risks associated with the onset of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and to describe the prevalence of this disorder among exposed workers. The application of the risk analysis method proposed by the EPM Research Unit in Milan (Italy) demonstrated the presence of numerous jobs featuring both a high frequency of actions per minute and a total lack of recovery times, in addition to a variety of incongrous upper limb postures. The clinical and instrumental investigation diagnosed 76 cases of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among the 170 exposed workers. 62% of the cases was bilateral and 24% was associated with Guyon Channel Syndrome. In two of the five departments reviewed, the carpal tunnel disorders detected were endemic, and featured unusually high prevalence. The situation had been seriously underestimated by the company technical and medical staff, resulting in a failure to call for the urgent adoption of individual protection and collective prevention measures. The authors recommend that an extensive and adequate occupational risk assessment analysis be performed: the local occupational health services could play a critical role in identifying the highest risk industries and the diseases diagnosed in a hospital environment. PMID:9148125

  7. Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion. PMID:1496329

  8. A cohort study on mortality among wives of workers in the asbestos cement industry in Casale Monferrato, Italy.

    PubMed

    Magnani, C; Terracini, B; Ivaldi, C; Botta, M; Budel, P; Mancini, A; Zanetti, R

    1993-09-01

    The study investigates mortality from cancer and other diseases in a cohort of wives of asbestos cement workers in Casale Monferrato (northwest Italy). After the exclusion of women with an occupational record in the asbestos cement industry, the cohort comprised 1964 women. Their domestic exposure was estimated according to their husbands' periods of employment in the plant: 1740 had a period of domestic exposure whereas the remaining 224 married an asbestos cement worker only after he definitely stopped his activity in the asbestos cement plant; these have, therefore, been considered as unexposed. The cohort of wives was constructed entirely through official records in the town offices and is both exhaustive and unaffected by recall bias. At the end of follow up (1988) 1669 women were alive, 270 were dead and 25 (1.2%) were untraced. Main mortality analyses were only up to age 79 to reduce the misclassification of causes of death. Expected mortality was based on local rates. Mortality analyses were limited to the period 1965-88 due to the availability of local rates: in that period 210 deaths occurred among women with domestic exposure v 229.1 expected. There were four deaths from pleural tumours (one diagnosed as mesothelioma at necropsis) and six from lung cancer v. 0.5 and 4.0 expected respectively. Two further cases of mesothelioma were diagnosed by histological examination after the end of follow up. None of the three wives with histologically diagnosed mesothelioma had been engaged in industrial activities. Corresponding information for the other three cases could not be traced. PMID:8398870

  9. A cohort study on mortality among wives of workers in the asbestos cement industry in Casale Monferrato, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Terracini, B; Ivaldi, C; Botta, M; Budel, P; Mancini, A; Zanetti, R

    1993-01-01

    The study investigates mortality from cancer and other diseases in a cohort of wives of asbestos cement workers in Casale Monferrato (northwest Italy). After the exclusion of women with an occupational record in the asbestos cement industry, the cohort comprised 1964 women. Their domestic exposure was estimated according to their husbands' periods of employment in the plant: 1740 had a period of domestic exposure whereas the remaining 224 married an asbestos cement worker only after he definitely stopped his activity in the asbestos cement plant; these have, therefore, been considered as unexposed. The cohort of wives was constructed entirely through official records in the town offices and is both exhaustive and unaffected by recall bias. At the end of follow up (1988) 1669 women were alive, 270 were dead and 25 (1.2%) were untraced. Main mortality analyses were only up to age 79 to reduce the misclassification of causes of death. Expected mortality was based on local rates. Mortality analyses were limited to the period 1965-88 due to the availability of local rates: in that period 210 deaths occurred among women with domestic exposure v 229.1 expected. There were four deaths from pleural tumours (one diagnosed as mesothelioma at necropsis) and six from lung cancer v. 0.5 and 4.0 expected respectively. Two further cases of mesothelioma were diagnosed by histological examination after the end of follow up. None of the three wives with histologically diagnosed mesothelioma had been engaged in industrial activities. Corresponding information for the other three cases could not be traced. PMID:8398870

  10. Computer–Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  11. Increased micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridge, and nuclear bud frequencies in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Feng; Li, Yuanyuan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2015-02-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently reclassified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group 1 carcinogen. Micronucleus (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) are associated with cancer risk. However, the impact of DEE exposure on MN frequency has not been thoroughly elucidated due to mixed exposure and its impact on NPB and NBUD frequencies has never been explored in humans. We recruited 117 diesel engine testing workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, and then we measured urinary levels of 4 mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs using cytokinesis-block MN assay. The DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly higher MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies than the non-DEE-exposed workers (P < 0.05). Among all study subjects, increasing levels of all 4 urinary OH-PAHs, on both quartile and continuous scales, were associated with increased MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies (all P < 0.05). When the associations were analyzed separately in DEE-exposed and non-DEE-exposed workers, we found that the association between increasing quartiles of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPh) and MN frequencies persisted in DEE-exposed workers (P = 0.001). The percent of MN frequencies increased, on average, by 23.99% (95% confidential interval, 9.64-39.93) per 1-unit increase in ln-transformed 9-OHPh. Our results clearly show that exposure to DEE can induce increases in MN, NPB, and NBUD frequencies in PBLs and suggest that DEE exposure level is associated with MN frequencies. PMID:25370840

  12. The effects of outsourcing on occupational health and safety: a comparative study of factory-based workers and outworkers in the Australian clothing industry.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, C; Quinlan, M

    1999-01-01

    Outsourcing has become increasingly widespread throughout industrialized societies over the past 20 years. Accompanying this has been a renewed growth in home-based work, sometimes using new technologies (telework) but also entailing a re-emergence of old forms, such as clothing outwork, used extensively 100 years ago. A growing body of research indicates that changes to work organization associated with outsourcing adversely affect occupational health and safety (OHS), both for outsourced workers and for those working alongside them. This study assessed the OHS implications of the shift to home-based workers in the Australian clothing industry by systematically comparing the OHS experiences of 100 factory-based workers and 100 outworkers. The level of self-reported injury was over three times higher among outworkers than factory-based workers undertaking similar tasks. The most significant factor explaining this difference was the payment system. All outworkers were paid solely by the piece, whereas factory workers were paid either under a time plus production bonus system or solely on a time basis. While the incidence of injury was far higher among outworkers, factory-based workers paid under an incentive system reported more injuries than those paid solely on a time basis. Increasing injury was correlated with piecework payment systems. PMID:10079399

  13. The Training of "Triple Helix Workers"? Doctoral Students in University-Industry-Government Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Taran

    2010-01-01

    Changes in knowledge production, increasing interaction between government, universities and industry, and changes in labor markets for doctoral degree holders are forces that have spurred a debate about the organization of doctoral education and the competencies graduates need to master to work as scientists and researchers in a triple helix…

  14. Industry Restructuring and Job Loss: Helping Older Workers Get Back into Employment. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Victor J.; Bowman, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and increased competition bring with them many benefits for business, consumers and the economy. But they can also result in the restructuring of industries not able to compete with changing economic markets. In the past, Australia has witnessed restructuring in many high-profile businesses, especially those in its manufacturing…

  15. DOE/Industrial Matching Grant to Support Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear-Related /Disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, David M.

    2002-08-31

    Final Report - Assurance is given that monies received through the matching grant were, in general, disburse as outlined in the original proposal. Specifically, the grant funded graduate students who participated in the nuclear engineering course opinions. The contract provided for a number of research stipends and student salaries for graduates working with industrial partners affiliated with the CENTER/NEP program (i.e., Envirocare, E-cubed, Aerotest, Little Mountain/Boeing). When necessary, supplies were purchased that supported these student activities. No funds were distributed for faculty or staff salaries.

  16. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  17. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workers in petrochemical industries: baseline values and dermal uptake.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J; van Sittert, N J

    1995-02-24

    The suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker for the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in petrochemical industries was evaluated in 562 workers involved in various operations in petrochemical industries. The median 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in 121 of these workers (both smokers and non-smokers) who had had no recent occupational exposure to PAH was 0.11 mumol/mol creatinine. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval was 0.51 mumol/mol creatinine. During activities with a low potential exposure to PAH, such as loading bitumen and the handling of clarified slurry oils and furfural extracts, 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were only marginally increased compared with the values measured in the 121 workers with no recent occupational exposure to PAH. Despite the substantially higher potential exposure to PAH during clean-out operations of various oil refinery installations, the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the workers involved were in the same range. This suggests that personal protection equipment was generally adequate to prevent excessive exposure. However, in workers digging PAH-contaminated soil and workers engaged in the production of needle coke from ethylene cracker residue, significantly increased urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were measured. A major decrease in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene following the application of dermal protective equipment in the ground workers suggested that skin absorption plays a major role in occupational exposure to PAH. The excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene by the workers of the needle coke plant was investigated in relation to potential determinants of exposure to PAH. It was indeed found that not only inhalatory but also dermal exposure was a significant determinant of occupational exposure to PAH. PMID:7716500

  18. Persistence of livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina over 14 days

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Stewart, Jill; Larsen, Jesper; Nachman, Keeve E; Love, Dave C; Pierce, Elizabeth; Pisanic, Nora; Strelitz, Jean; Harduar-Morano, Laurel; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14 days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina. Methods Workers anticipating at least 24 h away from work were enrolled June–August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2–7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn. Results Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49 h; range >0–96 h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates. Conclusions Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96 h away from work. PMID:25200855

  19. [FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE GENETIC PARAMETERS IN WORKERS IN NON-FERROUS METAL INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, O V; Krivtsov, A V; Lykhina, T S; Bubnova, O A; Lanin, D V; Vdovina, N A; Luzhetskiĭ, K P; Andreeva, E E

    2015-01-01

    There was performed a comparative analysis of immunogenetic indices in non-ferrous metallurgy employees under the exposure to different combinations of harmful occupational factors. The combined effect of chlorine and vanadium fumes, noise, overall vibration appeared to be associated with the gene polymorphism of cytokine regulation--VEGF and TNF (p < 0.05). In workers the combination offactors such as dust containing silicon dioxide, noise, elevated environmental thermal load was associated with cytochrome p450 gene polymorphism, allele variation ofwhich is formed owing to the homozygous genotype. At the same time there was observed an excess production of specific antibodies to vanadium and silicon, significantly differed from that of the indices in the reference group. There are proposed genetic (CYP1A1, VEGF TNFalfa) and immunological (IgG to vanadium and silicon) indices as markers of susceptibility and effect in health risk assessment of different combinations of harmful occupational factors, which will allow to increase the availability of laboratory control during surveillance activities at the objects. PMID:26155646

  20. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis. PMID:3232687

  1. Massachusetts Beryllium Screening Program for Former Workers of Wyman-Gordon, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, L. D.

    2008-05-21

    The overall objective of this project was to provide medical screening to former workers of Wyman-Gordon Company, Norton Abrasives, and MIT/Nuclear Metals (NMI) in order to prevent and minimize the health impact of diseases caused by site related workplace exposures to beryllium. The program was developed in response to a request by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that had been authorized by Congress in Section 3162 of the 1993 Defense Authorization Act, urging the DOE to carry out a program for the identification and ongoing evaluation of current and former DOE employees who are subjected to significant health risks during such employment." This program, funded by the DOE, was an amendment to the medical surveillance program for former DOE workers at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program's scope included workers who had worked for organizations that provided beryllium products or materials to the DOE as part of their nuclear weapons program. These organizations have been identified as Beryllium Vendors.

  2. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  3. Powerful Learning: A Study of the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers in Industry 1921-1938. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, Anne K.

    This paper reviews the program of the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers in Industry, held from 1921 to 1938, and attempts to discern whether the curriculum and pedagogy of the school was feminist. An introduction notes that sources for the paper include course syllabi, videotaped interviews, and first person accounts of the school's…

  4. Adaptation of Rural and Foreign Workers to Industry, International Joint Seminar (Wiesbaden, December 10-13, 1963). Final Report. International Seminars 1963-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Social Affairs Div.

    The major purpose of a seminar held in Wiesbaden, Germany, was to exchange experiences and views on the methods of expediating adjustment of rural and foreign workers to industry. Major presentations for discussion were "Internal Migration" by Magda Talamo, and "International Migration" by Elie Dimitras. Some conclusions were: (1) Movement of the…

  5. The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International.

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Crawford-Brown, D; Young, B

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development facility. Between 1950 and 1994, 2,297 workers were monitored for internal radiation exposures, and 441 workers died, 134 (30.4%) of them from cancer as the underlying cause. We calculated internal lung-dose estimates based on urinalysis and whole-body and lung counts reported for individual workers. We examined cancer mortality of workers exposed at different cumulative lung-dose levels using complete risk-set analysis for cohort data, adjusting for age, pay type, time since first radiation monitored, and external radiation. In addition, we examined the potential for confounding due to chemical exposures and smoking, explored whether external radiation exposure modifies the effects of internal exposure, and estimated effects after excluding exposures likely to have been unrelated to disease onset. Dose-response relations were observed for death from hemato- and lymphopoietic cancers and from upper aerodigestive tract cancers, adjusting for age, time since first monitored, pay type, and external (gamma) radiation dose. No association was found for other cancers, including cancers of the lung. Despite the small number of exposed deaths from specific cancer types and possible bias due to measurement error and confounding, the positive findings and strong dose-response gradients observed suggest carcinogenic effects of internal radiation to the upper aerodigestive tract and the blood and lymph system in this occupational cohort. However, causal inferences require replication of our results in other populations or confirmation with an extended follow-up of this cohort. PMID:10964795

  6. Psychotropic drug use in a cohort of workers 4 years after an industrial disaster in France.

    PubMed

    Diène, Eloi; Geoffroy-Perez, Béatrice; Cohidon, Christine; Gauvin, Stéphanie; Carton, Matthieu; Fouquet, Aurélie; Fatras, Jean-Yves; Imbernon, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Two years after the 2001 Toulouse industrial disaster, a longitudinal study was set up to evaluate the impact of the disaster. The current substudy examines the medium-term impact (5 years) the incident had on the mental health of 3,004 participants. As part of the monitoring, data relating to the psychotropic drug use of 2,494 participants were collected from administrative databases 4 years after the disaster. Use of psychotropics was higher among women for anxiolytics (10.4% for men and 15.0% for women), hypnotics (10.5% and 17.0%), and antidepressants (7.6% and 11.2%). Exposure to the disaster, especially proximity to the exposure, was significantly associated with the use of antidepressants in men, OR = 3.22, 95% CI[1.57, 6.61]. This was also the case for other exposure factors (saw dead or injury, injured, home damage, death or injury loved one, psychological disorders, exposure toxic fumes): range of OR 1.75 to 2.52 in men, 1.48 to 1.62 in women. In conclusion, this study highlights the medium-term psychological impact of an industrial disaster on psychotropic drug use and the potential for using medical records data as a means for tracking postdisaster mental health. PMID:25158636

  7. Chinese workers and labor conditions from state industry to globalized factories: how to stop the race to the bottom.

    PubMed

    Thorborg, Marina

    2006-09-01

    This article discusses administrative obstacles in China that hinder the full integration of the rural population into the mainstream of development during a period of rapid industrialization. The Chinese household registration only for urban residents with its golden contents of cradle-to-grave security has become a formidable stumbling block that perpetuates the status of rural migrants as second-class citizens in their own country. Rural migrant workers are excluded from certain types of jobs and are not eligible for many benefits that urbanites have, such as health, education, and unemployment protection. These workers must also pay a number of fees and work for lower minimum wages than the local residents. With a precarious legal existence in urban areas, they are easy prey to unscrupulous officials and employers. Because they are not allowed to form independent trade unions, their best option is to vote with their feet and leave the firms with the worst conditions; this is exactly what they did from 2004. Given this situation, the debate on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) took a new turn with not only nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) pushing it but with a wider range of employers and, of late, Chinese officials promoting their version of CSR. In the campaign to promote minimum labor standards, the norms set down in the Social Accountability 8000 were included in the CSR, recognizing the right to free collective bargaining and free trade unions but were excluded in the Chinese version even though the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements recognized these rights. PMID:17119265

  8. The Majority of the Migrant Factory Workers of the Light Industry in Shenzhen, China May Be Physically Inactive

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tse, Vincent W. S.; Zhou, Shenglai

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a strong risk factor of non-communicable diseases (NCD). In China, there are 250 million migrant factory workers, who are susceptible to physical inactivity and hence NCD because of work nature and setting. With random stratified sampling, 807 such workers of the light industry were recruited in Shenzhen, China and completed a self-administered questionnaire with informed consent. The prevalence of inadequate physical activity (defined according to the World Health Organization’s recommendation on level of moderate/vigorous physical activity) was 95.4%. Of all participants, 69.1% showed “a very low level of physical activity” (VLLPA), defined as ≤30 minutes of weekly moderate/vigorous physical activity, which was significantly associated with female sex (Odds ratio [OR]=1.65), lower education level (OR=0.10 to 0.33, primary education as the reference group) and married status (OR=0.63, single status as the reference group). Adjusted for these factors, perceived social support (Adjusted OR=0.87) was negatively associated with VLLPA, while job stress due to workload, which was significant in the univariate analysis (OR=0.98), became non-significant (p=0.184). Significant interaction between perceived social support and perceived job stress onto VLLPA was found (p=0.044), implying that the negative association between job stress and VLLPA, which might reflect a potential response to cope with stress by performing exercises, was stronger among those with weaker social support. The extremely low level of physical activity rings an alarm, as it implies high risk of NCD, and as there are no existing programs promoting physical activity in this group. Interventions need to take into account social support, potential coping to job stress, and structural factors of the factory setting, while involving factories’ management. PMID:26244514

  9. Workers' Attitudes to Technical Change: An Integrated Survey of Research. Industrial Relations Aspects of Manpower Policy 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touraine, Alain; And Others

    Methods for encouraging positive worker attitude and behavior toward change were examined to provide a basis for re-evaluation of current policies and programs relating to introduction of technological changes. The literature reviewed is presented in sections of: (1) "The Worker and the Occupational System," by Claude Durand, (2) "The Worker and…

  10. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, N.; Murphy, S.; Fleming, T.; Macaulay, J.; Westra, C.; Olson, J. ); Christensen, J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the data from the semiannual reports on fitness-for-duty programs submitted to the NRC by 54 utilities for two reporting periods: January 3, 1990, to June 30, 1990, and from July 1, 1990, to December 31, 1990. During CY 1990, licensees reported that they conducted 278,209 tests for the presence of illegal drugs and alcohol. Of these tests, 2409 (.87%) were positive. Positive test results varied by category of test and category of worker. The majority of positive test results (1548) were obtained through pre-access testing. Of tests conducted on workers having access to the protected area, there were 550 positive tests from random testing, and 214 positive tests form for-cause testing. Followup testing of workers who had previously tested positive resulted in 65 positive tests. Positive test results also varied by category of worker. Overall, short-term and long-term contractor personnel had the highest rates of positive tests. Licensee employees had lower rates of positive test results. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. A cross sectional study of chemical industry workers with occupational exposure to persulphates.

    PubMed Central

    Merget, R; Buenemann, A; Kulzer, R; Rueckmann, A; Breitstadt, R; Kniffka, A; Kratisch, H; Vormberg, R; Schultze-Werninghaus, G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hair bleaches containing persulphates have been identified as the cause of occupational asthma in hairdressers. Also employees in persulphate production with occupational asthma have been described. It was the aim of this study to give an estimate of the prevalence of asthma due to persulphates in chemical workers with exposure to ammonium and sodium persulphate. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed in 32 of 33 employees of a persulphate producing chemical plant. Eighteen of 23 workmen from the same plant with no exposure to persulphates were taken as controls. Also, information was collected from medical records of the seven subjects who had left the persulphate production for medical reasons since 1971. Data were recalled by a questionnaire, skin prick tests were performed with five environmental allergens, and ammonium and sodium persulphate (80 mg/ml). Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to the same environmental allergens as in the skin test, and total IgE were measured. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by standard procedures. Workplace concentrations of ammonium and sodium persulphate were estimated by area and personal monitoring. The amount of persulphate was analysed as sulphur by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. RESULTS: Work related rhinitis was reported by one subject with exposure to persulphates, conjunctivitis and bronchitis were reportedly related to work by two controls. There were no cutaneous reactions to persulphates in either group. Four non-atopic subjects exposed to persulphates, and two controls, one atopic and one non-atopic, were considered to be hyperresponsive to histamine. Three subjects exposed to persulphates with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (provocation dose of histamine causing a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD15 FEV1) < or = 1 mg) did not show variability in peak expiratory flow of > or = 20%, the rest refused peak flow measurements

  12. Hydrogen: Adding Value and Flexibility to the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Bhatt, V.; Friley, P.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2004-10-04

    The objective of this study was to assess potential synergies between the hydrogen economy and nuclear energy options. Specifically: to provide a market analysis of advanced nuclear energy options for hydrogen production in growing hydrogen demand; to conduct an impact evaluation of nuclear-based hydrogen production on the economics of the energy system, environmental emissions, and energy supply security; and to identify competing technologies & challenges to nuclear options.

  13. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, S.; Fleming, T.; Westra, C.; Field, I.; Durbin, N. ); Moffitt, R. )

    1992-08-01

    This report summarizes the data from the semi-annual reports on fitness-for-duty programs submitted to the NRC by 52 utilities for two reporting periods: January 1, 1991 to June 30,1991, and from July 1, 1991, to December 31, 1991. During 1991, licensees reported that they had conducted 262,597 tests for the presence of illegal drugs and alcohol. Of these tests, 1,722 (.66%) were confirmed positive. Positive test results varied by category of test and category of worker. The majority of positive test results (983) were obtained through pre-access testing. Of tests conducted on workers having access to the protected area, there were 510 positive tests from random testing and 167 positive tests from forcause testing. Follow-up testing of workers who had previously tested positive resulted in 62 positive tests. Forcause testing resulted in the highest percentage of positive tests; about 23 percent of forcause tests were positive. This compares to a positive test rate of .94 percent of preaccess tests and .33 percent of random tests. Positive test rates also varied by category of worker. Overall, short-term contractor personnel had the highest positive test rate at .98 percent. licensee employees and long-term contractors had lower positive test rates (33% and .56%, respectively). Of the substances tested, marijuana was responsible for the highest percentage (42.3%) of positive test results, followed by cocaine (31.2%) and alcohol (22.8%). Positive test results are also reported for NRC administrative regions, for plants experiencing or not experiencing an outage during a six-month period; and for plants located in areas with different rates of population density, crime, and drug and alcohol use. A comparison of positive test results in 1991 with those found in 1990 found a decrease in the positive test rate for each category of test and worker.

  14. The non-cancer mortality experience of male workers at British Nuclear Fuels plc, 1946–2005

    PubMed Central

    McGeoghegan, Dave; Binks, Keith; Gillies, Michael; Jones, Steve; Whaley, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, together with some (but not all) cohorts exposed occupationally or medically to ionizing radiation, have found an increasing trend in mortality from non-malignant disease with increasing radiation dose. The aim of this study was to establish whether such a trend could be found in a large cohort of employees in the UK nuclear industry. Methods The cohort comprised 64 937 individuals ever employed at the study sites between 1946 and 2002, followed up to 2005; radiation exposures as measured by personal dosimeters (‘film badges’) were available for 42 426 individuals classified as ‘radiation workers’. Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between excess mortality rates and cumulative radiation exposure, using both relative and additive risk models. Results The cohort shows a pronounced ‘healthy worker’ effect. Overall, socio-economic status as indicated by employment status has a greater influence on mortality than does radiation exposure status. For male radiation workers, there is an apparent dose response for mortality from circulatory system disease [P < 0.001, ERR = 0.65 (90% CI 0.36–0.98) Sv−1]. However there is evidence for inhomogeneity in the apparent dose response (P = 0.016), arising principally at cumulative doses in excess of 300 mSv, when the four categories of employment and radiation exposure status are examined separately. Conclusions We have found evidence for an association between mortality from non-cancer causes of death, particularly circulatory system disease, and external exposure to ionizing radiation in this cohort. However, the tentative nature of biological mechanisms that might explain such an effect at low chronic doses and the above inhomogeneities in apparent dose–response, mean that the results of our analysis are not consistent with any simple causal interpretation. Further work is required to explain these

  15. Associations between Disaster Exposures, Peritraumatic Distress, and Posttraumatic Stress Responses in Fukushima Nuclear Plant Workers following the 2011 Nuclear Accident: The Fukushima NEWS Project Study

    PubMed Central

    Shigemura, Jun; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nomura, Soichiro; Yoshino, Aihide

    2014-01-01

    Background The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD), to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR). Methods A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580) 2–3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%). The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. Results For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001). PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005) and presence of preexisting illness(es) (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001). Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. Conclusion Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience. PMID:24586278

  16. Brain cancer and nonoccupational risk factors: a case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Cole, P.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-09-01

    In a nested case-control study of nuclear workers, 82 brain cancer cases were compared with 328 matched controls to investigate the possible association with nonoccupational risk factors such as histories of epilepsy or head injury. We observed a moderately strong association between brain cancer occurrence and history of epilepsy (OR = 5.7, 95 per cent CI: 1.0, 32.1), but did not find a positive association with previous head injury (OR = 0.9, 95 per cent CI: 0.2, 4.2).

  17. [The temporary loss of work capacity in workers in the hot shops of the metallurgical industry due to diseases of the circulatory organs].

    PubMed

    Karnaukh, N G; Petrov, G A; Mazaĭ, G G; Zubko, M N; Dorokhin, E R

    1990-07-01

    It was established that morbidity with temporary loss of working capacity due to diseases of the circulatory organs showed a tendency towards increase among workers of modern hot shops of the blast furnace, steel-smelting furnace, converter and the steel rolling industry. Most frequent in these category of workers was incidence of ischemic heart disease, hypertensive disease and hemorrhoid. The incidence varied among different professions enumerated above and depended also on the age, working conditions. The nosological entities varied as well. PMID:2238579

  18. An Overview of the Regulation of Low Dose Radiation in the Nuclear and Non-nuclear Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Shankar; Valencia, Luis; Teunckens, Lucien

    2003-02-27

    Now that increasing numbers of nuclear power stations are reaching the end of their commercially useful lives, the management of the large quantities of very low level radioactive material that arises during their decommissioning has become a major subject of discussion, with very significant economic implications. Much of this material can, in an environmentally advantageous manner, be recycled for reuse without radiological restrictions. Much larger quantities--2-3 orders of magnitude larger--of material, radiologically similar to the candidate material for recycling from the nuclear industry, arise in non-nuclear industries like coal, fertilizer, oil and gas, mining, etc. In such industries, naturally occurring radioactivity is artificially concentrated in products, by-products or waste to form TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material). It is only in the last decade that the international community has become aware of the prevalence of TENORM, specially the activity levels and quantities arising in so many non-nuclear industries. The first reaction of international organizations seems to have been to propose different standards for the nuclear and non-nuclear industries, with very stringent release criteria for radioactive material from the regulated nuclear industry and up to thirty to a hundred times more liberal criteria for the release/exemption of TENORM from the as yet unregulated non-nuclear industries. There are significant strategic issues that need to be discussed and resolved. Some examples of these are: - Disposal aspects of long-lived nuclides, - The use of radioactive residues in building materials, - Commercial aspects of differing and discriminating criteria in competing power industries in a world of deregulated electric power production. Of even greater importance is the need for the discussion of certain basic issues, such as - The quantitative risk levels of exposure to ionizing radiation, - The need for in

  19. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    SciTech Connect

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.; Saenz, M.A.; Lanuza, J.; Bartolome, M. )

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A total of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.

  20. THE TRAINING OF SKILLED WORKERS, REPORT ON A SAMPLE INQUIRY INTO THE BACKGROUND, TRAINING AND PRESENT OCCUPATIONS OF SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRY OF FOUR COUNTRIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Manpower Div.

    AN INTENSIVE STUDY OF TWO SAMPLES DRAWN FROM ONE GEOGRAPHIC AREA IN EACH OF FOUR COUNTRIES AIMED TO DETERMINE THE TRAINING AND JOB HISTORIES OF SKILLED WORKERS IN THE METAL TRADES AND THE RESULTS OBTAINED BY DIFFERENT TRAINING SYSTEMS. THE COUNTRIES WERE SELECTED TO REPRESENT (1) PREDOMINANTLY SCHOOL-BASED TRAINING (BELGIUM), (2) HIGHLY REGULATED…

  1. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  2. An Australian study to evaluate worker exposure to chrysotile in the automotive service industry.

    PubMed

    Yeung, P; Patience, K; Apthorpe, L; Willcocks, D

    1999-07-01

    A study was conducted in Sydney, Australia, in 1996 to investigate the current exposure levels, control technologies, and work practices in five service garages (four car and one bus), three brake bonding workshops, and one gasket processing workshop. This study formed part of the assessment of chrysotile as a priority existing chemical under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. A total of 68 (11 personal and 57 area) air samples were collected, in accordance with the Australian standard membrane filter method. Fiber concentrations were determined by the traditional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method and 16 selected samples were analyzed by the more powerful transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chrysotile exposure of car mechanics measured by PCM was typically below the reportable detection limit of 0.05 f/mL, irrespective of whether disc brake, drum brake, or clutch was being serviced. These low levels can be attributed to the wet cleaning or aerosol spray methods used in recent years to replace the traditional compressed air jet cleaning. In the three brake shoe relining workshops, task-specific exposure reached up to 0.16 f/mL in the processes of cutting and radius grinding. TEM results were generally higher, due to its higher resolution power. The median diameter on samples taken from the service garages (passenger cars), as determined by TEM, was 0.5-1.0 micron; and was between 0.2-0.5 micron for the brake bonding and gasket processing workshops, while that for the bus service depot was 0.1-0.2 micron. Most of the respirable fibers (84%, mainly forsterite) from the bus service depot were below 0.2 micron in diameter which is the resolution limit of PCM. In the brake bonding and gasket cutting workshops, 34 percent and 44 percent of the chrysotile fibers were below 0.2 micron in diameter. PMID:10461401

  3. Shift schedules, work factors, and mental health among onshore and offshore workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    PubMed Central

    BERTHELSEN, Mona; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; KNARDAHL, Stein

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to answer the following research questions: (1) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in mental distress? (2) Do workers in different shift schedules differ in neuroticism? (3) Do shift schedules differ in psychosocial work exposures? (4) Do psychosocial work exposures contribute to mental distress among onshore- and offshore workers? (5) Does neuroticism confound the association between work exposures and mental distress? Workers on six shift-schedules answered a questionnaire (1,471 of 2,628 employees). Psychological and social work factors were measured by QPSNordic, mental distress was measured by HADS and neuroticism was measured by EPQ. The results showed 1) No differences in mental distress between workers in different shift schedules, 2) Revolving-shift workers reported higher neuroticism compared to day workers, 3) Swing-shift workers and revolving-shift workers reported lower job control compared to permanent-night and -day workers, 4) Job demands and role conflict were associated with more mental distress. Job control, role clarity, support, and leadership were associated with lower mental distress, 5) Neuroticism influenced the relationship between psychosocial work factors and mental distress. The present study did not find differences in mental distress between shift schedules. Job characteristics may be contributing factors when determining health effects of shift work. PMID:25740007

  4. Environmental and health effects of the nuclear industry and nuclear weapons: a current evaluation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C J

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear weapons industry in the U.S. comprises nine major plants, supported by a network of subcontractors and grantee institutions. Weapons development progresses at the Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos Laboratories under the auspices of the University of California. Fissionable materials and tritium are produced at the Savannah River Plant (du Pont) or at Hanford. Reprocessing of plutonium and weapons grade uranium and manufacture of components are carried out at Rocky Flats (formerly Dow, now Rockwell Int.). Large amounts of radionuclides are generated or involved in operations at most of the nine plants. Internal reports of surveillance efforts by weapons plant personnel to monitor emissions of radioactive gases and particulates have now been released by several of the plants (in one case through litigation). Those reports document major releases of radioactive gases and particulates to the environment in the past, and continuing routine releases of some importance. Few investigations have been made of effects from these potent carcinogens in local populations. There have been several preliminary reports (Rocky Flats, Los Alamos and Savannah River) and one comprehensive report [Ambio 10: 176 (1981)]. Evidence of significantly increased rates of cancer of the more radiosensitive organs has been demonstrated. Adequate cancer registry and vital statistics data are essential for the comprehensive investigations of somatic and genetic effects which should be carried out around all nuclear installations near population centres. PMID:6765303

  5. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  6. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  7. Proceedings of the ASTM 8th international symposium zirconium in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Swam, L.F.P.; Eucken, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the ASTM 8th international symposium on zirconium in the nuclear industry. Topics covered include: Behavior of pressure tubes, Corrosion, Nodular corrosion, Basic metallurgy, and Creep and growth.

  8. The relationship between skin surface temperature, transepidermal water loss and electrical capacitance among workers in the fish processing industry: comparison with other occupations. A field study.

    PubMed

    Halkier-Sørensen, L; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1991-05-01

    A field study among workers in the fish processing industry (n = 143) was performed to obtain information about skin surface temperature, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and electrical capacitance and their relationships during work. The skin temperature, TEWL and electrical capacitance were measured on the fingers, hands and forearms. A linear positive relation was found between the temperature and TEWL (in all measured areas), a linear negative relation between the temperature and capacitance (fingers and palms), and a linear negative relation between the capacitance and TEWL (fingers). The results on the fingers among workers in the fish processing industry were compared with results among metal workers (n = 52), cleaners (n = 30), gut cleaners (n = 25), nurses (n = 16), office workers with indoor climate syndrome (n = 20) and normal controls (n = 29). A linear positive relation was found between the respective temperature-TEWL values and a linear negative relation between the respective temperature-capacitance values in the various groups. Furthermore the slope of the temperature-TEWL relations was identical in all groups. Therefore, differences in TEWL levels (comparison at the same temperature) between the respective groups and controls and between the various groups might indicate damage to the skin barrier caused by contact with different irritants and chemicals. However, differences in environment-related variables in the various occupations might also affect TEWL levels. This field study demonstrates, from a practical point of view, how the skin temperature affects TEWL in the various occupations and, as a new point, how sensitive capacitance is to changes in skin temperature. Seasonal variation in TEWL and capacitance was demonstrated among workers in the fish processing industry, with a low TEWL and a high capacitance during summer when the workload is lower. PMID:1893687

  9. Understanding the Challenges in the Transition from Film Radiography in the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Moran, Traci L.; Nove, Carol A.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2012-09-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) applications in the nuclear power industry using film radiography are shrinking due to the advent of modern digital imaging technologies and advances in alternative inspection methods that do not present an ionizing radiation hazard. Technologies that are used routinely in the medical industry for patient diagnosis are being adapted to industrial NDE applications including the detection and characterization of defects in welds. From the user perspective, non-film inspection techniques provide several advantages over film techniques. It is anticipated that the shift away from the application of film radiography in the nuclear power industry represents an irreversible trend. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has noted this trend in the U.S. nuclear power industry and will be working to ensure that the effectiveness and reliability of component inspections is not compromised by this transition. Currently, specific concerns are associated with 1) obtaining a fundamental understanding of how inspection effectiveness and reliability may be impacted by this transition and 2) ensuring training standards and qualifications remain compatible with modern industrial radiographic practice. This paper discusses recent trends in industrial radiography and assesses their advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of nuclear power plant component inspections.

  10. Design development scopes towards occupational wellness of women workers: specific reference to local agro based food processing industries in NE India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Debkumar

    2012-01-01

    Women workers constitute one of the most vulnerable segments of the country's labour force. They often face different workplace health challenges than men do. They are engaged in a range of work that extends from heavy, monotonous, repetitive jobs, which are in many times experienced with low-paid and involves in long hours of work. Women's workplace health problems are frequently compounded by getting more of the same at home--the "double jeopardy" of domestic work. Specific issues to improve the workers motivation leading to enhancement of productivity and improving occupational health and safety were addressed. Context specific application of ergonomics principles were studied in the process of designing of work related equipment of local fruit processing units, as well as in tea industry, covering 180 subjects selected purposively. Ergonomic risk factors prevailed among the workers associates productivity and relevant health issues were quantified using QEC, RULA. NMQ was used to gather data on prevalence of CTDs among the workers. Pineapple peeling, tea leaves plucking were found highly labour intensive, done manually. Postures scores found were very high. WRMSDs were prevalent among the workers. Scope for ergonomic design intervention was observed to improve productivity and occupational health. PMID:23151732

  11. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part V--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter "Oil" (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968. PMID:1853354

  12. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, M. V.; Martyny, John W.; Mroz, M. M.; Silveira, L. J.; Strand, M.; Cragle, D. L.; Tankersley, W. G.; Wells, S. M.; Newman, L. S.; Maier, L. A.

    2011-04-02

    Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPb chain (DPbE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPbE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DP{beta}E69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DP{beta}E69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DP{beta}E69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DP{beta}E69 alone appears to be similar.

  13. Assessment of lipid peroxidation and p53 as a biomarker of carcinogenesis among workers exposed to formaldehyde in the cosmetic industry.

    PubMed

    Attia, Dalia; Mansour, Neveen; Taha, Fatma; Seif El Dein, Aisha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the wide use of cosmetic products, they exert a number of health effects on tissues ranging from irritation to cancer. Our study aimed at assessing the effect of formaldehyde on lipid peroxidation and verifying the susceptibility to carcinogenesis using p53 as a biomarker among workers exposed to formaldehyde in cosmetic industry. Our entire exposed group (n = 40) and the controls (n = 20) were subjected to estimation of formate in urine, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and p53. Also, complete blood picture, liver, and kidney function tests were carried out. The study revealed significant increase in the levels of formate, MDA, and p53 in the exposed group compared with their control group. Our results showed that workers in cosmetic industry had significant exposure to formaldehyde. Furthermore, the study pointed to the negative impact of formaldehyde as a cause of oxidative stress and suspicious carcinogen. PMID:25193344

  14. The risk of cancer among nuclear workers at the {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} production association: Preliminary results of an epidemiological study

    SciTech Connect

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Shilnikova, N.S.; Okatenko, P.V.

    1997-03-01

    Studies of nuclear workers can provide useful supplementary information on radiation risks, since these studies have a number of advantages. Availability of measured individual doses, standardized medical care provided for nuclear workers, long-term preservation of archival medical and personnel documents are among these advantages. The authors are presenting preliminary results of an epidemiological study of workers at the {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} Production Association (PA). {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} PA, which started operations in 1948, and was the first military nuclear complex in Russia. It is located in what was once called Chelyabinsk-65 and is now called Ozyorsk in the Southern Urals. From the beginning of its operation, the {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} PA included nuclear reactors, a radiochemical plant and a plant for standard plutonium production. Working conditions at these plants in the first years of their operation resulted in a considerable proportion of workers being exposed to high doses of radiation. A wide range of radiation doses, both external and internal delivered at low dose rate, makes the cohort of Mayak`s workers potentially important for the purpose of radiation risk assessment.

  15. Project WANT - Women's Access to Nuclear Technology, a successful industry/education partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Widen, W.C.; Roth, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the U.S. Congress issued the Carl D. Perkins Act, which charges vocational educators to increase their focus on two broad themes: (a) the elimination of sexual bias and sexual stereotyping in vocational education and (b) the provision of marketable skills to the economically deprived of the nation's work force. In response to this charter, an industry/education partnership was established among the Illinois State Board of Education, Norther Illinois University, and the Westinbghouse Nuclear Training Center. In essence, these partners established Project WANT - Women's Access to Nuclear Technology - with two premier goals: (a) to increase women's awareness regarding nuclear career opportunities and (b) to train and place women in technical professions within the nuclear industry. Feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics identifies that <2% of all technical positions within the nuclear power industry are held by women. Hence, one may conclude that there is a definite need to promote sexual equity in the nuclear industry and that Illinois represents a unique environment of opportunity to accomplish this.

  16. A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

  17. Assessment of elemental and NROM/TENORM hazard potential from non-nuclear industries in North Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Mekawy, A F; Badran, H M; Seddeek, M K; Sharshar, T; Elnimr, T

    2015-09-01

    Non-nuclear industries use raw materials containing significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The processing of these materials may expose workers engaged in or even people living near such sites to technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) above the natural background. Inductively coupled plasma and gamma ray spectrometry have been used to determine major and trace elements and radionuclide concentrations in various samples, respectively, in order to investigate the environmental impact of coal mining and cement plant in North Sinai, Egypt. Generally, very little attention was directed to the large volumes of waste generated by either type of industrial activities. Different samples were analyzed including various raw materials, coal, charcoal, Portland and white cement, sludge, and wastes. Coal mine and cement plant workers dealing with waste and kaolin, respectively, are subjected to a relatively high annual effective dose. One of the important finding is the enhancement of all measured elements and radionuclides in the sludge found in coal mine. It may pose an environmental threat because of its large volume and its use as combustion material. The mine environment may have constituted Al, Fe, Cr, and V pollution source for the local area. Higher concentration of Al, Fe, Mn, B, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, and TENORM were found in Portland cement and Zn in white cement. Coal has higher concentrations of Al, Fe, B, Co, Cr, and V as well as (226)Ra and (232)Th. The compiled results from the present study and different worldwide investigations demonstrate the obvious unrealistic ranges normally used for (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in coal and provided ranges for coal, Portland and white cement, gypsum, and limestone. PMID:26297416

  18. Follow-up of workers from the prefabricated concrete industry after the addition of ferrous sulphate to Danish cement.

    PubMed

    Avnstorp, C

    1989-05-01

    Ferrous sulfate has been added to cement manufactured in Denmark, reducing the water soluble chromate content to not more than 2 ppm, since September 1981. A comparison is made between the medical and employment status of a cohort of workers engaged, or who had been engaged, in the manufacture of prefabricated concrete building components in 1981 and in 1987. Workers who had allergic cement eczema in 1981 appeared to show no improvement 6 years after the reduction of chromate in the cement. Improvement was seen, however, in the eczema of those workers with irritant cement eczema. The 1987 study showed that a larger number of chromate-sensitized workers required medical services and topical steroid treatment than did those who were not sensitized to chromate. This difference was statistically significant. The worse medical prognosis of the chromate-sensitized workers could in part be due to the fact that some of these had secondary contact sensitivity to cobalt and rubber chemicals. The chromate-sensitized workers also took earlier retirement. Younger workers with allergic and irritant cement eczema continued to work and their employment status was not influenced by chromate sensitization. PMID:2527716

  19. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. PMID:25413928

  20. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. PMID:25413928

  1. Reagan's energy war: can deregulation and the Pentagon save the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Feeney, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mr. Feeney feels that Administration energy policies claiming to protect democracy and reduce government interference will transfer money and political control from the people to the energy corporations and the Pentagon. Critics deplore the hard-path approach of downgrading conservation and solar energy in favor of nuclear energy, which some see as setting the stage for a nuclear war in this decade. They see the plan to abolish DOE as providing an opportunity to bail out the nuclear industry, bury environmental and alternative energy research, and block regulations. Critics question why Reagan's devotion to the free market is not applied to the nuclear industry, although they disagree on the linkage with nuclear weapons of new fuel cycle proposals and the use of national security to solve the waste disposal problem by nationalizing and militarizing the fuel cycle. (DCK)

  2. Nuclear skill related training and job identification and placement service for migrant and seasonal farm workers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The success rate of the NSRT Program - based on placement in unsubsidized employment - was 90%. Most of the participants who did not graduate from the NSRT Program were transferred to other less technical programs, such as TAT, REECO, and the EAST/SLAC programs, and obtained skills that made them employable elsewhere. The follow-up process at the Center for Nuclear Studies continues. Officials here can list place of employment, technical rating, and salary of all of the 90 graduates. Several are now full-fledged nuclear reactor operators licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  3. 75 FR 20389 - Findlay Industries, Inc., Findlay Ohio Plant One; Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ..., Ohio. The notice was published in the Federal Register December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65798). At the request... workers are engaged in activities related to the production of automotive and heavy truck interiors....

  4. Protecting Contract Workers: Case Study of the US Department of Energy’s Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Mohr, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Increased reliance on subcontractors in all economic sectors is a serious occupational health and safety challenge. Short-term cost savings are offset by long-term liability. Hiring subcontractors brings specialized knowledge but also young, inexperienced, inadequately trained workers onto industrial and hazardous waste sites, which leads to increased rates of accidents and injuries. Reliable data on subcontractor occupational health and safety programs and performance are sparse. The US Department of Energy has an excellent safety culture on paper, but procurement practices and contract language deliver a mixed message—including some safety disincentives. Its biphasic safety outcome data are consistent with underreporting by some subcontractors and underachievement by others. These observations are relevant to the private and public sectors. Occupational health and safety should be viewed as an asset, not merely a cost. PMID:17666686

  5. Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Matanoski, G.M.; Santos-Burgoa, C.; Schwartz, L. )

    1990-06-01

    A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81) compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs.

  6. Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982).

    PubMed Central

    Matanoski, G M; Santos-Burgoa, C; Schwartz, L

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81] compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs. PMID:2401250

  7. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  8. [Contemporary legislation and importance of psychophysiologic examination in system of medical support for workers engaged into production with radiation and nuclear danger].

    PubMed

    Torubarov, F S; Isaeva, N A; Zvereva, Z F; Denisova, E A; Metliaeva, N A

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with contemporary legislation, the article covers materials on specification and approbation of concept model for psychophysiologic examination in medical establishments during medical examination of workers engaged into production with raidation and nuclear danger. The authors defined methodology, examination methods and designed an order of psychophysiologic examination. The psychophysiologic examination and purpose-oriented rehabilitation appeared efficient. PMID:23210182

  9. 1,3-Butadiene, styrene and lymphohematopoietic cancer among male synthetic rubber industry workers--Preliminary exposure-response analyses.

    PubMed

    Sathiakumar, Nalini; Brill, Ilene; Leader, Mark; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    We updated the mortality experience of North American synthetic rubber industry workers to include follow-up from 1944 through 2009, adding 11 years of mortality data to previous investigations. The present analysis used Cox regression to examine the exposure-response relationship between 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene (STY) parts per million (ppm)-years and leukemia (N = 114 deaths), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (N = 89) and multiple myeloma (MM) (N = 48). A pattern of largely monotonically increasing rate ratios across deciles of BD ppm-years and a positive, statistically significant exposure-response trend were observed for BD ppm-years and leukemia. Using continuous, untransformed BD ppm-years the regression coefficient (β) adjusted only for age was 2.6 × 10(-4) (p < 0.01); the regression coefficient adjusted for age, year of birth, race and plant was 2.9 × 10(-4) (p < 0.01). STY ppm-years also displayed a positive exposure-response association with leukemia. STY and BD were strongly correlated, and the separate effects of these two agents could not be estimated. For NHL, a pattern of approximately monotonically increasing rate ratios across deciles of exposure was seen for STY but not for BD; the test of trend was statistically significant in one of five models that used different STY exposure metrics and adjusted for age and other covariates. BD ppm-years and STY ppm-years were not associated with MM. The present analyses indicated a positive exposure-response relationship between BD cumulative exposure and leukemia. This result along with other research and biological information support an interpretation that BD causes leukemia in humans. STY exposure also was positively associated with leukemia, but its independent effect could not be delineated because of its strong correlation with BD, and there is no external support for a STY-leukemia association. STY, but not BD, was associated positively with NHL. The interpretation of this result is

  10. The Use of Thorium within the Nuclear Power Industry - 13472

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith

    2013-07-01

    Thorium is 3 to 4 times more abundant than uranium and is widely distributed in nature as an easily exploitable resource in many countries. Unlike natural uranium, which contains ∼0.7% fissile {sup 235}U isotope, natural thorium does not contain any fissile material and is made up of the fertile {sup 232}Th isotope only. Therefore thorium and thorium-based fuel as metal, oxide or carbide, has been utilized in combination with fissile {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu in nuclear research and power reactors for conversion to fissile {sup 233}U, thereby enlarging fissile material resources. During the pioneering years of nuclear energy, from the mid 1950's to mid 1970's, there was considerable interest worldwide to develop thorium fuels and fuel cycles in order to supplement uranium reserves. Thorium fuels and fuel cycles are particularly relevant to countries having large thorium deposits but very limited uranium reserves for their long term nuclear power programme. The feasibility of thorium utilization in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), light water reactors (LWR), pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBR) were demonstrated. The initial enthusiasm for thorium fuels and fuel cycles was not sustained among the developing countries later, due to new discovery of uranium deposits and their improved availability. However, in recent times, the need for proliferation-resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup, and improved waste form characteristics, reduction of plutonium inventories and in situ use of bred-in fissile material has led to renewed interest in thorium-based fuels and fuel cycles. (authors)

  11. Extremity dosimetry for radiation workers handling unsealed radionuclides in nuclear medicine departments in India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Pankaj; Venkatesh, Meera; Bhatt, B C

    2007-02-01

    In India, for the past five decades, whole body radiation dose of radiation workers has been monitored by means of film and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges worn on the body. However, there are no provision/regulatory requirements to monitor doses received at the extremities, i.e., to fingers. Finger dose monitoring is essential for controlling the extremity dose limits for occupational personnel handling unsealed radioactive sources. In order to estimate the doses received in various types of procedures using unsealed sources, finger dose monitoring was carried out in 54 major institutions in the country using a specially designed plastic finger ring embedded with a TLD. The maximum finger dose of occupational workers involved in handling Tc in such activities as extraction and radiopharmacy work is 0.35 mSv GBq; during injection of radiopharmaceuticals and scintigraphy, the doses were observed to be 1 and 0.95 mSv GBq, respectively. Similarly, while handling F-FDG, the maximum doses received during dispensing, injection, and scintigraphy were 0.098, 0.324, and 0.56 mSv GBq, respectively. The maximum radiation dose received during Re/Re balloon angioplasty and while handling Sm was 3.92 and 6.5 mSv GBq, respectively. All the doses recorded were well within the prescribed limit. However, monitoring of these doses periodically would help in compiling the feedback regarding the work practices followed in institutions handling radioisotopes in the country and would also help in maintaining a record of safe work procedures while handling radioisotopes. PMID:17220712

  12. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  13. Preparing graduates for today's performance-based environment in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Long, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    In today's nuclear industry, performance-based criteria have become a way of life in education and training, operations, quality assurance, and even the regulatory process. One way to prepare graduates to understand performance-based criteria is to introduce the use of these criteria in their classroom and laboratory educational experiences. This paper describes various applications of performance-based criteria in the nuclear industry and then suggests ways for engineering educators to introduce such criteria to their students. More and more emphasis in industry (not just nuclear) is on effectiveness and efficiency, i.e., on what needs to be accomplished and on meeting predefined standards of quality. New graduates will find that this emphasis on productivity results in less time for free-wheeling apprenticeship; more time, at least in the nuclear power industry, spent on company, plant, and equipment-specific training programs; and a focus on structured activities being [open quotes]performance based[close quotes] becoming a [open quotes]way of life[close quotes]. Performance-based Quality Assurance (QA) activities focus on a process of assurance that is achieved through observation of people and equipment and assessing their performance as related to both standards and expectations or desired end results. The standards provide information to allow the inspector to determine the accomplishment or nonaccomplishment of the performance objectives, namely, nuclear safety, reliability, and functionality and availability to perform the intended design functions. This performance-based approach takes QA beyond the common paper requirements reviews.

  14. Ernst Young study of the economic effects of the Canadian Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Going, T.; Roberts, M.; Harrison, S. )

    1993-01-01

    A major independent study was completed recently by Ernst Young on behalf of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). The [open quotes]Study of the Economic Effects of the Canadian Nuclear Industry[close quotes] is the first attempt to provide a cumulative and comprehensive assessment of the contribution to the Canadian economy made by the industry from business activities in Canada and abroad since commercial development began in the 1950s.

  15. Lung cancer risk among workers exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) in the Swedish prefabricated house industry.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Axelson, O; Brage, H N; Hogstedt, C; Ringbäck, G; Tornling, G; Wingren, G

    1992-01-01

    Mortality and cancer incidence was investigated among 2,807 workers, employed for at least one year before 1972, at 11 Swedish companies manufacturing prefabricated wooden houses. A total of 1,068 workers had been exposed to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) used for insulation. Mortality was followed from 1969 to 1988 and cancer incidence from 1969 to 1985. Exposure conditions were investigated at all plants. There were 14 deaths from lung cancer in the total cohort, whereas 20.7 would be expected (SMR = 68; 95% CI:37-113), based on regional mortality. After a latency of 20 years of more, two lung cancer cases had occurred among all workers exposed to MMMF, whereas 4.3 would be expected (SMR = 46; 95% CI: 5-168). The exposure levels that have prevailed do not seem to be associated with an increased lung cancer rate, but extended follow-up is necessary for a definitive evaluation. PMID:1621690

  16. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6‐HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Methods Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di‐n‐butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC‐MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC‐MS. Results Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10‐fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3–6 pm v 0–8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of ∼25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non‐spray painters in car body repair shops. Conclusion Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose. PMID:16728504

  17. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, N.; Moore, C.; Grant, T.; Fleming, T.; Hunt, P.; Martin, R.; Murphy, S.; Hauth, J.; Wilson, R.; Bittner, A.; Bramwell, A.; Macaulay, J.; Olson, J.; Terrill, E.; Toquam, J. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an overview of the NRC licensees' implementation of the FFD program during the first full year of the program's operation and provides new information on a variety of FFD technical issues. The purpose of this document is to contribute to appropriate changes to the rule, to the inspection process, and to other NRC activities. It describes the characteristics of licensee programs, discusses the results of NRC inspections, updates technical information covered in previous reports, and identifies lessons learned during the first year. Overall, the experience of the first full year of licensees' FFD program operations indicates that licensees have functioning fitness for duty programs devoted to the NRC rule's performance objectives of achieving drug-free workplaces in which nuclear power plant personnel are not impaired as they perform their duties. 96 refs., 14 tabs.

  18. Case study for underground workers at an electric utility: how a research institution, university, and industry collaboration improved occupational health through ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Amy; Usher, Debra; Marklin, Richard; Seeley, Patricia; Yager, Janice W

    2006-08-01

    This article describes a collaboration between a research institution, a university, and a medium-sized electric power utility. Two ergonomics teams were created at the host utility to identify tasks with risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and propose ergonomic interventions for these tasks. Both ergonomics teams focused on tasks performed by underground workers: one team focused on manhole-vault tasks, and the other team focused on direct-buried cable job tasks. Several of the ergonomic interventions were tested in the ergonomics laboratory at the university. The results of one of the laboratory experiments indicated that a 2nd class lever tool reduced muscle forces required to remove and replace a manhole cover as compared with a T-handle attached to a hook and chain. The results of another laboratory experiment demonstrated that a battery-powered cutter reduced muscle forces to cut cable as compared to a manual cutting tool. A collaborative ergonomics effort is an effective method for identifying problematic tasks for workers in a particular industry, evaluating those tasks, and developing best work practices for that type of industry. This approach could be used by other industries in their effort to reduce the incidence, cost, and severity of MSDs in the workplace. PMID:16766475

  19. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report (TMI79c) to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists.

  20. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. (ACR)

  1. Upgrade of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System at the VNIIEF Industrial Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.C.; Maltsev, V.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-09-20

    The Industrial Zone at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center/All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC/VNEEF) consists of ten guarded areas with twenty two material balance areas (A and As). The type of facilities in the Industrial Zone include storage sites, machine shops, research facilities, and training facilities. Modernization of the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) System at the Industrial Zone started in 1997. This paper provides a description of, the methodology/strategy used in the upgrade of the MFC and A system.

  2. THREE-YEAR RETENTION OF RADIOACTIVE CAESIUM IN THE BODY OF TEPCO WORKERS INVOLVED IN THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER STATION ACCIDENT.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Tani, K; Kim, E; Kurihara, O; Sakai, K; Akashi, M

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurements of seven highly exposed workers at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident have been performed continuously since June 2011. Caesium clearance in the monitored workers is in agreement with the biokinetic models proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. After 500 d from the initial measurement, however, the caesium clearance slowed. It was thought to be unlikely that additional Cs intake had occurred after the initial intake, as activity in foods was kept low. And, the contribution from the detector over the chest was enhanced with time. This indicates that insoluble Cs particles were inhaled and a long metabolic rate showed. PMID:26979805

  3. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Brooks, Antone L.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Patton, Kristin M.; McComish, Stacey; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  4. Tracing a Transformation in Industrial Relations. The Case of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Joel

    A combination of crises and innovative attempts to manage them that began in 1980 transformed the relationship between Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, which represents most of Xerox's manufacturing employees. Eight pivotal episodes were largely responsible for the transformation. The first was a joint…

  5. 78 FR 40508 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... December 13, 2011 (76 FR 77556). On January 19, 2012, the Department amended the certification to include... From Mid Oregon Personnel and All Star Labor, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages... Star Labor were employed on-site at the Bend, Oregon location of the subject firm. The Department...

  6. 77 FR 4368 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... energy inverters. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2011(76 FR 77556). At... Through PV Powered, Currently Known as AE Solar Energy, Inc. Bend, OR; Amended Certification Regarding... Solar Energy, Inc. in May 2010. Some workers separated from employment at the Bend, Oregon location...

  7. Hobo Orator Union: Class Composition and the Spokane Free Speech Fight of the Industrial Workers of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    From 1909 to 1910, the public performance of soap-box oratory began to effect dramatic changes in the composition of migrant workers throughout the Pacific Northwest. Municipal authorities in Spokane attempted to curb the formation of a union of hobo orators by outlawing public speech-making within the city fire limits. The ensuing confrontation…

  8. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ould-Kadi, Farid; Nawrot, Tim S; Hoet, Peter H; Nemery, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8) years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6) years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted) was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01) and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009) than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037) for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects. PMID:17922914

  9. Fuel supply of nuclear power industry with the introduction of fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraviev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The results of studies conducted for the validation of the updated development strategy for nuclear power industry in Russia in the 21st century are presented. Scenarios with different options for the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors and large-scale growth of nuclear power industry based on fast reactors of inherent safety with a breeding ratio of ˜1 in a closed nuclear fuel cycle are considered. The possibility of enhanced fuel breeding in fast reactors is also taken into account in the analysis. The potential to establish a large-scale nuclear power industry that covers 100% of the increase in electric power requirements in Russia is demonstrated. This power industry may be built by the end of the century through the introduction of fast reactors (replacing thermal ones) with a gross uranium consumption of up to ˜1 million t and the termination of uranium mining even if the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors is stopped or suffers a long-term delay.

  10. Combined Analysis of mortality in three United Kingdom Nuclear Industry workforces, 1946-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, L.; Higgins, C.; Douglas, A.; Fraser, P.; Smith, P.; Beral, V.

    1994-05-01

    Mortality during 1946-1988 has been analyzed in 75,006 employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the Atomic Weapons Establishment and the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels. All-cause mortality was 19% lower than national rates among workers monitored for external radiation exposure and 18% lower among nonmonitored workers. Cancer mortality was also lower than national rates and was similar in the two groups of workers [rate ratio (RR) = 0.96]. Of 29 specific cancer sites examined, only for cancers of the pleura and uterus were there statistically significant excesses of mortality in monitored workers relative to nonmonitored workers [RR = 7.08, two-sided P(2P) = 0.008 and RR = 3.02, 2P = 0.003, respectively]. There was little association between cumulative external radiation and risk of death from all cancers combined 10 or more years after exposure [z for trend = +0.11, one-sided P (1P) = 0.5]. A positive association was observed for leukemia (assuming a 2-year lag between external radiation and increasing risk of death [1P = 0.009]) but not for other cancers associated with external radiation in previous analyses (lung, uterus, prospate and multiple myeloma, all 1P {>=} 0.1). Positive associations (1P {<=} 0.005) were also observed for melanoma and other skin cancers (1P = 0.03) and ill-defined and secondary cancers (1P = 0.04), but these results are difficult to interpret and, given the number of associations examined may be chance findings. Estimates of excess relative risk per sievert were -0.02 (95% CI = -0.5-+0.6) for all cancers except leukemia and +4.18 for leukemia (95% CI = +0.4-+13.4). The positive estimates for leukemia contrast with negative values found for workers in the United States, although the confidence intervals obtained in the two studies overlap. 26 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. A survey of fatigue monitoring in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1991-12-31

    The original design of nuclear power plants addressed fatigue concerns by including calculations of projected fatigue usage for specific components; the calculations were based on estimates of the number and severity of expected transients over the 40-year design life of the plants. In some cases, the transients occurring in the plants are not as severe as was anticipated in the original design analyses, while in other cases events have occurred that were not anticipated in the design basis documents. Field failures caused by fatigue have identified some of those cases. In response, several organizations in the United States and overseas have developed fatigue monitoring programs to more accurately estimate the fatigue usage. One basic approach consists of reconstructing the fatigue usage to date based on the transients recorded in the operating history instead of those projected in the design documents. Another approach includes monitoring the plant instrumentation to determine actual values for parameters such as temperature and pressure and using the measured values in the fatigue usage calculations instead of the values projected in the design documents. The use of existing plant instrumentation to measure temperature, pressure, flow rate, etc., along with the incorporation of conservative assumptions, had generally proven adequate for estimating fatigue usage; however, in some cases additional instrumentation installed for local monitoring can provide a more accurate estimate, especially where thermal stratification is known to occur. Fatigue monitoring can aid in identifying fatigue concerns not anticipated in the original design and for reducing the excessive conservatism in some of the original design calculations so that the fatigue lives of these components can be justified as they age. Fatigue monitoring can also assist efforts to reduce ongoing fatigue usage through design modifications and operating procedure changes.

  12. A survey of fatigue monitoring in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The original design of nuclear power plants addressed fatigue concerns by including calculations of projected fatigue usage for specific components; the calculations were based on estimates of the number and severity of expected transients over the 40-year design life of the plants. In some cases, the transients occurring in the plants are not as severe as was anticipated in the original design analyses, while in other cases events have occurred that were not anticipated in the design basis documents. Field failures caused by fatigue have identified some of those cases. In response, several organizations in the United States and overseas have developed fatigue monitoring programs to more accurately estimate the fatigue usage. One basic approach consists of reconstructing the fatigue usage to date based on the transients recorded in the operating history instead of those projected in the design documents. Another approach includes monitoring the plant instrumentation to determine actual values for parameters such as temperature and pressure and using the measured values in the fatigue usage calculations instead of the values projected in the design documents. The use of existing plant instrumentation to measure temperature, pressure, flow rate, etc., along with the incorporation of conservative assumptions, had generally proven adequate for estimating fatigue usage; however, in some cases additional instrumentation installed for local monitoring can provide a more accurate estimate, especially where thermal stratification is known to occur. Fatigue monitoring can aid in identifying fatigue concerns not anticipated in the original design and for reducing the excessive conservatism in some of the original design calculations so that the fatigue lives of these components can be justified as they age. Fatigue monitoring can also assist efforts to reduce ongoing fatigue usage through design modifications and operating procedure changes.

  13. Proceedings of EPRI/DOE workshop on nuclear industry valve problems

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Representatives from 29 nuclear industry organizations (11 valve manufacturers, 4 nuclear steam supply system vendors, 5 utilities, 3 national laboratories, 2 architect/engineering firms, the Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, and 2 others) attended the workshop. Working sessions on key valves and on valve stem and seat leakage developed the following recommendations: (1) establish a small permanent expert staff to collect, analyze, and disseminate information about nuclear valve problems; (2) perform generic key valve programs for pressurized water reactors and for boiling water reactors, and several plant specific key valve programs, the latter to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of such studies; (3) confirm the identity of, define, and initiate needed longer term research and development programs dealing with seat and stem leakage; and (4) establish an industry working group to review and advise on these efforts. Separate abstracts were prepared for three papers which are included in the appendix. (DLC)

  14. Reuse of nuclear byproducts, NaF and HF in metal glass industries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.W.; Lee, H.W.; Yoo, S.H.; Moon, H.S.; Cho, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the radiological safety and feasibility associated with reuse of NaF(Sodium Fluoride) and HF(Hydrofluoric Acid) which are generated as byproducts from the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The investigation of oversea`s experience reveals that the byproduct materials are most often used in the metal and glass industries. For the radiological safety evaluation, the uranium radioactivities in the byproduct materials were examined and shown to be less than radioactivities in natural materials. The radiation doses to plant personnel and the general public were assessed to be very small and could be ignored. The Korea nuclear regulatory body permits the reuse of NaF in the metal industry on the basis of associated radioactivity being {open_quote}below regulatory concern{close_quote}. HF is now under review for reuse acceptability in the steel and glass industries.

  15. Toxic Effects of Chronic Mercury Exposure on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular and Choroidal Thickness in Industrial Mercury Battery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ekinci, Metin; Ceylan, Erdinç; Keleş, Sadullah; Çağatay, Halil Hüseyin; Apil, Aytekin; Tanyıldız, Burak; Uludag, Gunay

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of mercury on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), macular thickness (MT), and choroidal thickness (CT) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in battery industry workers who had been chronically exposed to mercury. Material/Methods Battery factory workers (n=31) and healthy non-factory employee controls (n=15) participated in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n=15) was factory workers who had worked for more than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; Group 2 (n=16) was factory worker who had worked for less than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; and Group 3 (n=15) was healthy non-employees. Systemic symptoms were recorded. Ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity test, color vision test, full ophthalmologic examination, and SD-OCT of the RNLF, macula, and choroid. To determine mercury exposure, venous blood samples were collected and mercury levels were assessed. Results In our study group the most common systemic symptoms were insomnia (67.7%) and fatigue (67.7%). There were no significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2, but there were significant differences between Group 3 and both Group 1 and Group 2 in best-corrected visual acuity values (1=2<3), color vision scores, blood mercury levels, and duration (mean ±SD, range) of mercury exposure(1>2>3). OCT values of RNFLTs, MTs, and CTs of all 3 groups were statistically different from each another (1<2<3). Conclusions SD-OCT can be useful for evaluating the toxic effects of chronic exposure to mercury. PMID:25056093

  16. Radiological abnormalities among sheet-metal workers in the construction industry in the United States and Canada: Relationship to asbestos exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Lilis, R. )

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the possible adverse health effects to sheet-metal workers who had past exposure to asbestos. A cross-sectional medical examination of 1,330 workers was conducted during 1986 and 1987 in seven cities in the United States and Canada. A total of 1,016 workers had been employed for at least 35 y in the industry, and the mean duration from onset of asbestos exposure was 39.5 y (SD = 7.41 y). Chest x-ray abnormalities were found in more than half of the group. Pleural fibrosis, the most frequently found abnormality, was present in 47.0% of the cases and was the only abnormality found in 27.8% of cases; parenchymal interstitial fibrosis, found in 33.1% of cases, was the only abnormality found in 16.2% of cases. Radiologic abnormalities increased as duration of exposure increased. A positive smoking history was associated with a higher prevalence of radiologically detectable parenchymal abnormalities, a finding confirmed by us and others. Dyspnea on exertion was graded by a Medical Research Council questionnaire, the examinee's self-assessment, and a more detailed 12-point scale questionnaire. Few persons had marked shortness of breath, and approximately one-third had slight dyspnea. Individuals who had radiologic abnormalities experienced more shortness of breath than did those who had no radiologic abnormalities. Cigarette smoking also resulted in a higher prevalence of dyspnea. The results indicate that during the past, construction sheet-metal workers have been significantly exposed to asbestos on the job. Every effort should be made to minimize the anticipated serious health consequences, and further asbestos exposure for those who continue in this trade should be avoided.

  17. On perceptions of the effectiveness of the self-assessment process in the nuclear power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riha, Raymond J.

    The organizational self-assessment process came to maturity during the Total Quality Management (TQM) movement. Although varying forms of the process had been utilized for many years, the first mature self-assessments, known as self-appraisals, were performed as a criterion for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA). One objective of this research was to assess whether self-assessments in the nuclear industry are driven more by regulatory requirements or business expectations. If driven by regulatory requirements, this may differentiate the process from other industries. Also, recent literature indicates that the existing models for conducting self-assessment for continuous improvement may be outdated (Williams, Bertsch, Van der Wiele, Van Iwaarden and Dale, 2006). In addition, these authors believe that each industry or organization should develop their own models or adapt the existing TQM model to optimize the benefits of self-assessments. Another objective of the research presented herein was to determine whether there are standard attributes that can be applied to the performance of self-assessments in the nuclear industry. This study, through use of a survey, identified attributes of the nuclear power industry that could be used in future research to construct a standard model to optimize the investments made by the industry in the use of self-assessments. Finally, the study determined the relationships between survey characteristics (e.g., participant level in the organization, those that believe that self-assessment improves performance, and the purpose of self-assessment). Keywords: self-assessment, nuclear, continuous improvement, process attributes

  18. The Effects of the Nintendo Wii Exercise Program on Chronic Work-related Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ko, Dae-Sik

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Nintendo Wii exercise program on chronic work-related LBP compared with stability exercise. [Methods] Twenty-four workers participated in this study. All of the participants were diagnosed with chronic LBP by a physician. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group (CG), lumbar stabilization exercise group (LSE), and Nintendo Wii exercise group (NWE). Participants were treated 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Each session lasted 30 minutes. [Results] The results demonstrated that exercise programs improved significantly physical functions related to LBP. In health-related QOL, the Nintendo Wii exercise program significantly improved both the mental and physical health composites, but other groups had significant improvement only in the physical health composite. [Conclusion] The Nintendo Wii exercise program could be a biopsychosocial intervention for work-related LBP in factory workers. PMID:24259899

  19. Nukes II: the nuclear power industry wants another chance. This time, it promises to do things right

    SciTech Connect

    De Young, H.G.

    1985-03-01

    Anticipating a comback for nuclear power, the nuclear industry points to the need for reliable supplies of electricity to provide over 35% of US energy requirements. The industry faces both technical and institutional problems, in contrast to the mature industry of other countries, and promises to improve its performance in safety design and efficiency. Pointing to design advances, robotics, computerized simulation and other techniques, the industry feels that regulation will be more reasonable and costs will be reduced. Economic solutions include building smaller plants and using modular construction. The biggest uncertainty, however, is whether the public will buy either the need for additional capacity or nuclear power to fill that need.

  20. Reaction time of industrial workers exposed to organic solvents: relationship to degree of exposure and psychological performance

    SciTech Connect

    Gregersen, P.; Stigsby, B.

    1981-01-01

    Auditory reaction time (RT) was examined on a day free from work and on a working day in 54 workers exposed to organic solvents and in 28 unexposed workers. Medical and occupational history was recorded and neurological examination and psychological testing carried out to establish quantitative parameters of exposure and cerebral function. There was a wider 95% range of the RT in the exposed group compared to the control group on the working day and a tendency in the same direction on the day free from work. There was no difference in the means of the RT, or within the groups between the examinations on the two days. The increased RT 95% range is interpreted as indicating an impaired ability in the exposed workers to maintain their attention during the experimental period, owing to chronic exposure of organic solvents. RT measurements did not correlate with exposure or psychological performance. RT would seem to be a means of measuring subclinical effects of exposure to organic solvents.

  1. Beryllium: an etiologic agent in the induction of lung cancer, nonneoplastic respiratory disease, and heart disease among industrially exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.K.; Infante, P.F.; Bayliss, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    An epidemiologic study of workers exposed to beryllium at one production facility was undertaken. The study demonstrated a statistically significant increased risk of respiratory disease (neoplastic and nonneoplastic) and of heart disease mortality. A possible explanation other than in terms of beryllium was sought for this excessive risk of cause specific mortality among beryllium-exposed workers. The excessive risk of lung cancer mortality could not be related to an effect of age, chance, self-selection, study group selection, exposure to other agents in the study facility, or place of residence. On the basis of the frequency of cigarette smoking among those cohort members employed in 1967 to 1968 and the distribution of histologic types of lung cancer among deceased cohort members, it seems unlikely that cigarette smoking per se could have accounted for the increased risk of lung cancer among beryllium-exposed workers in the study cohort. Lifetime employment histories for members of the study cohort were not available, so that definitive statements about the role of other occupational exposures cannot be made. However, information on usual occupations as indicated on death certificates suggests that it is unlikely that some undefined occupational or environmental exposure other than to beryllium could account per se for the excessive lung cancer mortality. This interpretation is further supported by the residential stability of the study cohort in a county having a lung cancer rate significantly lower than that of the entire United States. The findings are supportive of the hypothesis that beryllium is carcinogenic to man.

  2. Improving healthcare quality through organisational peer-to-peer assessment: lessons from the nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Hudson, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare has made great efforts to reduce preventable patient harm, from externally driven regulations to internally driven professionalism. Regulation has driven the majority of efforts to date, and has a necessary place in establishing accountability and minimum standards. Yet they need to be coupled with internally driven efforts. Among professional groups, internally-driven efforts that function as communities of learning and change social norms are highly effective tools to improve performance, yet these approaches are underdeveloped in healthcare. Healthcare can learn much from the nuclear power industry. The nuclear power industry formed the Institute of Nuclear Power Operators following the Three Mile Island accident to improve safety. That organization established a peer-to-peer assessment program to cross-share best practices, safety hazards, problems and actions that improved safety and operational performance. This commentary explores how a similar program could be expanded into healthcare. Healthcare needs a structured, clinician-led, industry-wide process to openly review, identify and mitigate hazards, and share best practices that ultimately improve patient safety. A healthcare version of the nuclear power program could supplement regulatory and other strategies currently used to improve quality and patient safety. PMID:22562877

  3. Risk of Chronic Beryllium Disease by HLA-DPB1 E69 Genotype and Beryllium Exposure in Nuclear Workers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Mike V.; Martyny, John W.; Mroz, Margaret M.; Silveira, Lori J.; Strand, Matt; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Sato, Hiroe; Newman, Lee S.; Maier, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are determined by at least one genetic factor, a glutamic acid at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPB1 gene, and by exposure to beryllium. The relationship between exposure and the E69 genotype has not been well characterized. Objectives: The study goal was to define the relationship between beryllium exposure and E69 for CBD and BeS. Methods: Workers (n = 386) from a U.S. nuclear weapons facility were enrolled into a case–control study (70 BeS, 61 CBD, and 255 control subjects). HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Beryllium exposures were reconstructed on the basis of worker interviews and historical exposure measurements. Measurements and Main Results: Any E69 carriage increased odds for CBD (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.66–15.84) and each unit increase in lifetime weighted average exposure increased the odds for CBD (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.26–4.09). Compared with E69-negative genotypes, a single E69-positive *02 allele increased the odds for BeS (OR, 12.01; 95% CI, 4.28–33.71) and CBD (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.42–8.43). A single non-*02 E69 allele further increased the odds for BeS (OR, 29.54; 95% CI, 10.33–84.53) and CBD (OR, 11.97; 95% CI, 5.12–28.00) and two E69 allele copies conferred the highest odds for BeS (OR, 55.68; 95% CI, 14.80–209.40) and CBD (OR, 22.54; 95% CI, 7.00–72.62). Conclusions: E69 and beryllium exposure both contribute to the odds of CBD. The increased odds for CBD and BeS due to E69 appear to be differentially distributed by genotype, with non-*02 E69 carriers and E69 homozygotes at higher odds than those with *02 genotypes. PMID:21471109

  4. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  5. USCEA/NIST measurement assurance programs for the radiopharmaceutical and nuclear power industries

    SciTech Connect

    Golas, D.B.

    1993-12-31

    In cooperation with the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supervises and administers two measurement assurance programs for radioactivity measurement traceability. One, in existence since the mid 1970s, provides traceability to suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals, dose calibrators, and nuclear pharmacy services. The second program, begun in 1987, provides traceability to the nuclear power industry for utilities, source suppliers, and service laboratories. Each program is described, and the results of measurements of samples of known, but undisclosed activity, prepared at NIST and measured by the participants are presented.

  6. [Sanitary-hygienic characteristics of work conditions and health status of workers in nitric acid production industry].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kozlova, T A; Atiakina, I K; Pavlova, A P

    1990-01-01

    Workers engaged in thin nitric acid manufacturing are exhibited to the combined action of both physical and chemical factors (noise, heating microclimate, nitric oxides, ammonia). Within the working hours, ECG changes and arterial blood pressure instability are displayed in operators and technicians. Influenza, acute respiratory disorders and osseo-muscular diseases present the main causes of morbidity with temporary disability. Technicians are characterized by a markedly greater morbidity rate. Ammonia and nitric oxides, as aggressive media, lead to higher rates of oral mucoid, hard dental tissues and periodontium lesions. Health-related labour conditions improvement measures are proposed. PMID:2161779

  7. NGNP Nuclear-Industrial Facility and Design Certification Boundaries White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas E. Hicks

    2011-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project was initiated at Idaho National Laboratory by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act and based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is helium cooled and graphite moderated and can operate at reactor outlet temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. These varied industrial applications may involve a standard HTGR modular design using different Energy Conversion Systems. Additionally, some of these process heat applications will require process heat delivery systems to lie partially outside the HTGR operator’s facility.

  8. Environmental exposure to asbestos in asbestos cement workers: a case of additional exposure from indiscriminate use of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W; Laskowicz, K

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents data on cancer risk, especially pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, among the workers of asbestos cement plant who living in the vicinity of the plant, were also environmentally exposed to asbestos. In 1959 an asbestos cement factory was founded in the rural area of south-eastern Poland. Apart from chrysotile asbestos, crocidolite was used till 1985 chiefly for the manufacture of pressure pipes. The blue asbestos made up 15% of the mean annual tonnage of the processed asbestos. It was found that soon after asbestos production had started the process wastes were made available to local community, particularly to the workers of that factory. For over twenty years asbestos wastes of all kinds, both wet (process sludge) and dry (from pipe and sheet grinding) were exploited for the hardening of roads, paths, farmyards and sports fields and as construction material components. For the evaluation of cancer risk due to occupational exposure to asbestos a cohort of 1,526 workers employed in this factory was observed till the end of 1996. The cohort availability was 95.6%. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated using the man-years method. The reference population was the general population of Poland. The results of the study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the risk of a) pleural mesothelioma--over an 80-fold excess among males and over a 200-fold one among females; b) lung cancer in females--over a 6-fold excess; c) colon cancer in males--over a 3-fold excess. In the 1990 ten new cases of pleural mesothelioma in the cohort were reported. As compared to other asbestos-cement cohorts in Poland, observed at the same time, this cohort presented a very high risk of pleural mesothelioma. The analysis of 16 cases of pleural mesothelioma found in the cohort from 1987 to 1997 revealed 4 cases with very short employment period (3.5 months-5 years) including two cases with relatively short latency period (11-12 years). In order to

  9. Derived no-effect levels (DNELs) under the European chemicals regulation REACH--an analysis of long-term inhalation worker-DNELs presented by industry.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Linda; Deng, Uriell; Johanson, Gunnar

    2015-05-01

    The European REACH regulation places responsibility for providing safety information, including derived no-effect levels (DNELs), on chemicals and chemical products on 'industry', i.e. manufacturers and importers. We compared long-term inhalation worker-DNELs (wDNELs) presented by industry with the corresponding Swedish occupational exposure limits (OELs), and for a subset, with wDNELs derived by us. Our wDNELs were derived using toxicological evaluations published by the Swedish Criteria Group and our interpretation of the REACH Guidance. On average, industry's wDNELs were the same as the Swedish OELs (median of wDNEL-OEL ratios: 0.98, n = 235). However, the variation was huge, the extremes being up to 450 times higher, and up to 230 times lower than the corresponding OEL. Nearly one-fifth of the wDNELs were ≥2 times higher and one-third ≥2 times lower than the OEL. No time trend was seen in the wDNEL/OEL ratios, suggesting that older OELs were not systematically higher than the more recent ones. Industry's wDNELs varied widely and were generally higher (median 4.2 times, up to 435 times higher, down to 13 times lower, n = 23) also compared to our wDNELs. Only five industry wDNELs were equal to or lower than ours. The choices of key studies, dose descriptors, and assessment factors all seemed to contribute to the discrepancies. We conclude that although the REACH guidance is detailed, many choices that will influence the wDNEL lack firm instructions. A major problem is that little advice is given on when and how to depart from default assessment factors. PMID:25471229

  10. The NUCLARR databank: Human reliability and hardware failure data for the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.

    1993-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) was developed to provide human reliability and hardware failure data to analysts in the nuclear power industry. This IBM-compatible databank is contained on a set of floppy diskettes which include data files and a menu-driven system for locating, reviewing, sorting, and retrieving the data. NUCLARR contains over 2500 individual data records, drawn from more, than 60 sources. The system is upgraded annually, to include additional human error and hardware component failure data and programming enhancements (i.e., increased user-friendliness). NUCLARR is available from the NRC through project staff at the INEL.

  11. Quantification of the psychosocial disadvantages experienced by workers in a noisy industry and their nearest relatives: perspectives for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lalande, N M; Lambert, J; Riverin, L

    1988-01-01

    A questionnaire of handicap was developed to assess the psychosocial disadvantages attributable to noise-induced hearing loss (temporary or permanent). Sixty-five workers in a metal product plant completed the questionnaire with their nearest relative. A principal-component analysis was applied to the answers. Results show that the disadvantages can be grouped under three dimensions, that is, (1) quality of life at home and at work; (2) isolation and self-esteem, and (3) telephone use and leisure activities. Variables that could influence the disadvantages were tested by multiple-regression analyses. Results indicate that the variable most predictive of the disadvantages is self-acknowledgement of having a moderate or severe hearing problem. These findings are discussed in terms of perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:3190561

  12. [Fly ash and its biological effects. 3. Exposure to dust of workers in the energy-generating industry (power plants and thermoelectric power stations)].

    PubMed

    Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska, G; Stroszejn-Mrowca, G; Tenerowicz, B

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of exposure to dust of workers employed at typical work-stands in power industry plants was made. Mean concentrations of respirable dust determined at 14 different work-posts range from 0.45 to 8.95 mg/m3, and of total dust from 1.55 to 85.0 mg/m3. Mean content of free crystalline silica in dust samples is less than 10%. At the work-stands where ash dust was encountered, the presence of respirable fibres at concentration below 0.2 fibre/cm3 was observed. In all ash samples alpha-quartz and mullite were found: in some of them also kaolinite and orthoclase were traced. Only at five out of all 14 work-stands examined mean concentration of respirable dust was lower than the hygienic standard value. PMID:2560803

  13. Effect of Yoga Module on Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in Industrial Workers of Lonavla: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhoj, Pratibha Hemant; Verma, Anita; Bhogal, Ranjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory markers play a very important role in body’s defense mechanism. Pro-inflammatory markers and anti-inflammatory markers counterbalance each other. It is extremely essential for the body to maintain their balance for a good immune response. Objectives: To study the effect of yoga practices on selected pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine among industrial workers. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male study participants, aged 30-58 years, were randomly divided into experimental (n=24) & control (n=24) groups. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were evaluated at the baseline and at the end of 12 wk of yoga training in both the groups. During the experimental study, all the study participants continued with their daily lifestyle and diet. Data were analysed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: The result of within group comparison revealed that the yoga group showed a significant decrease in IL-1 β while significant increase in IL-10 (p < 0.05), whereas the control group revealed no change in IL-1 β (p > 0.05) and IL-10 (p > 0.05). Further, the results between the groups confirmed that the yoga group had significantly lower level of IL-1 β and increase in IL-10 as compared to control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that yoga practices could reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine and increase anti-inflammatory cytokine in industrial workers. PMID:25859450

  14. Cutaneous barrier function after cold exposure in hairless mice: a model to demonstrate how cold interferes with barrier homeostasis among workers in the fish-processing industry.

    PubMed

    Halkier-Sørensen, L; Menon, G K; Elias, P M; Thestrup-Pedersen, K; Feingold, K R

    1995-03-01

    Dry skin and eczema only seldomly occur in workers in the Danish fish-processing industry (FPI) during work, when their fingers and palms have a low skin surface temperature, low transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and a high capacitance. However, shortly after work, when the skin temperature has become normal, TEWL levels increase to above normal, and capacitance decreases to below normal, followed by the development of dry skin or chapping, which subsequently revert to normal over a period of hours. These observations suggest that workers in the FPI may have a defect in skin barrier function, which is, however, masked by a low skin temperature, resulting in misleadingly low TEWL levels during work. To test this hypothesis, we disrupted the permeability barrier in hairless mice with topical acetone, and exposed the treated skin to ice for 3.5 h. Although TEWL rates immediately after cold exposure were low, suggesting normal barrier recovery, TEWL increased to levels slightly above pre-cold exposure levels (i.e. levels just after the barrier was disrupted with acetone) when the skin temperature reverted to normal (> or = 15 min). The changes in TEWL were paralleled by equivalent changes in percutaneous penetration of the electron-dense tracer lanthanum nitrate. This indicates that cold masks a defective barrier, and inhibits barrier repair. After a few hours at ambient temperatures, normal barrier recovery was observed. Electron microscopy revealed empty or partially empty lamellar bodies during the first 30 min post-cold exposure. After 1 h the majority of nascent LBs displayed normal morphology. Moreover, histochemical studies showed a delayed reappearance of stratum corneum intercellular lipids following cold exposure. These results demonstrate that cold exposure prevents barrier recovery after acetone disruption, and provide an explanation for the occupational dermatosis observed in the fish-processing industry and related occupations. PMID:7718455

  15. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers. Part I. Perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings

    SciTech Connect

    Kasl, S.V.; Chisholm, R.F.; Eskenazi, B.

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed that: (1) TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered; (2) TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident; (3) coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent; (4) leaving the area was more common; however, over 40% of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations; and (5) TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about thier job future. 139 references, 8 tables.

  16. The impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island on the behavior and well-being of nuclear workers; Part I: perceptions and evaluations, behavioral responses, and work-related attitudes and feelings.

    PubMed

    Kasl, S V; Chisholm, R F; Eskenazi, B

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI), telephone interviews were conducted six months later with 324 nuclear workers assigned to TMI and 298 workers assigned to a comparison plant at Peach Bottom (PB). Examination of PB-TMI differences, stratified by supervisory status, revealed the following: Part I: TMI workers reported greater exposure to radiation at the time of the accident and felt that their health had been thereby endangered. TMI workers experienced more uncertainty and conflict at the time of the accident. Coping responses such as seeing a doctor, taking drugs, and increasing alcohol consumption were quite infrequent. Leaving the area was more common; however, over 40 per cent of TMI workers wished to leave but did not do so because of work obligations. TMI workers reported much lower job satisfaction and much greater uncertainty about their job future. PMID:7212135

  17. Interplay between economic empowerment and sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry.

    PubMed

    Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji

    2014-01-01

    Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of 'power to' and 'power within', on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and individual and

  18. Interplay between economic empowerment and sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry

    PubMed Central

    Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of ‘power to’ and ‘power within’, on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and

  19. Elemental bio-imaging of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in tissues from occupationally exposed former nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei; James, Anthony; Bishop, David; Austin, Christine; Fryer, Fred; Doble, Philip

    2010-04-15

    Internal exposure from naturally occurring radionuclides (including the inhaled long-lived actinides (232)Th and (238)U) is a component of the ubiquitous background radiation dose (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States; NCRP Report No. 160; NCRP: Bethesda, MD, 2009). It is of interest to compare the concentration distribution of these natural alpha-emitters in the lungs and respiratory lymph nodes with those resulting from occupational exposure, including exposure to anthropogenic plutonium and depleted and enriched uranium. This study examines the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to quantifying and visualizing the mass distribution of uranium and thorium isotopes from both occupational and natural background exposure in human respiratory tissues and, for the first time, extends this application to the direct imaging of plutonium isotopes. Sections of lymphatic and lung tissues taken from deceased former nuclear workers with a known history of occupational exposure to specific actinide elements (uranium, plutonium, or americium) were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. Using a previously developed LA-ICPMS protocol for elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in human tissue and a new software tool, we generated images of thorium ((232)Th), uranium ((235)U and (238)U), and plutonium ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) mass distributions in sections of tissue. We used a laboratory-produced matrix-matched standard to quantify the (232)Th, (235)U, and (238)U concentrations. The plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu were detected by LA-ICPMS in 65 mum diameter localized regions of both a paratracheal lymph node and a sample of lung tissue from a person who was occupationally exposed to refractory plutonium (plutonium dioxide). The average (overall) (239)Pu concentration in the lymph node was 39.2 ng/g, measured by high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma

  20. An essay on 'health capital' and the Faustian bargains struck by workers in the globalised shipping industry.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Michael

    2011-11-01

    It has long been understood that work directly generates ill health and disability through injuries and occupational exposure to toxic and carcinogenic materials, but the more complex relationship between work and ill health that is seemingly mediated through psychological distress is more controversial. For example, the 'Karasek model', whereby high job demands coupled with limited latitude in decision making were thought to generate ill health, has not been supported in large-scale surveys. This paper postulates an alternative linking mechanism between work and health, namely Mildred Blaxter's concept of 'health capital', and specifically explores the value of the concept in understanding lay theorising about the links between labour intensification and self-perceived health: workers' perceptions that their work has become more effortful may be bracketed with their belief that their continuing employment is demanding accelerating expenditure of their health capital. The argument is illustrated by qualitative interviews with an international sample of seafarers, a proto-typically globalised labour force. PMID:21507011

  1. Dependable Hydrogen and Industrial Heat Generation from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson; Vincent C. Maio; Piyush Sabharwall

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy is working with industry to develop a next generation, high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) as a part of the effort to supply the US with abundant, clean and secure energy. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory, will demonstrate the ability of the HTGR to generate hydrogen, electricity, and high-quality process heat for a wide range of industrial applications. Substituting HTGR power for traditional fossil fuel resources reduces the cost and supply vulnerability of natural gas and oil, and reduces or eliminates greenhouse gas emissions. As authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, industry leaders are developing designs for the construction of a commercial prototype producing up to 600 MWt of power by 2021. This paper describes a variety of critical applications that are appropriate for the HTGR with an emphasis placed on applications requiring a clean and reliable source of hydrogen. An overview of the NGNP project status and its significant technology development efforts are also presented.

  2. Labor Law, Industrial Relations and Employee Choice. The State of the Workplace in the 1990s. Hearings of the Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Richard N.; And Others

    This book uses the testimony given before the Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations to gain insight into the state of industrial relations and labor law in the United States. The book is organized in five chapters. The first chapter looks at the history of labor movements and labor legislation in the United States. Chapter 2…

  3. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  4. The Next Step in Deployment of Computer Based Procedures For Field Workers: Insights And Results From Field Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L.; Bly, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human operator interacts with the procedures. One way to achieve these improvements is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools (e.g., placekeeping, correct component verification, etc.), and dynamic step presentation. The latter means that the CBP system could only display relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the operator down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the operator’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBP system for field workers, which has been evaluated from a human factors and usability perspective in four laboratory studies. Based on the results from each study revisions were made to the CBP system. However, a crucial step to get the end users' (e.g., auxiliary operators, maintenance technicians, etc.) acceptance is to put the system in their hands and let them use it as a part of their everyday work activities. In the spring 2014 the first field evaluation of the INL CBP system was conducted at a nuclear power plant. Auxiliary operators conduct a functional test of one out of three backup air compressors each week. During the field evaluation activity, one auxiliary operator conducted the test with the paper-based procedure while a second auxiliary operator followed

  5. Definitional Hegemony as a Public Relations Strategy: The Rhetoric of the Nuclear Power Industry after Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Crable, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) definitional hegemony as one of several rhetorical options available to issue managers; (2) the post-accident rhetorical context of the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis; and (3) the specific strategies utilized to deal with this crisis. Assesses the nuclear industry's public relations efforts. (MS)

  6. Nuclear Power for Catalonia: The Role of the Official Chamber of Industry of Barcelona, 1953-1962

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salom, Francesc X. Barca

    2005-01-01

    Between 1939 and 1959, the regime led by General Franco pursued a policy of economic self-sufficiency. This policy inflicted great injury on Spanish science and industry, not least in Catalonia, and in its capital, Barcelona. In response, Catalan industry looked to a future made more promising by the advent of nuclear power. This paper describes…

  7. Current practices for risk zoning around nuclear power plants in comparison to other industry sectors.

    PubMed

    Kirchsteiger, Christian

    2006-08-25

    This paper analyses the background and current status of the information basis leading to the definition of risk and emergency zones around nuclear power plants (NPPs) in different countries in Europe and beyond. Although dependable plant-specific probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of level 2 and/or level 3 could in principle provide sufficiently detailed input to define the geographical dimension of a NPP's risk and emergency zones, the analysis of the status in some European and other countries shows that other, "deterministic" approaches using a reference accident are actually used in practice. Regarding use of level 2 PSA for emergency planning, the approach so far has been to use the level 2 PSA information retrospectively to provide the justification for the choice of reference accident(s) used to define the emergency plans and emergency planning zones (EPZs). There are significant differences in the EPZs that are defined in different countries, ranging from a few up to 80km. There is a striking contrast in the extent of using probabilistic information to define emergency zones between the nuclear and other high risk industry sectors, such as the chemical process industry, and the reasons for these differences are not entirely clear, since the risk of chemical industry is similar as that of the nuclear sector. The differences seem to be more related to risk perception than to the actual risk potential. Therefore, there is a strong need to be able to communicate risk information to the Public both before and following an accident. In addition, there is a need to educate the Public so that they can understand risk information in a comparative sense. Finally, based on the consensus discussions at a recent JRC/OECD International Seminar on Risk and Emergency Zoning around NPPs, a set of recommendations is given in the areas of: -a more comprehensive use of the available risk information for risk zoning purposes, -risk communication; -comparative (energy) risk

  8. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  9. Measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in various metal ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan and estimation of dose received by workers handling them.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tagami, Keiko; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2009-11-01

    Natural resources such as ores and rocks contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If these resources contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the radioactive activity in these resources. In this study, concentrations of radioactive nuclides in Th, Zr, Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan were investigated. The concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while those of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (40)K were determined by gamma-ray spectrum. We found the concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series, and (40)K in Ti, Mo, Mn, Al, W, Zn, V, and Cr ores to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide. The doses received by workers handling these materials were estimated by using methods for dose assessment given in a report by the European Commission. In transport, indoor storage, and outdoor storage scenarios, an effective dose due to the use of Th ore was above 4.3 x 10(-2)Sv y(-1), which was higher than that of the other ores. The maximum value of effective doses for other ores was estimated to be about 4.5 x 10(-4)Sv y(-1), which was lower than intervention exemption levels (1.0 x 10(-3)Sv y(-1)) given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:19703725

  10. Status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Innovative energy technology is considered to be one of the key solutions for meeting the challenges of climate change and energy security, which is why global leaders are focusing on enhancing energy technology R&D. In accordance with the global movements to accelerate energy R&D, the Korean government has made significant investments in a broad spectrum of energy R&D programs, including energy efficiency, resources, CCS, new and renewable energy, power generation and electricity delivery, nuclear power and nuclear waste management. In order to manage government sponsored energy R&D programs in an efficient and effective way, the government established the Korea Institute of Energy technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) in 2009. Main activities of KETEP include developing energy technology roadmaps, planning, evaluating, and managing R&D programs, fostering experts in the field of energy, promoting international cooperation programs, gathering and analyzing energy statistics, and supporting infrastructure and commercialization. KETEP assists the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in developing national R&D strategies while also working with researchers, universities, national institutes and the private sector for their successful energy technology and deployment. This presentation consists of three parts. First, I will introduce the characteristics of energy trends and mix in Korea. Then, I'll speak about the related national R&D strategies of energy technology. Finally, I'll finish up with the status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea. The development of the on-line structural integrity monitoring systems and the related techniques in Korean nuclear power plant for the purpose of condition based maintenance is introduced. The needs of NDT techniques for inspection and condition monitoring for GEN IV including SFR, small module reactor etc., are also discussed.

  11. Development of Asset Fault Signatures for Prognostic and Health Management in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2014-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: Diagnostic Advisor, Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and Remaining Useful Life Database. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures to assess the health status of generator step-up generators and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. At the most basic level, fault signatures are comprised of an asset type, a fault type, and a set of one or more fault features (symptoms) that are indicative of the specified fault. The AFS Database is populated with asset fault signatures via a content development exercise that is based on the results of intensive technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  12. In vitro dissolution of respirable aerosols of industrial uranium and plutonium mixed-oxide nuclear fuels.

    PubMed

    Eidson, A F; Mewhinney, J A

    1983-12-01

    Dissolution characteristics of mixed-oxide nuclear fuels are important considerations for prediction of biological behavior of inhaled particles. Four representative industrial mixed-oxide powders were obtained from fuel fabrication enclosures. Studies of the dissolution of Pu, Am and U from aerosol particles of these materials in a serum simulant solution and in 0.1M HCl showed: (1) dissolution occurred at a rapid rate initially and slowed at longer times, (2) greater percentages of U dissolved than Pu or Am: with the dissolution rates of U and Pu generally reflecting the physical nature of the UO2-PuO2 matrix, (3) the temperature history of industrial mixed-oxides could not be reliably related to Pu dissolution except for a 3-5% increase when incorporated into a solid solution by sintering at 1750 degrees C, and (4) dissolution in the serum simulant agreed with the in vivo UO2 dissolution rate and suggested the dominant role of mechanical processes in PuO2 clearance from the lung. The rapid initial dissolution rate was shown to be related, in part, to an altered surface layer. The advantages and uses of in vitro solubility data for estimation of biological behavior of inhaled industrial mixed oxides, such as assessing the use of chelation therapy and interpretation of urinary excretion data, are discussed. It was concluded that in vitro solubility tests were useful, simple and easily applied to individual materials potentially inhaled by humans. PMID:6643070

  13. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  14. A cohort mortality study and a case-control study of workers potentially exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1990-01-01

    The cohort consisted of 15,908 men and women who worked for at least six months between 1948 and 1977 in 30 participating manufacturing plants in the reinforced plastics and composites industry. These workers were occupationally exposed to the working environment in the industry, which included exposure to styrene. Cause specific mortality analyses were performed based on the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) with the United States population as a comparison. No significant excess of cause specific mortality was found for the total cohort. Mortality from cancer was slightly less than expected (SMR = 88.1). For cancer of the respiratory system, a small non-significant excess was detected (SMR = 116.1). For lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer, a non-significant deficit was found (SMR = 73.3). The observed mortality from leukaemia was similar to that expected (five observed v 4.76 expected deaths). The plants with hot processes (injection moulding, centrifugal casting, compression moulding, continuous lamination, and pultrusion) experienced a significantly increased SMR (177.9) for respiratory cancer, which was more than twice that (78.3) for those with cold processes (resin mixing, lay up and spray up, bag moulding, and filament winding). As potential exposure to styrene from hot processes is considerably less than that from the cold processes, this finding could not be attributed to occupational exposures. A subsequent nested case-control study consisting of 40 cases of deaths from respiratory cancer was conducted. Further information on detailed work history, occupational exposures, and smoking history was collected. The case-control study did not show any significant association between respiratory cancer and direct exposure to styrene (contained in polyester resins), duration of exposure to styrene, the type of process (hot or cold), or whether a resin was used. A statistically significant association (relative risk = 7.33) was found between cigarette smoking

  15. A cohort mortality study and a case-control study of workers potentially exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry.

    PubMed

    Wong, O

    1990-11-01

    The cohort consisted of 15,908 men and women who worked for at least six months between 1948 and 1977 in 30 participating manufacturing plants in the reinforced plastics and composites industry. These workers were occupationally exposed to the working environment in the industry, which included exposure to styrene. Cause specific mortality analyses were performed based on the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) with the United States population as a comparison. No significant excess of cause specific mortality was found for the total cohort. Mortality from cancer was slightly less than expected (SMR = 88.1). For cancer of the respiratory system, a small non-significant excess was detected (SMR = 116.1). For lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer, a non-significant deficit was found (SMR = 73.3). The observed mortality from leukaemia was similar to that expected (five observed v 4.76 expected deaths). The plants with hot processes (injection moulding, centrifugal casting, compression moulding, continuous lamination, and pultrusion) experienced a significantly increased SMR (177.9) for respiratory cancer, which was more than twice that (78.3) for those with cold processes (resin mixing, lay up and spray up, bag moulding, and filament winding). As potential exposure to styrene from hot processes is considerably less than that from the cold processes, this finding could not be attributed to occupational exposures. A subsequent nested case-control study consisting of 40 cases of deaths from respiratory cancer was conducted. Further information on detailed work history, occupational exposures, and smoking history was collected. The case-control study did not show any significant association between respiratory cancer and direct exposure to styrene (contained in polyester resins), duration of exposure to styrene, the type of process (hot or cold), or whether a resin was used. A statistically significant association (relative risk = 7.33) was found between cigarette smoking

  16. Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  17. Self-reported Occupational Exposures Relevant for Cancer among 28,000 Offshore Oil Industry Workers Employed between 1965 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Stenehjem, Jo S; Friesen, Melissa C; Eggen, Tone; Kjærheim, Kristina; Bråtveit, Magne; Grimsrud, Tom K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine self-reported frequency of occupational exposure reported by 28,000 Norwegian offshore oil workers in a 1998 survey. Predictors of self-reported exposure frequency were identified to aid future refinements of an expert-based job-exposure-time matrix (JEM). We focus here on reported frequencies for skin contact with oil and diesel; exposure to oil vapor from shaker, to exhaust fumes, vapor from mixing chemicals used for drilling, natural gas, chemicals used for water injection and processing, and to solvent vapor. Exposure frequency was reported by participants as the exposed proportion of the work shift, defined by six categories, in their current or last position offshore (between 1965 and 1999). Binary Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine the probabilities of reporting frequent exposure (≥¼ vs. <¼ of work shift) according to main activity, time period, supervisory position, type of company, type of installation, work schedule, and education. Holding a non-supervisory position, working shifts, being employed in the early period of the offshore industry, and having only compulsory education increased the probability of reporting frequent exposure. The identified predictors and group-level patterns may aid future refinement of the JEM previously developed for the present cohort. PMID:25671393

  18. Worker Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

  19. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  20. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  1. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings from this study will help to

  2. New Applications of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rob Henry; Dagmar Koller; Phil Marriott

    1998-12-31

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) complements the traditional methods of quantitation of radioactive isotopes. Because of the favorable ionization potential of most actinides and their daughter products, the argon plasma provides a rich, stable source of ions, which are introduced through a plasma-mass spectrometer interface into the mass spectrometer for isotopic separation. Samples are normally introduced in solution, although direct solids analysis has also been achieved using laser ablation of the sample into the argon plasma. Since 1983, improvements in ICP-MS sensitivity have resulted in correspondingly lower mass detection capability. This development has in turn expanded the number of isotopes accessible to measurement at the levels required in the nuclear industry.

  3. Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management at Chernobyle Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ahner, S.; Fomin, V. V.

    2002-02-26

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) an Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) will be built under the EC TACIS Program in the vicinity of ChNPP. The paper will present the proposed concepts and their integration into existing buildings and installations. Further, the paper will consider the safety cases, as well as the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian regulations and licensing requirements. The paper will provide information on the status of the interim design and the effects of value engineering on the output of basic design phase. The paper therefor summarizes the design results of the involved design engineers of the Design and Process Providers BNFL (LOT 1), RWE NUKEM GmbH (LOT 2 and General) and INITEC (LOT 3).

  4. Interdisciplinary studies on the development of nuclear-fueled circulatory support systems: Collaboration of industry and academe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to acquaint the Houston community with specific areas of available technology, both public and private, to demonstrate to industry how this technology may be acquired and put to use to provide new and useful services for man. Much of the technology utilized in the development of nuclear-fueled circulatory support systems in our laboratories has evolved from industry, NASA, and AEC; our projects involve radiation biology, thermodynamics, energy transfers, hemodynamics, hematology, pathology, and surgery.

  5. The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, S. J.

    This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

  6. Development of irradiation capabilities to address the challenges of the nuclear industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leay, L.; Bower, W.; Horne, G.; Wady, P.; Baidak, A.; Pottinger, M.; Nancekievill, M.; Smith, A. D.; Watson, S.; Green, P. R.; Lennox, B.; LaVerne, J. A.; Pimblott, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    With the announcement of the U.K. new nuclear build and the requirement to decommission old facilities, researchers require bespoke facilities to undertake experiments to inform decision making. This paper describes development of The University of Manchester's Dalton Cumbrian Facility, a custom built research environment which incorporates a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator as well as a self-shielded 60Co irradiator. The ion accelerator allows the investigation into the radiolytic consequences of various charged particles, including protons, alpha particles and a variety of heavier (metal and nonmetal) ions, while the 60Co irradiator allows the effects of gamma radiation to be studied. Some examples of work carried out at the facility are presented to demonstrate how this equipment can improve our mechanistic understanding of various aspects of the deleterious effects of radiation in the nuclear industry. These examples include applications in waste storage and reprocessing as well as geological storage and novel surveying techniques. The outlook for future research is also discussed.

  7. An evolution of technologies and applications of gamma imagers in the nuclear cycle industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, R. A.; Menaa, N.; De Toro, D.; Varet, T.

    2011-07-01

    The tracking of radiation contamination and distribution has become a high priority in the nuclear cycle industry in order to respect the ALARA principle which is a main challenge during decontamination and dismantling activities. To support this need, AREVA/CANBERRA and CEA LIST have been actively carrying out research and development on a gamma-radiation imager. In this paper we will present the new generation of gamma camera, called GAMPIX. This system is based on the Timepix chip, hybridized with a CdTe substrate. A coded mask could be used in order to increase the sensitivity of the camera. Moreover, due to the USB connection with a standard computer, this gamma camera is immediately operational and user-friendly. The final system is a very compact gamma camera (global weight is less than 1 kg without any shielding) which could be used as a hand-held device for radioprotection purposes. In this article, we present the main characteristics of this new generation of gamma camera and we expose experimental results obtained during in situ measurements. Even though we present preliminary results the final product is under industrialization phase to address various applications specifications. (authors)

  8. Methods and practices used in incident analysis in the Finnish nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Suksi, Seija

    2004-07-26

    Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VTT) on request of STUK at the end of 1990s. The study aimed at providing a broad overview and suggestions for improvement of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. The results and suggestions of the research are reviewed in the paper and the corrective actions implemented in event investigation and operating experience procedures both at STUK and at utilities are discussed as well. STUK has developed its own procedure for the risk-informed analysis of nuclear power plant events. The PSA based event analysis method is used to assess the safety significance and importance measures associated with the unavailability of components and systems subject to Technical Specifications. The insights from recently performed PSA based analyses are also briefly discussed in the paper. PMID:15231350

  9. Worker-Directed Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

  10. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  11. Dislocated Worker Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1988

    Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

  12. Women Workers' History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

    This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

  13. Persistence of decreased T-helper cell function in industrial workers 20 years after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Tonn, T; Esser, C; Schneider, E M; Steinmann-Steiner-Haldenstätt, W; Gleichmann, E

    1996-04-01

    In experimentally exposed animals 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-n-dioxin (TCDD) causes severe immunosuppression. However, the overall susceptibility of humans for the different pathological effects of TCDD has remained unclear. We examined the long-term effects of TCDD in 11 industrial workers who were exposed to high doses of TCDD for several years 20 years ago. Current TCDD body burdens were still at least 10 times higher (between 43 and 874 pg/g blood far) in these exposed persons than in the average German population. To evaluate possible TCDD-induced changes in the percentage of different lymphocyte subsets, we determined a large panel of lymphocyte subsets in the blood by flow cytometric analysis. Immunocompetence of T-and B-lymphocytes was tested by nitrogen (phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen)- induced lymphoproliferation assays and by assays using sensitive mixed-lymphocyte cultures. No significant differences could be detected between the individuals tested and controls for surface marker distribution or mitogen-induced lymphoproliferation TCDD-exposed subjects showed a reduced response to human lymphocyte antigen-allogeneic lymphocytes and interleukin-2-boosted proliferation. Responder cells of the dioxin-exposed persons proliferated less in response to irradiated stimulator cells (p < or = 0.05), and the third-party mixed lymphocyte reaction against unirradiated stimulator cells revealed suppressive activity in the responder cell fraction compared to the controls (p < or = 0.01). Furthermore, the capacity of a pool of T cells isolated from TCDD-exposed subjects to proliferate upon interleukin-2 stimulation was significantly diminished (p < or = 0.05). TCDD has a long-term immunosuppressive-effect on T-helper cell function, which is mediated more likely by a reduced functionality of individual cells rather than by a reduction in absolute cell numbers in the peripheral blood. PMID:8732953

  14. Radiological surveillance of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers: rates and risk factors of benign changes on chest X-ray and MDCT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asbestos-related changes on chest X-ray (CXR) and low-dose multidetector-row CT (MDCT) of the thorax in a cohort of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers and to assess the importance of common risk factors associated with specific radiological changes. Methods To assess the influence of selected risk factors (age, time since first exposure, exposure duration, cumulative exposure and pack years) on typical asbestos-related radiographic changes, we employed multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results On CXR, pleural changes and asbestosis were strongly associated with age, years since first exposure and exposure duration. The MDCT results showed an association between asbestosis and age and between plaques and exposure duration, years since first exposure and cumulative exposure. Parenchymal changes on CXR and MDCT, and diffuse pleural thickening on CXR were both associated with smoking. Using a cut-off of 55 years for age, 17 years for exposure duration and 28 years for latency, benign radiological changes in the cohort with CXR could be predicted with a sensitivity of 82.0% for all of the three variables and a specificity of 47.4%, 39.0% and 40.6%, respectively. Conclusions Participants aged 55 years and older and those with an asbestos exposure of at least 17 years or 28 years since first exposure should be seen as having an increased risk of abnormal radiological findings. For implementing a more focused approach the routine use of low-dose MDCT rather than CXR at least for initial examinations would be justified. PMID:24808921

  15. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Fry, S A; Wiggs, L D; Voelz, G L; Cragle, D L; Petersen, G R

    1989-10-01

    An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks. PMID:2798781

  16. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Fry, S.A.; Wiggs, L.D.; Voelz, G.L.; Cragle, D.L.; Petersen, G.R. )

    1989-10-01

    An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks.

  17. [Analysis of the connection between the level of protein fractions and immunoglobulins in blood serum with irradiation in nuclear power enterprise workers].

    PubMed

    Tel'nov, V I

    1996-01-01

    989 workers of atomic industry at the age from 35 to 78 years old subjected to the general external gamma radiation and incorporation of plutonium 239 in a wide range of doses about 17-40 years ago have been examined for the protein indices with the radiation effect bearing in mind nine non-radiation factors. The step-by-step regression analysis revealed a positive linear link for the total protein level, absolute content of alpha-I-globulins with the total dose of external gamma radiation. Increasing of serum proteins entropy, correlated with external radiation by protein shifts effect, had not coincided with its age increasing. The influence of plutonium-239 incorporation on the examined protein parameters was not found. PMID:9254521

  18. Investigation of the entry characteristics of dust samplers of a type used in the British nuclear industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, D.; Vincent, J. H.; Stevens, D. C.; Marshall, M.

    Experiments have been carried out in a large wind tunnel to investigate the entry characteristics of dust samplers—both static and personal—of the type used to monitor 'total' airborne radioactive paniculate in the British nuclear industry. These samplers were exposed to test dusts of closely-graded fused alumina under experimental conditions relevant to the environmental conditions found in nuclear industry workplaces. For the static samplers (60-mm open face filter holders), performance was determined by reference to a 10-mm isokinetic probe. The resultant aspiration efficiency ( A) was found to be close to unity for the range of environmental conditions found in the nuclear industry workplace and for particles with aerodynamic diameter up to about 30 μm. Also it is unaffected by mounting the sampler itself on the large bluff body of the sampling pump. The performances of the personal samplers (of the 25-mm filter holder type) were assessed in terms of the ratio ( R) between the mass of dust entering each personal sampler when worn on the body of a mannequin and that entering the mouth of the mannequin under simulated breathing. The results show that, for nuclear industry workplace conditions, the personal samplers reflect satisfactorily the health-related 'total' dust exposure of the wearer.

  19. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  20. Ethical requirements for occupational health research--compliance arrangements for a single company in relation to a recent major nuclear industry study.

    PubMed

    Kalman, C J

    1999-05-01

    The media coverage given to occupational health studies in the field of ionizing radiation has, on occasion, been the cause of very real distress to radiation workers and their families. In response to this situation the Chief Medical Officers of the major UK nuclear companies developed an ethical policy for future involvement in research, based on the duty of care which researchers owe to a key customer of such studies: the worker. The policy consists of four principal elements: medical confidentiality; worker information; worker consent and the guarantee of the availability to the workers of pre-publication knowledge of the results. The policy issued in 1991/92 has achieved growing acceptance among researchers and medical journals, though the medical officers involved have been aware of some scepticism, particularly in relation to the practicalities of the dissemination of pre-publication information. The Record Linkage Study published in November 1997 marked a major piece of research work involving data from 120,000 radiation workers that had been carried out since the development of the policy. This paper reports on the successful compliance arrangements to meet the ethical requirements of that study within a single UK nuclear company, and is published to demonstrate that with commitment from researchers, the journal and occupational health staff such ethical requirements, and particularly the need for pre-publication information can be met in full. PMID:10474912

  1. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  2. Applications of high resolution ICP-AES in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.G.; Giglio, J.J.; Goodall, P.S.; Cummings, D.G.

    1998-07-01

    Application of high resolution ICP-AES to selected problems of importance in the nuclear industry is a growing field. The advantages in sample preparation time, waste minimization and equipment cost are considerable. Two examples of these advantages are presented in this paper, burnup analysis of spent fuel and analysis of major uranium isotopes. The determination of burnup, an indicator of fuel cycle efficiency, has been accomplished by the determination of {sup 139}La by high resolution inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (HR-ICP-AES). Solutions of digested samples of reactor fuel rods were introduced into a shielded glovebox housing an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and the resulting atomic emission transmitted to a high resolution spectrometer by a 31 meter fiber optic bundle. Total and isotopic U determination by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is presented to allow for the calculation of burnup for the samples. This method of burnup determination reduces the time, material, sample handling and waste generated associated with typical burnup determinations which require separation of lanthanum from the other fission products with high specific activities. Work concerning an alternative burnup indicator, {sup 236}U, is also presented for comparison. The determination of {sup 235}U:{sup 238}U isotope ratios in U-Zr fuel alloys is also presented to demonstrate the versatility of HR-ICP-AES.

  3. A Review of Human Reliability Needs in the U.S. Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2015-08-01

    In this survey, 34 subject matter experts from the U.S. nuclear industry were interviewed to determine specific needs for human reliability analysis (HRA). Conclusions from the interviews are detailed in this article. A summary of the findings includes: (1) The need for improved guidance on the use of HRA methods generally and for specific applications. (2) The need for additional training in HRA to provide more hands-on experience in the application of HRA methods. (3) Thedevelopment of HRA approaches suitable for advanced reactors, severe accident situations, and low-power and shutdown applications. (4) The refinement of HRA methods to account forfactors such as crew variability, latent errors, more sophisticated dependency modeling, and errors of commission. (5) The continued need for simplified HRA methods appropriate for field applications. (6) The need for tighter coupling of HRA and human factors. (7) The need for improvements in the quantitative basis of HRA methods. These findings suggest the field of HRA is mature but still benefits from refinements.

  4. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  5. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  6. Impact of the new nuclear decay data of ICRP publication 107 on inhalation dose coefficients for workers

    SciTech Connect

    Manabe, K.; Endo, Akira; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-03-01

    The impact a revision of nuclear decay data had on dose coefficients was studied using data newly published in ICRP Publication 107 (ICRP 107) and existing data from ICRP Publication 38 (ICRP 38). Committed effective dose coefficients for occupational inhalation of radionuclides were calculated using two sets of decay data with the dose and risk calculation software DCAL for 90 elements, 774 nuclides and 1572 cases. The dose coefficients based on ICRP 107 increased by over 10 % compared with those based on ICRP 38 in 98 cases, and decreased by over 10 % in 54 cases. It was found that the differences in dose coefficients mainly originated from changes in the radiation energy emitted per nuclear transformation. In addition, revisions of the half-lives, radiation types and decay modes also resulted in changes in the dose coefficients.

  7. Innovative 3D and 4D geological interpretation, modelling and visualisation techniques for subsurface characterisation of complex industrial sites - examples in the UK nuclear industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicholas; Shevelan, John; Hodgetts, David; Head, William

    2013-04-01

    Industrial sites are typically complex, with numerous plants within their (often) relatively small footprint. The 'cramped' nature of these sites means that the geological characterisation that is essential to the development of environmental safety cases may be hampered by a lack of access to exposures, if they exist at all. Due to access limitations and potential for ground vibration affecting key plants, geophysical data are typically limited to those gathered from lower resolution surveys (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography) rather than those gathered from more informative vibroseis seismic reflection surveys. Thus, whilst many industrial sites may possess numerous intrusive boreholes (Sellafield, perhaps the UK's most complex industrial site, has over 3000), there is a lack of ties to either high resolution geophysical data, or important regional lithostratigraphic data provided by exposure of key sequences. This poses a conundrum: the hydrogeological 3D and 4D numerical models required to show the predicted migration paths of potential contamination within the subsurface require the best geological understanding possible, yet without high resolution geophysical data or geological exposure within the sites themselves geological interpretation is often restricted to attempting to correlate between boreholes that may be tens to hundreds of metres apart and only a few metres deep, which one could assume may not provide a good geological understanding. In this paper, using examples from the nuclear industry, we describe how the use of outcrop analogues and innovative GIS-based, 3D/4D geological interpretation, characterisation, modelling and visualisation techniques goes some way to addressing these issues. Regional outcrops of Triassic sandstone and unconsolidated Quaternary sequences are ideal analogues for unexposed sequences underlying key nuclear sites in West Cumbria (UK), providing important sedimentological (and depositional), lithostratigraphic and

  8. Comparison of hearing loss in the first year of employment in workers assigned to noise-hazard and non-noise-hazard areas at the state prison industries.

    PubMed

    Brown, C R

    1982-01-01

    Experience in hearing loss at Utah State Prison in noise-hazard and non-noise-hazard areas suggested a matched-pair study of these two groups. The study of noise induced hearing loss and its relation to age has become more and more of scientific and economic interest in the past few years. Since the creation of OSHA and the enforcement of its standards, great strides have been undertaken at USP to protect the worker in noise areas, with both noise abatement and hearing protection. The need became apparent for a measurement of this progress and a comparison on hearing loss between the two worker groups. A retrospective chart study was designed utilizing one hundred pairs of workers matched for age, sex and initial hearing loss. The results suggest no significant difference between the two groups during one year of exposure. PMID:7055083

  9. Slimhole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging While Drilling - A New Service for the Oil Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Gerhard; Thern, Holger; Blanz, Martin; Kruspe, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    A 6.75 inch tool size was previously thought to be the smallest size in which a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurement could be made in Logging While Drilling (LWD) applications. Requests from the industry, especially in more complex and deeper environments, presented a need for NMR technology in a 4.75 inch tool size. To meet that need we have made changes in both the electronics and the mechanical design. Recent measurements show that the data quality from the smaller tool is comparable to that from the well established 6.75 in tool. The capability to cover a wide hole size range with NMR is an important step to establish this technology as a standard formation evaluation measurement. The sensitive volume is a 0.7 liter toroid encircling the centralized 4.75 in tool having a nominal diameter of 9.5 inch. The vertical resolution is similar for both tool sizes and depending, amongst other things, on the rate of penetration and running average. The tool concept consequently avoids motion artifacts and enables the tool to measure T2 echo trains. This is especially important in while-drilling applications, where the drill string dynamics often causes tool motion relative to the formation. A low magnetic field gradient of 2.5 Gauss/cm, a short inter-echo time of 0.6 ms, and optimized drillstring stabilization are paramount for this concept. Mud pulse telemetry has been considered to be a bottleneck for LWD NMR data for a long time. An additional feature introduced with the new slimhole NMR LWD is the transmission of whole echo-trains in compressed data format. The possibility of sending compressed NMR data uphole via mud pulse telemetry can provide complete petrophysical information in real-time. This supports quick decisions while drilling, and is important in reducing drilling costs. Reliable answers for a variety of client objectives like tar detection, viscosity estimation, and porosity measurements have already been successfully provided. In case histories

  10. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length. PMID:27340887

  11. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, C.; Lee, S.; Chopra, O.K.; Ma, D.C.; Shack, W.J.

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal.

  12. Preparation and characterization of (10)B boric acid with high purity for nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiang; Liu, Tianyu; Xu, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid is often added into coolant as neutron capture agent for pressurized water reactor, whose amount is influenced by its abundance and purity. Therefore, the preparation of enriched (10)B boric acid with high purity is beneficial to nuclear industry. (10)B is also used in developing tumor-specific boronated drugs in boron neutron capture therapy. The boronated drug can be administered to patient intravenously, intratumorally, or deposited at tumor site in surgical excision. Thus, enriched (10)B boric acid is of practical significance in the field of medicine. Self-made boron trifluoride-methanol-complex solution was selected as one of the experimental reagents, and the preparation of (10)B acid was realized by one-step reaction for the complexes with water and calcium chloride. The determination of electrical conductivity in reaction process proves that the optimum reaction time was 16-20 h. Furthermore, the effect of reaction time, ratio of calcium chloride to complex as well as the amount of water on the purity and yield of boric acid was investigated. Finally, the optimum reaction time was 20 h, the optimal solid-liquid ratio (molar ratio) was 3:1, and the amount of water was 1 L of deionized water for each mol of the complex. H2O2 was added in the reaction process to remove Fe(2+). After recrystallization, IR spectra of (10)B boric acid was measured and compared with standard to verify the product of boric acid. The feasibility of the preparation method was determined by the detection of XRD of boric acid. To observe the morphology by polarizing microscope, crystal structure was obtained. The purity of the final product is 99.95 %, and the yield is 96.47 %. The ion concentration of boric acid accords with the national standard of high purity, which was determined by ICP. PMID:27516940

  13. Measurement of 238U and 232Th in Petrol, Gas-oil and Lubricant Samples by Using Nuclear Track Detectors and Resulting Radiation Doses to the Skin of Mechanic Workers.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Chaouqi, A; Ouguidi, J; Touti, R; Mortassim, A

    2015-10-01

    Workers in repair shops of vehicles (cars, buses, truck, etc.) clean carburetors, check fuel distribution, and perform oil changes and greasing. To explore the exposure pathway of (238)U and (232)Th and its decay products to the skin of mechanic workers, these radionuclides were measured inside petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant material samples by means of CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), and corresponding annual committed equivalent doses to skin were determined. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the (238)U and (232)Th series from the application of different petrol, gas-oil, and lubricant samples by mechanic workers was found equal to 1.2 mSv y(-1) cm(-2). PMID:26313584

  14. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  15. [Ionizing radiation in the aeronautics industry. Non-destructive testing].

    PubMed

    La Verde, R; Travaglini, C

    1983-08-25

    The constant increase in the non-military use of nuclear energy in various fields induced this study of one particular field: the aero industry. Alitalia has been using gammagraphy and industrial metallography for nondestructive testing for over 20 years. Workers exposed to ionising radiations at work are protected by precisely detailed standards based on extremely rigorous national and international legislation. The health and protection of these workers is entrusted to a Company Doctor and a Qualified Specialist. The latter is thought to be indispensable since he is responsible for primary preventions as well as prompt diagnosis. PMID:6866316

  16. Value-Added Workers Earn Less, Have Less Education Than Other Rural Manufacturing Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate that value-added industries, which tend to use raw lumber and agricultural products as inputs, employed one-third of all rural manufacturing workers in 1996. Compared to other rural manufacturing workers, value-added workers generally had lower occupational status, less education, and lower incomes, and were…

  17. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tsareva, Y; Deltour, I; Sokolnikov, M; Okatenko, P; Vostrotin, V V; Schonfeld, S J; Schüz, J

    2016-08-01

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases. PMID:27056719

  18. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the industrial work assignment. Copies shall be sent to the unit team. Inmate workers should... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  19. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736

  20. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers: Flowcytometry Measurements of T, B, NK and NKT Cells.

    PubMed

    Gyuleva, Ilona; Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant "Kozloduy", Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100-200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  1. Risks on the job: the worker's right to know

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, M.

    1981-11-01

    The third in a series exploring the differences in protection from hazards given to workers and to the general public, this article asks whether workers are, in fact, informed about, able, and willing to undertake risks and explores the question of what constitutes adequate knowledge about workplace hazards. The right to know continues to be controversial, with Connecticut passing the first law in 1980 requiring employers to inform workers about risks. The three hazardous industries of nuclear power, lead smelting and refining, and lead-acid battery manufacture, and the manufacture and formulation of pesticides are singled out for an examination of how and when workers are informed. Two essential ingredients of an adequate educational and training program are the attitude of management and the allocation of sufficient resources to implement the commitment to inform employees. A comparison among the industries indicates that carefully developed and specific regulations implemented in an atmosphere of shared responsibility are the most effective approach, but present politically-motivated deregulation efforts could introduce new risks. 38 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Industry briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: President Bush signs Radiation Victim Compensation Act; Japan Nuclear Fuel Completes construction of Rokkasho Enrichment Plant; Japanese vapor laser achieves 5% enrichment; US to cooperate with Hungary and Czechoslovakia on nuclear power; Soviet Union may reopen nuclear station in Armenia; despite earthquake concerns; and Japan`s Kashiwazak; Kaviwa - 2 begins commercial operation.

  3. Fitness for duty in the Nuclear Power Industry. Annual summary of program performance reports CY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, C.; Forslund, C.; Field, I.; Gutierrez, J.; Durbin, N.; Grant, T.; Moffitt, R.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the data from the semiannual reports on fitness-for-duty programs submitted to the NRC by utilities for two reporting periods: January 1 through June 30, 1993, and July 1 through December 31, 1993. During 1993, licensees reported that they had conducted 242,966 tests for the presence of illegal drugs and alcohol. Of these tests, 1,512 (.62%) were confirmed positive. Positive test results varied by category of test and category of worker. The majority of positive test results (952) were obtained through pre-access testing. Of tests conducted on workers having access to the protected area, there were 341 positive tests from random testing and 163 positive tests from for-cause testing. Follow-up testing of workers who had previously tested positive resulted in 56 positive tests. For-cause testing resulted in the highest percentage of positive tests; about 22 percent of for-cause tests were positive. This compares with a positive test rate of 1.04 percent of pre-access tests and .23 percent of random tests. Positive test rates also varied by category of worker. When all types of tests are combined (pre-access, random, for-cause, and follow-up testing), short-term contractor personnel had the highest positive test rate at.97 percent. Licensee employees and long-term contractors had lower combined positive test rates (.25% and .21%, respectively). Of the substances tested, marijuana was responsible for the highest percentage of positive test results (49.56%), followed by cocaine (23.41 %) and alcohol (22.65%).

  4. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices. PMID:24453922

  5. The Bavarian Model? Modernization, Environment, and Landscape Planning in the Bavarian Nuclear Power Industry, 1950--1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Russell Lowell

    Perhaps no state in the Federal Republic of Germany witnessed a more pronounced state sponsored modernization effort than Bavaria, 1950-1980. This vast transformation, particularly in the field of nuclear energy, required a continuous negotiation of landscape planning between state officials, scientists, and ordinary citizens. While ordinary Bavarians had little input in the technical or scientific aspects of the nuclear industry, they could shape the landscape policy, by offering environmental and cultural criticism on specific locations for reactors. Using material from the Bavarian State Archives (some, from the 1970s, only recently declassified), this dissertation compares the Bavarian landscape disputes over nuclear facilities in the nineteen-fifties with those featured in the widespread anti-nuclear demonstrations of the nineteen-seventies. As one of the few English language studies on the topic, this dissertation suggests considerably more continuity in landscape disputes than previous scholarship and offers a fresh look into the migration of skepticism towards the landscape use of nuclear power from political right to left over the course of thirty years.

  6. ASSESSING CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM A FILTERPRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical releases and worker exposures associated with the filtration of an industrial wastewater sludge were characterized. The filter was a recessed chamber filter press with an open filtrate discharge system. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a selected chemical were ...

  7. SAF: the next generation process for radiotoxic material handling in the nuclear fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Graham, R.A.

    1984-07-19

    In 1980 the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project was established with the goal to design, build, and operate a remote process for manufacturing breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be housed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the Hanford site. The fabrication system and supporting operations are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. In addition to improved worker protection, remote and automated fuel fabrication operations will result in enhanced safeguards and accountability of fuel material, improved product quality, and increased productivity. Installation of the SAF line equipment has started. Qualification runs are scheduled to begin in 1986 with production commencing in 1987.

  8. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry. Annual summary of program performance reports

    SciTech Connect

    Silbernagel, M.; Brichoux, J.; Durbin, N.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the data from the semiannual reports on fitness-for-duty programs submitted to the NRC by utilities for two reporting periods: January 1-June 30, 1995, and July 1 -December 31, 1995. During 1995, licensees reported that they had conducted 150,121 tests for the presence of illegal drugs and alcohol. Of these tests, 1,476 (.98%) were confirmed positive. The majority of positive test results (1, 122) were obtained through pre-access testing. Of tests conducted on workers having access to the protected area, there were 180 positive tests from random testing and 139 positive tests from for-cause testing. Follow-up testing of workers who had previously tested positive resulted in 35 positive tests. For-cause testing resulted in the highest percentage of positive tests; about 18 percent of for-cause tests were positive. This compares with a positive test rate of 1.41 percent of pre-access tests and .27 percent of random tests. The positive test rate for workers with unescorted access was .50 percent. Positive test rates also varied by category of worker. When all types of tests are combined, short-term contractor personnel had the highest positive test rate at 1.44 percent. Licensee employees and long-term contractors had lower combined positive test rates (.34% and .40%, respectively). Of the substances tested, marijuana was responsible for the highest percentage of positive test results (53.08%), followed by cocaine (24.24%) and alcohol (17.17%). The overall positive test rate for 1995 (.98%) was higher than in 1994 (.84%). Several factors had an impact on the positive test rate across test categories for 1994 and 1995 compared to previous years. These factors include the NRC`s reduction in the mandatory random testing rate from 100 percent to 50 percent, effective in 1994, and initiatives by licensees such as lowered marijuana screening cutoff levels and reported improvements in licensees ability to detect subversion of the process.

  9. Opening Doors of Opportunity to Develop the Future Nuclear Workforce - 13325

    SciTech Connect

    Mets, Mindy

    2013-07-01

    The United States' long-term demand for highly skilled nuclear industry workers is well-documented by the Nuclear Energy Institute. In addition, a study commissioned by the SRS Community Reuse Organization concludes that 10,000 new nuclear workers are needed in the two-state region of Georgia and South Carolina alone. Young adults interested in preparing for these nuclear careers must develop specialized skills and knowledge, including a clear understanding of the nuclear workforce culture. Successful students are able to enter well-paying career fields. However, the national focus on nuclear career opportunities and associated training and education programs has been minimal in recent decades. Developing the future nuclear workforce is a challenge, particularly in the midst of competition for similar workers from various industries. In response to regional nuclear workforce development needs, the SRS Community Reuse Organization established the Nuclear Workforce Initiative (NWI{sup R}) to promote and expand nuclear workforce development capabilities by facilitating integrated partnerships. NWI{sup R} achievements include a unique program concept called NWI{sup R} Academies developed to link students with nuclear career options through firsthand experiences. The academies are developed and conducted at Aiken Technical College and Augusta Technical College with support from workforce development organizations and nuclear employers. Programs successfully engage citizens in nuclear workforce development and can be adapted to other communities focused on building the future nuclear workforce. (authors)

  10. Overview of implementing a project control system in the nuclear utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooprider, D.H. )

    1994-03-01

    During the late 1980s, a metamorphosis began at Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). A strategic step in nuclear engineering's efforts to become more cost effective began in January 1990. A project control department was formed. The initial mission was to provide support for nuclear engineering design activities associated with FPL's two twin-unit nuclear power generation facilities - Turkey Point and St. Lucie. Later, the goal expanded to include the division's materials management, nuclear licensing, and information management departments. The project control group was organized along the lines of the organizations served. Separate dedicated groups were established for each plant. Since most engineering activity was based at the Juno Beach headquarters, the project control staff also was based there.

  11. A characterization of check valve degradation and failure experience in the nuclear power industry: 1984-1990. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.A.; Todd, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    Check valve operating problems in recent years have resulted in significant operating transients, increased cost and decreased system availability. As a result, additional attention has beau given to check valves by utilities (resulting in the formation of the Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group), as well as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Operation and Maintenance Committee. All these organizations have the fundamental goal of ensuring reliable operation of check valves. A key ingredient to an engineering-oriented reliability improvement effort is a thorough understanding of relevant historical experience. A detailed review of historical failure data, available through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation`s Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, has been conducted. The focus of the review is on check valve failures that have involved significant degradation of the valve internal parts. A variety of parameters are considered, including size, age, system of service, method of failure discovery, the affected valve parts, attributed causes, and corrective actions.

  12. Maintenance approaches and practices in selected foreign nuclear power programs and other US industries: Review and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The Commission published a Notice of Proposed Rule-making on Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants on November 28, 1988, spelling out NRC's expectations in maintenance. In preparing the proposed rule, the NRC reviewed maintenance practices in other countries and considered maintenance approaches in other industries in this country. As a result of the review of maintenance practices, it was concluded that certain practices in the following areas have been found to contribute significantly to effective maintenance: (1) systems approach; (2) effectiveness monitoring; (3) technician qualifications and motivation; and (4) maintenance organization. 87 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Nuclear Industry Input to the Development of Concepts for the Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13411

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Chris; Thomas, Ivan; McNiven, Steven; Lanthrum, Gary

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions and its team partners, NAC International, Exelon Nuclear Partners, Talisman International, TerranearPMC, Booz Allen Hamilton and Sargent and Lundy, have carried out a study to develop concepts for a Consolidated Storage Facility (CSF) for the USA's stocks of commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF), and the packaging and transport provisions required to move the UNF to the CSF. The UNF is currently stored at all 65 operating nuclear reactor sites in the US, and at 10 shutdown sites. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy and followed the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), one of which was that the US should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities for commercial UNF. The study showed that viable schemes can be devised to move all UNF and store it at a CSF, but that a range of schemes is required to accommodate the present widely varying UNF storage arrangements. Although most UNF that is currently stored at operating reactor sites is in water-filled pools, a significant amount is now dry stored in concrete casks. At the shutdown sites, the UNF is dry stored at all but two of the ten sites. Various types of UNF dry storage configurations are used at the operating sites and shutdown sites that include vertical storage casks that are also licensed for transportation, vertical casks that are licensed for storage only, and horizontally orientated storage modules. The shutdown sites have limited to nonexistent UNF handling infrastructure and several no longer have railroad connections, complicating UNF handling and transport off the site. However four methods were identified that will satisfactorily retrieve the UNF canisters within the storage casks and transport them to the CSF. The study showed that all of the issues associated with the transportation and storage of UNF from all sites in the US can be accommodated by adopting a staged approach to the construction of

  14. Worker responses to workplace hazards.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J C

    1987-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives in occupational safety and health have emphasized strategies that provide workers with information about workplace exposures. It is not clear, however, what effect this new information has had or will have on worker self-help initiatives. This paper analyzes individual and collective worker responses to information on job hazards using five sources of data on workers and industries in the United States. Levels of expressed dissatisfaction, discharges for cause, and strike frequencies are found to be significantly higher in hazardous jobs than in safe jobs. Individual quit strategies are not consistently found to be associated with higher hazard levels. These findings have potentially important implications for the design of future information-oriented health and safety policies. PMID:3429802

  15. 40 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT IN THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Drain, F.; Vinoche, R.; Duhamet, J.

    2003-02-27

    Three types of liquid-liquid extraction equipment are used in industrial reprocessing plants. Each is described below, with a special focus on pulsed columns and centrifugal extractors, which have been the subject of an extensive R&D program by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Various models have been developed to simulate equipment behavior and flowsheets. The excellent results obtained during industrial operation of the UP3 and UP2-800 plants in La Hague have confirmed the validity of the choices made during the design phases and pave the way for future improvement of the reprocessing process, from a technical and a financial standpoint.

  16. Teaching and Cultivating Workers of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boiko, I.

    1972-01-01

    The Donetsk Vocational-Technical School No. 1 began in 1963 training specialist workers in the mining industry with a secondary education. The school has facilities for general education along with vocational training thereby encouraging a combination of education and labor development and future party workers. (Author/SM)

  17. Midwest Nuclear Training Association Annual Nuclear Instructors' Workshop (4th, Columbus, Ohio, October 16-18, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document reports the proceedings of a national workshop designed to provide nuclear trainers from the electric power industry with an opportunity to expand and improve their knowledge and skills in the development and implementation of effective training programs. The following papers are included: "Developing Positive Worker Behaviors:…

  18. Zirconium in the nuclear industry: Tenth international symposium. ASTM STP 1245

    SciTech Connect

    Garde, A.M.; Bradley, E.R.

    1994-12-31

    This symposium consisted of seven platform sessions: hydrogen effects; pressure tubes; fabrication; lithium effects and second phase particles; mechanical properties; oxide characterization; and in-reactor corrosion. The technical information contained in this book is valuable to zirconium alloy producers, nuclear fuel fabricators, reactor materials designers and development engineers, utility plant operators, and regulators. Separate abstracts were prepared for 40 papers of this book.

  19. HRD and the Steel-Collar Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byham, William C.

    1984-01-01

    The author argues that, as robots begin to take over more and more industrial tasks, the impact on human workers at all levels will increase geometrically and trainers will play a strategic role. (SSH)

  20. Worker Retrenchment: Preventive and Remedial Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Klock, Christine; Kelly, Peggy; Richards, Peter; Vargha, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the range of responses taken in industrialized countries seeking to deal with substantial worker displacement. Practices discussed include preventive subsidies, buyouts, retraining, job-search assistance, job creation, local and regional development, and local enterprise development. (Author/JOW)

  1. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  2. A GUIDANCE PROJECT TO INVESTIGATE CHARACTERISTICS, BACKGROUND, AND JOB EXPERIENCES OF SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL ENTRY WORKERS IN THREE SELECTED INDUSTRIES. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORMAN, ROBERT E.

    FIFTEEN CERTIFIED SECONDARY SCHOOL COUNSELORS PARTICIPATED IN AN ON-THE-JOB INVESTIGATION OF THREE SELECTED INDUSTRIES IN MONTANA--MINING, LUMBERING, AND CONSTRUCTION. THE PURPOSES WERE TO (1) PROVIDE THE PARTICIPATING COUNSELORS WITH ON-THE-JOB KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL FOR ENGAGING IN MORE EFFECTIVE VOCATIONAL COUNSELING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS…

  3. Reaching for Equality; A Projection of Labor Force, Occupational Levels and Distribution by Industry of White and Non-White Workers in 1970 and 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Civil Rights Commission, Lansing.

    By projecting the immediate outlook in Michigan into the forthcoming decade, a picture emerges of the social and economic status of non-whites and whites in the years ahead. The methodology used to project industry-occupational group trends of non-whites in Michigan is predicated upon a mathematical model consisting of four basic steps outlined in…

  4. Dose Reconstruction for the Million Worker Study: Status and Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bouville, André; Toohey, Richard E.; Boice, John D.; Beck, Harold L.; Dauer, Larry T.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hagemeyer, Derek; Leggett, Richard W.; Mumma, Michael T.; Napier, Bruce; Pryor, Kathy H.; Rosenstein, Marvin; Schauer, David A.; Sherbini, Sami; Stram, Daniel O.; Thompson, James L.; Till, John E.; Yoder, Craig; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans (the Million-Worker study) is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time, and not acutely as was the case for Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiological study is cancer mortality but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide unbiased estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses and their accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the Million-Worker study are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 years. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, DOE workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma-ray or x-ray sources, for certain of the study groups there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that require internal radiation dosimetry measures. Scientific Committee 6-9 has been established by NCRP to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the Million-Worker study. The Committee’s report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Reports 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the Committee is to provide guidelines to the various groups of dosimetrists involved in the various components of the Million-Worker

  5. Dose Reconstruction for the Million Worker Study: Status and Guidelines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bouville, André; Toohey, Richard E.; Boice, John D.; Beck, Harold L.; Dauer, Larry T.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hagemeyer, Derek; Leggett, Richard W.; Mumma, Michael T.; Napier, Bruce; et al

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans (the Million-Worker study) is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time, and not acutely as was the case for Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiological study is cancer mortality but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide unbiased estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses and theirmore » accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the Million-Worker study are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 years. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, DOE workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma-ray or x-ray sources, for certain of the study groups there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that require internal radiation dosimetry measures. Scientific Committee 6-9 has been established by NCRP to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the Million-Worker study. The Committee’s report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Reports 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the Committee is to provide guidelines to the various groups of dosimetrists involved in the various components of the Million-Worker

  6. Fitness for duty in the nuclear industry: Update of the technical issues 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, N.; Grant, T.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an update of information on the technical issues surrounding the creation, implementation, and maintenance of fitness-for-duty (FFD) policies and programs. It has been prepared as a resource for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and nuclear power plant personnel who deal with FFD programs. It contains a general overview and update on the technical issues that the NRC considered prior to the publication of its original FFD rule and the revisions to that rule (presented in earlier NUREG/CRs). It also includes chapters that address issues about which there is growing concern and/or about which there have been substantial changes since NUREG/CR-5784 was published. Although this report is intended to support the NRC`s rule making on fitness for duty, the conclusions of the authors of this report are their own and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the NRC.

  7. Radiological protection in the Spanish nuclear industry under Franco, 1939-1975.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Navarro, Alfredo; Vázquez, Luis Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In debates about nuclear controversy, the issue of occupational safety in radioactive facilities is rarely foregrounded; it has historically been relegated to second place compared to the attention given to potential harm to the general population. Aiming for, at least, partially filling this historiographical gap, this article deals with the development of occupational radiological protection in Spain under the dictatorship of General Franco (1939-1975). It covers the rise of radiological protection measures on an international level and the subsequent development of legislation in the case of Spain, a process that paralleled the growth of the nation's nuclear program. Finally, it explores the main evidence of the impact of ionizing radiation on Spain's working population. PMID:24141916

  8. 76 FR 14105 - International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group; Pineville, LA; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... October 29, 2010 (75 FR 66795). The subject workers produce containerboard/paperboard (uncoated freesheet... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group... workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Pineville Mill, Industrial Packaging...

  9. Pulsed nuclear power stations as the basis of the global power industry: Resource and ecological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, G.A.; Shibarshov, L.I.; Voloshin, N.P.

    1995-12-01

    The energy and environmental crisis may be one of the most fundamental problems facing humanity in the coming decades. {open_quotes}Optimization{close_quotes} of the global population at up to two billion people or {open_quotes}impoverishment, suffering, famine, and an accompanying increase in violence{close_quotes}: this is the choice predicted by US ecologists; most likely, this prediction will prove correct unless humanity can provide each individual on the planet with at least the daily energy consumed by US citizens. For the current world population, that would require {approximately}10{sup 14} W. Most predictions of nuclear-power development assume the satisfaction of {approximately}2 % of this need up to 2030 by the fission of {sup 235}U; the energy content of {sup 235}U ores is ten times less than that of oil and gas. The introduction of nuclear power from breeder reactors is not planned for the near future, on account of the fears produced by the Chernobyl accident and the underestimation of the resource and economic constraints preventing adequate power generation in the 21st century. We attempt to illustrate the origins of these constraints here in the simplest possible way. Table 1 compares the characteristics of various nuclear-power fuel cycles with different rates of power development.

  10. Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs in a Changing Oil and Gas Industry: the Role of Flexibility. As the Oil Industry continues to shed jobs due to the global downturn in oil prices, one of the most vulnerable sectors to job loss are the middle-skilled workers such as the technicians and drill operators. We present options and ideas to mitigate the problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddell, K.

    2015-12-01

    Middle-skilled workers are those whose jobs require considerable skill but not an advanced degree. Nationwide, one-third of the projected job growth for 2010-2020 will require middle-skilled workers. The educational paths to these jobs include career and technical education (CTE), certificates and associate's degrees from community colleges, apprenticeship programs, and training provided by employers. In the oil industry, the demand is expected to about 150,000 jobs. In environmental restoration and monitoring, there will be a need for at least 15,000 middle-skilled workers. Examples of the types of jobs include geological and petroleum technicians, derrick and drill operators, and pump system and refinery operators for the oil and gas sector. For the environmental restoration and monitoring sector, the types of jobs include environmental science technicians, and forest (and coastal) conservation technicians and workers. However, all of these numbers will be influenced by the growth and contraction of the regional or national economy that is not uncommon in the private sector. Over the past year, for example, the oil and gas industry has shed approximately 75,000 jobs (out of a workforce of 600,000) here in the United States, due almost exclusively to the drop of oil prices globally. A disproportionate number of the lost jobs were among the middle-skilled workforce. Meanwhile, the recent settlements stemming from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are expected to create a surge of environmental restoration activity in the Gulf of Mexico region that has the potential to create thousands of new jobs over the next decade and beyond. Consequently, there is a need to develop education, training and apprenticeship programs that will help develop flexibility and complementary skill sets among middle-skilled workers that could help reduce the impacts of economic downturns and meet the needs of newly expanding sectors such as the environmental restoration field. This

  11. On nuclear scars, renewables, and an acid rain model

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, R.C

    1989-11-01

    The author argues that the extreme precautions observed at a nuclear power plant and throughout the nuclear industry create an interesting conflict in imagery. First, the safety measures far exceed the normal acceptable lengths taken to protect workers and the public at large in any other circumstance. Second, those very extremes in precaution contribute to public fear. Naturally, anti-nuclear radicals use this to great advantage by constantly trying to force more extreme measures on the industry. According to the author it happens even though some of these groups seem to realize that fighting the most environmentally benign source of power makes no sense.

  12. Effective Employment-Based Training Models for Childcare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Childcare workers play a significant role in the learning and development of children in their care. This has major implications for the training of workers. Under new reforms of the childcare industry, the Australian government now requires all workers to obtain qualifications from a vocational education and training provider (e.g. Technical and…

  13. Worker Training: Competing in the New International Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Workers' skills are critical to U.S. industrial productivity and competitiveness and to maintaining living standards. Training is the key. Good training pays--for workers whose skills are upgraded, for companies seeking a competitive edge, and for the nation in overall productivity. However, workers in other countries are better trained than most…

  14. Counseling Workers over 40: GULHEMP, a New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Jack

    This series of presentations describe a method of job counseling and placement for the middle-aged which combines pre-employment physical worker analysis with job analysis for effective matching of job requirements with worker capacities. The matching process involves these steps: (1) job analysis by an industrial engineer; (2) worker examination…

  15. CESAR5.3: An Industrial Tool for Nuclear Fuel and Waste Characterization with Associated Qualification - 12067

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Jean-Marc; Eschbach, Romain; Launay, Agnes; Binet, Christophe; THRO, Jean-Francois

    2012-07-01

    CEA and AREVA-NC have developed and used a depletion code named CESAR for 30 years. This user-friendly industrial tool provides fast characterizations for all types of nuclear fuel (PWR / UOX or MOX or reprocess Uranium, BWR / UOX or MOX, MTR and SFR) and the wastes associated. CESAR can evaluate 100 heavy nuclides, 200 fission products and 150 activation products (with Helium and Tritium formation). It can also characterize the structural material of the fuel (Zircalloy, stainless steel, M5 alloy). CESAR provides depletion calculations for any reactor irradiation history and from 3 months to 1 million years of cooling time. CESAR5.3 is based on the latest calculation schemes recommended by the CEA and on an international nuclear data base (JEFF-3.1.1). It is constantly checked against the CEA referenced and qualified depletion code DARWIN. CESAR incorporates the CEA qualification based on the dissolution analyses of fuel rod samples and the 'La Hague' reprocessing plant feedback experience. AREVA-NC uses CESAR intensively at 'La Hague' plant, not only for prospective studies but also for characterizations at different industrial facilities all along the reprocessing process and waste conditioning (near 150 000 calculations per year). CESAR is the reference code for AREVA-NC. CESAR is used directly or indirectly with other software, data bank or special equipment in many parts of the La Hague plants. The great flexibility of CESAR has rapidly interested other projects. CESAR became a 'tool' directly integrated in some other softwares. Finally, coupled with a Graphical User Interface, it can be easily used independently, responding to many needs for prospective studies as a support for nuclear facilities or transport. An English version is available. For the principal isotopes of U and Pu, CESAR5 benefits from the CEA experimental validation for the PWR UOX fuels, up to a burnup of 60 GWd/t and for PWR MOX fuels, up to 45 GWd/t. CESAR version 5.3 uses the CEA

  16. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone

    2009-05-29

    . After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.

  17. Modeling and Simulation Approaches to Developing Human Performance Measures in Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; Jeffrey C. Joe; Molly J. Keefe; Julius J. Persensky

    2007-08-01

    Human performance is a key component to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Further, human performance is quite variable, and while some variability may be random, much of it may be attributed to factors that are difficult to assess. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assess human performance for purposes of research that can lead to technical basis for developing human factors review criteria.

  18. Performance of a PADC personal neutron dosemeter at simulated and real workplace fields of the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Fiechtner, A; Boschung, M; Wernli, C

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the EVIDOS (Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields) project, funded by the EC, measurements with PADC personal neutron dosemeters were carried out at several workplace fields of the nuclear industry and at simulated workplace fields. The measured personal neutron dose equivalents of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are compared with values that were assessed within the EVIDOS project by other partners. The detection limits for different spectra types are given. In cases were the neutron dose was too low to be measured by the PADC personal neutron dosemeter, the response is estimated by convoluting the responses to monoenergetic neutrons with the dose energy distribution measured within EVIDOS. The advantages and limitations of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are discussed. PMID:17578876

  19. Human Reliability Analysis in the U.S. Nuclear Power Industry: A Comparison of Atomistic and Holistic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julie L. Marble

    2005-09-01

    A variety of methods have been developed to generate human error probabilities for use in the US nuclear power industry. When actual operations data are not available, it is necessary for an analyst to estimate these probabilities. Most approaches, including THERP, ASEP, SLIM-MAUD, and SPAR-H, feature an atomistic approach to characterizing and estimating error. The atomistic approach is based on the notion that events and their causes can be decomposed and individually quantified. In contrast, in the holistic approach, such as found in ATHEANA, the analysis centers on the entire event, which is typically quantified as an indivisible whole. The distinction between atomistic and holistic approaches is important in understanding the nature of human reliability analysis quantification and the utility and shortcomings associated with each approach.

  20. [Health care safety should be focused on prevention. Lessons to be learned from aviation, nuclear power plants and offshore industries].

    PubMed

    Odegård, S

    1999-06-23

    In many respects the approach to questions of safety adopted in the aviation, nuclear energy and offshore oil industries is highly relevant to safety in the health care sector, even where legislation is concerned. Characteristic features are the emphasis on risk-factor identification, and such demands as risk analysis, knowledge checks, and the limitation of working hours. In addition, there is a need of disaster inquiries in cases of serious incidents, and of an organisation specifically responsible for safety issues. Regarding the development of an incident report system for use in health care, the importance of which increases with the risks involved, a commendable model is the risk report system adopted by civil aviation authorities in the USA, where those submitting reports are guaranteed immunity. PMID:10418254