Science.gov

Sample records for nuclear matter saturation

  1. Density of saturated nuclear matter at large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.; Datta, Ishaun

    2014-06-01

    We exhibit the existence of stable, saturated nuclear matter in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits of QCD. In this limit, baryons (with the same spin flavor structure) interact at leading order in Nc via a repulsive interaction due to the Pauli exclusion principle and at subleading order in 1/Nc via the exchange of glueballs. Assuming that the lightest glueball is a scalar, which implies that the subleading baryon interaction is attractive, we find that nuclear matter saturates since the subleading attractive interaction is longer ranged than the leading order repulsive one. We find that the saturated matter is in the form of a crystal with either a face-centered-cubic or a hexagonal-close-packed symmetry with baryon densities of O ({α˜smq[saturated nuclear matter is independent of the lightest glueball mass and scalar-glueball-baryon coupling in the extreme large Nc limit or heavy quark limit (or both), which we define precisely in this work.

  2. Nuclear matter saturation with chiral three-nucleon interactions fitted to light nuclei properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter is calculated using the many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach and employing the Chiral Next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential, supplemented with various parametrizations of the Chiral Next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) three-nucleon interaction. Such combination is able to reproduce several observables of the physics of light nuclei for suitable choices of the parameters entering in the three-nucleon interaction. We find that some of these parametrizations provide a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter L in very good agreement with those extracted from various nuclear experimental data. Thus, our results represent a significant step toward a unified description of few- and many-body nuclear systems starting from two- and three-nucleon interactions based on the symmetries of QCD.

  3. Sub-saturation matter in compact stars: Nuclear modelling in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi theory

    SciTech Connect

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2015-02-24

    A recently introduced analytical model for the nuclear density profile [1] is implemented in the Extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) energy density functional. This allows to (i) shed a new light on the issue of the sign of surface symmetry energy in nuclear mass formulas, as well as to (ii) show the importance of the in-medium corrections to the nuclear cluster energies in thermodynamic conditions relevant for the description of core-collapse supernovae and (proto)-neutron star crust.

  4. Exotic States of Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Baldo, Marcello; Burgio, Fiorella; Schulze, Hans-Josef

    2008-02-01

    pt. A. Theory of nuclear matter EOS and symmetry energy. Constraining the nuclear equation of state from astrophysics and heavy ion reactions / C. Fuchs. In-medium hadronic interactions and the nuclear equation of state / F. Sammarruca. EOS and single-particle properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner theory / W. Zuo, U. Lombardo & H.-J. Schulze. Thermodynamics of correlated nuclear matter / A. Polls ... [et al.]. The validity of the LOCV formalism and neutron star properties / H. R. Moshfegh ... [et al.]. Ferromagnetic instabilities of neutron matter: microscopic versus phenomenological approaches / I. Vidaã. Sigma meson and nuclear matter saturation / A. B. Santra & U. Lombardo. Ramifications of the nuclear symmetry energy for neutron stars, nuclei and heavy-ion collisions / A. W. Steiner, B.-A. Li & M. Prakash. The symmetry energy in nuclei and nuclear matter / A. E. L. Dieperink. Probing the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities / M. Di Toro et al. Investigation of low-density symmetry energy via nucleon and fragment observables / H. H. Wolter et al. Instability against cluster formation in nuclear and compact-star matter / C. Ducoin ... [et al.]. Microscopic optical potentials of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering / Z.-Y. Ma, J. Rong & Y.-Q. Ma -- pt. B. The neutron star crust: structure, formation and dynamics. Neutron star crust beyond the Wigner-Seitz approximation / N. Chamel. The inner crust of a neutron star within the Wigner-Seitz method with pairing: from drip point to the bottom / E. E. Saperstein, M. Baldo & S. V. Tolokonnikov. Nuclear superfluidity and thermal properties of neutron stars / N. Sandulescu. Collective excitations: from exotic nuclei to the crust of neutron stars / E. Khan, M. Grasso & J. Margueron. Monte Carlo simulation of the nuclear medium: fermi gases, nuclei and the role of Pauli potentials / M. A. Pérez-García. Low-density instabilities in relativistic hadronic models / C. Provid

  5. Particle correlations in saturated QCD matter

    SciTech Connect

    Baier, Rudolf; Kovner, Alex; Nardi, Marzia; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2005-11-01

    We study quantitatively angular correlations in the two-particle spectrum produced by an energetic probe scattering off a dense hadronic target with sizable saturation momentum. To this end, two-parton inclusive cross sections for arbitrary projectiles with small color charge density are derived in the eikonal formalism. Our results are the following: For large momenta of the observed particles, the perturbative limit with characteristic back-to-back correlation is recovered. As the trigger momenta get closer to the saturation scale Q{sub s}, the angular distribution broadens. When the momenta are significantly smaller than Q{sub s}, the azimuthal distribution is broad but still peaked back-to-back. However, in a narrow momentum range (0.5 divide 1.5)Q{sub s}, we observe that the azimuthal correlation splits into a double peak with maxima displaced away from 180 deg. We argue that it is the soft multiple scattering physics that is responsible for the appearance of this shift in the angle of maximal correlation. We also point out that when the physical size of the projectile is particularly small, the double peak structure persists in a significantly wider range of final state momenta.

  6. Nuclear matter within the continuous choice

    SciTech Connect

    Baldo, M.; Bombaci, I.; Ferreira, L.S.; Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U. Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania, Italy)

    1991-06-01

    The saturation curve of symmetric nuclear matter is calculated at the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock level of approximation within the continuous choice for the single-particle potential. The realistic local Argonne {ital v}{sub 14} potential is used and the results are compared with similar calculations presented in the literature. The binding energies per nucleon around saturation agree closely with previous results obtained with separable versions of the same potential as well as of the Paris potential.

  7. Relativity damps OPEP in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, M.K.

    1998-06-01

    Using a relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis the OPEP contribution to the ground state energy of nuclear matter is studied. In the study the pion is derivative-coupled. The author finds that the role of the tensor force in the saturation mechanism is substantially reduced compared to its dominant role in a usual nonrelativistic treatment. He shows that the damping of derivative-coupled OPEP is actually due to the decrease of M{sup *}/M with increasing density. He points out that if derivative-coupled OPEP is the preferred form of nuclear effective lagrangian nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter is in trouble. Lacking the notion of M{sup *} it cannot replicate the damping. He suggests an examination of the feasibility of using pseudoscalar coupled {pi}N interaction before reaching a final conclusion about nonrelativistic treatment of nuclear matter.

  8. Soil Quality of Restinga Forest: Organic Matter and Aluminum Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Almeida Filho, Jasse; Casagrande, José Carlos; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    The restinga vegetation (sand coastal plain vegetation) consists of a mosaic of plant communities, which are defined by the characteristics of the substrates, resulting from the type and age of the depositional processes. This mosaic complex of vegetation types comprises restinga forest in advanced (high restinga) and medium regeneration stages (low restinga), each with particular differentiating vegetation characteristics. Of all ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest, restinga is the most fragile and susceptible to anthropic disturbances. The purpose of this study was evaluating the organic matter and aluminum saturation effects on soil quality index (SQI). Two locations were studied: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W), and State Park of Cardoso Island in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W). The soil samples were collect at a depth of 0-10 cm, where concentrate 70% of vegetation root system. Was studied an additive model to evaluate soil quality index. The shallow root system development occurs due to low calcium levels, whose disability limits their development, but also can reflect on delay, restriction or even in the failure of the development vegetation. The organic matter is kept in the soil restinga ecosystem by high acidity, which reduces the decomposition of soil organic matter, which is very poor in nutrients. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil, due to very high rainfall and sandy texture, resulting in high saturation values for aluminum. Considering the critical threshold to 3% organic matter and for aluminum saturation to 40%, the IQS ranged from 0.95 to 0.1 as increased aluminum saturation and decreased the soil organic matter, indicating the main limitation to the growth of plants in this type of soil, when deforested.

  9. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  10. Phase transitions in core-collapse supernova matter at sub-saturation densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, Helena; Newton, William G.; Stone, Jirina R.

    2014-12-01

    Phase transitions in hot, dense matter in the collapsing cores of massive stars have an important impact on the core-collapse supernova mechanism as they absorb heat, disrupt homology, and so weaken the developing shock. We perform a three-dimensional, finite temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) study of inhomogeneous nuclear matter to determine the critical density and temperature for the phase transition between the pasta phase and homogeneous matter and its properties. We employ four different parametrizations of the Skyrme nuclear energy-density functional, SkM*, SLy4, NRAPR, and SQMC700, which span a range of saturation-density symmetry energy behaviors constrained by a variety of nuclear experimental probes. For each of these interactions we calculate free energy, pressure, entropy, and chemical potentials in the range of particle number densities where the nuclear pasta phases are expected to exist, 0.02-0.12 fm-3, temperatures 2-8 MeV, and a proton fraction of 0.3. We find unambiguous evidence for a first-order phase transition to uniform matter, unsoftened by the presence of the pasta phases. No conclusive signs of a first-order phase transition between the pasta phases is observed, and it is argued that the thermodynamic quantities vary continuously right up to the first-order phase transition to uniform matter. We compare our results with thermodynamic spinodals calculated using the same Skyrme parametrizations, finding that the effect of short-range Coulomb correlations and quantum shell effects included in our model leads to the pasta phases existing at densities up to 0.01 fm-3 above the spinodal boundaries, thus increasing the transition density to uniform matter by the same amount. The transition density is otherwise shown to be insensitive to the symmetry energy at saturation density within the range constrained by the concordance of a variety of experimental constraints, and can be taken to be a well determined quantity.

  11. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  12. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Ota, Ken-Ichiro; Iwamura, Yashuhiro

    Preface -- 1. General. Progress in condensed matter nuclear science / A. Takahashi. Summary of ICCF-12 / X. Z. Li. Overview of light water/hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions / G. H. Miley and P. J. Shrestha -- 2. Excess heat and He detection. Development of "DS-reactor" as the practical reactor of "cold fusion" based on the "DS-cell" with "DS-cathode" / Y. Arata and Y.-C. Zhang. Progress in excess of power experiments with electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium / V. Violante ... [et al.]. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis / T. Mizuno and Y. Toriyabe. "Excess heat" induced by deuterium flux in palladium film / B. Liu ... [et al.]. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments / J.-F. Fauvarque, P. P. Clauzon and G. J.-M. Lallevé. Seebeck envelope calorimetry with a Pd|D[symbol]O + H[symbol]SO[symbol] electrolytic cell / W.-S. Zhang, J. Dash and Q. Wang. Observation and investigation of nuclear fusion and self-induced electric discharges in liquids / A. I. Koldamasov ... [et al.]. Description of a sensitive seebeck calorimeter used for cold fusion studies / E. Storms. Some recent results at ENEA / M. Apicella ... [et al.]. Heat measurement during plasma electrolysis / K. Iizumi ... [et al.]. Effect of an additive on thermal output during electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode / Q. Wang and J. Dash. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems / L. D'Aulerio ... [et al.]. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering / E. Castagna ... [et al.]. Production method for violent TCB jet plasma from cavity / F. Amini. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy / L. Kowalski ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutation. Observation of surface distribution of products by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry during D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd Complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Discharge experiment using Pd/CaO/Pd multi-layered cathode / S. Narita ... [et al.]. Producing transmutation

  13. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    1. General. A tribute to gene Mallove - the "Genie" reactor / K. Wallace and R. Stringham. An update of LENR for ICCF-11 (short course, 10/31/04) / E. Storms. New physical effects in metal deuterides / P. L. Hagelstein ... [et al.]. Reproducibility, controllability, and optimization of LENR experiments / D. J. Nagel -- 2. Experiments. Electrochemistry. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H systems / S. Focardi ... [et al.]. Superwave reality / I. Dardik. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at energetics technologies / I. Dardik ... [et al.]. "Excess heat" during electrolysis in platinum/K[symbol]CO[symbol]/nickel light water system / J. Tian ... [et al.]. Innovative procedure for the, in situ, measurement of the resistive thermal coefficient of H(D)/Pd during electrolysis; cross-comparison of new elements detected in the Th-Hg-Pd-D(H) electrolytic cells / F. Celani ... [et al.]. Emergence of a high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen cycled Pd compounds as an evidence for superstoihiometric H/D sites / A. Lipson ... [et al.]. Plasma electrolysis. Calorimetry of energy-efficient glow discharge - apparatus design and calibration / T. B. Benson and T. O. Passell. Generation of heat and products during plasma electrolysis / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Glow discharge. Excess heat production in Pd/D during periodic pulse discharge current in various conditions / A. B. Karabut. Beam experiments. Accelerator experiments and theoretical models for the electron screening effect in metallic environments / A. Huke, K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Evidence for a target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio in d+d reactions for deuteron energies below 20keV / A. Huke ... [et al.]. Experiments on condensed matter nuclear events in Kobe University / T. Minari ... [et al.]. Electron screening constraints for the cold fusion / K. Czerski, P. Heide, and A. Huke. Cavitation. Low mass 1.6 MHz sonofusion reactor / R. Stringham. Particle detection. Research

  14. Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16 NN interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokov, A. M.; Negoita, A. G.; Vary, J. P.; Bogner, S. K.; Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, E. A.; Gogny, D.

    2014-08-01

    Saturation properties of the JISP16 NN interaction are studied in symmetric nuclear matter calculations, with special attention paid to the convergence properties with respect to the number of partial waves. We also present results of pure neutron matter calculations with the JISP16 interaction.

  15. a Finite Nucleon Extended Volume Model for Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Alberto S. S.; Vasconcellos, César A. Z.; Coelho, Helio T.

    We investigate the effects of a finite volume extension for nucleons immersed in nuclear matter. We wish in this way to explore the role played by this non-vanishing (but fixed) volume in shaping nuclear matter properties, in contrast with other models of nuclear physics in which nucleons are treated as point-like particles. We introduce a model characterized by an exclusion volume à la Van der Waals, as well as an effective non-relativistic approximation to model meson-exchange interactions between nucleons. The model is consistent with experimental values of saturation density and binding energy of nuclear matter in the domain of typical densities for neutron stars.

  16. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  17. Hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S.

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  18. PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    VENUGOPALAN,R.

    1999-03-20

    Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions.

  19. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Jorge A.; Porras, Sergio Terrazas; Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  20. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces. PMID:25541769

  1. Nuclear A-dependence near the saturation boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, A. H.

    2003-08-01

    The A-dependence of the saturation momentum and the scaling behavior of the scattering of a small dipole on a nuclear target are studied in the McLerran-Venugopalan model, in fixed coupling BFKL dynamics and in running coupling BFKL dynamics. In each case, we find scaling not too far from the saturation boundary, although for fixed coupling evolution the scaling function for large A is not the same as for an elementary dipole. We find that Qs2 is proportional to A1/3 in the McLerran-Venugopalan model and in fixed coupling evolution, however, we find an almost total lack of A-dependence in Qs2 in the case of running coupling evolution.

  2. Equation of State for Isospin Asymmetric Nuclear Matter Using Lane Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, D. N.; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Samanta, C.

    2006-10-01

    A mean field calculation for obtaining the equation of state (EOS) for symmetric nuclear matter from a density dependent M3Y interaction supplemented by a zero-range potential is described. The energy per nucleon is minimized to obtain the ground state of symmetric nuclear matter. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe--Weizsäcker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi--Wapstra--Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The constants of density dependence of the effective interaction are obtained by reproducing the saturation energy per nucleon and the saturation density of spin and isospin symmetric cold infinite nuclear matter. The EOS of symmetric nuclear matter, thus obtained, provide reasonably good estimate of nuclear incompressibility. Once the constants of density dependence are determined, EOS for asymmetric nuclear matter is calculated by adding to the isoscalar part, the isovector component of the M3Y interaction that do not contribute to the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter. These EOS are then used to calculate the pressure, the energy density and the velocity of sound in symmetric as well as isospin asymmetric nuclear matter.

  3. Superfluidity in asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakian, A.; Alm, T.; Lombardo, U.

    1997-02-01

    The onset of superfluidity in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within the BCS theory. A neutron-proton superfluid state in the channel {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} comes about from the interplay between thermal excitations and separation {delta}{mu} of the two Fermi surfaces. The superfluid state disappears above the threshold value of the density-asymmetry parameter {alpha}=(n{sub n}{minus}n{sub p})/n{approx_equal}0.35. For large enough shift between the two Fermi surfaces {delta}{mu}=(1)/(2)({mu}{sub n}{minus}{mu}{sub p}) the transition to the normal state becomes a first-order transition and a second gap solution develops. This solution, however, corresponds to a metastable superfluid state which is unstable with respect to the transition to the normal state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, A. B.

    2001-08-01

    We investigate the effect on the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) due to modification of meson and nucleon parameters in nuclear medium as a consequence of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner--Bethe--Golstone formalism with Bonn-B potential as two-body interaction and QCD sum rule and Brown--Rho scaling prescriptions for modi- fication of hadron parameters. We find that EOS is very much sensitive to the meson parameters. We can fit, with two body interaction alone, both the saturation density and the binding energy per nucleon.

  5. Nuclear and neutron matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Akmal, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We are studying nuclear and neutron matter with the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN and Urbana 3N potentials. We use variational wave functions and a diagrammatic cluster expansion with Fermi hypernetted and single-operator chain (FHNC/SOC) integral equations to evaluate the energy expectation value. Initial results show some interesting differences with our previous calculations with the older Argonne v{sub 14} potential. In particular, there are a number of diagrams involving L{center_dot}S and L{sup 2} terms which were small with the older model and were rather crudely estimated or even neglected. It appears that these terms are more important with the new potential and will have to be evaluated more accurately. Work on this subject is in progress. A simple line of attack is to just add additional diagrams at the three-body cluster level. A longer term approach may be to adapt some of the methods for evaluating nucleon clusters used in the few-body and closed shell nuclei described above.

  6. Nuclear matter magnetization in the Skyrme model

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, R.

    2011-05-15

    The effects of an external magnetic field on the nuclear medium are studied within the Skyrme model of the nuclear interaction. The equation of state, spin polarization, and magnetization are evaluated at zero temperature for both neutron matter and isospin symmetric nuclear matter. We consider the anomalous magnetic moments of the nucleons and the quantization induced by a magnetic field over the proton energy spectrum. A comparison of two versions of the model, allowing or not for spontaneous magnetization, is performed. We cover a range of magnetic-field strengths and matter densities appropriate for astrophysical studies.

  7. Incompressibility in finite nuclei and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, J. R.; Stone, N. J.; Moszkowski, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    The incompressibility (compression modulus) K0 of infinite symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density has become one of the major constraints on mean-field models of nuclear many-body systems as well as of models of high density matter in astrophysical objects and heavy-ion collisions. It is usually extracted from data on the giant monopole resonance (GMR) or calculated using theoretical models. We present a comprehensive reanalysis of recent data on GMR energies in even-even 112-124Sn and 106,100-116Cd and earlier data on 58≤A≤208 nuclei. The incompressibility of finite nuclei KA is calculated from experimental GMR energies and expressed in terms of A-1/3 and the asymmetry parameter β =(N-Z)/A as a leptodermous expansion with volume, surface, isospin, and Coulomb coefficients Kvol, Ksurf, Kτ, and KCoul. Only data consistent with the scaling approximation, leading to a fast converging leptodermous expansion, with negligible higher-order-term contributions to KA, were used in the present analysis. Assuming that the volume coefficient Kvol is identified with K0, the KCoul=-(5.2±0.7) MeV and the contribution from the curvature term KcurvA-2/3 in the expansion is neglected, compelling evidence is found for K0 to be in the range 250 nuclear surface properties in determination of K0 from fits to the leptodermous expansion of KA. A self-consistent simple (toy) model has been

  8. Thermodynamics of Hot Nuclear Matter: 1978 in the Statistical Bootstrap Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, Johann; Hagedorn, Rolf

    We formulate the statistical bootstrap model for nuclear matter, and study its resulting thermodynamic properties at nuclear densities below the saturation density. We discuss the relevance of limiting temperature and the phase transition gas-`liquid' when the volume of the fireball grows with its energy.

  9. Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures.

  10. Effect of Natural Organic Matter on Lincomycin Transport in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, K.; Ding, Y.; Tian, Y.; Li, H.

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotics such as lincomycin are often administered in animal feeding operations and secreted into animal manure, and therefore are becoming contaminants of emerging concerns. Once released into the environment, antibiotics are very likely exposed to natural organic matter (NOM). Considering elevated environmental concentrations of antibiotics and the spreading of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms, understanding antibiotics transport processes becomes very important to assessing environmental impact of pharmaceutical release and protecting human and ecological health. This study aims to investigate how NOM influences the transport of lincomycin in saturated Ottawa sand through column experiments with and without the presence of Na- or Ca-saturated Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) at three pH levels (i.e., 4, 7, 9). Our preliminary results indicated that at near neutral pH lincomycin was more retained in the presence of 7 mg C/L Na-saturated ESHA compared to the experiments in the deionized water of pH 7. Since the Na-saturated ESHA was less retained compared to lincomycin, it is likely that the ESHA adsorbed on the sand surface facilitated the lincomycin retention due to lincomyin-NOM interaction. Future study will examine the effect of solution pH and the different type of saturating cations (Na or Ca). This study will help better understand the fate and transport of lincomycin in the subsurface environment.

  11. Nuclear "pasta matter" for different proton fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Iida, K.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear matter under astrophysical conditions is explored with time-dependent and static Hartree-Fock calculations. The focus is in a regime of densities where matter segregates into liquid and gaseous phases unfolding a rich scenario of geometries, often called nuclear pasta shapes (e.g., spaghetti, lasagna). Particularly the appearance of the different phases depending on the proton fraction and the transition to uniform matter are investigated. In this context the neutron background density is of special interest, because it plays a crucial role in the type of pasta shape that is built. The study is performed in two dynamical ranges, once for hot matter and once at temperature zero, to investigate the effect of cooling.

  12. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  13. Medium polarization in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. S.; Cao, L. G.; Lombardo, U.; Schuck, P.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the medium polarization on the effective nuclear interaction of asymmetric nuclear matter is calculated in the framework of the induced interaction theory. The strong isospin dependence of the density and spin-density fluctuations is studied as it is driven by the interplay between the neutron and proton medium polarizations. Going from symmetric nuclear matter to pure neutron matter, the crossover of the induced interaction from attractive to repulsive in the spin-singlet state is determined as a function of the isospin imbalance. The density range in which the crossover occurs is also determined. For the spin-triplet state the induced interaction turns out to be always repulsive. The implications of the results for neutron star superfluid phases are briefly discussed.

  14. Holographic cold nuclear matter and neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoroku, Kazuo; Kubo, Kouki; Tachibana, Motoi; Toyoda, Fumihiko

    2014-04-01

    We have previously found a new phase of cold nuclear matter based on a holographic gauge theory, where baryons are introduced as instanton gas in the probe D8//lineD8 branes. In our model, we could obtain the equation of state (EOS) of our nuclear matter by introducing Fermi momentum. Then, here we apply this model to the neutron star and study its mass and radius by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations in terms of the EOS given here. We give some comments for our holographic model from a viewpoint of the other field theoretical approaches.

  15. Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Avancini, S. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.; Typel, S.; Stone, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The

  16. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-12-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  17. Masses of nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Satpathy, L.; Nayak, R.C.

    1987-12-10

    The ground-state masses of 3481 nuclei in the range 18less than or equal toAless than or equal to267 have been calculated using the inifinite nuclear matter model based on the generalised Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem. In this model there are two kinds of parameters: Global and local. The five global parameters which characterise the properties of the sphere made up of inifinite nuclear matter are determined once for all by fitting the masses of all nuclei (756) in the recent mass table with error bar less than 30 keV. The local parameters are determined for 25 regions defined by ..delta..A = 8 or 10. The r.m.s. deviation for the calculated masses from the experiment is 397 keV for the 1572 nuclei used in the least square fit. Sample results on Na isotopes and other recently measured masses have been given. The derived saturation properties of nuclear matter have been discussed.

  18. Effect of water saturation in soil organic matter on the partition of organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Chlou, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of benzene, trichloroethylene, and carbon tetrachloride at room temperature from water solution and from vapor on two high-organic-content soils (peat and muck) was determined in order to evaluate the effect of water saturation on the solute partition in soil organic matter (SOM). The uptake of water vapor was similarly determined to define the amounts of water in the saturated soil samples. In such high-organic-content soils the organic vapor sorption and the respective solute sorption from water exhibit linear isotherms over a wide range of relative concentrations. This observation, along with the low BET surface areas of the samples, suggests that partition in the SOM of the samples is the dominant process in the uptake of these liquids. A comparison of the sorption from water solution and from vapor phase shows that water saturation reduces the sorption (partition) efficiency of SOM by ?? 42%; the saturated water content is ??38% by weight of dry SOM. This reduction is relatively small when compared with the almost complete suppression by water of organic compound adsorption on soil minerals. While the effect of water saturation on solute uptake by SOM is much expected in terms of solute partition in SOM, the influence of water on the solubility behavior of polar SOM can be explained only qualitatively by regular solution theory. The results suggest that the major effect of water in a drying-wetting cycle on the organic compound uptake by normal low-organic-content soils (and the associated compound's activity) is the suppression of adsorption by minerals rather than the mitigation of the partition effect in SOM.

  19. Nuclear binding energy and symmetry energy of nuclear matter with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hassaneen, Kh.S.A.; Abo-Elsebaa, H.M.; Sultan, E.A.; Mansour, H.M.M.

    2011-03-15

    Research Highlights: > The nuclear matter is studied within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach employing the most recent accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials. > The results come out by approximating the single particle self-consistent potential with a parabolic form. > We discuss the current status of the Coester line, i.e., density and energy of the various saturation points being strongly linearly correlated. > The nuclear symmetry energy is calculated as the difference between the binding energy of pure neutron matter and that of symmetric nuclear matter. - Abstract: The binding energy of nuclear matter at zero temperature in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation with modern nucleon-nucleon potentials is studied. Both the standard and continuous choices of single particle energies are used. These modern nucleon-nucleon potentials fit the deuteron properties and are phase shifts equivalent. Comparison with other calculations is made. In addition we present results for the symmetry energy obtained with different potentials, which is of great importance in astrophysical calculation.

  20. Resonance properties in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ehehalt, W.; Cassing, W.; Engel, A.; Mosel, U.; Wolf, G. )

    1993-06-01

    We analyze the formation and decay properties of nucleon resonances formed in heavy-ion collisions at 1--2 GeV/[ital u] within a microscopic transport approach. In case of Au+Au reactions the density of [Delta] resonances reaches 0.15 fm[sup [minus]3] in the central cell for a time period of the order of 10 fm/[ital c] such that one can legitimately speak about [ital resonance] [ital matter]. The lifetime of the [Delta]'s is found to be shortened at high density by only 20% due to the in-medium channel [Delta]+[ital N][r arrow][ital N]+[ital N].

  1. Three-body force effect on the properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wei; Bombarci, Ignazio; Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    We review our research work in recent years on the properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter within the framework of the Brueckner theory extended to include a microscopic three-body force (TBF). We discuss specially the TBF effect on the equation of state and the singleparticle (s.p.) potentials. The TBF turns out to be crucial for describing the saturation properties of nuclear matter in nonrelativistic microscopic framework. The TBF effect on the EOS of neutron-rich nuclear matter is to result in a significant stiffening of its isovector part at supra-saturation densities. Within the Brueckner approach, the TBF may lead to a rearrangement contribution to the s.p. potentials, which enhances strongly the repulsion and momentum-dependence of the s.p. potentials at high densities and high momenta. Our results are also compared with the predictions by other ab initio approaches.

  2. Probing cold dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Subedi, R; Shneor, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J-O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; de Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X-C; Zhu, L

    2008-06-13

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars. PMID:18511658

  3. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  4. A further update on possible crises in nuclear-matter theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    2016-03-01

    The ancient problem of the saturation of symmetric nuclear matter is reviewed with an update on the status of the crises that were identified at an early stage by John Clark. We discuss how the initial problem with variational calculations providing more binding than the two hole-line contribution for the same interaction was overcome by calculations including three hole-line contributions without however reproducing the empirical nuclear saturation properties. It is argued that this remaining problem is still open because many solutions have been proposed or ad hoc adjustments implemented without generating universal agreement on the proper interpretation of the physics. The problem of nuclear saturation therefore persists leading to the necessity of an analysis of the way the nuclear saturation properties are obtained from experimental data. We clarify the role of short-range correlations and review results for nuclear saturation when such ingredients are completely taken into account using the Green’s function method. The role of long-range correlations is then analyzed with special emphasis on the importance of attractive pion-dominated excitation modes which inevitably lead to higher saturation densities than observed. Because such modes have no counterpart in finite nuclear systems, it is therefore argued that they should not be considered when calculating nuclear matter properties. The remaining open question is then whether long-range correlations in finite nuclei which in turn have no counterpart in infinite matter, represent the remaining missing ingredient in this analysis. We also briefly comment on the role of three-body interactions in the context of the dispersive optical model description of experimental data. It is further noted that interactions based on chiral perturbation theory at present do not generate a sufficient number of high-momentum nucleons leading to radii that are too small and substantial overbinding in finite nuclei.

  5. Chiral density wave in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Achim; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by recent work on inhomogeneous chiral condensation in cold, dense quark matter within models featuring quark degrees of freedom, we investigate the chiral density-wave solution in nuclear matter at zero temperature and nonvanishing baryon number density in the framework of the so-called extended linear sigma model (eLSM). The eLSM is an effective model for the strong interaction based on the global chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It contains scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons as well as baryons. In the latter sector, the nucleon and its chiral partner are introduced as parity doublets in the mirror assignment. The eLSM simultaneously provides a good description of hadrons in vacuum as well as nuclear matter ground-state properties. We find that an inhomogeneous phase in the form of a chiral density wave is realized, but only for densities larger than 2.4ρ0, where ρ0 is the nuclear matter ground-state density.

  6. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Fries, R. J.

    2008-05-15

    We discuss the flavor of leading jet partons as a valuable probe of nuclear matter. We point out that the coupling of jets to nuclear matter naturally leads to an alteration of jet chemistry even at high transverse momentum p{sub T}. In particular, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) jets coupling to a chemically equilibrated quark gluon plasma in nuclear collisions will lead to hadron ratios at high transverse momentum p{sub T} that can differ significantly from their counterparts in p+p collisions. Flavor measurements could complement energy loss as a way to study interactions of hard QCD jets with nuclear matter. Roughly speaking they probe the inverse mean free path 1/{lambda} while energy loss probes the average squared momentum transfer {mu}{sup 2}/{lambda}. We present some estimates for the rate of jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and their impact on future high-p{sub T} identified hadron measurements at RHIC and LHC. We also suggest some novel observables to test flavor effects.

  7. Wanted! Nuclear Data for Dark Matter Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, P.

    2014-06-15

    Astronomical observations from small galaxies to the largest scales in the universe can be consistently explained by the simple idea of dark matter. The nature of dark matter is however still unknown. Empirically it cannot be any of the known particles, and many theories postulate it as a new elementary particle. Searches for dark matter particles are under way: production at high-energy accelerators, direct detection through dark matter-nucleus scattering, indirect detection through cosmic rays, gamma rays, or effects on stars. Particle dark matter searches rely on observing an excess of events above background, and a lot of controversies have arisen over the origin of observed excesses. With the new high-quality cosmic ray measurements from the AMS-02 experiment, the major uncertainty in modeling cosmic ray fluxes is in the nuclear physics cross sections for spallation and fragmentation of cosmic rays off interstellar hydrogen and helium. The understanding of direct detection backgrounds is limited by poor knowledge of cosmic ray activation in detector materials, with order of magnitude differences between simulation codes. A scarcity of data on nucleon spin densities blurs the connection between dark matter theory and experiments. What is needed, ideally, are more and better measurements of spallation cross sections relevant to cosmic rays and cosmogenic activation, and data on the nucleon spin densities in nuclei.

  8. Asymmetric nuclear matter equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Bombaci, I.; Lombardo, U. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, Corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania )

    1991-11-01

    Systematic calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter have been performed in the framework of the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach in a wide range of both density and asymmetry parameter. The empirical parabolic law fulfilled by the binding energy per nucleon is confirmed by the present results in all the range of the asymmetry parameter values. The predominant role of the {sup 3}{ital S}{sub 1-}{sup 3}{ital D}{sub 1} component of the {ital NN} interaction is elucidated. A linear variation of the proton and neutron single-particle potentials is found as increasing the neutron excess; a deviation from the phenomenological potentials occurs for highly asymmetric matter as an effect of the self-consistency. The present calculations of the incompressibility predict a strong softening of the equation of state going from symmetric to asymmetric nuclear matter. The proton fraction in equilibrium with neutron matter has been determined from the beta-stability condition and its relevance to the superfluidity of neutron stars has been investigated.

  9. Approximate analytical solution for nuclear matter in a mean-field Walecka model and Coester line behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, A.; Silva, J.B.; Malheiro, M.

    2006-03-15

    We study nuclear matter, at the mean-field approximation, by considering as equal the values of the scalar and the vector density in the Walecka model, which is a very reasonable approximation up to the nuclear matter saturation density. It turns out that the model has an analytical solution for the scalar and vector couplings as functions only of the nuclear matter density and binding energy. The nuclear matter properties are very close to the original version of the model. This solution allows us to show that the correlation between the binding energy and the saturation density is Coester line like. The liquid-gas phase transition is also studied and the critical and flash temperatures are again very similar to the original ones.

  10. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  11. Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce

    2007-03-01

    We study the bound nucleon sigma term and its effect on the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model it is shown that the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative. Thus, the correction decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar sigma field of the model. It appreciably moderates the decrease relative to the leading term at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.

  12. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  13. Is nuclear matter a quantum crystal?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Chitre, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    A possible alternative to the ordinary gas-like computation for nuclear matter is investigated under the assumption that the nucleons are arranged in a lattice. BCC, FCC and HCP structures are investigated. Only HCP shows a minimum in the energy vs. density curve with a modest binding energy of -1.5 MeV. The very low density limit is investigated and sensible results are obtained only if the tensor force decreases with the density. A study of the elastic properties indicates that the previous structures are mechanically unstable against shearing stresses.

  14. Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, Raphael

    2015-05-01

    Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of neutron and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in experiments of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and in neutron star observations yield important new insights on the equation of state of neutron matter at nuclear densities. In this regime the EOS of neutron matter plays a critical role in determining the mass-radius relationship for neutron stars. We show how microscopic calculations of neutron matter, based on realistic two- and three-nucleon forces, make clear predictions for the relation between the isospin-asymmetry energy of nuclear matter and its density dependence, and the maximum mass and radius for a neutron star. We will also discuss the recent extension of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo method to study the equation of state of nuclear matter using two-body nucleon interactions. The equation of state of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter will also be discussed.

  16. Particle-hole states in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work deals with the collective excitations in nuclear matter, from the point of view of the TDA approximation. Our calculations involved the construction of a Hamiltonian, expressed as a matrix in the space of particle-hole excitations with a given momentum transfer. We used in this Hamiltonian an average single nucleon potential, and (in some cases) an effective interaction obtained for the potential HEA in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree Fock theory. The eigenvectors of the TDA-Hamiltonian were used to compute the strength of the collective response of nuclear matter to external probes. Our results, succinctly described in the last section, are summarized in a set of figures at the end of this monograph. The specific form of the TDA equations that we used, and the procedure to calculate the degree of collectivity of the solutions, is studied in detail in the fifth chapter. A derivation of the TDA equations, and a discussion of the solutions for a separable potential, is given in the fourth chapter. The structure of a non-relativistic potential for a system of two nucleons is examined in the third chapter, in several representations. On the other hand, the particle-hole states relevant to our discussions on the TDA equations are introduced in the first two chapters.

  17. Big Bang synthesis of nuclear dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Edward; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John; West, Stephen M.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the physics of dark matter models featuring composite bound states carrying a large conserved dark "nucleon" number. The properties of sufficiently large dark nuclei may obey simple scaling laws, and we find that this scaling can determine the number distribution of nuclei resulting from Big Bang Dark Nucleosynthesis. For plausible models of asymmetric dark matter, dark nuclei of large nucleon number, e.g. ≳ 108, may be synthesised, with the number distribution taking one of two characteristic forms. If small-nucleon-number fusions are sufficiently fast, the distribution of dark nuclei takes on a logarithmically-peaked, universal form, independent of many details of the initial conditions and small-number interactions. In the case of a substantial bottleneck to nucleosynthesis for small dark nuclei, we find the surprising result that even larger nuclei, with size ≫ 108, are often finally synthesised, again with a simple number distribution. We briefly discuss the constraints arising from the novel dark sector energetics, and the extended set of (often parametrically light) dark sector states that can occur in complete models of nuclear dark matter. The physics of the coherent enhancement of direct detection signals, the nature of the accompanying dark-sector form factors, and the possible modifications to astrophysical processes are discussed in detail in a companion paper.

  18. Spin polarized asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star matter within the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bigdeli, M.

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV{sub 18}, Reid93, UV{sub 14}, and AV{sub 14} potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.

  19. Quark mean field approach with derivative coupling for nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kawabata, M.; Akiyama, S.; Futami, Y.; Nakasone, T.; Yukino, T.

    2008-05-15

    We propose the quark mean field model including derivative coupling between quarks and scalar mesons in nuclear matter. This model concisely interprets an increasing size of the nucleon as well as a modification of coupling constant in the nuclear environment.

  20. Ground-state energy of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, George A., Jr.; Benofy, L. P.; Fortes, Mauricio

    1988-07-01

    The low-density expansion of the ground-state energy for spin-dependent forces is given, through order k6F for the ladder approximation and through order k6FlnkF for the complete energy, in terms of derivatives with respect to the strength of the attractive part of the interaction defined by the Baker-Hind-Kahane potential. The ladder approximation is also computed by the numerical solution of the K-matrix equation. The resulting series gives a satisfactory representation of the energy at interesting densities. Using Padé extrapolation techniques, both in the density and in the attractive part of the interaction, we obtain the ground-state energy of nuclear matter.

  1. Strangeness and charm in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Cabrera, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis

    2013-09-01

    The properties of strange (K, Kbar and K) and open-charm (D, Dbar and D*) mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary approach in coupled channels for meson-baryon scattering. In the strangeness sector, the interaction with nucleons always comes through vector-meson exchange, which is evaluated by chiral and hidden gauge Lagrangians. For the interaction of charmed mesons with nucleons we extend the SU(3) Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian to incorporate spin-flavor symmetry and implement a suitable flavor symmetry breaking. The in-medium solution for the scattering amplitude accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies. On one hand, we obtain the K, Kbar and K spectral functions in the nuclear medium and study their behaviour at finite density, temperature and momentum. We also make an estimate of the transparency ratio of the γA→K+KA‧ reaction, which we propose as a tool to detect in-medium modifications of the K meson. On the other hand, in the charm sector, several resonances with negative parity are generated dynamically by the s-wave interaction between pseudoscalar and vector meson multiplets with 1/2+ and 3/2+ baryons. The properties of these states in matter are analyzed and their influence on the open-charm meson spectral functions is studied. We finally discuss the possible formation of D-mesic nuclei at FAIR energies.

  2. Structure of matter, radioactivity, and nuclear fission. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes structure of matter (what is matter, forces holding atoms together, visualizing the atom, the chemical elements, atomic symbols, isotopes, radiation from the atom), radioactivity (what holds the nucleus together, can one element change into another element, radiation from the nucleus, half-life, chart of the nuclides), and nuclear fission (nuclear energy release, the fission process, where does fission energy go, radiation and radioactivity resulting from fission).

  3. Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach

    SciTech Connect

    S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2006-02-10

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  4. Impact of natural organic matter on uranium transport through saturated geologic materials: from molecular to column scale.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Saiers, James E; Xu, Na; Minasian, Stefan G; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Kozimor, Stosh A; Shuh, David K; Barnett, Mark O

    2012-06-01

    The risk stemming from human exposure to actinides via the groundwater track has motivated numerous studies on the transport of radionuclides within geologic environments; however, the effects of waterborne organic matter on radionuclide mobility are still poorly understood. In this study, we compared the abilities of three humic acids (HAs) (obtained through sequential extraction of a peat soil) to cotransport hexavalent uranium (U) within water-saturated sand columns. Relative breakthrough concentrations of U measured upon elution of 18 pore volumes increased from undetectable levels (<0.001) in an experiment without HAs to 0.17 to 0.55 in experiments with HAs. The strength of the HA effect on U mobility was positively correlated with the hydrophobicity of organic matter and NMR-detected content of alkyl carbon, which indicates the possible importance of hydrophobic organic matter in facilitating U transport. Carbon and uranium elemental maps collected with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) revealed uneven microscale distribution of U. Such molecular- and column-scale data provide evidence for a critical role of hydrophobic organic matter in the association and cotransport of U by HAs. Therefore, evaluations of radionuclide transport within subsurface environments should consider the chemical characteristics of waterborne organic substances, especially hydrophobic organic matter. PMID:22533547

  5. K meson-nucleus interactions: strangeness and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is provided of some straightforward K-nuclear and ..lambda..-hypernuclear systems. A discussion of less straightforward speculations on H-dibaryons and strange quark matter by many authors, is also given. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  6. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hilger, T.; Thomas, R.; Kaempfer, B.

    2009-02-15

    QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D-D and B-B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density; extrapolated to saturation density it is in the order of 60 and 130 MeV, respectively, driven essentially by the condensates , , and . The poorly known condensate may leave room for an even larger D-D mass splitting. The genuine chiral condensate , amplified by heavy-quark masses, enters the Borel transformed sum rules for the mass splitting beyond linear density dependence. The inclusion of strange quark condensates reveals a numerically smaller and opposite effect for the D{sub s}-D{sub s} mass splitting.

  7. Self-Consistent Green Function Calculations for Isospin Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, H.; Gad, K.; Hassaneen, K. S. A.

    2010-04-01

    The one-body potentials for protons and neutrons are obtained from the self-consistent Green-function calculations of asymmetric nuclear matter, in particular their dependence on the degree of proton/neutron asymmetry. Results of the binding energy per nucleon as a function of the density and asymmetry parameter are presented for the self-consistent Green function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The contribution of the hole-hole terms leads to a repulsive contribution to the energy per nucleon which increases with the nuclear density. The incompressibility for asymmetric nuclear matter has been also investigated in the framework of the self-consistent Green-function approach using the CD-Bonn potential. The behavior of the incompressibility is studied for different values of the nuclear density and the neutron excess parameter. The nuclear symmetry potentia l at fixed nuclear density is also calculated and its value decreases with increasing the nucleon energy. In particular, the nuclear symmetry potential at saturation density changes from positive to negative values at nucleon kinetic energy of about 200 MeV. For the sake of comparison, the same calculations are performed using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. The proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter has been studied. The predicted isospin splitting of the proton/neutron effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter is such that m(*_n) ≥ m(*_p) .

  8. Asymmetric nuclear matter based on chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drischler, C.; Hebeler, K.; Schwenk, A.

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the properties of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter based on chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions. To this end, we develop an improved normal-ordering framework that allows us to include general 3N interactions starting from a plane-wave partial-wave-decomposed form. We present results for the energy per particle for general isospin asymmetries based on a set of different Hamiltonians, study their saturation properties, the incompressibility, symmetry energy, and also provide an analytic parametrization for the energy per particle as a function of density and isospin asymmetry.

  9. Low energy overlineKN interaction in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the low-energy overlineKN interaction in nuclear matter including Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and binding effects. We use a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, πΣ, πΛ system. Due to the dynamics of the Λ (1405) resonance we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K -p scattering amplitude in nuclear matter. The real part of the K -p scattering length changes sign already at a small fraction of nuclear matter density, less than 0.2 po. This may explain the striking behaviour of the K - -nuclear optical potential found in the analysis of kaonic atom data.

  10. Equation of state for {beta}-stable hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.; Panos, C. P.

    2009-04-15

    We provide an equation of state for hot nuclear matter in {beta} equilibrium by applying a momentum-dependent effective interaction. We focus on the study of the equation of state of high-density and high-temperature nuclear matter, containing leptons (electrons and muons) under the chemical equilibrium condition in which neutrinos have left the system. The conditions of charge neutrality and equilibrium under the {beta}-decay process lead first to the evaluation of proton and lepton fractions and then to the evaluation of internal energy, free energy, and pressure, and in total to the equation of state of hot nuclear matter. Thermal effects on the properties and equation of state of nuclear matter are assessed and analyzed in the framework of the proposed effective interaction model. Special attention is given to the study of the contribution of the components of {beta}-stable nuclear matter to the entropy per particle, a quantity of great interest in the study of structure and collapse of supernova.

  11. Cold exposure rapidly induces virtual saturation of brown adipose tissue nuclear T sub 3 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, A.C.; Silva, J.E. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1988-10-01

    Cold exposure induces a rapid increase in uncoupling protein (UCP) concentration in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of euthyroid, but not hypothyroid, rats. To normalize this response with exogenous 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), it is necessary to cause systemic hyperthyroidism. In contrast, the same result can be obtained with just replacement doses of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and, in euthyroid rats, the normal response of UCP to cold occurs without hyperthyroid plasma T{sub 3} levels. Consequently, the authors explored the possibility that the cold-induced activation of the type II 5{prime}-deiodinase resulted in high levels of nuclear T{sub 3} receptor occupancy in euthyroid rats. Studies were performed with pulse injections of tracer T{sub 3} or T{sub 4} in rats exposed to 4{degree}C for different lengths of time (1 h-3 wk). Within 4 h of cold exposure, they observed a significant increase in the nuclear ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} derived from the tracer ({sup 125}I)T{sub 4} injections (T{sub 3}(T{sub 4})) and a significant reduction in the nuclear ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} derived from ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3} injections (T{sub 3}(T{sub 3})). The number of BAT nuclear T{sub 3} receptors did not increase for up to 3 wk of observation at 4{degree}C. The mass of nuclear-bound T{sub 3} was calculated from the nuclear tracer ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3}(T{sub 3}) and ({sup 125}I)T{sub 3}(T{sub 4}) at equilibrium and the specific activity of serum T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}, respectively. By 4 h after the initiation of the cold exposure, the receptors were >95% occupied and remained so for the 3 weeks of observation. They conclude that the simultaneous activation of the deiodinase with adrenergic BAT stimulation serves the purpose of nearly saturating the nuclear T{sub 3} receptors. This makes possible the realization of the full thermogenic potential of the tissue without causing systemic hyperthyroidism.

  12. $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gastao Krein, Anthony Thomas, Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-02-01

    The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating $D$ and $D^*$ meson loop contributions to the $J/\\Psi$ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The $J/\\Psi$ mass shift arising from the modification of the $D$ and $D^*$ loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from $-16$~MeV to $-24$~MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of $J/\\Psi$ to a nucleus are investigated.

  13. Monte Carlo approach to nuclei and nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fantoni, Stefano; Gandolfi, Stefano; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Pederiva, Francesco

    2008-10-13

    We report on the most recent applications of the Auxiliary Field Diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) method. The equation of state (EOS) for pure neutron matter in both normal and BCS phase and the superfluid gap in the low-density regime are computed, using a realistic Hamiltonian containing the Argonne AV8' plus Urbana IX three-nucleon interaction. Preliminary results for the EOS of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter are also presented.

  14. Recent Developments in Cold Fusion / Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2006-03-01

    Krivit is recognized internationally as an expert on the subject matter of cold fusion / condensed matter nuclear science. He is the editor of New Energy Times, the leading source of information for the field of cold fusion. He is the author of the 2005 book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion and founder of New Energy Institute, an independent nonprofit public benefit corporation dedicated to accelerating the progress of new, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources.

  15. Axion electrodynamics and nonrelativistic photons in nuclear and quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    We argue that the effective theory for electromagnetic fields in spatially varying meson condensations in dense nuclear and quark matter is given by the axion electrodynamics. We show that one of the helicity states of photons there has the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation ω ˜k2 at small momentum, while the other is gapped. This "nonrelativistic photon" may also be realized at the interface between topological and trivial insulators in condensed matter systems.

  16. Connecting neutron star observations to three-body forces in neutron matter and to the nuclear symmetry energy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, A W; Gandolfi, S

    2012-02-24

    Using a phenomenological form of the equation of state of neutron matter near the saturation density which has been previously demonstrated to be a good characterization of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that currently available neutron star mass and radius measurements provide a significant constraint on the equation of state of neutron matter. At higher densities we model the equation of state by using polytropes and a quark matter model. We show that observations offer an important constraint on the strength of the three-body force in neutron matter, and thus some theoretical models of the three-body force may be ruled out by currently available astrophysical data. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and its slope that can be directly compared to the experiment and other theoretical calculations. PMID:22463511

  17. Carbon black retention in saturated natural soils: Effects of flow conditions, soil surface roughness and soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Lohwacharin, J; Takizawa, S; Punyapalakul, P

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated factors affecting the transport, retention, and re-entrainment of carbon black nanoparticles (nCBs) in two saturated natural soils under different flow conditions and input concentrations using the two-site transport model and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Soil organic matter (SOM) was found to create unfavorable conditions for the retention. Despite an increased flow velocity, the relative stability of the estimated maximum retention capacity in soils may suggest that flow-induced shear stress forces were insufficient to detach nCB. The KPFM observation revealed that nCBs were retained at the grain boundary and on surface roughness, which brought about substantial discrepancy between theoretically-derived attachment efficiency factors and the ones obtained by the experiments using the two-site transport model. Thus, decreasing ionic strength and increasing solution pH caused re-entrainment of only a small fraction of retained nCB in the soil columns. PMID:26057475

  18. Impact of Natural Organic Matter on Uranium Transport through Saturated Geologic Materials: From Molecular to Column Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Saiers, J. E.; Xu, N.; Shuh, D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Barnett, M.

    2011-12-01

    The transport of radionuclides within geologic environments is of considerable concern. Actinides migrate in association with mineral particles and organic matter that occur naturally in nearly all groundwaters. The role of mineral colloids in facilitating radionuclide transport has been reported in numerous studies, but the effects of waterborne organic matter on radionuclide mobility have received less attention. In this study, we compared the abilities of three humic acids (HAs) (obtained through sequential extraction of a peat soil) to co-transport uranium (U) within water-saturated sand columns. We also measured kinetics of U desorption from the HAs in separate experiments by using a novel, continuously stirred flow system (CSFS). Maximum relative breakthrough concentrations of U in our column experiments increased from undetectable levels (<0.001) in the absence of HAs to 0.17 to 0.54 with HAs. The strength of the HA effect on U mobility was positively correlated with the NMR-detected content of paraffinic carbon and the hydrophobicity of HAs, which indicates the importance of hydrophobic organic matter in facilitating U transport. Consistently, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra coupled with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) show that bound U was concentrated in micro areas of the HA that were composed of more hydrophobic carbon. Further analyses of the breakthrough data together with the data from the CSFS experiments revealed that the rates of U desorption from the HAs decreased with decreasing hydrophobicity of the HAs. This finding suggests that U association with hydrophilic moieties of the HAs was irreversible or very-slowly reversible, possibly due to the formation of strong, inner-sphere surface complexes. Using information gleaned from the CSFS experiments on U-HA interactions, model simulations for U and HA transport indicate that colloidal HAs may play a more important role than dissolved HAs in mobilizing and

  19. Nuclear Physics the core of matter, the fuel of stars.

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J. P.; Physics

    1999-01-01

    Dramatic progress has been made in all branches of physics since the National Research Council's 1986 decadal survey of the field. The Physics in a New Era series explores these advances and looks ahead to future goals. The series includes assessments of the major subfields and reports on several smaller subfields, and preparation has begun on an overview volume on the unity of physics, its relationships to other fields, and its contributions to national needs. Nuclear Physics is the latest volume of the series. The book describes current activity in understanding nuclear structure and symmetries, the behavior of matter at extreme densities, the role of nuclear physics in astrophysics and cosmology, and the instrumentation and facilities used by the field. It makes recommendations on the resources needed for experimental and theoretical advances in the coming decade. Nuclear physics addresses the nature of matter making up 99.9 percent of the mass of our everyday world. It explores the nuclear reactions that fuel the stars, including our Sun, which provides the energy for all life on Earth. The field of nuclear physics encompasses some 3,000 experimental and theoretical researchers who work at universities and national laboratories across the United States, as well as the experimental facilities and infrastructure that allow these researchers to address the outstanding scientific questions facing us. This report provides an overview of the frontiers of nuclear physics as we enter the next millennium, with special attention to the state of the science in the United States.The current frontiers of nuclear physics involve fundamental and rapidly evolving issues. One is understanding the structure and behavior of strongly interacting matter in terms of its basic constituents, quarks and gluons, over a wide range of conditions - from normal nuclear matter to the dense cores of neutron stars, and to the Big Bang that was the birth of the universe. Another is to describe

  20. Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.

  1. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Assessing controls on perched saturated zones beneath the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Waste byproducts associated with operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) have the potential to contaminate the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Recharge to the ESRP aquifer is controlled largely by the alternating stratigraphy of fractured volcanic rocks and sedimentary interbeds within the overlying vadose zone and by the availability of water at the surface. Beneath the INTEC facilities, localized zones of saturation perched on the sedimentary interbeds are of particular concern because they may facilitate accelerated transport of contaminants. The sources and timing of natural and anthropogenic recharge to the perched zones are poorly understood. Simple approaches for quantitative characterization of this complex, variably saturated flow system are needed to assess potential scenarios for contaminant transport under alternative remediation strategies. During 2009-2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, employed data analysis and numerical simulations with a recently developed model of preferential flow to evaluate the sources and quantity of recharge to the perched zones. Piezometer, tensiometer, temperature, precipitation, and stream-discharge data were analyzed, with particular focus on the possibility of contributions to the perched zones from snowmelt and flow in the neighboring Big Lost River (BLR). Analysis of the timing and magnitude of subsurface dynamics indicate that streamflow provides local recharge to the shallow, intermediate, and deep perched saturated zones within 150 m of the BLR; at greater distances from the BLR the influence of streamflow on recharge is unclear. Perched water-level dynamics in most wells analyzed are consistent with findings from previous geochemical analyses, which suggest that a combination of annual snowmelt and anthropogenic sources (for example, leaky pipes and drainage ditches) contribute to recharge of shallow and

  3. Organic matter induced mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles from water-saturated sand.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyao; Yin, Ziyi; Chen, Fangmin; Hu, Jingjing; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-10-01

    Mobilization of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate: SDBS), amino acid derivative (N-acetylcysteine: NAC), and chelate (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: EDTA) in water-saturated sand medium was explored based on carefully designed column tests. Exposure experiments monitoring the size evolution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs in organic solutions confirm the capacity of SDBS, NAC and EDTA to partly displace PVP. Single Pulse Column Experiment (SPCE) results show both the PVP polymer and the silver core controlled AgNP deposition while the effect of the PVP was dominant. Results of Co-injected Pulse Column Experiments (CPCEs) where AgNP and SDBS or NAC were co-injected into the column following a very short mixing (<1 s) disprove our hypothesis that coating-alternation by particle associated organic would mobilize irreversibly deposited particles from the uncoated sand, while surface charge modification by adsorbed NAC was identified as a potential mobilizing mechanism for AgNP from the iron-oxide-coated sand. Triple Pulse Column Experiment (TPCE) results confirm that such a charging effect of the adsorbed organic molecules may enable SDBS and NAC to mobilize AgNPs from the iron-oxide-coated sands. TPCE results with five distinct levels of SDBS indicate that concentration-stimulated change in the SDBS format from an individual to a micelle significantly increased the mobilizing efficiency and site blockage of SDBS. Although being an electrolyte, EDTA did not mobilize AgNPs, as the case with SDBS or NAC, as it dissolved the iron oxides which in turn prevented EDTA adsorption on sand. The findings have implications for better understanding the behavior of polymer-coated nanoparticles in organic-presented groundwater systems, i.e., detachment-associated uncertainty in exposure prediction of the nanomaterials. PMID:26011614

  4. Attenuation and recombination of quarks in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, A.; Takagi, F.

    1980-03-24

    Quark models of hadron production in the beam-fragmentation region are extended to production off nuclei by taking into account quark attenuation in nuclear matter. Simple expressions are derived for the A dependence of the production of beam fragments. They reproduce well the experimental data on hadron-nucleus and virtual photon-nucleus collisions.

  5. Three-dimensional calculation of inhomogeneous nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2012-11-12

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density symmetric nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta appears as a meta-stable state at some transient densities. We also analyze the lattice structure of droplets.

  6. Phase transitions of nuclear matter beyond mean field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Nguyen Van Long; Le Viet Hoa

    2007-10-15

    The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach is applied to study the phase transition of nuclear matter modeled by the four-nucleon interaction. It is shown that in the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA) a first-order phase transition takes place at low temperature, whereas the phase transition is of second order at higher temperature.

  7. Matter in extremis: Ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Peter; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-08-20

    We review the physics of nuclear matter at high energy density and the experimental search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The data obtained in the first three years of the RHIC physics program provide several lines of evidence that a novel state of matter has been created in the most violent, head-on collisions of Au nuclei at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Jet quenching and global measurements show that the initial energy density of the strongly interacting medium generated in the collision is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of cold nuclear matter, well above the critical density for the deconfinement phase transition predicted by lattice QCD. The observed collective flow patterns imply that the system thermalizes early in its evolution, with the dynamics of its expansion consistent with ideal hydrodynamic flow based on a Quark-Gluon Plasma equation of state.

  8. Nuclear condensation and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.

    2007-10-15

    The isothermal compression of a dilute nucleonic gas invoking cluster degrees of freedom is studied in an equilibrium statistical model; this clusterized system is found to be more stable than the pure nucleonic system. The equation of state (EoS) of this matter, shows features qualitatively very similar to the one obtained from pure nucleonic gas. In the isothermal compression process, there is a sudden enhancement of clusterization at a transition density rendering features analogous to the gas-liquid phase transition in normal dilute nucleonic matter. Different observables like the caloric curves, heat capacities, isospin distillation, etc are studied in both the models. Possible changes in the observables due to recently indicated medium modifications in the symmetry energy are also investigated.

  9. Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, D.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Dussan, H.; Witte, S. J.; Rios, A.; Polls, A.

    2014-10-15

    The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the {sup 3}P{sub 2}−{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the {sup 3}P{sub 2}−{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.

  10. Nuclear matter in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Celso de Camargo; da Cunha, Ivan Eugênio

    2015-12-01

    Recently, extreme conditions have been obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the Large Hadron collider. It is believed that these conditions are similar to the ones of the early Universe, in the time between 10-6s and 1s, approximately. In this work, the hadrons produced in this range of time will be studied, considering some aspects of the systems produced in the heavy-ion collisions. We will study a phase posterior to the phase transition (in fact it is believed to be a crossover) from the quark-gluon plasma, that is the hadronic phase of the Universe. We will show the model proposed in [1], considering the hadronic matter described by a relativistic model (similar to the Walecka model), considering particles described by quantum equations in a curved spacetime. This curvature is due to the mass and to the strong interactions that appears in the energy-momentum tensor. The set of the equations is proposed in the Robertson-Walker metric, and some approximate solutions are obtained.

  11. Nuclear matter in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Celso de Camargo; Cunha, Ivan Eugênio da

    2015-12-17

    Recently, extreme conditions have been obtained in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the Large Hadron collider. It is believed that these conditions are similar to the ones of the early Universe, in the time between 10{sup −6}s and 1s, approximately. In this work, the hadrons produced in this range of time will be studied, considering some aspects of the systems produced in the heavy-ion collisions. We will study a phase posterior to the phase transition (in fact it is believed to be a crossover) from the quark-gluon plasma, that is the hadronic phase of the Universe. We will show the model proposed in [1], considering the hadronic matter described by a relativistic model (similar to the Walecka model), considering particles described by quantum equations in a curved spacetime. This curvature is due to the mass and to the strong interactions that appears in the energy-momentum tensor. The set of the equations is proposed in the Robertson-Walker metric, and some approximate solutions are obtained.

  12. Nuclear techniques in studies of condensed matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have played an important role in the studies of materials over the past several decades. For example, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, neutron activation, and particle- or photon-induced X-ray emission techniques have been used extensively for the elucidation of structural and compositional details of materials. Several new techniques have been developed recently. Four such techniques are briefly reviewed which have great potential in the study and development of new materials. Of these four, Mossbauer spectroscopy, muon spin rotation, and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques exploit their great sensitivity to the local atomic environments in the test materials. Interest in synchrotron radiation, on the other hand, stems from its special properties, such as high intensity, high degree of polarization, and high monochromaticity. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the exploitation of these newer techniques for the development of improved materials.

  13. Sensitivity of elements of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter to the properties of neutron-rich systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity of nuclear symmetry energy elements at the saturation density to the binding energies of ultra-neutron-rich nuclei (neutron-to-proton ratio ˜2 ) and the maximum mass of a neutron star is explored within a relativistic mean field model. Values of the interaction parameters governing the isovector strengths and the symmetry elements are determined in tighter bounds. Assessments based on the sensitivity matrix reveal that the properties of extreme neutron-rich systems play a predominant role in narrowing down the uncertainties in the various symmetry energy parameters. The calculations are extended over a wide range of nuclear matter density, and the results are discussed.

  14. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  15. Study of nuclear matter density distributions using hadronic probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-06

    We briefly review our formula for a proton-nucleus total reaction cross section, {sigma}{sub R}, constructed in the black-sphere approximation of nuclei, in which a nucleus is viewed as a 'black' sphere of radius 'a'. Some years ago, using the Glauber model, one of the authors (A.K.) and his collaborators performed numerical simulations to examine the possibility to probe the nuclear matter density distributions of neutron-rich unstable nuclei from proton elastic scatterings 'model-independently'. The present study is another attempt to seek a 'model-independent' framework for systematically analyzing scattering data for studying the matter density distributions of atomic nuclei.

  16. Initial-state splitting kernels in cold nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Grigory; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We derive medium-induced splitting kernels for energetic partons that undergo interactions in dense QCD matter before a hard-scattering event at large momentum transfer Q2. Working in the framework of the effective theory SCETG, we compute the splitting kernels beyond the soft gluon approximation. We present numerical studies that compare our new results with previous findings. We expect the full medium-induced splitting kernels to be most relevant for the extension of initial-state cold nuclear matter energy loss phenomenology in both p+A and A+A collisions.

  17. Nuclear Matter Equations of State and the Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanec, M.; Stuchlik, Z.; Betak, E.

    2008-05-12

    The equations of state (EoS) of relativistic asymmetric nuclear matter are obtainable from assumed form of the interaction Lagrangian. They are one of important inputs to describe the neutron stars. The structure of the neutron stars, i.e. the density of matter and the pressure as functions of radial distance starting from their values at the center of a star, is straightforwardly dependent on EoS. Similarly, a limitation on the total mass of the neutron star can be obtained therefrom. Thus, EoS and the underlying nucleon interactions can be tested also by the means of astronomical observations.

  18. Compressibility, the measurement of surface tension, and particle size in molecular or nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Dixmier, Marc

    2006-02-15

    It is shown that the interface shrinkage resulting from the capillary pressure difference between both sides of a curved interface is the product of a "standard shrinkage"kappagamma (kappa is the isothermal compressibility, gamma the interfacial tension) by a dimensionless factor that depends only on the shape of the sample of matter under study. The behaviour of the standard shrinkage in the critical domain shows that it cannot be a measure of the thickness of the liquid-vapour interface in that domain. The standard shrinkage of classical liquids somewhat above triple point is usually near to 0.048 v(c)(1/3) (v(c) is the critical molecular volume); exceptions to this rule are discussed. The variation of the standard shrinkage along the liquid-vapour coexistence curves of water and argon is presented; the effect of the interface shrinkage on the measured surface tension of liquids can become important within about 15% of the critical temperature. The standard shrinkage of solids is less than that of the corresponding liquids, and is of no consequence when measuring the surface tension of solids. The standard shrinkage of the nuclear fluid is 0.23 fm=0.09 v(c)(1/3). The saturation density of infinite nuclear matter is about 9% less than its value in atomic nuclei, and a term proportional to A(1/3) (A is the mass number) must be added to the nuclear binding energy formula. PMID:16266717

  19. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  20. Higher-order symmetry energy of nuclear matter and the inner edge of neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seif, W. M.; Basu, D. N.

    2014-02-01

    The parabolic approximation to the equation of state of the isospin asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) is widely used in the literature to make predictions for the nuclear structure and the neutron star properties. Based on the realistic M3Y-Paris and M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon interactions, we investigate the effects of the higher-order symmetry energy on the proton fraction in neutron stars and the location of the inner edge of their crusts and their core-crust transition density and pressure, thermodynamically. Analytical expressions for different-order symmetry energy coefficients of ANM are derived using the realistic interactions mentioned above. It is found that the higher-order terms of the symmetry-energy coefficients up to its eighth order (Esym8) contributes substantially to the proton fraction in β-stable neutron star matter at different nuclear matter densities, the core-crust transition density and pressure. Even by considering the symmetry-energy coefficients up to Esym8, we obtain a significant change of about 40% in the transition pressure value from the one based on the exact equation of state. The slope parameters of the symmetry energies for the M3Y-Paris (Reid) interaction, at the saturation density, are L =47.51(50.98), L4=-0.47(-1.43), L6=0.58(0.67), and L8=0.126(0.133) MeV. Using equations of state based on both Paris and Reid effective interactions which provide saturation incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter in the range of 220≤K0≤270 MeV, we estimate the ranges 0.090≤ρt≤0.095fm-3 and 0.49≤Pt≤0.59MeVfm-3 for the liquid-core-solid-crust transition density and pressure, respectively. The corresponding range of the proton fraction obtained at this ρt range is 0.029≤xp (t)≤0.032.

  1. Phase structure in a chiral model of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Phat, Tran Huu; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tam, Dinh Thanh

    2011-08-15

    The phase structure of symmetric nuclear matter in the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model is studied by means of the effective potential in the one-loop approximation. It is found that chiral symmetry gets restored at high nuclear density and a typical first-order phase transition of the liquid-gas transition occurs at zero temperature, T=0, which weakens as T grows and eventually ends up with a second-order critical point at T=20 MeV. This phase transition scenario is confirmed by investigating the evolution of the effective potential versus the effective nucleon mass and the equation of state.

  2. Nonlinear nuclear equation of state and thermodynamical instabilities in warm and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.; Pigato, D.

    2014-03-01

    We study a nonlinear nuclear equation of state in the framework of a relativistic mean field theory. We investigate the possible thermodynamic instability in a warm and dense asymmetric nuclear medium where a phase transition from nucleonic matter to resonance dominated Δ matter can take place. Such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the isospin concentration) in asymmetric nuclear matter. Similarly to the liquid-gas phase transition, the nucleonic and the Δ-matter phase have a different isospin density in the mixed phase. In the liquid-gas phase transition, the process of producing a larger neutron excess in the gas phase is referred to as isospin fractionation. A similar effects can occur in the nucleon-Δ matter phase transition due essentially to a negative Δ-particles excess in asymmetric nuclear matter. In this context, we investigate also the effects of power law effects, due to the possible presence of nonextensive statistical mechanics effects.

  3. Suppression of the {Lambda}-{Sigma} coupling in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1995-08-01

    We initiated a study of the modification of the coupling of the {Lambda}N to the {Sigma}N channel in nuclear matter with the Fermi hypernetted-chain variational approach. This modification of the {Lambda}N-{Sigma}N coupling is a central problem in hypernuclear physics and is related closely to the strongly repulsive three-body forces which are needed to account for hypernuclear binding energies. All earlier calculations have only considered this problem in the so-called G-matrix approximation which neglects important higher-order effects. An important result of this work will be a better understanding of the density dependence of {Lambda} binding in nuclear matter, which can then be tested in the calculation of the {Lambda} single-particle energies.

  4. Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.

  5. Determination of nuclear-matter temperature and density

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the things learned about nuclear matter under extreme conditions during the past few years in relativistic heavy ion studies are reviewed. Two developments are discussed. The completion of analyses and publication of results from the impact parameter selected, single-particle inclusive experiments have proven to be important. Preliminary results from the new generation of two-particle correlation and particle-exclusive measurements, especially those using streamer chambers, look even more definitive. Also the measurement of more exotic ejectiles with long mean free paths in nuclear matter promises to provide more basic information. Calculations are offering real guidance and are providing explanations of high energy collisions. The Monte Carlo and intranuclear cascade calculations discussed are especially informative.

  6. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  7. Nucleon-nucleon cross sections in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, H.; Schnell, A.; Roepke, G.; Lombardo, U.

    1997-06-01

    We provide a microscopic calculation of neutron-proton and neutron-neutron cross sections in symmetric nuclear matter at various densities, using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation scheme with the Paris potential. We investigate separately the medium effects on the effective mass and on the scattering amplitude. We determine average cross sections suitable for application in the dynamical simulation of heavy ion collisions, including a parametrization of their energy and density dependence. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Heating of nuclear matter and multifragmentation : antiprotons vs. pions.

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Gushue, S.; Hsi, W.-C.; Korteling, R. G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Laforest, R.; Lefort, T.; Martin, E.; Pienkowski, L.; Ramakrishnan, E.; Remsberg, L. P.; Rowland, D.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V. E.; Winchester, E.; Yennello, S. J.

    1999-05-03

    Heating of nuclear matter with 8 GeV/c {bar p} and {pi}{sup {minus}} beams has been investigated in an experiment conducted at BNL AGS accelerator. All charged particles from protons to Z {approx_equal} 16 were detected using the Indiana Silicon Sphere 4{pi} array. Significant enhancement of energy deposition in high multiplicity events is observed for antiprotons compared to other hadron beams. The experimental trends are qualitatively consistent with predictions from an intranuclear cascade code.

  9. Effective kaon masses in dense nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    The effective mass and decay width of kaonic modes in baryonic matter are studied within a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, π∑, πΛ system. Including Pauli blocking and Fermi motion in the kaon dispersion relation, we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K - effective mass and decay width in symmetric nuclear matter at densities around 0.1 times normal nuclear matter density ϱ0 due to the in-medium dynamics of the Λ(1405) resonance. At higher densities the K - effective mass decreases slowly but stays above 0.5 mK at least up to densities below 3 ϱ0. In neutron matter the K - effective mass decreases almost linearly with increasing density but remains relatively large ( m K∗ > 0.65 m K) for ϱn ≲ 3 ϱ0. The K + effective mass turns out to increase very slowly with rising density.

  10. Superconducting Nuclear Recoil Sensor for Directional Dark Matter Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Ann; Baldwin, Kevin; Hehlen, Markus; Lafler, Randy; Loomba, Dinesh; Phan, Nguyen; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina

    The Universe consists of 72% dark energy, 23% dark matter and only 5% of ordinary matter. One of the greatest challenges of the scientific community is to understand the nature of dark matter. Current models suggest that dark matter is made up of slowly moving, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). But detecting WIMPs is challenging, as their expected signals are small and rare compared to the large background that can mimic the signal. The largest and most robust unique signature that sets them apart from other particles is the day-night variation of the directionality of dark matter on Earth. This modulation could be observed with a direction-sensitive detector and hence, would provide an unambiguous signature for the galactic origin of WIMPs. There are many studies underway to attempt to detect WIMPs both directly and indirectly, but solid-state WIMP detectors are widely unexplored although they would present many advantages to prevalent detectors that use large volumes of low pressure gas. We present first results of a novel multi-layered architecture, in which WIMPs would interact primarily with solid layers to produce nuclear recoils that then induce measureable voltage pulses in adjacent superconductor layers. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  11. Integrated Analytic Radionuclide Transport Model for a Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Saturated Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-05-15

    Simple analytic expressions are presented for radionuclide transport from a KBS 3-type repository, where spent nuclear fuel is placed in copper canisters surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at a depth of 500 m in fractured granitic rock.Dissolution of readily accessible and fuel matrix embedded nuclides, chain decay, and nuclide precipitation is treated within the canister. Transport in the canister void and buffer is modeled with a dual stirred tank analogy, where transport resistances represent an assumed small initial damage in the canister and transport features of the buffer-geosphere interface. Initial, transient diffusion in the buffer is treated with a simple correction term. Chain decay is not included in the buffer.Geosphere transport expressions handle advection, longitudinal dispersion, matrix diffusion, sorption, and radioactive decay, but not chain decay. The treatment is based on earlier results for an instantaneous inlet and for a constant inlet to the geosphere in the nondispersive case. A correction is added so that longitudinal dispersion is taken approximately into account. The correction utilizes analytical expressions for the temporal moments of the geosphere release curve in the dispersive case.The near-field/geosphere integration is treated in a simplified manner avoiding numerical convolutions. The instantaneous inlet expression for the geosphere release is used when the near-field release decreases rapidly in comparison to a typical response time in the geosphere; the constant inlet expression is used in the opposite case.Twenty-seven calculation cases from a safety assessment of a KBS 3 repository using borehole data from three different field investigation sites were repeated with the analytic expressions. The agreement in both near-field and geosphere releases is in general well within an order of magnitude for the variety of long- and short-lived, sorbing, nonsorbing, solubility limited, immediately accessible, and fuel matrix

  12. Effects of angular correlations on particle-particle propagation in infinite nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Barrientos, J.; Arellano, H. F.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of angular correlations on self-consistent solutions for single-particle (sp) potentials in infinite nuclear matter is investigated. To this end we treat explicitly the angular dependence of the particle-particle (pp) propagator in Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) equation for the g matrix. It is observed that the exact angular dependence of the pp propagator yields highly fluctuating structures, posing stringent difficulties in the actual search of self-consistent solutions for the sp energy. A perturbative approach is presented to evaluate the effect of the angular correlations in the self-consistent solutions. Solutions at Fermi momenta kF in the range 1.20 - 1.75 fm-1 are reported using Argonne v 18 nucleon- nucleon potential. Although the sp potentials are sensitive to the treatment of the angular behaviour of the propagator, such sensitivity appears at momenta well above the Fermi surface. As a result, the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter differ marginally from those calculated using angle-averaged energy denominators in pp propagators.

  13. Nuclear-matter equation of state with consistent two- and three-body perturbative chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coraggio, L.; Holt, J. W.; Itaco, N.; Machleidt, R.; Marcucci, L. E.; Sammarruca, F.

    2014-04-01

    We compute the energy per particle of infinite symmetric nuclear matter from chiral NLO3 (next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order) two-body potentials plus NLO2 three-body forces. The low-energy constants of the chiral three-nucleon force that cannot be constrained by two-body observables are fitted to reproduce the triton binding energy and the H3-He3 Gamow-Teller transition matrix element. In this way, the saturation properties of nuclear matter are reproduced in a parameter-free approach. The equation of state is computed up to third order in many-body perturbation theory, with special emphasis on the role of the third-order particle-hole diagram. The dependence of these results on the cutoff scale and regulator function is studied. We find that the inclusion of three-nucleon forces consistent with the applied two-nucleon interaction leads to a reduced dependence on the choice of the regulator only for lower values of the cutoff.

  14. Influence of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a ferric oxyhydroxide-coated quartz sand saturated porous medium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abudalo, R.A.; Ryan, J.N.; Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Landkamer, L.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a geochemically heterogeneous saturated porous medium, we measured the breakthrough and collision efficiencies of oocysts as a function of dissolved organic matter concentration in a flow-through column containing ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand. We characterized the surface properties of the oocysts and ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand using microelectrophoresis and streaming potential, respectively, and the amount of organic matter adsorbed on the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand as a function of the concentration of dissolved organic matter (a fulvic acid isolated from Florida Everglades water). The dissolved organic matter had no significant effect on the zeta potential of the oocysts. Low concentrations of dissolved organic matter were responsible for reversing the charge of the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand surface from positive to negative. The charge reversal and accumulation of negative charge on the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand led to increases in oocyst breakthrough and decreases in oocyst collision efficiency with increasing dissolved organic matter concentration. The increase in dissolved organic matter concentration from 0 to 20 mg L-1 resulted in a two-fold decrease in the collision efficiency. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Relativistic mean-field models and nuclear matter constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Dutra, M.; Lourenco, O.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Avancini, S. S.; Stone, J. R.; Providencia, C.; Typel, S.

    2013-05-06

    This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4} models, (iii) {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4}+{omega}{sup 4} models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields {sigma} and {omega}, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the {sigma} ({omega}) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the {rho} meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.

  16. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter and its impacts on nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich nucleonic matter reflects the spacetime nonlocality of the isovector nuclear interaction. It affects the neutron/proton ratio during the earlier evolution of the Universe, cooling of proto-neutron stars, structure of rare isotopes and dynamics of heavy-ion collisions. While there is still no consensus on whether the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is negative, zero or positive and how it depends on the density as well as the isospin-asymmetry of the medium, significant progress has been made in recent years in addressing these issues. There are different kinds of nucleon effective masses. In this mini-review, we focus on the total effective masses often used in the non-relativistic description of nuclear dynamics. We first recall the connections among the neutron-proton effective mass splitting, the momentum dependence of the isovector potential and the density dependence of the symmetry energy. We then make a few observations about the progress in calculating the neutron-proton effective mass splitting using various nuclear many-body theories and its effects on the isospin-dependence of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections. Perhaps, our most reliable knowledge so far about the neutron-proton effective mass splitting at saturation density of nuclear matter comes from optical model analyses of huge sets of nucleon-nucleus scattering data accumulated over the last five decades. The momentum dependence of the symmetry potential from these analyses provide a useful boundary condition at saturation density for calibrating nuclear many-body calculations. Several observables in heavy-ion collisions have been identified as sensitive probes of the neutron-proton effective mass splitting in dense neutron-rich matter based on transport model simulations. We review these observables and comment on the latest experimental findings.

  17. Relativistic spectral function of nucleons in hot nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Sarkar, Sourav; Mallik, S.

    2010-10-01

    We present a simple calculation of the nucleon self-energy in nuclear matter at finite temperature in a relativistic framework, using the real-time thermal field theory. The imaginary parts of one-loop graphs are identified with discontinuities across the unitary and the Landau cuts. We find that in general both the cuts contribute significantly to the spectral function in the region of (virtual) nucleon mass usually considered, even though the unitary cut is ignored in the literature. Furthermore, our relativistic spectral function differs from the one in nonrelativistic approximation, used in some earlier calculations.

  18. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for Information I Entergy Nuclear Operations (Entergy) is the holder of Facility Operating License No....

  19. 78 FR 28245 - In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0093; Docket No.: 50-348, 50-364; License No.: NPF-2, NPF-8; EA-12-145] In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Confirmatory Order I Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC or Licensee)...

  20. Open heavy flavor in QCD matter and in nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prino, Francesco; Rapp, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    We review the experimental and theoretical status of open heavy-flavor (HF) production in high-energy nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We first overview the theoretical concepts and pertinent calculations of HF transport in strong-interaction matter, including perturbative and non-perturbative approaches in quark–gluon plasma, effective models in hadronic matter, as well as implementations of heavy-quark (HQ) hadronization. This is followed by a brief discussion of bulk evolution models for heavy-ion collisions and initial conditions for the HQ distributions which are needed to calculate HF spectra in comparison to observables. We then turn to a discussion of experimental data that have been collected to date at RHIC and the LHC, specifically for the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow of leptons from semileptonic HF decays, D mesons, non-prompt J/\\psi from B-meson decays, and b-jets. Model comparisons to HF data are conducted with regards to extracting the magnitude, temperature and momentum dependence of HF transport coefficients from experiment.

  1. Masses of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Satpathy, L.; Nayak, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    We present mass excesses of 3481 nuclei in the range 18less than or equal toAless than or equal to267 using the infinite nuclear matter model based on the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem. In this model the ground-state energy of a nucleus of asymmetry ..beta.. is considered equivalent to the energy of a perfect sphere made up of the infinite nuclear matter of the same asymmetry plus the residual energy due to shell effects, deformation, etc., called the local energy eta. In this model there are two kinds of parameters: global and local. The five global parameters characterizing the properties of the above sphere are determined by fitting the mass of all nuclei (756) in the recent mass table of Wapstra et al. having error bar less than 30 keV. The local parameters are determined for 25 regions each spanning 8 or 10 A values. The total number of parameters including the five global ones is 238. The root-mean-square deviation for the calculated masses from experiment is 397 keV for the 1572 nuclei used in the least-squares fit. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  2. The Hypothesis of Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Steven; Ellsworth, John; Rees, Lawrence

    2004-05-01

    In our 1986 and1989 papers, we discussed the hypothesis of nuclear fusion in condensed matter and particularly in the planets and provided supporting evidence.[1,2] We continue to assert that non-thermonuclear d-Z fusion (including but not limited to d-d fusion) may occur in the core-region of the earth, and generally in hydrogen-bearing metals and minerals which are subjected to extreme off-equilibrium conditions. This hypothesis can be tested by measuring tritium and helium-3 in magmatic fluids from hot-spot volcanoes which tap plumes arising from the core-mantle boundary. In particular, magmatic waters of Kilauea, Loihi, and Icelandic volcanoes are predicted to contain significant tritium. Magmatic emissions of Kilauea demonstrated anomalous tritium content over twelve years ago[3], and a re-test of Kilauea emissions is urged along with further laboratory experiments. [1] C. DeW. Van Siclen and S. E. Jones, "Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules," J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 12: 213-221 (March 1986). [2] S. E. Jones, et al., Observation of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter, Nature 338: 737-740 (April 1989). [4] F. Goff and G. M. McMurtry, "Tritium and stable isotopes of magmatic waters," J. Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 97: 347-396 (2000)

  3. Dynamical properties of nuclear and stellar matter and the symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, Helena; Santos, Alexandre; Brito, Lucilia; Providencia, Constanca

    2010-08-15

    The effects of density dependence of the symmetry energy on the collective modes and dynamical instabilities of cold and warm nuclear and stellar matter are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field hadron models. The existence of the collective isovector and possibly an isoscalar collective mode above saturation density is discussed. It is shown that soft equations of state do not allow for a high-density isoscalar collective mode; however, if the symmetry energy is hard enough, an isovector mode will not disappear at high densities. The crust-core transition density and pressure are obtained as a function of temperature for {beta}-equilibrium matter with and without neutrino trapping. Estimations of the size of the clusters formed in the nonhomogeneous phase, as well as the corresponding growth rates and distillation effect, are made. It is shown that cluster sizes increase with temperature, that the distillation effect close to the inner edge of the crust-core transition is very sensitive to the symmetry energy, and that, within a dynamical instability calculation, the pasta phase exists in warm compact stars up to 10-12 MeV.

  4. Modification of the {omega}-Meson Lifetime in Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kotulla, M.; Trnka, D.; Gregor, R.; Lugert, S.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Pant, L. M.; Pee, H. van; Pfeiffer, M.; Roy, A.; Schadmand, S.; Varma, R.; Muehlich, P.; Mosel, U.; Anton, G.; Bogendoerfer, R.; Hoessl, J.; Suft, G.; Bacelar, J. C. S.

    2008-05-16

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of {omega} mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the {omega}-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic {omega} width is found to be 130-150 MeV/c{sup 2} at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1 GeV/c. In the rest frame of the {omega} meson, this inelastic {omega} width corresponds to a reduction of the {omega} lifetime by a factor {approx_equal}30. For the first time, the momentum dependent {omega}N cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb.

  5. Modification of the omega-meson lifetime in nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Kotulla, M; Trnka, D; Mühlich, P; Anton, G; Bacelar, J C S; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beloglazov, Y A; Bogendörfer, R; Castelijns, R; Crede, V; Dutz, H; Ehmanns, A; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fabry, I; Fuchs, M; Essig, K; Funke, Ch; Gothe, R; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A B; Gutz, E; Höffgen, S; Hoffmeister, P; Horn, I; Hössl, J; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Klein, Frank; Klein, Fritz; Klempt, E; Konrad, M; Kopf, B; Krusche, B; Langheinrich, J; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I V; Lotz, J; Lugert, S; Menze, D; Messchendorp, J G; Mertens, T; Metag, V; Mosel, U; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L M; van Pee, H; Pfeiffer, M; Roy, A; Radkov, A; Schadmand, S; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schoch, B; Shende, S; Suft, G; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Süle, A; Thoma, U; Varma, R; Walther, D; Weinheimer, Ch; Wendel, Ch

    2008-05-16

    Information on hadron properties in the nuclear medium has been derived from the photoproduction of omega mesons on the nuclei C, Ca, Nb, and Pb using the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the ELSA tagged photon facility in Bonn. The dependence of the omega-meson cross section on the nuclear mass number has been compared with three different types of models: a Glauber analysis, a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck analysis of the Giessen theory group, and a calculation by the Valencia theory group. In all three cases, the inelastic omega width is found to be 130-150 MeV/c(2) at normal nuclear matter density for an average 3-momentum of 1.1 GeV/c. In the rest frame of the omega meson, this inelastic omega width corresponds to a reduction of the omega lifetime by a factor approximately 30. For the first time, the momentum dependent omegaN cross section has been extracted from the experiment and is in the range of 70 mb. PMID:18518443

  6. Event-by-event fluctuations in a perturbative QCD + saturation + hydrodynamics model: Determining QCD matter shear viscosity in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, H.; Eskola, K. J.; Paatelainen, R.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce an event-by-event perturbative-QCD + saturation + hydro ("EKRT") framework for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, where we compute the produced fluctuating QCD-matter energy densities from next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD using a saturation conjecture to control soft-particle production and describe the space-time evolution of the QCD matter with dissipative fluid dynamics, event by event. We perform a simultaneous comparison of the centrality dependence of hadronic multiplicities, transverse momentum spectra, and flow coefficients of the azimuth-angle asymmetries against the LHC and RHIC measurements. We compare also the computed event-by-event probability distributions of relative fluctuations of elliptic flow and event-plane angle correlations with the experimental data from Pb +Pb collisions at the LHC. We show how such a systematic multienergy and multiobservable analysis tests the initial-state calculation and the applicability region of hydrodynamics and, in particular, how it constrains the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity-to-entropy ratio of QCD matter in its different phases in a remarkably consistent manner.

  7. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  8. Dynamics of hot and dense nuclear and partonic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.; Linnyk, O.; Konchakovski, V. P.; Voronyuk, V.; Ozvenchuk, V.

    2012-06-15

    The dynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter is discussed from the microscopic transport point of view. The basic concepts of the Hadron-String-Dynamical transport model (HSD)-derived from Kadanoff-Baym equations in phase phase-are presented as well as 'highlights' of HSD results for different observables in heavy-ion collisions from 100 A MeV (SIS) to 21 A TeV(RHIC) energies. Furthermore, a novel extension of the HSD model for the description of the partonic phase-the Parton-Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD) approach-is introduced. PHSD includes a nontrivial partonic equation of state-in line with lattice QCD-as well as covariant transition rates from partonic to hadronic degrees of freedom. The sensitivity of hadronic observables to the partonic phase is demonstrated for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the FAIR/NICA up to the RHIC energy regime.

  9. Bulk Properties of Nuclear Matter From Excitations of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2007-10-26

    We consider the predictive power of Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation in determining properties of finite nuclei and thereby in extracting bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter (NM) by extrapolation. In particular, we review the current status of determining the value of NM incompressibility coefficient K, considering the most sensitive method of analyzing the recent accurate experimental data on excitation strengths of compression modes of nuclei within microscopic relativistic and non-relativistic theoretical models. We discuss the consequences of common violations of self-consistency in HF based random-phase-approximation calculations of strength functions and present results of highly accurate calculations of centroid energies and excitation cross sections of giant resonances. Explanations (resolutions) of long standing discrepancies in the value of K are presented.

  10. Unstable infinite nuclear matter in stochastic mean field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, M.; Chomaz, P. Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Viale Andrea Doria, Catania )

    1994-04-01

    In this article, we consider a semiclassical stochastic mean-field approach. In the case of unstable infinite nuclear matter, we calculate the characteristic time of the exponential growing of fluctuations and the diffusion coefficients associated to the unstable modes, in the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin theory. These two quantities are essential to describe the dynamics of fluctuations and instabilities since, in the unstable regions, the evolution of the system will be dominated by the amplification of fluctuations. In order to make realistic 3D calculations feasible, we suggest to replace the complicated Boltzmann-Langevin theory by a simpler stochastic mean-field approach corresponding to a standard Boltzmann evolution, complemented by a simple noise chosen to reproduce the dynamics of the most unstable modes. Finally we explain how to approximately implement this method by simply tuning the noise associated to the use of a finite number of test particles in Boltzman-like calculations.

  11. Modified Dihadron Fragmentation Functions in Hot and Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, A.; Wang Enke; Wang Xinnian

    2007-10-12

    Medium modification of dihadron fragmentation functions due to gluon bremsstrahlung induced by multiple partonic scattering is studied in both deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off large nuclei and high-energy heavy-ion collisions within the same framework of twist expansion. The modification for dihadrons is found to closely follow that for single hadrons, leading to a weak nuclear suppression of their ratios in DIS experiments. A mild enhancement of the near-side correlation of two high transverse momentum hadrons with increasing centrality is found in heavy-ion collisions due to trigger bias and the rise in parton energy loss with centrality. Successful comparisons between theory and experiment for multihadron observables in both confining and deconfined media offer comprehensive evidence for partonic energy loss as the mechanism of jet modification in dense matter.

  12. Neutrino mean free paths in cold symmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2004-09-01

    The neutrino mean free paths (NMFP) for scattering and absorption in cold symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) are calculated using two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces using correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions and the one particle-hole (p-h) response functions are calculated using the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). For the densities {rho}=(1/2), 1 (3/2){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the equilibrium density of SNM, the strength of the response is shifted to higher energy transfers when compared to a noninteracting Fermi gas (FG). This and the weakness of effective operators compared to the bare operators, significantly reduces the cross sections, enhancing the NMFP by factors of {approx}2.5-3.5 at the densities considered. The NMFP at the equilibrium density {rho}{sub 0} are also calculated using the TDA and random phase approximation (RPA) using zero range Skyrme-like effective interactions with parameters chosen to reproduce the equation of state and spin-isospin susceptibilities of matter. Their results indicate that RPA corrections to correlated TDA may further increase the NMFP by {approx}25% to 3-4 times those in a noninteracting FG. Finally, the sums and the energy weighted sums of the Fermi and Gamow-Teller responses obtained from the correlated ground state are compared with those of the 1 p-h response functions to extract the sum and mean energies of multi p-h contributions to the weak response. The relatively large mean energy of the multi p-h excitations suggests that they may not contribute significantly to low energy NMFP.

  13. Conventional and Unconventional Pairing and Condensates in Dilute Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, John W.; Sedrakian, Armen; Stein, Martin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Khodel, Victor A.; Shaginyan, Vasily R.; Zverev, Mikhail V.

    2016-03-01

    This contribution will survey recent progress toward an understanding of diverse pairing phenomena in dilute nuclear matter at small and moderate isospin asymmetry, with results of potential relevance to supernova envelopes and proto-neutron stars. Application of ab initio many-body techniques has revealed a rich array of temperature-density phase diagrams, indexed by isospin asymmetry, which feature both conventional and unconventional superfluid phases. At low density there exist a homogeneous translationally invariant BCS phase, a homogeneous LOFF phase violating translational invariance, and an inhomogeneous translationally invariant phase-separated BCS phase. The transition from the BCS to the BEC phases is characterized in terms of the evolution, from weak to strong coupling, of the pairing gap, condensate wave function, and quasiparticle occupation numbers and spectra. Additionally, a schematic formal analysis of pairing in neutron matter at low to moderate densities is presented that establishes conditions for the emergence of both conventional and unconventional pairing solutions and encompasses the possibility of dineutron formation.

  14. Empirical observations on the unpredictable behavior of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1994-01-19

    While many aspects of matter are unpredictable from basic principles, there are some that are susceptible to empirical descriptions which can be quite accurate and beautiful. One such example from the field of ``Nuclear Matter Under Extreme Conditions`` is the distribution of the number of particles produced, or alternatively, of the energy carried by these particles, in energetic collisions of atomic nuclei. The present work consists of a series of published scientific papers on measurements of the distribution of particles produced, or the energy carried by these particles, in collisions of various nuclei, spanning more than a decade of research. Due to the unpredictability of the theory, the work includes empirical studies of the regularity of the measured distributions from which significant knowledge is gained. The aesthetics of this subject derives from the physical beauty of the measured curves, the characteristic changes of shape with different species of nuclei, and the deep understanding obtained by the use of a simple and elegant mathematical function to describe the data.

  15. 77 FR 6598 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue Star...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue...

  16. Stability and size of a chiral soliton immersed in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1985-01-01

    The alteration in nucleon substructure when nucleons are placed in nuclear matter is addressed in a Wigner-Seitz approximation by treating nuclei as a collection of chiral solitons. In the limit of strong coupling between quarks and the binding chiral fields, and for low density nuclear matter, it is found the solitons decrease slightly in size. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Symmetry Energy and Surface Clustering in Nuclei; Probing the Asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nooraihan; Nasir Usmani, Qamar; Anwar, Khairul; Sauli, Zaliman

    We investigate the properties of asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) which is consistent with clustering at low densities of nuclear matter. Due to clustering, the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter demonstrates peculiar properties. It is shown that the ground of ANM has two separate phases of normal nuclear matter and neutron matter for N > Z. This situation is at variance with the conventional picture of uniform distribution of neutrons and protons for ANM. Thus, this leads to an excellent understanding of the symmetry energy data of Wada et al. [1] in the density range of 0.048-0.032 fm-3. It is shown that inclusion of clustering at the nuclear surface is essential to explain about nuclei near the neutron drip line. The research incorporates 2149 nuclei [2] with N,Z ≥ 8.

  18. Numerical studies of fluid and heat flow near high-level nuclear waste packages emplaced in partially saturated fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.; Wang, J.S.Y.

    1984-11-01

    We have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated fractured porous rock. Formation parameters were chosen as representative of the potential repository horizon in the Topopah Spring Unit of the Yucca Mountain tuffs. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator "TOUGH" used for our flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects which are important in multi-phase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions for handling the extreme non-linearities which arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. We model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. From an analysis of the results obtained with explicit fractures, we develop equivalent continuum models which can reproduce the temperature, saturation, and pressure variation, and gas and liquid flow rates of the discrete fracture-porous matrix calculations. The equivalent continuum approach makes use of a generalized relative permeability concept to take into account the fracture effects. This results in a substantial simplification of the flow problem which makes larger scale modeling of complicated unsaturated fractured porous systems feasible. Potential applications for regional scale simulations and limitations of the continuum approach are discussed. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Micron-Scale MIC of Alloy 22 After Long Term Incubation in Saturated Nuclear Waste Repository Microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S; Horn, J; Carrillo, C

    2003-10-29

    The effects of potential microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) on candidate packaging materials for nuclear waste containment are being assessed. Coupons of Alloy 22, the outer barrier candidate for waste packaging, were exposed to a simulated, saturated repository environment consisting of crushed rock from the repository site and a continual flow of simulated groundwater for periods up to five years. Coupons were incubated with YM tuff under both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Surfacial analysis of the biotically-incubated coupons show development of both submicron-sized pinholes and pores; these features were not present on either sterile or untreated control coupons. Quantification of these effects will help define the overall contribution of MIC to the integrity of the containment system over a period of 10,000 years.

  20. Leaching Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glass in a saturated tuff environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Wicks, G.G.; Oversby, V.M.

    1984-11-01

    Samples of SRP glass containing either simulated or actual radioactive waste were leached at 90{sup 0}C under conditions simulating a saturated tuff repository environment. The leach vessels were fabricated of tuff and actual tuff groundwater was used. Thus, the glass was leached only in the presence of those materials (including the Type 304L stainless steel canister material) that would be in the actual repository. Tests were performed for time periods up t 6 months at a SA/V ratio of 100 m{sup -1}. Results with glass containing simulated waste indicated that stainless steel canister material around the glass did not significantly affect the leaching. Based on Li and B (elements not in significant concentrations in the tuff or tuff groundwater), glass containing simulated waste leached identically to glass containing actual radioactive waste. The tuff buffered the pH so that only a slight increase was observed as a result of leaching. Results with glass containing actual radioactive waste indicated that tuff reduced the concentrations of Cs-137, Sr-90, and Pu-238 in the free groundwater in the simulated repository by 10 to 100X. Also, radiolysis of the groundwater by the glass (approximately 1000 rad/h) did not significantly affect the pH in the presence of tuff. Measured normalized mass losses in the presence of tuff for the glass based on Cs-137, Sr-90, and Pu-238 in the free groundwater were extremely low, nominally 0.02, 0.02, and 0.005 g/m{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the glass-tuff system retained radionuclides well. 9 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Diffusion of dark matter in a hot and dense nuclear environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermeño, Marina; Pérez-García, M. Ángeles; Silk, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the mean free path in a hot and dense nuclear environment for a fermionic dark matter particle candidate in the ˜GeV mass range interacting with nucleons via scalar and vector effective couplings. We focus on the effects of density and temperature in the nuclear medium in order to evaluate the importance of the final state blocking in the scattering process. We discuss qualitatively possible implications for opacities in stellar nuclear scenarios, where dark matter may be gravitationally accreted.

  2. Excited nuclear matter at Fermi energies: From transport properties to the equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, O.; Durand, D.; Lehaut, G.

    2016-05-01

    Properties of excited nuclear matter are one of the main subject of investigation in Nuclear Physics. Indeed, the response of nuclear matter under extreme conditions encountered in heavy-ion induced reactions (large compression, thermal and collective excitations, isopin diffusion) around the Fermi energy is strongly needed when studying the nuclear equation of state and the underlying in-medium properties concerning the nuclear interaction. In this contribution, we will present some experimental results concerning the transport properties of nuclear matter, focusing specifically on the determination of in-medium quantities such as mean free pathes and nucleon-nucleon cross sections around the Fermi energy. We will see that, in this specific energy range, energy and isospin dissipations exhibit very peculiar features, such as the crossover between 1-body to 2-body dissipation regimes corresponding to the transition between the nuclear response from Mean-Field to the nucleonic response through the appearance of nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  3. Attenuation of {omega} mesons in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, T. E.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.

    2011-08-15

    The attenuation of {omega} mesons in cold nuclear matter has been investigated via the time-dependent multiple-scattering Monte Carlo multicollisional (MCMC) intranuclear cascade model. The inelastic {omega} width deduced from CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration data of meson transparency in complex nuclei ({Gamma}*{approx_equal}30 MeV/c{sup 2}) is approximately 5 times lower than the value obtained with recent theoretical models and consistent with an in-medium total {omega}N cross section within 25-30 mb for an average meson momentum of 1.1 GeV/c . The momentum-dependent transparency ratios suggest an elastic/total cross-section ratio around 40%. For the case of CLAS Collaboration data a much higher width is deduced ({Gamma}* > or approx. 120 MeV/c{sup 2}), with the MCMC model providing a consistent interpretation of the data, assuming a much higher meson absorption ({sigma}{sub {omega}N}* > or approx. 100 mb) for p{sub {omega}{approx}1}.7 GeV/c.

  4. Fast-forward genetics by radiation hybrids to saturate the locus regulating nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in Triticum.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Filippo M; Ghavami, Farhad; Hayden, Matthew J; Wang, Yi; Forrest, Kerrie L; Kong, Stephan; Dizon, Rhoderissa; Michalak de Jimenez, Monika K; Meinhardt, Steven W; Mergoum, Mohamed; Gu, Yong Q; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear-encoded species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes control nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat (genus Triticum). Alloplasmic cells, which have nucleus and cytoplasm derived from different species, produce vigorous and vital organisms only when the correct version of scs is present in their nucleus. In this study, bulks of in vivo radiation hybrids segregating for the scs phenotype have been genotyped by sequencing with over 1.9 million markers. The high marker saturation obtained for a critical region of chromosome 1D allowed identification of 3318 reads that mapped in close proximity of the scs. A novel in silico approach was deployed to extend these short reads to sequences of up to 70 Kb in length and identify candidate open reading frames (ORFs). Markers were developed to anchor the short contigs containing ORFs to a radiation hybrid map of 650 individuals with resolution of 288 Kb. The region containing the scs locus was narrowed to a single Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) contig of Aegilops tauschii. Its sequencing and assembly by nano-mapping allowed rapid identification of a rhomboid gene as the only ORF existing within the refined scs locus. Resequencing of this gene from multiple germplasm sources identified a single nucleotide mutation, which gives rise to a functional amino acid change. Gene expression characterization revealed that an active copy of this rhomboid exists on all homoeologous chromosomes of wheat, and depending on the specific cytoplasm each copy is preferentially expressed. Therefore, a new methodology was applied to unique genetic stocks to rapidly identify a strong candidate gene for the control of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in wheat. PMID:26915753

  5. Modification of generalized vector form factors and transverse charge densities of the nucleon in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju-Hyun; Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the medium modification of the generalized vector form factors of the nucleon, which include the electromagnetic and energy-momentum tensor form factors, based on an in-medium modified π -ρ -ω soliton model. We find that the vector form factors of the nucleon in nuclear matter fall off faster than those in free space, which implies that the charge radii of the nucleon become larger in nuclear medium than in free space. We also compute the corresponding transverse charge densities of the nucleon in nuclear matter, which clearly reveal the increasing of the nucleon size in nuclear medium.

  6. Influence of spin polarizability on liquid gas phase transition in the nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.; Bigdeli, M.; Bordbar, G. H.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the liquid gas phase transition for the spin polarized nuclear matter. Applying the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method, and using two microscopic potentials, AV18 and UV14+TNI, we calculate the free energy, equation of state (EOS), order parameter, entropy, heat capacity and compressibility to derive the critical properties of spin polarized nuclear matter. Our results indicate that for the spin polarized nuclear matter, the second-order phase transition takes place at lower temperatures with respect to the unpolarized one. It is also shown that the critical temperature of our spin polarized nuclear matter with a specific value of spin polarization parameter is in good agreement with the experimental result.

  7. Equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter and the symmetry coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Onsi, M. ); Przysiezniak, H.; Pearson, J.M. )

    1994-07-01

    For different Skyrme-type forces we investigate the equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter under the conditions appropriate to a collapsing star. We find that the stiffness of the equation of state increases significantly as the symmetry coefficient [ital J] of nuclear matter increases over the range of its experimental uncertainty. We present analytic expressions for the adiabatic index [Gamma] permitting the elimination of all numerical derivatives.

  8. Do Skyrme forces that fit nuclear matter work well in finite nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Goddard, P. M.; Stone, J. R.; Dutra, M.

    2013-05-01

    A short list of Skyrme force parameterizations, recently found to have passed a series of constraints relating to nuclear matter properties is analyzed for their ability to reproduce data in finite nuclei. We analyse binding energies, isotope shifts, neutron skin thicknesses and fission barriers. We find that the subset of forces have no common ability to reproduce(or otherwise)properties of finite nuclei, despite passing the extensive range of nuclear matter constraints.

  9. Dynamic aspects of antibody:oligosaccharide complexes characterized by molecular dynamics simulations and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Theillet, François-Xavier; Frank, Martin; Vulliez-Le Normand, Brigitte; Simenel, Catherine; Hoos, Sylviane; Chaffotte, Alain; Bélot, Frédéric; Guerreiro, Catherine; Nato, Farida; Phalipon, Armelle; Mulard, Laurence A; Delepierre, Muriel

    2011-12-01

    Carbohydrates are likely to maintain significant conformational flexibility in antibody (Ab):carbohydrate complexes. As demonstrated herein for the protective monoclonal Ab (mAb) F22-4 recognizing the Shigella flexneri 2a O-antigen (O-Ag) and numerous synthetic oligosaccharide fragments thereof, the combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance saturation transfer difference experiments, supported by physicochemical analysis, allows us to determine the binding epitope and its various contributions to affinity without using any modified oligosaccharides. Moreover, the methods used provide insights into ligand flexibility in the complex, thus enabling a better understanding of the Ab affinities observed for a representative set of synthetic O-Ag fragments. Additionally, these complementary pieces of information give evidence to the ability of the studied mAb to recognize internal as well as terminal epitopes of its cognate polysaccharide antigen. Hence, we show that an appropriate combination of computational and experimental methods provides a basis to explore carbohydrate functional mimicry and receptor binding. The strategy may facilitate the design of either ligands or carbohydrate recognition domains, according to needed improvements of the natural carbohydrate:receptor properties. PMID:21610193

  10. Anomalous Solute Transport in Saturated Porous Media: Linking Transport Model Parameters to Electrical and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, R. D.; Binley, A. M.; Keating, K.; France, S.; Osterman, G. K.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.

    2013-12-01

    The advection-dispersion equation fails to describe non-Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models. The dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) model partitions the total porosity into mobile and less-mobile domains with solute exchange between the domains; consequently, the DDMT model can produce a better fit to breakthrough curves (BTCs) in systems defined by more- and less-mobile components. However, direct experimental estimation of DDMT model parameters such as rate of exchange and the mobile and less-mobile porosities remains elusive. Consequently, model parameters are often calculated purely as a model fitting exercise. There is a clear need for material characterization techniques that can offer some insight into the pore space geometrical arrangement, particularly if such techniques can be extended to the field scale. Here, we interpret static direct-current (DC) resistivity, complex resistivity (CR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) geophysical measurements in the characterization of mass transfer parameters. We use two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material shown to demonstrate solute mass transfer due to a significant intragranular porosity, along with glass beads as a control. We explore the relation between geophysical and DDMT parameters in conjunction with supporting material characterization methods. Our results reveal how these geophysical measurements can offer some insight into the pore structures controlling the observed anomalous transport behavior.

  11. Microscopic calculations of nuclear and neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gandolfi, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the equation of state of neutron matter. The equation of state is directly related to the symmetry energy and determines the mass and radius of neutron stars, providing then a connection between terrestrial experiments and astronomical observations. As a result, we also show preliminary results of the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  12. Equation of state for nuclear matter in core-collapse supernovae by the variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, H.; Takehara, Y.; Yamamuro, S.; Nakazato, K.; Suzuki, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Takano, M.

    2014-12-01

    We construct a new nuclear equation of state (EOS) for core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations using the variational many-body theory. For uniform nuclear matter, the EOS is constructed with the cluster variational method starting from the realistic nuclear Hamiltonian composed of the Argonne v18 two-body potential and the Urbana IX three-body potential. The masses and radii of neutron stars calculated with the obtained EOS at zero temperature are consistent with recent observational data. For non-uniform nuclear matter, we construct the EOS in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In this approximation, we assume a functional form of the density distributions of protons, neutrons, and alpha-particles, and minimize the free energy density in a Wigner-Seitz cell with respect to the parameters included in the assumed density distribution functions. The phase diagram of hot nuclear matter at a typical temperature is reasonable as compared with that of the Shen EOS.

  13. The Heart of Matter: A Nuclear Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Vic; Hearle, Robert

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching nuclear chemistry. In this book, the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and the applications of nuclear energy are discussed. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  14. Kaon properties in dense nuclear matter: are there experimental evidences of in medio effects?

    SciTech Connect

    Mangiarotti, A.

    2009-06-03

    Beyond the general interest for nuclear matter theory, the K{sup -} in medio mass modification could have important astrophysical consequences. Experimental evidences of how a nuclear medium affects K{sup +} and K{sup -} properties will be summarised. To reach a firm conclusion about the K{sup -}, the missing information on the flow will be shown to be still relevant.

  15. Nuclear saturation in lowest-order Brueckner theory with two- and three-nucleon forces in view of chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, M.

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear saturation mechanism is discussed in terms of two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions in chiral effective field theory (Ch-EFT), using the framework of lowest-order Brueckner theory. After the Coester band, which is observed in calculating saturation points with various nucleon-nucleon (NN) forces, is revisited using modern NN potentials and their low-momentum equivalent interactions, a detailed account of the saturation curve of the Ch-EFT interaction is presented. The three-nucleon force (3NF) is treated by reducing it to an effective two-body interaction by folding the third nucleon degrees of freedom. Uncertainties due to the choice of the 3NF low-energy constants c_D and c_E are discussed. The reduction of the cutoff-energy dependence of the NN potential is explained by demonstrating the effect of the 3NF in the ^1S_0 and ^3S_1 states.

  16. Accelerating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Analysis of Soil Organic Matter with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, A. E.; Smith, A. N.; Long, J. R.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    13C magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) has become an essential tool for discerning the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the technique is limited due to the inherent insensitivity of NMR resulting in long acquisition times, especially for low carbon (C) soil. The pursuits of higher magnetic fields or concentrating C with hydrofluoric acid are limited solutions for signal improvement. Recent advances in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) have addressed the insensitivity of NMR. DNP utilizes the greater polarization of an unpaired electron in a given magnetic field and transfers that polarization to an NMR active nucleus of interest via microwave irradiation. Signal enhancements of up to a few orders of magnitude have been achieved for various DNP experiments. In this novel study, we conduct DNP 13C cross-polarization (CP) MAS ssNMR experiments of SOM varying in soil C content and chemical composition. DNP signal enhancements reduce the experiment run time allowing samples with low C to be analyzed in hours rather than days. We compare 13C CP MAS ssNMR of SOM with multiple magnetic field strengths, hydrofluoric acid treatment, and novel DNP approaches. We also explore DNP surface enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (SENP) to determine the surface chemistry of SOM. The presented results and future DNP MAS ssNMR advances will lead to further understanding of the nature and processes of SOM.

  17. Unified description of equation of state and transport properties of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Benhar, Omar; Farina, Nicola; Valli, Marco; Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2008-10-13

    Correlated basis function perturbation theory and the formalism of cluster expansions have been recently employed to obtain an effective interaction from a state-of-the-art nucleon nucleon potential model. The approach based on the effective interaction allows for a consistent description of the nuclear matter ground state and nucleon-nucleon scattering in the nuclear medium. This paper reports the the results of numerical calculations of different properties of nuclear and neutron matter, including the equation of state and the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity transport coefficients, carried out using the effective interaction.

  18. Anomalous solute transport in saturated porous media: Relating transport model parameters to electrical and nuclear magnetic resonance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Ryan D.; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; France, Samantha; Osterman, Gordon; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Singha, Kamini

    2015-02-01

    The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) fails to describe commonly observed non-Fickian solute transport in saturated porous media, necessitating the use of other models such as the dual-domain mass-transfer (DDMT) model. DDMT model parameters are commonly calibrated via curve fitting, providing little insight into the relation between effective parameters and physical properties of the medium. There is a clear need for material characterization techniques that can provide insight into the geometry and connectedness of pore spaces related to transport model parameters. Here, we consider proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), direct-current (DC) resistivity, and complex conductivity (CC) measurements for this purpose, and assess these methods using glass beads as a control and two different samples of the zeolite clinoptilolite, a material that demonstrates non-Fickian transport due to intragranular porosity. We estimate DDMT parameters via calibration of a transport model to column-scale solute tracer tests, and compare NMR, DC resistivity, CC results, which reveal that grain size alone does not control transport properties and measured geophysical parameters; rather, volume and arrangement of the pore space play important roles. NMR cannot provide estimates of more-mobile and less-mobile pore volumes in the absence of tracer tests because these estimates depend critically on the selection of a material-dependent and flow-dependent cutoff time. Increased electrical connectedness from DC resistivity measurements are associated with greater mobile pore space determined from transport model calibration. CC was hypothesized to be related to length scales of mass transfer, but the CC response is unrelated to DDMT.

  19. Effect of variable soil texture, metal saturation of soil organic matter (SOM) and tree species composition on spatial distribution of SOM in forest soils in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Socha, Jarosław; Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2015-07-15

    In this study we investigated the effect of fine (ϕ<0.05mm) fraction, i.e., silt+clay (FF) content in soils, site moisture, metal (Al and Fe) of soil organic matter (SOM) and forest species composition on the spatial distribution of carbon (C) pools in forest soils at the landscape scale. We established 275 plots in regular 200×200m grid in a forested area of 14.4km(2). Fieldwork included soil sampling of the organic horizon, mineral topsoil and subsoil down to 40cm deep. We analysed the vertical and horizontal distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, as well as the quantity of physically separated fractions including the free light (fLF), occluded light (oLF) and mineral associated fractions (MAF) in the mineral topsoil (A, AE) horizons. Distribution of C in soils was predominantly affected by the variation in the FF content. In soils richer in the FF more SOC was accumulated in mineral horizons and less in the organic horizons. Accumulation of SOC in mineral soil was also positively affected by the degree of saturation of SOM with Al and Fe. The increasing share of beech influenced the distribution of C stock in soil profiles by reducing the depth of O horizon and increasing C stored in mineral soil. The content of FF was positively correlated with the content of C in MAF and fLF fractions. The content of oLF and MAF fractions was also positively influenced by a higher degree of metal saturation, particularly Al. Our results confirmed that Al plays an important role in the stabilization of SOM inside aggregates (CoLF) and as in CMAF fractions. We also found a significant, positive effect of beech on the CfLF and fir on the CoLF content. PMID:25829288

  20. Mesonic and nonmesonic absorption of kaon in nuclear matter and {Lambda}(1405) doorway process

    SciTech Connect

    Sekihara, T.; Yamagata-Sekihara, J.; Jido, D.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.

    2010-12-28

    The mesonic and nonmesonic absorptions of kaon into nuclear systems are investigated from a viewpoint of {Lambda}(1405) doorway process. Using a one-meson exchange model in the calculation of the nonmesonic {Lambda}(1405)N{yields}YN transition and using the chiral unitary approach for the description of the {Lambda}(1405), we obtain the nonmesonic transition ratio {Gamma}{sub {Lambda}N}/{Gamma}{sub {Sigma}}{sup 0}{sub N{approx_equal}}1.2 which is almost independent of the nucleon density, and find the total nonmesonic decay width of the {Lambda}(1405) in uniform nuclear matter to be 22 MeV at the normal density. We also calculate the absorption for stopped K{sup -} in nuclear matter, and find that the ''formation rate'' of {Lambda}(1405) is important for the density dependence and the absolute value of the absorption potential of kaon in nuclear matter.

  1. Moments of ϕ meson spectral functions in vacuum and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    Moments of the ϕ meson spectral function in vacuum and in nuclear matter are analyzed, combining a model based on chiral SU (3) effective field theory (with kaonic degrees of freedom) and finite-energy QCD sum rules. For the vacuum we show that the spectral density is strongly constrained by a recent accurate measurement of the e+e- →K+K- cross section. In nuclear matter the ϕ spectrum is modified by interactions of the decay kaons with the surrounding nuclear medium, leading to a significant broadening and an asymmetric deformation of the ϕ meson peak. We demonstrate that both in vacuum and nuclear matter, the first two moments of the spectral function are compatible with finite-energy QCD sum rules. A brief discussion of the next-higher spectral moment involving strange four-quark condensates is also presented.

  2. Assessing atmospheric particulate matter distribution based on Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization of herbaceous and tree leaves in a tropical urban environment.

    PubMed

    Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas; Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre; Koffi, N'guessan Achille; Kardel, Fatemeh; De Cannière, Charles; Samson, Roeland

    2014-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions, and the associated human health risks, are likely to continue increasing in urban environments of developing countries like Abidjan (Ivory Cost). This study evaluated the potential of leaves of several herbaceous and tree species as bioindicators of urban particulate matter pollution, and its variation over different land use classes, in a tropical area. Four species well distributed (presence frequencies >90%) over all land use classes, easy to harvest and whose leaves are wide enough to be easily scanned were selected, i.e.: Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae), Eleusine indica (Poaceae), Panicum maximum (Poaceae) and Ficus benjamina (Moraceae). Leaf sampling of these species was carried out at 3 distances from the road and at 3 height levels. Traffic density was also noted and finally biomagnetic parameters of these leaves were determined. Results showed that Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) of leaves was at least 4 times higher (27.5×10(-6)A) in the vicinity of main roads and industrial areas than in parks and residential areas. The main potential sources of PM pollution were motor vehicles and industries. The slightly hairy leaves of the herbaceous plant A. spinosus and the waxy leaves of the tree F. benjamina showed the highest SIRM (25×10(-6)A). Leaf SIRM increased with distance to road (R(2)>0.40) and declined with sampling height (R(2)=0.17). The distance between 0 and 5m from the road seemed to be the most vulnerable in terms of PM pollution. This study has showed that leaf SIRM of herbaceous and tree species can be used to assess PM exposure in tropical urban environments. PMID:24239818

  3. Thermodynamic instabilities in warm and dense asymmetric nuclear matter and in compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.; Pigato, D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possible thermodynamic instability in a warm and dense nuclear medium where a phase transition from nucleonic matter to resonance-dominated Δ-matter can take place. Such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the isospin concentration) in asymmetric nuclear matter. Similarly to the liquid-gas phase transition, the nucleonic and the Δ-matter phase have a different isospin density in the mixed phase. In the liquid-gas phase transition, the process of producing a larger neutron excess in the gas phase is referred to as isospin fractionation. A similar effects can occur in the nucleon- Δmatter phase transition due essentially to a Δ- excess in the Δ-matter phase in asymmetric nuclear matter. In this context we also discuss the relevance of Δ-isobar degrees of freedom in the bulk properties and in the maximum mass of compact stars.

  4. Saturation meter

    DOEpatents

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  5. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-01

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  6. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars. PMID:27472110

  7. Tabulated equation of state for supernova matter including full nuclear ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Buyukcizmeci, N.; Botvina, A. S.; Mishustin, I. N.

    2014-07-01

    This is an introduction to the tabulated database of stellar matter properties calculated within the framework of the Statistical Model for Supernova Matter (SMSM). The tables present thermodynamical characteristics and nuclear abundances for 31 values of baryon density (10{sup –8} < ρ/ρ{sub 0} < 0.32, ρ{sub 0} = 0.15 fm{sup –3} is the normal nuclear matter density), 35 values of temperature (0.2 MeV < T < 25 MeV), and 28 values of electron-to-baryon ratio (0.02 < Y{sub e} < 0.56). The properties of stellar matter in β equilibrium are also considered. The main ingredients of the SMSM are briefly outlined, and the data structure and content of the tables are explained.

  8. Isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass and shear viscosity of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Based on an improved isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction, I have studied the qualitative effect of isospin splitting of nucleon effective mass on the specific shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. It is seen that for mn>mp , the relaxation time of neutrons is smaller, and the neutron flux between flow layers is weaker, leading to a smaller specific shear viscosity of neutron-rich matter compared to the case for mnnuclear matter at higher densities, lower temperatures, and larger isospin asymmetries, but it does not affect the behavior of the specific shear viscosity much near nuclear liquid-gas phase transition.

  9. Nuclear matter equation of state including two-, three-, and four-nucleon correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, G.

    2015-11-01

    Light clusters (mass number A ≤4 ) in nuclear matter at subsaturation densities are described using a quantum statistical approach to calculate the quasiparticle properties and abundances of light elements. I review the formalism and approximations used and extend it with respect to the treatment of continuum correlations. Virial coefficients are derived from continuum contributions to the partial densities which depend on temperature, densities, and total momentum. The Pauli blocking is modified taking correlations in the medium into account. Both effects of continuum correlations lead to an enhancement of cluster abundances in nuclear matter at higher densities. Based on calculations for A =2 , estimates for the contributions with A =3 ,4 are given. The properties of light clusters and continuum correlations in dense matter are of interest for nuclear structure calculations, heavy-ion collisions, and astrophysical applications such as the formation of neutron stars in core-collapse supernovae.

  10. Sigma omega meson coupling and properties of nuclei and nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidari, Maryam M.; Sharma, Madan M.

    2008-05-01

    We have constructed a Lagrangian model with a coupling of σ and ω mesons in the relativistic mean-field theory. Properties of finite nuclei and nuclear matter are explored with the new Lagrangian model SIG-OM. The study shows that an excellent description of binding energies and charge radii of nuclei over a large range of isospin is achieved with SIG-OM. With an incompressibility of nuclear matter K=265 MeV, it is also able to describe the breathing-mode isoscalar giant monopole resonance energies appropriately. It is shown that the high-density behaviour of the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter with the σ-ω coupling is much softer than that of the non-linear scalar coupling model.

  11. Jet-induced modifications of the characteristic of the bulk nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinkowski, P.; Słodkowski, M.; Kikoła, D.; Sikorski, J.; Porter-Sobieraj, J.; Gawryszewski, P.; Zygmunt, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present our studies on jet induced modifications of the characteristics of bulk nuclear matter. To describe such matter, we use efficient relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in (3+1)-dimension, employing the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the parallel programming framework. We use Cartesian coordinates in the calculations to ensure a high spatial resolution that is constant throughout the evolution of the system. We show our results on how jets modify the hydrodynamics fields and discuss the implications.

  12. Neutron drip line and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kei; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-15

    We investigate how the neutron drip line is related to the density dependence of the symmetry energy by using a macroscopic nuclear model that allows us to calculate nuclear masses in a way that is dependent on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. The neutron drip line obtained from these masses is shown to appreciably shift to a neutron-rich side in a nuclear chart as the density derivative of the symmetry energy increases. Such a shift is clearly seen for light nuclei, a feature coming mainly from the surface property of neutron-rich nuclei.

  13. Liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter including strangeness

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.; Thomas, A.W.

    2004-11-01

    We apply the chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to study the properties of strange hadronic matter at finite temperature. The liquid-gas phase transition is studied as a function of the strangeness fraction. The pressure of the system cannot remain constant during the phase transition, since there are two independent conserved charges (baryon and strangeness number). In a range of temperatures around 15 MeV (precise values depending on the model used) the equation of state exhibits multiple bifurcates. The difference in the strangeness fraction f{sub s} between the liquid and gas phases is small when they coexist. The critical temperature of strange matter turns out to be a nontrivial function of the strangeness fraction.

  14. Nuclear matter at high temperature and low net baryonic density

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, R. S.; Duarte, S. B.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Chiapparini, M.

    2010-11-12

    We study the effect of the {sigma}-{omega} mesons interaction on nucleon-antinucleon matter properties. This interaction is employed in the context of the linear Walecka model to discuss the behavior of this system at high temperature and low net baryonic density regime. The field equations are solved in the relativistic mean-field approximation and our results show that the phase transition pointed out in the literature for this regime is eliminated when the meson interaction are considered.

  15. Extended Skyrme equation of state in asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davesne, D.; Pastore, A.; Navarro, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new equation of state for infinite systems (symmetric, asymmetric, and neutron matter) based on an extended Skyrme functional that has been constrained by microscopic Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone results. The resulting equation of state reproduces the main features of microscopic calculations very accurately and is compatible with recent measurements of two times Solar-mass neutron stars. We provide all necessary analytical expressions to facilitate a quick numerical implementation of quantities of astrophysical interest.

  16. Superheavy Elements --- A Probe for Nuclear Matter at the Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, D.

    The spherical shell stabilised superheavy elements (SHE) predictedat the extreme of high Z and A are a nuclear structure phenomenon. They owe their existence to shell effects, an energy contribution of quantum mechanical origin to the nuclear potential, without which they would not be bound. Experimental activities in this field, apart from attempts to directly synthesise new elements, have to investigate reaction mechanism studies and, in particular, they have to pursue nuclear structure investigations to study the development of single particle levels towards the expected gaps for the proton (at Z = 114, 120 or 126) and neutron (at N = 184) shell closures in the region of spherical SHE. A number of exciting results in terms of the synthesis of new elements have reached the border of that region. In particular, the results obtained at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) for a rich number of decay patterns for ^{48}Ca induced reactions on actinide targets have by now been confirmed for reactions on ^{238}U, ^{244}Pu and ^{248}Cm at GSI, and on ^{242}Pu at LBNL. In recent years the development of efficient experimental set-ups, including separators and advanced particle and photon detection arrangements, allowed for more detailed nuclear structure studies for nuclei at and beyond Z = 100. Among the most interesting features is the observation of K-isomeric states. The heaviest example for such a structure feature was found in ^{270}Ds. In a recent experiment the knowledge on this nucleus and its decay products could be largely extended.

  17. Temperature and density dependence of properties of nuclear matter deduced from heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2010-11-24

    Heavy-ion collision experiments are often employed to determine properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. This has been the subject of many investigations in recent decades, since understanding the equation of state of hot nuclear matter is very important in the study supernovae, neutron stars and nuclei. We present a short and limited review of the theoretical and experimental status of determining the temperature and density of the disassembling hot nucleus from ratios of the yields of emitted fragments.

  18. D meson mass increase by restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kei; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Spectral functions of the pseudoscalar D meson in the nuclear medium are analyzed using QCD sum rules and the maximum entropy method. This approach enables us to extract the spectral functions without any phenomenological assumption, and thus to visualize in-medium modification of the spectral functions directly. It is found that the reduction of the chiral condensates of dimension 3 and 5 causes the masses of both D+ and D- mesons to grow gradually at finite density. Additionally, we construct charge-conjugate-projected sum rules and find a D+-D- mass splitting of about -15 MeV at nuclear saturation density.

  19. 75 FR 5357 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., et al.; Order Extending the Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., et al.; Order Extending the Effectiveness of the Approval of the Indirect Transfer of Facility Operating Licenses Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. Entergy Nuclear Generation Company (Pilgrim...

  20. Investigation of the nuclear matter distribution of 56Ni by elastic proton scattering in inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schmid, M.; Bagchi, S.; Bönig, S.; Csatlós, M.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Egelhof, P.; Eremin, V.; Furuno, T.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ilieva, S.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kiselev, O.; Kollmus, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kröll, T.; Kuilman, M.; Litvinov, S.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Mutterer, M.; Nagae, D.; Najafi, M. A.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Popp, U.; Rigollet, C.; Roy, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Steck, M.; Streicher, B.; Stuhl, L.; Thürauf, M.; Uesaka, T.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winters, D.; Woods, P. J.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yue, K.; Zamora, J. C.; Zenihiro, J.; the EXL Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We have measured the nuclear-matter distribution of the doubly-magic N = Z nucleus 56Ni by investigating elastic proton scattering in inverse kinematics. The radioactive beam of 56Ni was injected and stored in the experimental storage ring (ESR, GSI) and interacted with an internal hydrogen gas-jet target. The high revolution frequency of the ions in the ring enabled a high luminosity, despite the low density of the target being used. This way, measurements at very low momentum transfers became possible. By measuring the energy and the scattering angle of the recoiling protons, we were able to separate the elastic reaction channel from inelastic scattering to the first excited {2}+ state of 56Ni and deduced the differential cross section of 56Ni {(p,p)}56 Ni. The data were analyzed within the framework of the Glauber multiple-scattering theory in order to extract the nuclear-matter radius and radial matter distribution of 56Ni. Parameterizing the matter distribution with the phenomenological Symmetrized Fermi distribution, a preliminary value of 3.5 fm for the rms matter radius was deduced. This experiment was part of an EXL (EXotic nuclei studied in Light-ion induced reactions at storage rings) campaign at GSI in 2012 and was the first successful investigation of nuclear reactions with a stored radioactive beam ever.

  1. Finite-temperature calculations for spin-polarized asymmetric nuclear matter with the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bigdeli, M.; Bordbar, G. H.; Poostforush, A.

    2010-09-15

    The lowest order constrained variational technique has been used to investigate some of the thermodynamic properties of spin-polarized hot asymmetric nuclear matter, such as the free energy, symmetry energy, susceptibility, and equation of state. We have shown that the symmetry energy of the nuclear matter is substantially sensitive to the value of spin polarization. Our calculations show that the equation of state of the polarized hot asymmetric nuclear matter is stiffer for higher values of the polarization as well as the isospin asymmetry parameter. Our results for the free energy and susceptibility show that spontaneous ferromagnetic phase transition cannot occur for hot asymmetric matter.

  2. Covariant energy density functionals: Nuclear matter constraints and global ground state properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Agbemava, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The correlations between global description of the ground state properties (binding energies, charge radii) and nuclear matter properties of the state-of-the-art covariant energy density functionals have been studied. It was concluded that the strict enforcement of the constraints on the nuclear matter properties (NMP) defined in Dutra et al. [Phys. Rev. C 90, 055203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.055203] will not necessarily lead to the functionals with good description of the binding energies and other ground and excited state properties. In addition, it will not substantially reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the binding energies in neutron-rich systems. It turns out that the functionals, which come close to satisfying these NMP constraints, have some problems in the description of existing data. On the other hand, these problems are either absent or much smaller in the functionals which are carefully fitted to finite nuclei but which violate some NMP constraints. This is a consequence of the fact that the properties of finite nuclei are defined not only by nuclear matter properties but also by underlying shell effects. The mismatch of phenomenological content, existing in all modern functionals, related to nuclear matter physics and the physics of finite nuclei could also be responsible.

  3. 77 FR 5853 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations Inc; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR...-47; DPR-28; NFP-38; EA-10-090; EA-10-248; EA-11-160] In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations...

  4. Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Suguru; Takano, Masatoshi

    2014-05-02

    We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.

  5. Nuclear magnetic biosignatures in the carbonaceous matter of ancient cherts: comparison with carbonaceous meteorites.

    PubMed

    Gourier, Didier; Delpoux, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Vezin, Hervé

    2013-10-01

    The search for organic biosignatures is motivated by the hope of understanding the conditions of emergence of life on Earth and the perspective of finding traces of extinct life in martian sediments. Paramagnetic radicals, which exist naturally in amorphous carbonaceous matter fossilized in Precambrian cherts, were used as local structural probes and studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance transitions of elements inside and around these radicals were detected by monitoring the nuclear modulations of electron spin echo in pulsed EPR. We found that the carbonaceous matter of fossilized microorganisms with age up to 3.5 billion years gives specific nuclear magnetic signatures of hydrogen (¹H), carbon (¹³C), and phosphorus (³¹P) nuclei. We observed that these potential biosignatures of extinct life are found neither in the carbonaceous matter of carbonaceous meteorites (4.56 billion years), the most ancient objects of the Solar System, nor in any carbonaceous matter resulting from carbonization of organic and bioorganic precursors. These results indicate that these nuclear signatures are sensitive to thermal episodes and can be used for Archean cherts with metamorphism not higher than the greenschist facies. PMID:24093546

  6. Pion condensation in a relativistic field theory consistent with bulk properties of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, B.; Glendenning, N. K.; Gyulassy, M.

    1981-05-01

    Pion condensation is investigated in a self-consistent. relativistic mean field theory that is constrained to reproduce the bulk properties of nuclear matter. This constraint and self-consistency provide stringent constraints on the existence and energy of the condensate.

  7. Effect of the {delta} meson on the instabilities of nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Providencia, C.; Da Providencia, J.

    2009-08-15

    We study the influence of the isovector-scalar meson on the spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in asymmetric nonhomogenous nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} G. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings (NLW) and with density-dependent parameters (DDRH) are considered. A strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. It is shown that for neutron-rich matter the inclusion of the {delta} meson increases the size of the instability region for NLW models and decreases it for the DDRH models. The effect of the {delta} meson on the transition density to homogeneous {beta}-equilibrium matter is discussed. The DDRH{delta} model predicts the smallest transition pressures, about half the values obtained for NL{delta}.

  8. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E

    2011-02-14

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  9. From the lightest nuclei to the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter with realistic nuclear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Lovato, A.; Carlson, J.; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2014-12-01

    We present microscopic calculations of light and medium mass nuclei and the equation of state of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter using different nucleon-nucleon interactions, including a new Argonne version that has the same spin-isospin structure as local chiral forces at next-to-next-to-leading order. The calculations are performed using auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) combined with an improved variational wave function and sampling technique. The AFDMC method can now be used to successfully calculate the energies of very light to medium mass nuclei as well as the energy of isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter, demonstrating microscopically the quadratic dependence of the energy on the symmetry energy.

  10. Update report on fracture flow in saturated tuff: Dynamic transport task for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, D.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Ott, M.; Mitchell, A.

    1990-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of continuing experiments on the behavior of tracers during fracture flow in saturated, welded tuff. These experiments were completed during the past year as part of the Dynamic Transport Task of geochemical investigations for the Yucca Mountain Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. These experiments are designed to investigate the effects of fluid movement in fractures when coupled with matrix diffusion and sorption but isolated from the effects of capillary suction and two-phase flow characteristic of unsaturated conditions. The experiments reported here are continuations of experimental efforts reported previously. The behavior of three tracers [HTO (tritiated water), TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} (pertechnetate), and sulforhodamine B dye] have been investigated during flow through a saturated column of densely welded tuff from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, southern Nevada. 31 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. ATP synthesis and degradation rates in the perfused rat heart. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance double saturation transfer measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, R G; Balschi, J A; Leigh, J S; Ingwall, J S

    1988-01-01

    A limitation of magnetization transfer techniques for studying enzyme kinetics in vivo has been the difficulty of treating systems with more than two exchanging species. This problem was addressed in the original papers describing saturation transfer. Since then, a number of approaches have been devised to study these complex situations. Here, we present a method based on the transient saturation transfer experiment in which spin-lattice relaxation time constants and reaction rates are obtained from the same magnetization transfer data. This technique is particularly suitable for biological samples. We apply the method to evaluate flux balance in the three-site linear exchange network composed of ATP, creatine phosphate, and inorganic phosphate in the isolated, perfused rat heart and show that the method yields reasonable values for the reaction velocities of ATP synthesis and degradation. PMID:3242635

  12. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi Production: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Transverse Momentum Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, E.G.; Fleuret, F.; Lansberg, J.P.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2010-08-26

    Cold nuclear matter effects on J/{psi} production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are evaluated taking into account the specific J/{psi}-production kinematics at the partonic level, the shadowing of the initial parton distributions and the absorption in the nuclear matter. We consider two different parton processes for the c{bar c}-pair production: one with collinear gluons and a recoiling gluon in the final state and the other with initial gluons carrying intrinsic transverse momentum. Our results are compared to RHIC observables. The smaller values of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in the forward rapidity region (with respect to the mid rapidity region) are partially explained, therefore potentially reducing the need for recombination effects.

  13. Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Furuya, S.; Galati, G.; Gentile, V.; Katsuragawa, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lauria, A.; Loverre, P. F.; Machii, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Rosa, G.; Sato, O.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP signal. In this paper we provide an estimation of the contribution to this background from the intrinsic radioactive contamination of nuclear emulsions. We also report the neutron-induced background as a function of the read-out threshold, by using a GEANT4 simulation of the nuclear emulsion, showing that it amounts to about 0.06 per year per kilogram, fully compatible with the design of a 10 kg × year exposure.

  14. Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Furuya, S.; Galati, G.; Gentile, V.; Katsuragawa, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lauria, A.; Loverre, P. F.; Machii, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Rosa, G.; Sato, O.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP signal. In this paper we provide an estimation of the contribution to this background from the intrinsic radioactive contamination of nuclear emulsions. We also report the neutron-induced background as a function of the read-out threshold, by using a GEANT4 simulation of the nuclear emulsion, showing that it amounts to about 0.06 per year per kilogram, fully compatible with the design of a 10 kg × year exposure.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the stationary dynamics of partially saturated media during steady-state infiltration flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassi, Erik M.; Codd, Sarah L.; Seymour, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    Flow in porous media and the resultant hydrodynamics are important in fields including but not limited to the hydrology, chemical, medical and petroleum industries. The observation and understanding of the hydrodynamics in porous media are critical to the design and optimal utilization of porous media, such as those seen in trickle-bed reactors, medical filters, subsurface flows and carbon sequestration. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides for a non-invasive technique that can probe the hydrodynamics on pore and bulk scale lengths; many previous works have characterized fully saturated porous media, while rapid MR imaging (MRI) methods in particular have previously been applied to partially saturated flows. We present time- and ensemble-averaged MR measurements to observe the effects on a bead pack partially saturated with air under flowing water conditions. The 10 mm internal diameter bead pack was filled with 100 μm borosilicate glass beads. Air was injected into the bead pack as water flowed simultaneously through the sample at 25 ml h-1. The initial partially saturated state was characterized with MRI density maps, free induction decay (FID) experiments, propagators and velocity maps before the water flow rate was increased incrementally from 25 to 500 ml h-1. After the maximum flow rate of 500 ml h-1, the MRI density maps, FID experiments, propagators and velocity maps were repeated and compared to the data taken before the maximum flow rate. This work shows that a partially saturated single-phase flow has global flow dynamics that return to characteristic flow statistics once a steady-state high flow rate has been reached. This high flow rate pushed out a significant amount of the air in the bead pack and caused the return of a preferential flow pattern. Velocity maps indicated that local flow statistics were not the same for the before and after blow out conditions. It has been suggested and shown previously that a flow pattern can return to

  16. Energy-Momentum Tensor Form Factors of the Nucleon in Nuclear Matter in the Chiral Soliton Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Schweitzer, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In the present talk, we report a recent investigation on the nucleon form factors of the energy-momentum tensor in nuclear matter, based on the in-medium modified chiral soliton model. The results in free space are in agreement with those from other approaches. We have discussed the changes of the energy-momentum tensor form factors in nuclear matter and the modification of the soliton structure due to the surrounding nuclear environment.

  17. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-07-15

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  18. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of QsA2, in AA compared with pA collisions.

  19. On the electrodynamical properties of nuclear matter in bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, Michael; Xue Shesheng; Ruffini, Remo

    2008-01-03

    We analyze the properties of solutions of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation for globally neutral cores with radius of the order of R{approx_equal}10 Km, at constant densities around the nuclear density. By using numerical tecniques as well as well tested analytic procedures developed in the study of heavy ions, we confirm the existence of an electric field close to the critical value E{sub c} = m{sub e}{sup 2}c{sup 3}/e({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in a shell {delta}R{approx_equal}l0{sup 4}({Dirac_h}/2{pi})/m{sub {pi}}c near the core surface. For a core of {approx_equal}10 Km the difference in binding energy reaches 10{sup 49} ergs. These results can be of interest for the understanding of very heavy nuclei as well as physics of neutron stars, their formation processes and further gravitational collapse to a black hole.

  20. Effective meson masses in nuclear matter based on a cutoff field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Noda, N.; Mitsumori, T.; Koide, K.; Kouno, H.; Hasegawa, A.

    1997-02-01

    Effective masses of {sigma}, {omega}, {pi}, and {rho} mesons in nuclear matter are calculated based on a cutoff field theory. Instead of the traditional density-Feynman representation, we adopt the particle-hole-antiparticle representation for nuclear propagators so that unphysical components are not included in the meson self-energies. For an estimation of the contribution from the divergent particle-antiparticle excitations, i.e., vacuum polarization in nuclear matter, the idea of the renormalization group method is adopted. In this cutoff field theory, all the counterterms are finite and calculated numerically. It is shown that the predicted meson masses converge even if the cutoff {Lambda} is changed as long as {Lambda} is sufficiently large and that the prescription works well also for so-called nonrenormalized mesons such as {pi} and {rho}. According to this method, it is concluded that meson masses in nuclear matter have a weak dependence on the baryon density. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Coupled-cluster calculations of nucleonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, G.; Papenbrock, T.; Ekström, A.; Wendt, K. A.; Baardsen, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The equation of state (EoS) of nucleonic matter is central for the understanding of bulk nuclear properties, the physics of neutron star crusts, and the energy release in supernova explosions. Because nuclear matter exhibits a finely tuned saturation point, its EoS also constrains nuclear interactions. Purpose: This work presents coupled-cluster calculations of infinite nucleonic matter using modern interactions from chiral effective field theory (EFT). It assesses the role of correlations beyond particle-particle and hole-hole ladders, and the role of three-nucleon forces (3NFs) in nuclear matter calculations with chiral interactions. Methods: This work employs the optimized nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential NNLOopt at next-to-next-to leading order, and presents coupled-cluster computations of the EoS for symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter. The coupled-cluster method employs up to selected triples clusters and the single-particle space consists of a momentum-space lattice. We compare our results with benchmark calculations and control finite-size effects and shell oscillations via twist-averaged boundary conditions. Results: We provide several benchmarks to validate the formalism and show that our results exhibit a good convergence toward the thermodynamic limit. Our calculations agree well with recent coupled-cluster results based on a partial wave expansion and particle-particle and hole-hole ladders. For neutron matter at low densities, and for simple potential models, our calculations agree with results from quantum Monte Carlo computations. While neutron matter with interactions from chiral EFT is perturbative, symmetric nuclear matter requires nonperturbative approaches. Correlations beyond the standard particle-particle ladder approximation yield non-negligible contributions. The saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter is sensitive to the employed 3NFs and the employed regularization scheme. 3NFs with nonlocal cutoffs exhibit a

  2. Collective Sideward Flow of Nuclear Matter in Violent High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Stöcker, Horst; Maruhn, Jouchim A.; Greiner, Walter

    1980-03-01

    The nuclear fluid dynamical model with final thermal breakup is used to study the reactions {sup 20}Ne + {sup 238}U and {sup 40} Ar + {sup 40}Ca at E{sub LAB}=390 MeV/n. Calculated double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega}dE are in agreement with recent experimental data. It is shown that azimuthally dependent triple differential cross sections d{sup 3}{sigma}/dEd cos{theta}d{phi} yield considerably deeper insight into the collision process and allow for snapshots of the reactions. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter are predicted.

  3. Elastic proton scattering at intermediate energies as a probe of the He,86 nuclear matter densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Le Xuan; Kiselev, Oleg A.; Khoa, Dao T.; Egelhof, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The Glauber model analysis of the elastic He,86+p scattering data at energies around 700 MeV/nucleon, measured in two separate experiments at GSI-Darmstadt, has been carried out using several phenomenological parametrizations of the nuclear matter density. By taking into account the new data points measured at high-momentum transfer, the nuclear matter radii of ,8He6 have been accurately determined from the Glauber model analysis of the data, with the spin-orbital interaction explicitly taken into account. The well-known geometry for the core and dineutron halo has been used with the new parametrizations of the 6He density to extract the detailed information on the structure of 6He in terms of the core and dineutron halo radii. An enhanced sensitivity of the data measured at high-momentum transfer to the core part of the 6,8He densities has been found.

  4. The equation of state of dense matter: from nuclear collisions to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    The equation of state (EoS) of dense matter represents a central issue in the study of compact astrophysical objects and heavy ion reactions at intermediate and relativistic energies. We have derived a nuclear EoS with nucleons and hyperons within the Brueckner Hartree Fock approach, and joined it with quark matter EoS. For that, we have employed the MIT bag model, as well as the Nambu Jona-Lasinio and the color dielectric models, and found that the NS maximum masses are not larger than 1.7 solar masses. A comparison with available data supports the idea that dense matter EoS should be soft at low density and quite stiff at high density.

  5. Triton-He3 relative and differential flows as probes of the nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Zhang, Xun-Chao

    2009-10-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence afterburner, we study the triton-He3 (t-He3) ratio with both relative and differential transverse flows in semicentral Sn132+Sn124 reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-proton ratios with relative and differential flows are also discussed as a reference. We find that similar to the neutron-proton pairs, the t-He3 pairs also carry interesting information regarding the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Moreover, the nuclear symmetry energy affects more strongly the t-He3 relative and differential flows than the π-/π+ ratio in the same reaction. The t-He3 relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  6. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes.

  7. Simulation of electromagnetic and strange probes of dense nuclear matter at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, A.; Kolesnikov, V.; Vasendina, V.

    2016-01-01

    The main task of the NICA/MPD physics program is a study of the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions achieved in collisions of heavy ions. These properties can reveal themselves through different probes, the most promising among those being the lepton-antilepton pairs and strange hadrons. In this paper the MPD performance for measuring the electron-positron pairs and strange hyperons in central Au+Au collisions at NICA energies is presented.

  8. Exploring the nuclear pasta phase in Core-Collapse Supernova Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, Helena; Stone, Jirina R

    2012-01-01

    The core-collapse supernova (CCSN) phenomenon, one of the most explosive events in the Uni- verse, presents a challenge to theoretical astrophysics. Of the large variety of forms of matter present in CCSN, we focus on the transitional region between homogeneous and inhomogeneous phases. Traditionally, here the nuclear structures undergo a series of changes in shape from spher- ical to exotic deformed forms: rods, slabs, cylindrical holes and bubbles, termed nuclear pasta . A fully self-consistent three-dimensional, finite temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock + BCS (SHF) calculation yields, for the first time, the critical density and temperature of both the onset of the pasta in inhomogeneous matter, consisting of neutron heavy nuclei and a free neutron and electron gas, and its dissolution in to a homogeneous neutron, proton and electron liquid. As the nuclear matter properties depend on the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in the SHF model, we employ four different forms of the Skyrme interaction, SkM , SLy4, NRAPR and SQMC700 and find subtle variations in the low density and high density transitions into and out of the pasta phase. Two new stable pasta shapes have been identified, in addition to the classic ones, on the grid of densities and temperatures used in this work. Detailed examination and clasification of the transitions found will form the content of a forthcoming publication.

  9. Distributed Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Ming-Ying; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    The Saturation algorithm for symbolic state-space generation, has been a recent break-through in the exhaustive veri cation of complex systems, in particular globally-asyn- chronous/locally-synchronous systems. The algorithm uses a very compact Multiway Decision Diagram (MDD) encoding for states and the fastest symbolic exploration algo- rithm to date. The distributed version of Saturation uses the overall memory available on a network of workstations (NOW) to efficiently spread the memory load during the highly irregular exploration. A crucial factor in limiting the memory consumption during the symbolic state-space generation is the ability to perform garbage collection to free up the memory occupied by dead nodes. However, garbage collection over a NOW requires a nontrivial communication overhead. In addition, operation cache policies become critical while analyzing large-scale systems using the symbolic approach. In this technical report, we develop a garbage collection scheme and several operation cache policies to help on solving extremely complex systems. Experiments show that our schemes improve the performance of the original distributed implementation, SmArTNow, in terms of time and memory efficiency.

  10. New Kohn-Sham density functional based on microscopic nuclear and neutron matter equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Robledo, L. M.; Schuck, P.; Viñas, X.

    2013-06-01

    A new version of the Barcelona-Catania-Paris energy functional is applied to a study of nuclear masses and other properties. The functional is largely based on calculated ab initio nuclear and neutron matter equations of state. Compared to typical Skyrme functionals having 10-12 parameters apart from spin-orbit and pairing terms, the new functional has only 2 or 3 adjusted parameters, fine tuning the nuclear matter binding energy and fixing the surface energy of finite nuclei. An energy rms value of 1.58 MeV is obtained from a fit of these three parameters to the 579 measured masses reported in the Audi and Wapstra [Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003 729, 337 (2003)] compilation. This rms value compares favorably with the one obtained using other successful mean field theories, which range from 1.5 to 3.0 MeV for optimized Skyrme functionals and 0.7 to 3.0 for the Gogny functionals. The other properties that have been calculated and compared to experiment are nuclear radii, the giant monopole resonance, and spontaneous fission lifetimes.

  11. Equation of state of neutron star matter, and the nuclear symmetry energy

    SciTech Connect

    Loan, Doan Thi; Tan, Ngo Hai; Khoa, Dao T.; Margueron, Jerome

    2011-06-15

    The nuclear mean-field potentials obtained in the Hartree-Fock method with different choices of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction have been used to study the equation of state (EOS) of the neutron star (NS) matter. The EOS of the uniform NS core has been calculated for the npe{mu} composition in the {beta} equilibrium at zero temperature, using version Sly4 of the Skyrme interaction as well as two density-dependent versions of the finite-range M3Y interaction (CDM3Yn and M3Y-Pn), and versions D1S and D1N of the Gogny interaction. Although the considered effective NN interactions were proven to be quite realistic in numerous nuclear structure and/or reaction studies, they give quite different behaviors of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at supranuclear densities that lead to the soft and stiff scenarios discussed recently in the literature. Different EOS's of the NS core and the EOS of the NS crust given by the compressible liquid drop model have been used as input of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations to study how the nuclear symmetry energy affects the model prediction of different NS properties, like the cooling process as well as the gravitational mass, radius, and moment of inertia.

  12. Short-Range Action, Focusing, and Saturation of Nuclear Forces in a Gravitational-Electrodynamic Model of GRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanova, L. A.; Khlestkov, Yu. A.

    2015-12-01

    An equation for a massive vector field that explains the short-range action of nuclear forces has been obtained via a consistent solution of the Einstein-Maxwell-Lorentz equations in curved spacetime. The nucleus is identified with the throat, whose radius of curvature is adopted as the radius of the nucleus. In this gravitational model the experimentally observed proportionality of the radius of the nucleus to the cubic root of the mass number is obtained.

  13. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

  14. Impact of Fock terms on the isospin properties of nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bao Yuan; Zhao, Qian; Long, Wen Hui

    2016-05-01

    Several topics on the isospin properties of nuclear matter studied within the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock theory are summarized. In detail, the effects of the Fock terms on the nuclear symmetry energy are listed, including the extra enhancement from the Fock terms of the isoscalar meson-nucleon coupling channels, the extra hyperon-induced suppression effect originating from the Fock channel, self-consistent tensor effects embedded automatically in the Fock diagrams, the enhanced density-dependent isospin-triplet potential part of the symmetry energy at high densities, a reduced kinetic symmetry energy at supranuclear density and so on. The results demonstrate the importance of the Fork diagram, especially from the isoscalar mesonnucleon coupling channels, on the isospin properties of the in-medium nuclear force.

  15. Many-particle theory of nuclear system with application to neutron-star matter and other systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    General problems in nuclear-many-body theory were considered. Superfluid states of neutron star matter and other strongly interacting many-fermion systems were analyzed by using the soft-core potential of Reid. The pion condensation in neutron star matter was also treated.

  16. Propulsion concepts for nuclear matter compression energy and "cold" fusion energy sources in interstellar flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotowicz, M.

    Various energy sources for interstellar flight are reviewed. Two more "non-conventional" energy sources were proposed in a recent paper: (1) energy delivery during "pionization" of nuclear matter through nuclear matter compression in heavy nuclei collisions and (2) generation of the energy in muon-catalysed "cold" fusion in compressed hydrogen. After a short discussion of the physical principles of the "pionization" of the nuclear matter, the engine design concept is sketched. It has some advantages in comparison to the annihilation propulsion. In laboratory reference system after nuclear matter pionization, all the pions and the resulting particles after decay of pions will move inside of the narrow pionization cone. Power supply of the heavy ion accelerator will extract some part of the energy from the nozzle of the propulsion engine. This would be the magneto-hydrodynamics (m-h-d) power unit based on the Hall effect. Muon-catalysed fusion as the energy source is possible thanks to the discovery of the multiple tritium + deuterium (T + D) synthesis catalysed by one muon. It is possible to combine muon-catalysed fusion with the nuclear fission process. Commercial fusion-fission hybrid reactor would require 100-300 fusions per muon. The principles of the muon-catalysed fusion are shortly discussed. The advantage of the muon-catalysis in T + D mixture is explained because existence of nuclear resonance in deuterium-tritium-muon fusion. This is the reason why the sticking probability muon-α particle is so small (0.4%). A conception of the muon-catalysed "cold" fusion reactor is presented. The pions and muons are produced and stopped in D + T fuel itself. Many technical details are discussed more briefly, e.g. the probability of negative pion production at various projectiles and targets, average energy to produce one negative muon, muon-catalysed fusion-fission systems, advantages of the fusion-fission systems. In the paper is shown a block scheme of the "cold

  17. Constraining the symmetry energy content of nuclear matter from nuclear masses: A covariance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.

    2015-08-01

    Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter, as well as the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb nucleus by ˜50 % . The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.

  18. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi and Upsilon Production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2009-06-23

    The charmonium yields are expected to be considerably suppressed if a deconfined medium is formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In addition, the bottomonium states, with the possible exception of the {Upsilon}(1S) state, are also expected to be suppressed in heavy-ion collisions. However, in proton-nucleus collisions the quarkonium production cross sections, even those of the {Upsilon}(1S), scale less than linearly with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. These 'cold nuclear matter' effects need to be accounted for before signals of the high density QCD medium can be identified in the measurements made in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We identify two cold nuclear matter effects important for midrapidity quarkonium production: 'nuclear absorption', typically characterized as a final-state effect on the produced quarkonium state and shadowing, the modification of the parton densities in nuclei relative to the nucleon, an initial-state effect. We characterize these effects and study their energy and rapidity dependence.

  19. Hard photons and neutral pions as probes of hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, Y.; Martínez, G.; Marqués, F. M.; Marín, A.; Matulewicz, T.; Ostendorf, R. W.; Bożek, P.; Delagrange, H.; Díaz, J.; Franke, M.; Gudima, K. K.; Hlaváč, S.; Holzmann, R.; Lautridou, P.; Lefèvre, F.; Löhner, H.; Mittig, W.; Płoszajczak, M.; van Pol, J. H. G.; Québert, J.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Schubert, A.; Siemssen, R. H.; Simon, R. S.; Sujkowski, Z.; Toneev, V. D.; Wagner, V.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wolf, Gy.

    1997-02-01

    The dynamics of heavy-ion collisions is studied in an energy domain in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. The early history of the collision is analyzed from the theoretical and experimental point of view in which the message conveyed by bremsstrahlung photons and neutral pions is exploited. The Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model and the Dubna Cascade Model, both based on similar principles but each adopting different computation technics, are briefly described and their respective predictions are discussed. In particular the emission pattern of bremsstrahlung photons is discussed. The photon production has been measured in the systems 86Kr+ 58Ni at 60 A MeV, 181Ta+ 197Au at 40 A MeV and 208Pb+ 197Au at 30 A MeV and energy spectra, angular distributions and two-photon correlations have been analyzed. We find that bremsstrahlung photons are emitted from two distinct sources that can be correlated with nuclear-matter density oscillations. The properties of photon emission are discussed in terms of collective properties of nuclear matter. The high energy tail of the photon spectrum is interpreted by π0 and Δ decay but predominantly by radiative capture of pions. The π0 absorption in the nuclear medium is further analyzed by examining their emission pattern.

  20. Thermodynamic instabilities in dense asymmetric nuclear matter and in compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Drago, A.; Pagliara, G.; Pigato, D.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in compressed asymmetric baryonic matter, reachable in high energy heavy ion collisions, and in the cold β-stable compact stars. To this end we study the relativistic nuclear equation of state with the inclusion of Δ-isobars and require the global conservation of baryon and electric charge numbers. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that a phase transition can occur in dense asymmetric nuclear matter and it is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the electric charge concentration). Such thermodynamic instabilities can imply a very different electric charge fraction Z/A in the coexisting phases during the phase transition and favoring an early formation of Δ- particles with relevant phenomenological consequences in the physics of the protoneutron stars and compact stars. Finally, we discuss the possible co-existence of very compact and very massive compact stars in terms of two separate families: compact hadronic stars and very massive quark stars.

  1. 78 FR 19535 - In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. (Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1); Confirmatory Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with the NRC's E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Operations, Inc. (Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1); Confirmatory...

  2. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory B. Jaczko, Chairman, Kristine L. Svinicki,...

  3. 76 FR 77023 - In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Opportunity for Hearing,'' was published in the Federal Register on August 30, 2011 (76 FR 53972). No comments... COMMISSION In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...) and nine other entities are the owners of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal...

  4. 77 FR 11169 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... approval and opportunity for a hearing was published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40403... License] In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power... (Exelon), and Exelon Ventures Company, LLC (Exelon Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group,...

  5. Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Nuclear Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, S R; Cohen, S D; Detmold, W; Lin, H -W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Walker-Loud, A

    2012-10-01

    The low-energy neutron-{Sigma}{sup -} interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our calculations, performed at a pion mass of m{sub pi} ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties, and strengthen theoretical arguments that the strange quark is a crucial component of dense nuclear matter.

  6. Does fairness matter in the context of anger about nuclear energy decision making?

    PubMed

    Besley, John C

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have questioned whether nonoutcome forms of fairness matter in decision-making situations where individuals feel strongly engaged by the issue at hand. This survey-based study focuses on perceptions about a decision-making process related to a proposal to expand a nuclear power plant in the U.S. Southeast. It finds that anger moderates the impacts of outcome and procedural fairness on willingness to accept a decision process as satisfactory and legitimate. The more anger a person said he or she would feel if a decision were to contradict that person's point of view, the more perceived outcome and procedural fairness mattered. The study also finds that interpersonal fairness is also moderated by anger, but in the opposite direction. Interpersonal fairness had less of an impact on willingness to accept a decision for those who said they would feel angry if the decision did not go their preferred way. PMID:21883331

  7. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  8. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...

  9. Modern energy density functional and the current status of the equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, S.

    2012-11-20

    We first describe a method, based on the simulated annealing approach, for determining a modern energy density functional within the Skyrme Hartree-Fock (HF) theory by carrying out a fit to extensive set of experimental data with additional constraints on the Skyrme parameters. Next, we review the HF-based random phase approximation (RPA) approach for calculating properties of giant resonances. We then present results of calculations for the centroid energies of giant resonances within the HF-based RPA and discuss the current status of the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  10. Comparative study of neutron and nuclear matter with simplified Argonne nucleon-nucleon potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, M.; Polls, A.; Rios, A.; Schulze, H.-J.; Vidaña, I.

    2012-12-01

    We present calculations of the energy per particle of pure neutron and symmetric nuclear matter with simplified Argonne nucleon-nucleon potentials for different many-body theories. We compare critically the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock results to other formalisms, such as the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone expansion up to third order, self-consistent Green's functions, auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo, and Fermi hypernetted chain. We evaluate the importance of spin-orbit and tensor correlations in the equation of state and find these to be important in a wide range of densities.

  11. Numerical analysis of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling: Dependence of the saturation scale on nuclear size and rapidity

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, J.L.; Armesto, N.; Salgado, C.A.; Wiedemann, U.A.; Milhano, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We study the effects of including a running coupling constant in high-density QCD evolution. For fixed coupling constant, QCD evolution preserves the initial dependence of the saturation momentum Q{sub s} on the nuclear size A and results in an exponential dependence on rapidity Y, Q{sub s}{sup 2}(Y)=Q{sub s}{sup 2}(Y{sub 0})exp[{alpha}{sub s}d(Y-Y{sub 0})]. For the running coupling case, we rederive analytical estimates for the A and Y dependences of the saturation scale and test them numerically. The A dependence of Q{sub s} vanishes {proportional_to}1/{radical}(Y) for large A and Y. The Y dependence is reduced to Q{sub s}{sup 2}(Y){proportional_to}exp({delta}{sup '}{radical}(Y+X)), where we find numerically {delta}{sup '}{approx_equal}3.2. We study the behavior of the gluon distribution at large transverse momentum, characterizing it by an anomalous dimension 1-{gamma}, which we define in a fixed region of small dipole sizes. In contrast to previous analytical work, we find a marked difference between the fixed coupling ({gamma}{approx_equal}0.65) and running coupling ({gamma}{approx}0.85) results. Our numerical findings show that both a scaling function depending only on the variable rQ{sub s} and the perturbative double-leading-logarithmic expression provide equally good descriptions of the numerical solutions for very small r values below the so-called scaling window.

  12. Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in nuclear matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Providencia, C.; Providencia, J. Da

    2009-01-15

    We study the effect of strong magnetic fields, of the order of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} G, on the instability region of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities. Relativistic nuclear models both with constant couplings and with density-dependent parameters are considered. It is shown that a strong magnetic field can have large effects on the instability regions giving rise to bands of instability and wider unstable regions. As a consequence, we predict larger transition densities at the inner edge of the crust of compact stars with strong magnetic fields. The direction of instability gives rise to a very strong distillation effect if the last Landau level is only partially filled. However, for almost completed Landau levels, an antidistillation effect may occur.

  13. Modeling the effects of surfactant, hardness, and natural organic matter on deposition and mobility of silver nanoparticles in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Min; Heo, Jiyong; Her, Namguk; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2016-10-15

    This study aims to provide insights into the mechanisms governing the deposition and retention of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in saturated porous media. Column experiments were conducted with quartz sand under saturated conditions to investigate the deposition kinetics of AgNPs, their mobility at different groundwater hardnesses (10-400 mg/L as CaCO3), and humic acid (HA, 0-50 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon [DOC]). An anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was used as a dispersing agent to prepare a SDS-AgNPs suspension. The deposition kinetics of AgNPs were highly sensitive to the surfactant concentration, ionic strength, and cation type in solution. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of SDS-AgNPs suggested that the transport and retention were influenced by groundwater hardness and HA. At low water hardness and high HA, high mobility of SDS-AgNPs was observed in saturated conditions. However, the retention of SDS-AgNPs increased substantially in very hard water with a low concentration of HA, because of a decreased primary energy barrier and the straining effect during the course of transport experiments. A modified clean-bed filtration theory and a two-site kinetic attachment model showed good fits with the BTCs of SDS-AgNPs. The fitted model parameters (katt and kstr) could be used successfully to describe that the retention behaviors were dominated by electrostatic and electrosteric repulsion, based on extended Derjaguin-Landau-Vaerwey-Overbeek calculations. PMID:27429353

  14. In-medium effects for nuclear matter in the Fermi-energy domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, O.; Durand, D.; Lehaut, G.; Borderie, B.; Frankland, J. D.; Rivet, M. F.; Bougault, R.; Chbihi, A.; Galichet, E.; Guinet, D.; La Commara, M.; Le Neindre, N.; Lombardo, I.; Manduci, L.; Marini, P.; Napolitani, P.; Pârlog, M.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.; Indra Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Background: By looking specifically at free nucleons (here protons), we present for the first time a comprehensive body of experimental results concerning the mean free path, the nucleon-nucleon cross-section and in-medium effects in nuclear matter. Purpose: Using the large dataset of exclusive measurements provided by the 4 π array INDRA, we determine the relative degree of stopping as a function of system mass and bombarding energy. We show that the stopping can be directly related to the transport properties in the nuclear medium. Methods: We perform a systematic study of protons nuclear stopping in central collisions for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi-energy domain, between 15 A and 100 A MeV. Results: It is found that the mean free path exhibits a maximum at λN N=9.5 ±2 fm, around Einc=35 A MeV incident energy and decreases toward an asymptotic value λN N=4.5 ±1 fm at Einc=100 A MeV. Conclusions: After accounting for Pauli blocking of elastic nucleon-nucleon collisions, it is shown that the effective in-medium N N cross section is further reduced compared to the free value in this energy range. Therefore, in-medium effects cannot be neglected in the Fermi-energy range. These results bring new fundamental inputs for microscopic descriptions of nuclear reactions in the Fermi-energy domain.

  15. Exploring the Quark-Gluon Content of Hadrons: From Mesons to Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr

    2007-08-01

    Even though Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) was formulated over three decades ago, it poses enormous challenges for describing the properties of hadrons from the underlying quark-gluon degrees of freedom. Moreover, the problem of describing the nuclear force from its quark-gluon origin is still open. While a direct solution of QCD to describe the hadrons and nuclear force is not possible at this time, we explore a variety of developed approaches ranging from phenomenology to first principle calculations at one or other level of approximation in linking the nuclear force to QCD. The Dyson Schwinger formulation (DSE) of coupled integral equations for the QCD Green’s functions allows a non-perturbative approach to describe hadronic properties, starting from the level of QCD n-point functions. A significant approximation in this method is the employment of a finite truncation of the system of DSEs, that might distort the physical picture. In this work we explore the effects of including a more complete truncation of the quark-gluon vertex function on the resulting solutions for the quark 2-point functions as well as the pseudoscalar and vector meson masses. The exploration showed strong indications of possibly large contributions from the explicit inclusion of the gluon 3- and 4-point functions that are omitted in this and previous analyses. We then explore the possibility of extrapolating state of the art lattice QCD calculations of nucleon form factors to the physical regime using phenomenological models of nucleon structure. Finally, we further developed the Quark Meson Coupling model for describing atomic nuclei and nuclear matter, where the quark-gluon structure of nucleons is modeled by the MIT bag model and the nucleon many body interaction is mediated by the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. This approach allows us to formulate a fully relativistic theory, which can be expanded in the nonrelativistic limit to reproduce the well known phenomenological Skyrme

  16. On thermohydrologic conditions near high-level nuclear wastes emplaced in partially saturated fractured tuff: 1. Simulation studies with explicit consideration of fracture effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruess, K.; Wang, J. S. Y.; Tsang, Y. W.

    1990-06-01

    We have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated, fractured porous rock. Formation parameters were chosen as representative of the potential nuclear waste repository site in the Topopah Spring unit of the Yucca Mountain tuffs. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator used for our flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects believed to be important in multiphase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions for handling the extreme nonlinearities that arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. We model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. Thermohydrologic conditions in the vicinity of the waste packages are found to depend strongly on relative permeability and capillary pressure characteristics of the fractures, which are unknown at the present time. If liquid held on the rough walls of drained fractures is assumed to be mobile, strong heat pipe effects are predicted. Under these conditions the host rock will remain in two-phase conditions right up to the emplacement hole, and formation temperatures will peak near 100°C. If it is assumed that liquid cannot move along drained fractures, the region surrounding the waste packages is predicted to dry up, and formation temperatures will rise beyond 200°C. A substantial fraction of waste heat can be removed if emplacement holes are left open and ventilated, as opposed to backfilled and sealed emplacement conditions. Comparing our model predictions with observations from in situ heater experiments reported by Zimmerman and coworkers, some intriguing similarities are noted. However, for a quantitative evaluation, additional carefully controlled laboratory and field experiments

  17. Effect of nuclear matter incompressibility on the +Pb208O16 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Torabi, F.

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the property of nuclear matter in the +Pb208O16 collision system, the internuclear potential of the fusion reaction is calculated by using the Skyrme forces associated with an extensive nuclear matter incompressibility K range in the semiclassical energy-density formalism. Comparison of the experimental fusion cross sections and those obtained by using potentials derived from different forces with various K values shows that the incompressibility of nuclear matter changes during the fusion process at different bombarding energies. The results indicate that, as the energy increases, the nuclear matter becomes more incompressible.

  18. Mass predictions of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, R. C.; Satpathy, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and α-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4≤Z≤120 and 8≤A≤303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the η-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy η's supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact η-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around 31Na and 62Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei.

  19. Mass predictions of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, R.C.; Satpathy, L.

    2012-07-15

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and {alpha}-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4{<=}Z{<=}120 and 8{<=}A{<=}303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the {eta}-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy {eta}'s supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact {eta}-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around {sup 31}Na and {sup 62}Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei.

  20. A systematic study of J/psi suppression in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arleo, Francois; Tram, Vi-Nham

    2008-04-05

    Understanding the effects of cold nuclear matter on J/psi production is a key requirement in order to interpret the J/psi suppression reported in heavy-ion collisions. Based on a Glauber model, the J/psi-nucleon inelastic cross section is determined from a statistical analysis of J/psi world data on nuclear targets. The global fit of all data gives sigmaJ/psiN = 3.4 +/- 0.2 mb, significantly smaller than previous estimates, yet the chi2 of the fit is pretty large, chi2/ndf = 1.5. A similar value, sigmaJ/psiN = 3.5 +/- 0.2 +/- 1.7 mb, is obtained when the De Florian-Sassot modifications of the nuclear parton densities are included in the analysis, although we emphasize that the present uncertainties on gluon (anti)shadowing do not allow for a precise determination of sigmaJ/psiN. Finally, the possible energy dependence of the J/psi-nucleon inelastic cross section is investigated within this framework. No significant energy dependence of the J/psi-N interaction is observed.

  1. Computational methods for the nuclear and neutron matter problems. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalos, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    Progress on the development of Monte Carlo methods for the treatment of extensive nuclear and neutron matter and of finite nuclei is reported. Appropriate modifications in the Monte Carlo formalism were made and carried through for the V/sub 4/ potential; the previous method was satisfactory for V/sub 3/, and the latter calculations have been completed. Significant progress was made in the development of the Green's function Monte Carlo method for fermion systems. It proved useful to study a model nuclear few-body problem, in particular, a kind of three-neutron problem. This work proved successful in that a stable Monte Carlo algorithm was developed. It gave correct results for energy and wave function for a soluble (separable) test problem and reasonable results (confirmed by variational computations) for a system interacting by pairwise phenomenological potentials. A stable GFMC algorithm for many-fermion systems has not been implemented, but ancillary studies on /sup 3/He have advanced considerably. In particular, new methods for finding upper bounds have been devised in which Green's function methods are used. These have particular application to nuclear problems. Lower values of the upper bounds were found for /sup 3/He. 20 tables. (RWR)

  2. Connection between the nuclear matter mean-field equation of state and the quark and gluon condensates at high density

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, M.; Dey, M.; Delfino, A.; Dey, J. |||

    1997-01-01

    It is known now that chiral symmetry restoration requires the meson-nucleon couplings to be density-dependent in nuclear-matter mean-field models. We further show that, quite generally, the quark and gluon condensates in medium are related to the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of nuclear matter and in these models the incompressibility K must be less than 3 times the chemical potential {mu}. In the critical density {rho}{sub c}, the gluon condensate is only reduced by 20{percent}, indicating a larger effective nucleon mass. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  4. Temperature and momentum dependence of single-particle properties in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Moustakidis, Ch. C.

    2008-11-15

    We have studied the effects of momentum-dependent interactions on the single-particle properties of hot asymmetric nuclear matter. In particular, the single-particle potential of protons and neutrons as well as the symmetry potential have been studied within a self-consistent model using a momentum-dependent effective interaction. In addition, the isospin splitting of the effective mass has been derived from the above model. In each case temperature effects have been included and analyzed. The role of the specific parametrization of the effective interaction used in the present work has been investigated. It has been concluded that the behavior of the symmetry potential depends strongly on the parametrization of the interaction part of the energy density and the momentum dependence of the regulator function. The effects of the parametrization have been found to be less pronounced on the isospin mass splitting.

  5. Measurements of hadron mean free path for the particle-producing collisions in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It is not obvious a priority that the cross-section for a process in hadron collisions with free nucleons is the same as that for the process in hadron collisions with nucleons inside a target nucleus. The question arises: what is the cross-section for a process in a hadron collision with nucleon on inside the atomic nucleus. The answer to it must be found in experiments. The mean free path for particle-producing collisions of pions in nuclear matter is determined experimentally using pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. Relation between the mean free path in question lambda sub in nucleons fm squared and the cross-section in units of fm squared/nucleon for collisions of the hadron with free nucleon is: lambda sub i = k/cross section sub i, where k = 3.00 plus or minus 0.26.

  6. Modern energy density functional for nuclei and the nuclear matter equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, S.

    2010-08-15

    We discuss a method of determining a modern energy density functional (EDF) in nuclei. We adopt a Skyrme type EDF and fit the Skyrme parameters to an extensive set of experimental data on the ground-state binding energies, radii, and the breathing mode energies of a wide range of nuclei. We further constrain the values of the Skyrme parameters by requiring positive values for the slope of the symmetry energy S, the enhancement factor {kappa}, associated with the isovector giant dipole resonance, and the Landau parameter G{sub 0}{sup '}. This is done within the approaches of Hartree-Fock (HF) and HF with the inclusion of correlation effects, using a simulated-annealing based algorithm forminimizing {chi}{sup 2}.We also present results of HF based random phase approximation for the excitation strength function of the breathing mode and discuss the current status of the nuclear matter incompressibility coefficient.

  7. Toward the Limits of Matter: Ultra-relativistic Nuclear Collisions at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukraft, Jurgen; Stock, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    Strongly interacting matter as described by the thermodynamics of QCD undergoes a phase transition, from a low temperature hadronic medium, to a high temperature quark-gluon plasma state. In the early universe this transition occurred during the early microsecond era. It can be investigated in the laboratory, in collisions of nuclei at relativistic energy, which create "fireballs" of sufficient energy density to cross the QCD phase boundary. We describe three decades of work at CERN, devoted to the study of the QCD plasma and the phase transition. From modest beginnings at the SPS, ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is today a central pillar of contemporary nuclear physics and forms a significant part of the LHC programme.

  8. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  9. Thermodynamic coupling of heat and matter flows in near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1983-11-01

    In near-field regions of nuclear waste repositories, thermodynamically coupled flows of heat and matter can occur in addition to the independent flows in the presence of gradients of temperature, hydraulic potential, and composition. The following coupled effects can occur: thermal osmosis, thermal diffusion, chemical osmosis, thermal filtration, diffusion thermal effect, ultrafiltration, and coupled diffusion. Flows of heat and matter associated with these effects can modify the flows predictable from the direct effects, which are expressed by Fourier's law, Darcy's law, and Fick's law. The coupled effects can be treated quantitatively together with the direct effects by the methods of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The extent of departure of fully coupled flows from predictions based only on consideration of direct effects depends on the strengths of the gradients driving flows, and may be significant at early times in backfills and in near-field geologic environments of repositories. Approximate calculations using data from the literature and reasonable assumptions of repository conditions indicate that thermal-osmotic and chemical-osmotic flows of water in semipermeable backfills may exceed Darcian flows by two to three orders of magnitude, while flows of solutes may be reduced greatly by ultrafiltration and chemical osmosis, relative to the flows predicted by advection and diffusion alone. In permeable materials, thermal diffusion may contribute to solute flows to a smaller, but still significant, extent.

  10. Developing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) as an Electronic Probe of Nanoscale Condensed Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paster, Jeremy W.; Tennant, Daniel M.; Mozaffari, Shirin; Markert, John T.

    2015-03-01

    The investigation of NMR via magnetic force coupling in a large field gradient has led to vast improvements in spatial resolution over the conventional inductive method. It has been demonstrated that nanoscale force sensors could be scaled to distinguish a single nuclear spin, assuming experimental noise can be minimized and other specious force signatures stifled. Accordingly, there are many efforts aimed at repurposing NMR for 3D imaging on the atomic scale. In addition to proof-of-concept experiments aimed at separately resolving some of the eventual experimental barriers to atomic resolution, some of us have directed our attention to using NMR to probe the electronic environment in larger condensed matter systems which are not well suited for other scanning probe microscopy techniques and which are prohibitively small for inductive NMR detection. Previously, we proposed using NMRFM to probe superconducting transitions in microcrystals. In parallel, we revamped our investigation of thin films to explore two-dimensional conducting interfaces between insulating oxides. Presented here is a survey of the technical impediments as well as current strategies for unlocking this exciting potential for NMRFM, as a tool to investigate sub-surface electronic transport in microscale and nanoscale condensed matter systems.