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Sample records for nuclear medicine methods

  1. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  2. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  3. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

  4. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Packer, Samuel; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

  5. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  6. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  7. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  8. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  9. Clinical nuclear medicine. [Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Matin, P.

    1981-01-01

    ''Clinical Nuclear Medicine'' is an update to the author's ''Handbook of Clinical Nuclear Medicine.'' Sections on placental imaging, bone marrow imaging, biliary tract imaging and scintigraphy are included in the volume. (JMT)

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  11. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  12. Atlas of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D. ); Baum, S. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding on the atlas of nuclear medicine. Topics covered include: Radionuclide esophageal transit studies, Iodine-131 neck and chest scintigraphy, Indium-111 white blood cell imaging, and Pediatric radionuclide lymphography.

  13. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as cosmic radiation, is in the upper atmosphere due to solar and galactic emissions. A typical ... used in medical procedures. 4 Cosmic Radiation Sun - - + - Atmosphere - + +- + + Earth How many nuclear medicine procedures are performed ...

  14. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  15. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  16. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  17. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nieciecki, Michał; Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  18. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  20. Nuclear medicine dose equivalent a method for determination of radiation risk

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, W.

    1986-12-01

    Conventional nuclear medicine dosimetry involves specifying individual organ doses. The difficulties that can arise with this approach to radiation dosimetry are discussed. An alternative scheme is described that is based on the ICRP effective dose equivalent, H/sub E/, and which is a direct estimate of the average radiation risk to the patient. The mean value of H/sub E/ for seven common /sup 99m/Tc nuclear medicine procedures is 0.46 rem and the average radiation risk from this level of exposure is estimated to be comparable to the risk from smoking approx. 28 packs of cigarettes or driving approx. 1300 miles.

  1. Handbooks in radiology: Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    This series of handbooks covers the basic facts, major concepts and highlights in seven radiological subspecialties. ''Nuclear Medicine'' is a review of the principles, procedures and clinical applications that every radiology resident and practicing general radiologist should know about nuclear medicine. Presented in an outline format it covers all of the organ systems that are imaged by nuclear medicine.

  2. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nuclear medicine as applied in pediatric patients. Particular emphasis is placed on the subject of scintigraphy of organ systems for diagnostic purposes. The topics covered are: scintigraphy of skeleton, bone marrow spleen, liver, thyroid, lungs, urinary tract, brain, heart and cerebrospinal fluid. The pathology and scintigraphy of lacrimal glands is also covered. Other diagnostic techniques of radiology in pediatrics are also briefly discussed for comparative evaluation.

  3. Nuclear medicine in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L M

    1996-12-01

    Despite the presence of many bright Vietnamese nuclear medicine physicians and scientists, the level of clinical practice languishes seriously behind that of Europe, the United States, Japan and most other parts of the world. This is directly attributable to the country's severe poverty, which places serious constraints on the number of available pieces of functioning imaging equipment, the ability to service equipment and establish appropriate quality assurance and preventative maintenance programs and the ability to purchase adequate radiopharmaceuticals to serve their patients' needs. At this time, the Vietnamese nuclear medicine community is anxious to enhance its contact with colleagues throughout the world. They need and welcome help in obtaining instrumentation, in vivo and in vitro diagnostic kits and educational aids from outside agencies, commercial countries and medical centers that are able to assist them. They would be most appreciative to receive and encourage visits from professional colleagues who would be able to provide lectures, seminars, books, journals and other teaching tools that would contribute to the upgrading of their clinical practice of nuclear medicine. PMID:8929319

  4. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  5. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  6. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  7. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  8. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  9. [Skeletal nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I

    1995-05-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-phosphate compounds is the most popular examination in clinical nuclear medicine. This was developed more than 20 years ago and its roles in various skeletal disorders are well established. Furthermore, improvement of imaging apparatus and application of SPECT strengthened its value extensively. From scintigram alone, in many cases, differentiation between bone metastasis and other "benign" disorders is easily capable. Further improvement in resolution of scinticamera should strengthen its value more. Other recent developments in skeletal nuclear medicine are those in bone densitometry and in measurement of metabolic bone markers. Bone densitometry using DXA is applied on diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic effects in various metabolic bone diseases, especially, in osteoporosis. Bone mass measurement combined with assessments of specific bone markers such as bone specific alkaline phosphatase and collagen cross-link metabolites might replace the bone biopsy in evaluating bone metabolism. Treatment of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer by administering radiolabeled bone seeking substances is another topics in this field and awaits for more extensive clinical evaluation. PMID:7596073

  10. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  11. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-07

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  12. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  13. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques in Peripherral Vascular Disease; Central Nervous System Studies; Hepatic Artery Perfusion Imaging; Drug-Radiopharmaceutical Interactions; and Formulary; Pharmacologic Interventions in Nuclear Medicine.

  14. NOTE: Externally triggered gating of nuclear medicine acquisitions: a useful method for partitioning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Dale L.; Kalemis, Antonis

    2005-04-01

    Physiological gating in nuclear medicine image acquisition was introduced over 30 years ago to subdivide data from the beating heart into short time frames to minimize motion blurring and permit evaluation of contractile parameters. It has since been widely applied in planar gamma camera imaging, SPECT, positron tomography (PET) and anatomical modalities such as x-ray CT and MRI, mostly for cardiac or respiratory investigations. However, the gating capability of gamma cameras and PET scanners can be employed to produce multiply partitioned, statistically independent projection data that can be used in various ways such as to study the effect of varying total acquired counts or time, or administered radioactivity, on image quality and multiple observations for statistical image analyses. Externally triggered gating essentially provides 'something for nothing' as no data are lost and a 'non-gated' data set is easily synthesized post hoc, and there are few reasons for not acquiring the data in this manner (e.g., slightly longer processing time, extra disk space, etc). We present a number of examples where externally triggered gating and partitioning of image data has been useful.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. ... help diagnose and evaluate: urinary blockage in the kidney. backflow of urine from the bladder into the ...

  16. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  17. Data resources for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this article is to list data resources needed for nuclear medicine and provide information on how to access them. This list will include publications of data compilations or evaluations, databases, and data processing codes for both nuclear structure and decay, as well as reaction data. Sources of bibliographic and related information on nuclear data are also be listed. The authors of this article have used their judgement in choosing a representative list of data sources; a more complete listing may be found in the references.

  18. Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

  19. Accelerometer-Based Method for Extracting Respiratory and Cardiac Gating Information for Dual Gating during Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pänkäälä, Mikko; Paasio, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Both respiratory and cardiac motions reduce the quality and consistency of medical imaging specifically in nuclear medicine imaging. Motion artifacts can be eliminated by gating the image acquisition based on the respiratory phase and cardiac contractions throughout the medical imaging procedure. Electrocardiography (ECG), 3-axis accelerometer, and respiration belt data were processed and analyzed from ten healthy volunteers. Seismocardiography (SCG) is a noninvasive accelerometer-based method that measures accelerations caused by respiration and myocardial movements. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of the accelerometer-based method in dual gating technique. The SCG provides accelerometer-derived respiratory (ADR) data and accurate information about quiescent phases within the cardiac cycle. The correct information about the status of ventricles and atria helps us to create an improved estimate for quiescent phases within a cardiac cycle. The correlation of ADR signals with the reference respiration belt was investigated using Pearson correlation. High linear correlation was observed between accelerometer-based measurement and reference measurement methods (ECG and Respiration belt). Above all, due to the simplicity of the proposed method, the technique has high potential to be applied in dual gating in clinical cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to obtain motion-free images in the future. PMID:25120563

  20. 1986 yearbook of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.B.; Gore, J.C.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Sostman, D.

    1986-01-01

    This year's edition summarizes recent published articles about nuclear medicine in major medical journals. The book starts with a review on quantitative analysis of thallium-201 scintigraphy. Chapters then follow on magnetic resonance imaging, the cardiovascular system, peripheral vasculature, the pulmonary system, physics and instrumentation, radiochemistry, and radiopharmacology, health physics and radiation biology, oncology, infection, bone, joints and muscles, the endocrine system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal tract, hemotology, and the central nervous system.

  1. Cardiac nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gerson, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book begins with a review of the radionuclide methods available for evaluating cardiac perfusion and function. The authors discuss planar and tomographic thallium myocardial imaging, first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide angiography, and imaging with infarct-avid tracers. Several common but more specialized procedures are then reviewed: nonogemetric measurement of left ventricular volume, phase (Fourier) analysis, stroke volume ratio, right ventricular function, and diastolic function. A separate chapter is devoted to drug interventions and in particular the use of radionuclide ventriculography to monitor doxorubicin toxicity and therapy of congestive heart failure. The subsequent chapters provide a comprehensive guide to test selection, accuracy, and results in acute myocardial infarction, in postmyocardial infarction, in chronic coronary artery disease, before and after medical or surgical revascularization, in valvular heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, and in cardiac trauma.

  2. Comment on: ‘A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nijs, Robin

    2015-07-01

    In order to be able to calculate half-count images from already acquired data, White and Lawson published their method based on Poisson resampling. They verified their method experimentally by measurements with a Co-57 flood source. In this comment their results are reproduced and confirmed by a direct numerical simulation in Matlab. Not only Poisson resampling, but also two direct redrawing methods were investigated. Redrawing methods were based on a Poisson and a Gaussian distribution. Mean, standard deviation, skewness and excess kurtosis half-count/full-count ratios were determined for all methods, and compared to the theoretical values for a Poisson distribution. Statistical parameters showed the same behavior as in the original note and showed the superiority of the Poisson resampling method. Rounding off before saving of the half count image had a severe impact on counting statistics for counts below 100. Only Poisson resampling was not affected by this, while Gaussian redrawing was less affected by it than Poisson redrawing. Poisson resampling is the method of choice, when simulating half-count (or less) images from full-count images. It simulates correctly the statistical properties, also in the case of rounding off of the images.

  3. Recent advances in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Piepsz, A

    1995-04-01

    This review is devoted to some controversial topics in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine. In most cases, drug sedation can be avoided and the nuclear medicine procedure can be successfully achieved simply by taking the emotional life of the child into account. Factors such as past negative experiences (painful procedures, hospitalizations), unfamiliar environment (frightening examination room), physical aggressions related to the nuclear medicine procedure (intravenous injections, cystography), and the feeling of loss of parents' protection all contribute to the child's anxiety. People in charge of pediatric procedures should be adequately trained to be aware of these factors and to create the best environmental conditions to avoid unnecessarily frightening the child. Methods for measuring renal clearance in children are numerous. It is my aim to review the different methods proposed in the literature, including the nonradioisotopic methods, the reference radioisotopic methods, the various simplified algorithms using blood samples, and the gamma-camera methods. Gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy is a well-established procedure for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. However, despite the numerous advantages of this technique, it has not gained wide acceptance in the field of pediatric gastroenterology. This review focuses mainly on the comparison between scintigraphy and pH metry. Finally, the applications of 99m technetium-hexamethylpropylenamine brain single photon emission computer tomography in the field of pediatric neurology are still under development; this part of the review is an attempt to summarize the real contribution of this technique. PMID:7597419

  4. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  5. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references.

  6. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  7. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  8. Atlas of nuclear medicine artifacts and variants

    SciTech Connect

    Ryo, U.Y.; Alavi, A.; Collier, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book is designed to aid in the interpretation of nuclear medicine scans. The authors purpose is to help practitioners recognize artifacts and variants on nuclear medicine scans and thereby avoid misdiagnoses. It contains 70 pages of cases, including sections on SPECT and PET.

  9. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ümit Özgür; Atay Kapucu, Lütfiye Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with electroencephalogram findings. In pediatric patients with brain tumors, nuclear medicine imaging can be clinically helpful in the diagnosis, directing biopsy, planning therapy, differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, and assessment of response to therapy. Among other neurological diseases in which nuclear medicine has proved to be useful are patients with head trauma, inflammatory-infectious diseases and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:27299282

  10. Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

  11. In vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine. Pediatric experience

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, W.A.; Hendee, W.R.; Gilday, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic tests in children is increasing and interest in these is evidenced by the addition of scientific sessions devoted to pediatric medicine at annual meetings of The Society of Nuclear Medicine and by the increase in the literature on pediatric dosimetry. Data presented in this paper describe the actual pediatric nuclear medicine experience from 26 nationally representative U.S. hospitals and provide an overview of the pediatric procedures being performed the types of radiopharmaceuticals being used, and the activity levels being administered.

  12. A Training Manual for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H.; Alexander, George W.

    This manual was prepared for a training program in Nuclear Medicine Technology at the University of Cincinnati. Instructional materials for students enrolled in these courses in the training program include: Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation, Radionuclide Measurements, Radiation Protection, and Tracer Methodology and Radiopharmaceuticals. (CS)

  13. [Potential radiation hazard in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Guilabert, Nadine; Ricard, Marcel; Chamoulaud, Karen; Mazelier, Carole; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses unsealed radioisotopes. The potential radiation hazards depend on the amount of radioactivity administered and the type of radionucleide. Thus, radiation safety instructions will minimize radiation exposure and contamination as low as reasonably achievable. National nuclear safety authority requires rules, regulations and exposure limits for both patients and workers. Good practices and training staff contribute to optimize the radioprotection. PMID:25842441

  14. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  15. Stereoscopic full aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocovsky, Sergio G.; Otero, Dino

    2011-06-01

    Images of planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) used in nuclear medicine are often low quality. They usually appear to be blurred and noisy. This problem is due to the low spatial resolution and poor sensitivity of the acquisition technique with the gamma camera (GC). Other techniques, such as coded aperture imaging (CAI) reach higher spatial resolutions than GC. However, CAI is not frequently used for imaging in nuclear medicine, due to the decoding complexity of some images and the difficulty in controlling the noise magnitude. Summing up, the images obtained through GC are low quality and it is still difficult to implement CAI technique. A novel technique, full aperture Imaging (FAI), also uses gamma ray-encoding to obtain images, but the coding system and the method of images reconstruction are simpler than those used in CAI. In addition, FAI also reaches higher spatial resolution than GC. In this work, the principles of FAI technique and the method of images reconstruction are explained in detail. The FAI technique is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with filiform and spherical sources. Spatial resolution tests of GC versus FAI were performed using two different source-detector distances. First, simulations were made without interposing any material between the sources and the detector. Then, other more realistic simulations were made. In these, the sources were placed in the centre of a rectangular prismatic region, filled with water. A rigorous comparison was made between GC and FAI images of the linear filiform sources, by means of two methods: mean fluence profile graphs and correlation tests. Finally, three-dimensional capacity of FAI was tested with two spherical sources. The results show that FAI technique has greater sensitivity (>100 times) and greater spatial resolution (>2.6 times) than that of GC with LEHR collimator, in both cases, with and without attenuating material and long and short

  16. Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the possible complications? For the most part, nuclear scans are safe tests. The doses of radiation are very small, and the radionuclides have a ... else should I know about these tests? The radiation exposure from a nuclear scan comes from the radionuclides used – the scanner ...

  17. Lossy compression in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, M. S.; Furuie, S. S.; Munhoz, A. C.; Moura, L.; Melo, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of image compression is to reduce the amount of data needed to represent images. In medical applications, it is not desirable to lose any information and thus lossless compression methods are often used. However, medical imaging systems have intrinsic noise associated to it. The application of a lossy technique, which acts as a low pass filter, reduces the amount of data at a higher rate without any noticeable loss in the information contained in the images. We have compressed images of nuclear medicine using the discrete cosine transform algorithm. The decompressed images were considered reliable for visual inspection. Furthermore, a parameter was computed from these images and no discernible change was found from the results obtained using the original uncompressed images. PMID:8130593

  18. HOSPITAL PHYSICS: Nuclear medicine: diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon-Brown, Ann; Soper, Nigel D. W.

    1996-03-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a small but unique speciality, and any physics student who already enjoys computing, image processing, human biology and physiology as well as physics and chemistry, will be fascinated by this medical speciality. Those who enter, whether they be clinical or scientific, rarely leave and remain under its spell for life.

  19. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine practice

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Perry, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the basic principles and clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals. Topics include atomic physics as applied to radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclide generator function, nuclear pharmacy and safety, and radiopharmaceutical use in evaluating the major organ systems of the body. For each body system the author explains rationale for use, typical procedures, current agents of choice, and interpretation of results. Images, tables, and graphs illustrate normal and abnormal studies.

  1. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  2. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  3. Converting Energy to Medical Progress [Nuclear Medicine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  4. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  5. (Coordinated research programs in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1990-10-03

    The traveler visited the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, West Germany, to review, organize, and plan collaborative studies. He also met with the editorial board of the journal NucCompact -- European/American Communications in Nuclear Medicine, on which he serves as US editor. He also visited colleagues at the Cyclotron Research Center (CRC) at the University of Liege, Belgium, to coordinate clinical applications of the ultrashort-lived iridium-191m radionuclide obtained from the osmium-190/iridium-191m generator system. The traveler planned and coordinated continuing collaboration with colleagues at the CRC for further applications of this generator system. He also visited the University of Metz, Metz, France, to organize a three-center project for the synthesis and evaluation of various receptor-specific cerebral imaging agents, involving the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CRC, and the University of Metz.

  6. A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry. PMID:25406520

  7. Computers and quality control in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Brookeman, V A

    1978-04-01

    The general topic of computers and nuclear medicine quality control may be approached from two main areas; controlling the quality of computerized studies, and computer applications in general nuclear medicine quality control. Overlap occurs when quality control of computer studies is performed by the computer itself. The uses of computers in record-keeping and in quality control of imaging instrumentation and in vitro studies, including radioimmunoassay, are discussed in this review. Aspects of quality control for computerized clinical cardiovascular, cerebral, and renal studies and emission computed tomography are reviewed, including consideration of difficulties and inaccuracies involved in the studies. Any automatic computer analysis program should incorporate adequate checks and error detection protocols and should illustrate results for verification. Current routine quality control procedures using the computer unfortunately are few. Quality control criteria are needed for camera/computer systems in high count rate clinical applications, and increasing emphasis should be aimed at quality control of those computerized dynamic and function studies in current clinical use. The computer has a valuable potential for nuclear medicine quality control. In vitro and computerized in vivo studies can be analyzed by readily available statistical programs, and variances can be monitored continuously. Computers can calibrate and monitor instrument performance regularly, and can handle managerial and clerical duties such as bookkeeping. PMID:684439

  8. Hand exposure in nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Chruscielewski, W; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J; Cygan, M

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the gamma radiation emitted by radioactive elements (e.g. 99mTc and 131I) used in nuclear medicine laboratories for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, nuclear medicine workers are exposed to whole-body doses. These doses arc usually measured by using individual film dosemeters. Lead or lead glass shields used during the handling of radioisotopes minimise the whole-body doses received. Nevertheless, part of the job has to be performed manually, hence the hands are more exposed to radiation. This paper presents the results of measuring the equivalent dose to the hands of workers employed in five selected nuclear medicine laboratories where technetium and iodine radioisotopes are in common use. Sixty workers, including physicians, nurses, radiopharmacists and technicians, were included in the study. Doses were measured at 1 month intervals. The study indicated that, in some instances, the danger of radiation dose to the hand may be significant. Monthly doses exceeded 50 mSv, which may suggest that an annual dose may be higher than 500 mSv. PMID:12382741

  9. Mathematical modelling in nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Henrich, Michael M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques can provide sequences of images giving signals proportional to the concentrations of tracers (by emission tomography), of X-ray-absorbing contrast materials (fast CT or perhaps NMR contrast), or of native chemical substances (NMR) in tissue regions at identifiable locations in 3D space. Methods for the analysis of the concentration-time curves with mathematical models describing the physiological processes and the appropriate anatomy are now available to give a quantitative portrayal of both structure and function: such is the approach to metabolic or functional imaging. One formulates a model first by defining what it should represent: this is the hypothesis. When translated into a self-consistent set of differential equations, the model becomes a mathematical model, a quantitative version of the hypothesis. This is what one would like to test against data. However, the next step is to reduce the mathematical model to a computable form; anatomically and physiologically realistic models account of the spatial gradients in concentrations within blood-tissue exchange units, while compartmental models simplify the equations by using the average concentrations. The former are known as distributed models and the latter as lumped compartmental or mixing chamber models. Since both are derived from the same ideas, the parameters are usually the same; their differences are in their ability to represent the hypothesis correctly, quantitatively, and sometimes in their computability. In this essay we review the philosophical and practical aspects of such modelling analysis for translating image sequences into physiological terms. PMID:1936044

  10. (Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

  11. Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

  12. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce "lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium" CRY018 "CRY019" lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  13. [Solid liver mass. Studies with nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Gadea, L; Fernández Salazar, L; García Grávalos, R; Rodríguez Eyré, J L

    2000-04-01

    We present the case of a 23 year old female with two incidentally detected hepatic mass that have not clinically o radiologically specific findings. Nuclear medicine tracers, including colloids and hepatobiliary agents showing the characteristic findings of focal nodular hyperplasia: Hypervascularization, normal uptake of colloids, accumulation of hepatobiliary tracer and hot spots due to the retention of this tracer during the clearance fhase. The patient was underwent hepatectomy. The examination of surgical specimen revealed focal nodular hyperplasia. The scintigraphic studies could be an useful tool in the noninvasive diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:10893773

  14. Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

  15. Horizons in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: highlights of the Third Gulf Nuclear Medicine Conference.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, A H

    2009-07-01

    The Third Gulf Nuclear Medicine Conference took place in the state of Kuwait at Salwa Al Sabah hall, Safir marina hotel in Salmiya. The event extended from March 29th to April 1st 2009. The assembly was a great chance for all nuclear medicine, i.e. physicians, technologists and researchers in the field to meet and exchange experience and knowledge. The number of participators registered for this conference was beyond expectations; total registrants of 611 attended the event and actively end it. The conference was attended by international, regional and local participants. There were 23 speakers, including 13 invited guest speakers who came from USA, Canada, Europe and the Gulf region. In addition to the lectures and oral presentations, there were 30 poster presentations. The latest updates in the field together with most recent findings in the participants' own research were presented. The lectures and posters covered different basic and clinical categories of nuclear medicine. This article summarizes the highlights of the major topics discussed with some recommendations when applicable. Proceedings of the conference can be found in the World Journal of Nuclear Medicine of April, 2009. PMID:20194093

  16. Employment in nuclear medicine during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetto, A.R.

    1986-12-01

    A nuclear medicine technologist can work throughout a pregnancy with high confidence that her occupational radiation exposure will not add any significant risk to her changes of having a normal pregnancy and child. All that is required is for the employer to provide an ALARA work place and for the technologist to observe carefully all radiation safety guidelines and to maintain her occupational exposure ALARA. Current guidance is that the total uterine dose during gestation be less than 0.5 rem (5 mSv). The vast majority of nuclear medicine technologists can achieve this dose level easily, with no modifications of duties or work practices. Technologists working with generators and radiopharmaceutical kits may wish to temporarily transfer to other duties within the clinic, not necessarily to reduce routine exposures but to minimize the changes of an accident having high-dose or high-contamination potential. All of the available human data show that there is small additional risk to the fetus or neonate due to occupational radiation exposure compared to naturally occurring risks so long as the dose is within recommended guidelines.

  17. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Lacey R; Wilkinson, Deborah

    2015-03-15

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer.

  18. Authentication of Medicines Using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Barras, Jamie; Althoefer, Kaspar; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2016-01-01

    The production and sale of counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical products, such as essential medicines, is an important global public health problem. We describe a chemometric passport-based approach to improve the security of the pharmaceutical supply chain. Our method is based on applying nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy to authenticate the contents of medicine packets. NQR is a non-invasive, non-destructive, and quantitative radio frequency (RF) spectroscopic technique. It is sensitive to subtle features of the solid-state chemical environment and thus generates unique chemical fingerprints that are intrinsically difficult to replicate. We describe several advanced NQR techniques, including two-dimensional measurements, polarization enhancement, and spin density imaging, that further improve the security of our authentication approach. We also present experimental results that confirm the specificity and sensitivity of NQR and its ability to detect counterfeit medicines. PMID:26841409

  19. Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images. PMID:22475429

  20. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce “lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium” CRY018 “CRY019” lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  1. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Strobel, K

    2009-11-01

    Conventional bone scintigraphy is still the standard investigation for the detection of bone metastases, especially in breast and prostate cancer. In unclear scintigraphic uptakes in the appendicular skeleton conventional x-rays are problem solving in most of the cases. In unclear uptakes in the axial skeleton additional performance of SPECT/CT can increase the specificity. Fluoride-PET/CT is superior to conventional bone scintigraphy but is not yet available in clinical routine. Patients with high-risk breast cancer and patients with lung cancer should be staged with FDG-PET/CT primarily. An additional bone scan is than superfluous. The great advantage of FDG-PET/CT is the fact that bone metastases and organ metastases can be detected in the same investigation. There is a clear trend of shifting patients from conventional nuclear medicine to PET/CT. PMID:20029782

  2. Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

    1983-12-01

    To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-26

    Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

  5. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

  6. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  7. Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

  8. Career prospects for graduating nuclear medicine residents: survey of nuclear medicine program directors.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A; Guiberteau, Milton J; Metter, Darlene F; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    There has been much consternation in the nuclear medicine (NM) community in recent years regarding the difficulty many NM graduates experience in securing initial employment. A survey designed to determine the extent and root causes behind the paucity of career opportunities was sent to all 2010-2011 NM residency program directors. The results of that survey and its implications for NM trainees and the profession are presented and discussed in this article. PMID:23763875

  9. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  10. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children. PMID:24647992

  11. Evolution of nuclear medicine training: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael M; Metter, Darlene F

    2007-02-01

    Since the official inception of nuclear medicine in 1971, the practice of nuclear medicine and its training programs have undergone major revisions. Numerous procedures that were common in the 1970s are no longer available, and many new radiotracers and procedures have since been developed. Training programs have evolved from an unstructured experience before 1971 to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 2 clinical years, to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year and, most recently, to 3 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year. The most substantial content changes in the new 2007 training program requirements are an increased emphasis on 6 clinical competencies, an increased emphasis on Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements, and a new CT training requirement that was spawned by the advent of PET/CT. In addition to the new training program requirements, residents will need to become familiar with the concept of maintenance of certification, which will continue to be an important component of their professional careers. Nuclear medicine is gradually evolving into molecular imaging. Hence, it is inevitable that in the near future, training programs will be required to place greater emphasis on molecular imaging in both clinical and research applications. The incorporation of molecular imaging will represent a significant paradigm shift for the specialty but will ensure that nuclear medicine will be a major part of medical practice for the foreseeable future. PMID:17268024

  12. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  13. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  14. Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy: gender biases in disease.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based medicine is medical research and care conducted with conscious consideration of the sex and gender differences of subjects and patients. This issue of Seminars is focused on diseases for which nuclear medicine is part of routine management and for which the diseases have sex- or gender-based differences that affect incidence or pathophysiology and that thus have differences that can potentially affect the results of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. In this first article, we discuss neurologic diseases, certain gastrointestinal conditions, and thyroid conditions. The discussion is in the context of those sex- or gender-based aspects of these diseases that should be considered in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. Cardiovascular diseases, gynecologic diseases, bone conditions such as osteoporosis, pediatric occurrences of some diseases, human immunodeficiency virus-related conditions, and the radiation dose considerations of nuclear medicine studies are discussed in the other articles in this issue. PMID:25362232

  15. [Nuclear medicine for evaluation of liver functions].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K

    1994-05-01

    The clinical usefulness of colloid liver scintigraphy to detect space occupying lesions in the liver has been reduced by X-ray CT and ultrasonography. However, scintigraphic examinations have potentials for characteristic diagnosis of liver tumors, such as 99mTc RBC SPECT for hepatic hemangioma, 99mTc PMT for positive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma and its extrahepatic metastasis, and radioimmunoscintigraphy for metastatic tumors. Moreover, prediction of the prognosis and monitoring therapeutic effect to liver cancer can be made by the use of nuclear medicine techniques. Recently, 99mTc galactosyl serum albumin (GSA), a newly developed radiotracer to evaluate hepatocyte function, has become commercially available. Quantitative parameters of liver functions can be obtained by analysis of time-activity curve in blood and liver after 99mTc-GSA administration. In several cases, 99mTc-GSA study showed intrahepatic unevenness of function, which could not be depicted by other imaging examinations. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose (FDG) is useful to detect malignant tumors in the liver. Since PET can provide absolutely quantitative data in better resolution, it is expected that regional true metabolic functions in the liver may be able to be quantitatively evaluated with PET in near future. PMID:8028225

  16. The development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana; half a century of nuclear medicine in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic; Gaberscek, Simona; Slavec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuclear medicine began to be developed in the USA after 1938 when radionuclides were introduced into medicine and in Europe after radionuclides began to be produced at the Harwell reactor (England, 1947). Slovenia began its first investigations in the 1950s. This article describes the development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana. The first nuclear medicine interventions were performed in Slovenia at the Internal Clinic in Ljubljana in the period 1954–1959. In 1954, Dr Jože Satler started using radioactive iodine for thyroid investigations. In the same year, Dr Bojan Varl, who is considered the pioneer of nuclear medicine in Slovenia, began systematically introducing nuclear medicine. The first radioisotope laboratories were established in January 1960 at the Institute of Oncology and at the Internal Clinic. Under the direction of Dr. Varl, the laboratory at the Internal Clinic developed gradually and in 1973 became the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine with departments for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics and for the treatment of inpatients and outpatients at the thyroid department. The Clinic for Nuclear Medicine became a teaching unit of the Medical Faculty and developed its own post-graduate programme – the first student enrolled in 1972. In the 1960s, radioisotope laboratories opened in the general hospitals of Slovenj Gradec and Celje, and in the 1970s also in Maribor, Izola and Šempeter pri Novi Gorici. Conclusions Nowadays, nuclear medicine units are modernly equipped and the staff is trained in morphological, functional and laboratory diagnostics in clinical medicine. They also work on the treatment of cancer, increased thyroid function and other diseases. PMID:22933984

  17. Structure and Activities of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Owunwanne, Azuwuike; Alenezi, Saud

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine in Kuwait began in 1965 as a clinic for treating thyroid diseases. The practice developed gradually and until 1981 when the Faculty of Medicine established the Division of Nuclear Medicine in the Department of Radiology, which later became a separate department responsible for establishing and managing the practice in all hospitals of Kuwait. In 1987, a nuclear medicine residency program was begun and it is administered by Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations originally as a 4-year but currently as a 5-year program. Currently there are 11 departments in the ministry of health hospitals staffed by 49 qualified attending physicians, mostly the diplomats of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations nuclear medicine residency program, 4 academic physicians, 2 radiopharmacists, 2 physicists, and 130 technologists. These departments are equipped with 33 dual-head gamma cameras, 10 SPET/CT, 5 PET/CT, 2 cyclotrons, 1 breast-specific gamma imaging, 1 positron-emitting mammography, 10 thyroid uptake units, 8 technegas machines, 7 PET infusion systems, and 8 treadmills. Activities of nuclear medicine in Kuwait include education and training, clinical service, and research. Education includes nuclear medicine technology program in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, the 5-year residency program, medical school teaching distributed among different modules of the integrated curriculum with 14 didactic lecture, and other teaching sessions in nuclear medicine MSc program, which run concurrently with the first part of the residency program. The team of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait has been active in research and has published more than 300 paper, 11 review articles, 12 book chapters, and 17 books in addition to 36 grants and 2 patents. A PhD program approved by Kuwait University Council would begin in 2016. PMID:27237444

  18. [Investigation of radiation safety management of nuclear medicine facilities in Japan; contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system. A Working Group of Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine for the Guidelines of Nuclear Medicine Therapy].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Koizumi, M; Kinoshita, F; Nakazawa, K

    1999-12-01

    Radiation safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities were investigated by the questionnaire method. The first questionnaire was asked in all Japanese 1,401 Nuclear Medicine facilities. Answers from 624 institutes (44.5%) were received and analyzed. The radiation-safety management in nuclear medicine institutes was considered to be very well performed everyday. Opinion for the present legal control of nuclear medicine institutes was that the regulation in Japan was too strict for the clinical use of radionuclides. The current regulation is based on the assumption that 1% of all radioactivity used in nuclear medicine institutes contaminates into the draining-water system. The second questionnaire detailing the contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system was sent to 128 institutes, and 64 answers were received. Of them, 42 institutes were considered to be enough to evaluate the contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system. There was no difference between 624 institutes answered to the first questionnaire and 42 institutes, where the radioactivity in the draining-water system was measured, in the distribution of the institute size, draining-water system equipment and the radioactivity measuring method, and these 42 institutes seemed to be representative of Japanese nuclear medicine institutes. Contamination rate of radioactivity into the draining system was calculated by the value of radioactivity in the collecting tank divided by the amount of radionuclides used daily in each institute. The institutes were divided into two categories on the basis of nuclear medicine practice pattern; type A: in-vivo use only and type B: both in-vivo and in-vitro use. The contamination rate in 27 type A institutes did not exceed 0.01%, whereas in 15 type B institutes the contamination rate distributed widely from undetectable to above 1%. These results indicated that the present regulation for the draining-water system, which

  19. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online

  20. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  1. Diagnostic Services and Communication Protocols for Remote Nuclear Medicine Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Herbig, F.K.; Daly, J.L.; Gooch, N.E.; Donati, R.M.; Fletcher, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A telecommunications system has been designed and implemented which provides diagnostic services to nuclear medicine laboratories established in smaller primary care medical facilities. These remote laboratories are located in areas where nuclear medicine patient services were not previously available because of the lack of trained nuclear physicians. The system provides through the use of computerized data acquisition and telephone data communication capability all routine and specialized imaging procedures with a degree of quality and sophistication normally available only in large urban medical centers. Nuclear image data acquired remotely is transmitted to Saint Louis, Missouri for interpretation by specialists in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the Veterans Administration Medical Center. The functions of hardware and software protocols necessary to assure the correctness and completeness of transmitted data are presented together with essential data descriptors for identification and format.

  2. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections.

    PubMed

    Love, C; Palestro, C J

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ((67)Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging. Although they are useful, each of these tests has limitations. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive but not specific, especially when underlying osseous abnormalities are present. (67)Ga accumulates in tumour, trauma, and in aseptic inflammation; furthermore, there is typically an interval of 1-3 days between radiopharmaceutical injection of and imaging. Currently, this agent is used primarily for spinal infections. Except for the spine, WBC imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. The in vitro leukocyte labelling process requires skilled personnel, is laborious, and is not always available. Complementary marrow imaging is usually required to maximise accuracy. Not surprisingly, alternative radiopharmaceuticals are continuously being investigated. Radiolabelled anti-granulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, investigated as in vivo leukocyte labelling agents, have their own limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for diagnosing spinal infections. Radiolabelled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, have shown promise as infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) is very useful in musculoskeletal infection. Sensitivities of more than 95% and specificities ranging from 75-99% have been

  3. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G.

    1985-05-07

    Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals. (ACR)

  4. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  5. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-12-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  6. Comparative analysis of dosimetry parameters for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    For years many have employed the concept of ``total-body dose`` or ``whole-body dose,`` i.e., the total energy deposited in the body divided by the mass of the body, when evaluating the risks of different nuclear medicine procedures. The effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}), first described in ICRP Publication 26, has been accepted by some as a better quantity to use in evaluating the total risk of a procedure, but its use has been criticized by others primarily because the tissue weighting factors were intended for use in the radiation worker, rather than the nuclear medicine patient population. Nevertheless, in ICRP Publication 52, the ICRP has suggested that the H{sub E} may be used in nuclear medicine. The ICRP also has published a compendium of dose estimates, including H{sub E} values, for various nuclear medicine procedures at various ages in ICRP Publication 53. The effective dose (E) of ICRP Publication 60 is perhaps more suitable for use in nuclear medicine, with tissue weighting factors based on the entire population. Other comparisons of H{sub E} and E have been published. The authors have used the program MIRDOSE 3.1 to compute total-body dose, H{sub E}, and E for 62 radiopharmaceutical procedures, based on the best current biokinetic data available.

  7. Nuclear Medicine in Pediatric and Adolescent Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, Pınar Özgen; Tuncel, Murat; Bar-Sever, Zvi

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has an important role in the management of many cancers in pediatric age group with multiple imaging modalities and radiopharmaceuticals targeting various biological uptake mechanisms. 18-Flourodeoxyglucose is the radiotracer of choice especially in patients with sarcoma and lymphoma. (18)FDG-PET, for sarcoma and lymphomas, is proved to be superior to conventional imaging in staging and therapy response. Although studies are limited in pediatric population, (18)FDG-PET/CT has found its way through international guidelines. Limitations and strengths of PET imaging must be noticed before adapting PET imaging in clinical protocols. Established new response criteria using multiple parameters derived from (18)FDG-PET would increase the accuracy and repeatability of response evaluation. Current data suggest that I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) remains the tracer of choice in the evaluation of neuroblastoma (NB) because of its high sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and prognostic value. It is valuable in determining the response to therapy, surveillance for disease recurrence, and in selecting patients for I-131 therapy. SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy and the interpretation confidence of MIBG scans. (18)FDG-PET/CT is an important complementary to MIBG imaging despite its lack of specificity to NB. It is valuable in cases of negative or inconclusive MIBG scans and when MIBG findings underestimate the disease status as determined from clinical and radiological findings. F-18 DOPA is promising tracer that reflects catecholamine metabolism and is both sensitive and specific. F-18 DOPA scintigraphy provides the advantages of PET/CT imaging with early and short imaging times, high spatial resolution, inherent morphologic correlation with CT, and quantitation. Regulatory and production issues currently limit the tracer's availability. PET/CT with Ga-68 DOTA appears to be useful in NB imaging and may have a unique role in selecting

  8. NMINT--introductory courseware for nuclear medicine: database design.

    PubMed

    Mankovich, N J; Verma, R C; Yue, A; Veyne, D; Ratib, O; Bennett, L R

    1991-01-01

    Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) provides a dynamic and self-paced learning experience to the medical trainee. Microcomputer based hypermedia systems integrate text, graphics, and image information. We present the design of an introductory CAI course for nuclear medicine called NMINT and elaborate on the underlying relational database that contains clinically relevant information and links to local or remote image storage over high speed networks. The IBM PS/2 Windows system uses Toolbook software augmented by C language modules for image and image-overlay database access. The current implementation stores text, graphical lesson material, and image index information on microcomputer magnetic disk; image data are stored on the attached optical disk. The storage architecture is described in detail. We emphasize its multi-access methods and its expandability into department-wide image networks. PMID:1807706

  9. Future developments in nuclear medicine instrumentation: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuikka, J T; Britton, K E; Chengazi, V U; Savolainen, S

    1998-01-01

    This review article forecasts developments in nuclear medicine instrumentation which are on the horizon. Special attention is paid to the physical properties of detectors and multiple-processor parallel processing systems needed for fast and high-quality imaging in emission tomography. Advances in detector technology will improve imaging resolution below 5 mm and will increase sensitivity and quantitative accuracy. In addition, high count rate list-mode acquisition enables 'true' four-dimensional data-sets. A sandwich-like construction of two different crystals allows the simultaneous use of conventional tracers and positron tracers (multiple emission tomography, MET). Transmission-based attenuation and scatter compensation with fast iterative reconstruction methods will further improve image quality. The clinical and scientific importance of improved images and the limits on advances in instrumentation are also reviewed. PMID:9515542

  10. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Helman

    2016-07-01

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and 18F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  11. Fingertip and whole body exposure to nuclear medicine personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Lis, G.A.; Zu'bi, S.M.; Brahmavar, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    We calculate radiation exposure to the nuclear medicine technologist for all common sources of exposure. Special attention is given to exposure received by fingertips. We include typical exposure rates for patient injections, reagent preparations, generator handling and elution, patient positioning, and other phases of nuclear medicine. The cumulative exposure to fingertips and whole body is estimated. When every precaution is taken to minimize exposure in our laboratory, the unavoidable annual exposure to the fingertips is 11 R; to the whole body it is 1 R from all sources. When precautions are not taken, the annual exposure to the fingertips may exceed 170 R and the whole body dose may then approach 2 R. Our nuclear medicine laboratory averages about 1000 injections per technologist per year.

  12. Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

    1988-01-01

    This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

  13. Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, C.T.; Suto, P.A.

    1983-03-01

    The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dângelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area. PMID:25035834

  15. Radiation safety and nuclear medicine policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Berman, C G

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing concern over possible adverse effects from medical applications of ionizing radiation. Hospital personnel must be educated in procedures to minimize exposure to themselves and their patients. Basic radiation safety procedures to protect personnel and patients are discussed. Examples of the nuclear medicine policies and procedures used for lymphatic mapping are provided. PMID:10448699

  16. Society of Nuclear Medicine--57th annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Searle, Ben

    2010-08-01

    The 57th Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, held in Salt Lake City, UT, USA, included topics covering new developments in imaging agents and radiopharmaceutical therapies in the field of nuclear medicine. This conference report highlights selected presentations related to imaging of the brain, the prediction of heart disease, and the detection and treatment of various cancers. Investigational drugs discussed include TF-2 plus [68Ga]IMP-288 and TF-2 plus [111In]IMP-288 (both Immunomedics Inc), [11C]PBR-170 (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital/Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organization), [11C]LY-2795050 (Eli Lilly & Co), yttrium (90Y) clivatuzumab tetraxetan (Garden State Cancer Center/Immunomedics Inc), [18F]LMI-1195 (Lantheus Medical Imaging Inc), fluciclovine (18F) (GE Healthcare/Nihon Medi-Physics Co Ltd), [99mTc]MIP-1340 and [99mTc]MIP-1407 (both Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals Inc). PMID:20721816

  17. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-01-01

    Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of "early elution schedule" was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  19. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  20. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  1. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  2. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  3. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  4. Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services

    SciTech Connect

    Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage.

  5. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  6. Quality Assessment of Research Articles in Nuclear Medicine Using STARD and QUADAS-2 Tools

    PubMed Central

    Roysri, Krisana; Chotipanich, Chanisa; Laopaiboon, Vallop; Khiewyoo, Jiraporn

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Diagnostic nuclear medicine is being increasingly employed in clinical practice with the advent of new technologies and radiopharmaceuticals. The report of the prevalence of a certain disease is important for assessing the quality of that article. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of published nuclear medicine articles and determine the frequency of reporting the prevalence of studied diseases. Methods: We used Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklists for evaluating the quality of articles published in five nuclear medicine journals with the highest impact factors in 2012. The articles were retrieved from Scopus database and were selected and assessed independently by two nuclear medicine physicians. Decision concerning equivocal data was made by consensus between the reviewers. Results: The average STARD score was approximately 17 points, and the highest score was 17.19±2.38 obtained by the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine. QUADAS-2 tool showed that all journals had low bias regarding study population. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine had the highest score in terms of index test, reference standard, and time interval. Lack of clarity regarding the index test, reference standard, and time interval was frequently observed in all journals including Clinical Nuclear Medicine, in which 64% of the studies were unclear regarding the index test. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology had the highest number of articles with appropriate reference standard (83.3%), though it had the lowest frequency of reporting disease prevalence (zero reports). All five journals had the same STARD score, while index test, reference standard, and time interval were very unclear according to QUADAS-2 tool. Unfortunately, data were too limited to determine which journal had the lowest risk of bias. In fact, it is the author's responsibility to provide details of

  7. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  8. Radiation doses to staff in a department of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Harbottle, E A; Parker, R P; Davis, R

    1976-07-01

    A survey of data concerning radiation protection of staff working in the Nuclear Medicine Department and associated sections of the Physics Department at the Royal Marsden Hospital (Surrey Branch) is given for the period 1972 to 1975 inclusive. Results of routine film monitoring and whole-body counting are presented. Additional film monitors were used to check working areas, finger doses and any discrepancies between doses to the upper and lower trunk of personnel. In general, exposure to staff in the Nuclear Medicine Department is below 220 mrad per person per year, and below 1,000 mrad per person per year in the Radioisotope Dispensary. The dose received by radiographers is primarily due to spending time close to patients. Since about 5,000 intravenous injections of radionuclides are given each year in our department, the resulting finger doses to the staff involved may give rise to concern unless the task is shared. PMID:824004

  9. Establishment of dose reference levels for nuclear medicine in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, S; Kipouros, P; Chobis, M

    2011-09-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission's Department of Licensing and Inspections conducted a national survey for the establishment of nuclear medicine (NM) dose reference levels (DRLs) for adult patients, in Greece. The administered activities (AAs) (MBq) were collected from 120 NM departments (88 % of total), during on-site inspections for licensing purposes. Factors influencing the image quality were also investigated. The established national DRLs represent the AA value corresponding to the 75th percentile of the AA frequency distributions. In their majority, national DRLs and average AAs are comparable with the ones published in the international literature. In the light of new technologies, there might be potential for reducing the higher values of AAs, in co-operation with the nuclear medicine experts. PMID:21765158

  10. Hand exposure to ionising radiation of nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Wrzesień, M; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J

    2008-01-01

    The specific nature of work in nuclear medicine departments involves the use of isotopes and handling procedures, which contribute to the considerable value of an equivalent dose received, in particular, by the fingertips. Standard nuclear medicine department uses ring dosemeters placed usually at the base of the middle finger. The main aim of the study was to find out whether a relationship exists between the doses recorded by thermoluminescent detectors placed at various locations on the radiopharmacists' hands and the doses recorded by the ring detectors, and to determine the character of that relationship. The correction factor represents a correction value to be used to calculate the doses which might be received by locations on the hand from the dose recorded by the ring dosemeter. The dose recorded by the ring dosemeter is on the average five times lower than that received by the fingertips of thumb, index and middle fingers. PMID:18310609

  11. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  12. Motion estimation for nuclear medicine: a probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rhodri; Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Jones, John; Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Accurate, Respiratory Motion Modelling of the abdominal-thoracic organs serves as a pre-requisite for motion correction of Nuclear Medicine (NM) Images. Many respiratory motion models to date build a static correspondence between a parametrized external surrogate signal and internal motion. Mean drifts in respiratory motion, changes in respiratory style and noise conditions of the external surrogate signal motivates a more adaptive approach to capture non-stationary behavior. To this effect we utilize the application of our novel Kalman model with an incorporated expectation maximization step to allow adaptive learning of model parameters with changing respiratory observations. A comparison is made with a popular total least squares (PCA) based approach. It is demonstrated that in the presence of noisy observations the Kalman framework outperforms the static PCA model, however, both methods correct for respiratory motion in the computational anthropomorphic phantom to < 2mm. Motion correction performed on 3 dynamic MRI patient datasets using the Kalman model results in correction of respiratory motion to ≍ 3mm.

  13. [The psychodynamics of work with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Leila Cunha; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Sergio Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate to what extent alternative forms adopted in the working process of professionals with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine can assist in managing risks of ionizing radiation. The design is based on the main theoretical concepts of the psychodynamics of work in relation to workers' health. In the case study, data were gathered from 15 workers of a public health institution in the city of Rio de Janeiro by means of semi-structured individual interviews and non-systematic direct observation. Bardin's content analysis method was used for the data analysis. When comparing the results obtained with standard prescribed models, it was found that the respondents had changed their approach. They developed individual defense mechanisms, such as denial of risk, and collective defensive strategies, leading them to tackle the greatest danger as a form of defense. The defensive role of ideologies of the profession are manifest. On the contrary, the acquired knowledge derived from prudence proved effective in minimizing the risks of radiation exposure. The authors discuss the limitations of security management that does not consider the workers' subjectivity and inherent knowledge. PMID:24196882

  14. Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

    2009-06-01

    Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 μm square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 μm and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 μm. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 μm pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 μm pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the 'ideal' sensor are made.

  15. Proceedings of a workshop on molecular nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Reba, R.C.

    1992-12-31

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy (DOE) has increased the emphasis on research in structural biology and molecular biology. The Department has increased support substantially in the area of basic molecular and structural biology research. To exploit the advances in these fields, OHER has sought to apply those advances in their other areas of responsibility, e.g., health effects research, environmental biology, and, in particular, nuclear medicine. The applications of biotechnology have contributed greatly to the productive research efforts of molecular biology. These techniques include gene manipulation for targeted gene delivery; characterization of molecular probes for hormone, tumor, and neuroreceptors; the receptor-agonist/antagonist binding interactions; studies of mechanisms of cellular communication; and the development of in vitro diagnostics such as molecular probes for studying the aging process and patients with mental disorders, cancer, and atherosclerosis. The importance of this work is the reasonable expectation that mainly, through an appreciation of the molecular basis of disease, will the most effective and rapid progress be made toward understanding, identifying, solving, and preventing specific disease processes. Critical questions arising before and during the Workshop are how the following technologies can be applied in a practical clinical research or patient management setting: the recombinant DNA methodology, the technology of engineered monoclonal antibodies, the new methods for protein production and purification, and the production of transgenic animals.

  16. [Nuclear Medicine in diagnosis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Ioannis P; Giannoula, Evanthia

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide, creating a significant need for improved imaging modalities. The advantage of molecular imaging over other imaging methods, as confirmed by clinical experience, is the ability of providing functional information. This process is achieved by labeling a biomarker with an isotope of choice. Therefore imaging methods such as scintimammography (SM), (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT), positron emission mammography (PEM), lymphoscintigraphy, have proved to be extremely efficient compared to morphological imaging of anatomical lesions, as they allow the diagnosis, staging, assessment of therapeutic efficacy and patient monitoring to contribute as much as possible to improve the prognosis. The development of new radiopharmaceuticals in PET imaging, allowing the visualization and quantification of biomarkers, such as (18)F-fluoro-17-estradiol, which is bound by the estrogen receptors (ER), (18)F-fluoro-l-thymidine (FLT) which is a marker of cell proliferation, (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FISO) a marker of tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis markers such as (18)F-fluoroazomycinarabinoside, may give us additional information on the characteristics and progress of the disease and allow the conduct of targeted therapy. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) using monoclonal antibodies in order to recognize serum markers such as CA 15.3, CEA, cytokeratins TPA, TPS and Cyfra 21.1, are necessary in the diagnosis of a possible recurrence of the disease as well as the degree of response to treatment. Modern research focusing on the development of new specific functional breast imaging methods improves diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with breast cancer. PMID:25397630

  17. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine: a practical guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sodd, V.J.

    1981-11-01

    This publication brings together, in concise form, information regarding the many recommendations and requirements for safe operation of a nuclear medicine laboratory. The need for such a compendium was perceived by the staff of the Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. This need arises from several sources. Many individuals enter the field with little training in the handling of radioactive materials; for example, a physician trained in cardiology, oncology, or neurology. The increasing development of portable instrumentation has allowed movement of radiopharmaceuticals from the confines of the nuclear medicine lab to coronary and intensive care facilities where personnel may lack adequate knowledge of safe handling procedures. A health physicist, trained to account for all radioactive material placed under his control, may have difficulty adapting to the accepted practice of releasing a patient who has been administered millicurie quantities of radioactivity, with little or no control over subsequent disposal of excreta. Further differences exist between handling practices for radioactive materials in the scientific laboratory and in the medical facility. This guide tries where possible to clarify some of these issues.

  18. Radionuclide calibrator comparisons and quality improvement in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Woods, M J; Olsovcová, V; dos Santos, J A

    2008-03-01

    The traceability of activity measurements performed during the development phase of the radiopharmaceutical and in its clinical application is essential for establishing the comparability of clinical results reported in the nuclear medicine field. This paper presents and discusses the evaluation over time of the quality of activity measurement results obtained in Cuban nuclear medicine, on the basis of statistical samples taken during the radionuclide calibrator comparison program. An attempt is also made to evaluate the role played by such comparisons in quality measurement improvement in nuclear medicine, on the basis of results obtained in a number of countries and published by several authors over a period of time. Specifically, improvements of the measurement performance over time assessed by such exercises were found dissimilar in magnitudes for different countries. Two phases could be distinguished in the improvement process over time. Firstly, a fast improvement can be obtained resulting from the improvement in measurement accuracy of devices. After that, the achievement of new and sustained improvements goes slowly and requires an application of quality assurance programs where the qualification upgrading of personnel become an essential point. PMID:17855099

  19. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-10-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  20. [Cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures].

    PubMed

    Kastanioti, Catherine K; Alphalbouharali, Gihand; Fotopoulos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare actual cost estimates for diagnostic procedures as applied in the nuclear medicine department of our University Hospital, with cost estimates obtained through an analytical activity-based costing methodology. Activity data on the use of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures were collected. The actual hospital prices for the fiscal years of 2003-2004 were obtained from the Accounting Department of the Hospital. Cost estimates were calculated per patient. Activity-based data were compared with hospital prices and also with unit costs from the activity-based costing methodology. Our results showed a significant statistical difference between unit cost estimates per patient based on hospital prices, as compared with those based on unit costs. This study shows that in our university hospital, reliance on generic hospital prices for nuclear medicine procedures, considerable underestimates their real cost by a mean value of 40% as derived through the activity-based costing methodology and can lead to substantial financial hospital deficits. PMID:15841290

  1. Radiopharmaceutical dosage selection for pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, R.M.; Hendee, W.R.

    1986-02-01

    To identify the most rational method for adjusting adult radiopharmaceutical dosages for children, four methods of dosage computation were examined from the perspectives of diagnostic adequacy and radiation absorbed dose. For static imaging, information density is the most important factor in study quality, and adjustment of dosage by body weight (Wt) for thick organs, and body surface area (BSA) for thin organs is recommended. Compared with adults, small children receive less radiation exposure if radiopharmaceutical dosages are adjusted by Wt, and slightly greater exposure if dosages are adjusted by BSA. For dynamic imaging studies, dosage requirements are governed by the spatial resolution needed for region of interest assignment, and the statistical reliability of the time-activity data. For dynamic renal imaging, renograms of similar quality are obtained if dosages are adjusted by height (Ht). Dynamic cardiac studies might appear to require dosages even larger than those adjusted by Ht which would result in higher radiation absorbed doses to pediatric patients. However, smaller dosages can be used in children by prolonging the imaging time and accepting lower temporal resolution. Dosage requirements for dynamic studies depend on which physiologic characteristics are measured from the time-activity data. Since the measurements of some characteristics demand higher count rates than others, dosage requirements ultimately depend on which measurements are clinically necessary. Close attention to the factors that determine these requirements may yield significant reduction in dosages, and thus in radiation exposure, for patients of all ages.

  2. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of pheochromocytoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine].

    PubMed

    Pucar, Dragan; Marković, Stevan

    2002-07-01

    Excess secretion of any of the adrenal cortical or medullary hormones contributes to a number of well-known clinical syndromes.. They may result from benign or malignant adrenal tumours, adrenal hyperplasia or, least frequently, from extra-adrenal disease. Differentiation among these possibilities is often impossible on clinical or biochemical grounds alone. Location of the site(s) of excess hormone production in the past depended on relatively insensitive or invasive radiological methods. The non-invasive evaluation began with X-ray computed tomography but the functional significance of anatomical abnormalities cannot be determined from CT scan. Incorporation of specific radiopharmaceuticals into the abnormal tissues allows scintigraphic localization of functional abnormalities with a high degree of efficacy. The combination of adrenal scintigraphy and kompjuterizovanom tomografijom CT or magnetskom rezonancijom MRI should in most cases obviatc the need for more invasive procedures. Phaeochromocytoma is rare in hypertensive population, affecting only an estimated of 0.1%. However, a high index of suspicion is essential, since these tumours have potentially life-threatening cardiovascular effects and their successful resection is curative. Important clinical clues include the presence of orthostatic hypotension in an untreated hypertensive, resistance of hypertension to standard therapy (including possible exacerbation by (beta-blockers). In most cases, the diagnosis can be established by demonstrating high levels of free catecholamines and their metabolites (metanephrines and Vanillylmandelic acid). Clonidine test may be important in some cases. The purpose of this study is to point that metaiodobenzylguanidine (mlBG) has proved to be a safe, sensitive and highly specific agent for the location of phaeochromocytoma. The first successful schinigraphic demonstration of phaeochromocytomas in man was reported in 1981, using a new radiopharmaceutical, 131l

  3. The role of commercial nuclear pharmacy in the future practice of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Callahan, R J

    1996-04-01

    It has been estimated that today 70% to 80% of all radiopharmaceutical doses are dispensed through commercial nuclear pharmacy channels. These services are provided by the approximately 250 facilities in the United States, with some multisite corporations dispensing in excess of 20,000 unit-dose prescriptions per day. As pressures mount within health care institutions to reduce manpower, increase cost-effectiveness, increase participation in managed care contracts, and to seek outside vendors for many services that were previously provided in-house, the future role of the commercial nuclear pharmacy in the practice of nuclear medicine will only continue to increase. The essence of nuclear pharmacy practice is the dispensing of a full range of high quality radiopharmaceuticals in patient-specific unit doses. These doses must be delivered in a timely and cost effective manner, without compromising quality or patient safety. Commercial nuclear pharmacies have expanded to provide such varied functions as radiation safety and waste management, as well as consultative and marketing activities directed towards clinicians within a nuclear medicine practitioners own facility. In-service continuing education programs directed towards physicians and technologists are frequently offered by many commercial nuclear pharmacies. Changes in health care economics, merging and down-sizing in the hospital industry, and the overall impact of managed care on the viability of hospitals in general has resulted in slow growth, or even a small decline in the number of institutionally based nuclear pharmacists. As a result, nuclear medicine practitioners will be looking to the commercial nuclear pharmacies to meet a larger portion of their radiopharmaceutical needs, as well as to value added services, such as education and research and development. Specialized practice settings, such as nuclear cardiology and free-standing nuclear medicine clinics, are especially well suited to the services

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging in dementia: a practical overview for hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Toney, Lauren Kay; McCue, Tim J; Minoshima, Satoshi; Lewis, David H

    2011-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome with diverse presentation, a challenging differential diagnosis, and time-sensitive therapy. The most common cause of dementia in patients aged > 65 years is Alzheimer's disease, which now affects 4 million people in the United States, but is often underrecognized, especially in the inpatient population. The hospitalist may have the opportunity to evaluate a patient's initial presentation of dementia. Addressing the inpatient's dementia symptoms can improve overall care and outcomes, so it is imperative that the hospitalist is abreast of recent developments in the dementia workup. The focus of this article is to overview how nuclear medicine imaging of the brain can aid in this process, with perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and fludeoxyglucose F 18 ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) as the 2 most common modalities. Our discussion focuses on Alzheimer's disease, as this the most common etiology of dementia in patients aged > 65 years; however, we also touch on the other common neurodegenerative dementias (eg, dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia) for completeness. We begin with a summary of the most recent published guidelines for each of these neurodegenerative diseases, and then expand on the role that nuclear imaging plays in each. We provide a basic overview of the principles of these nuclear medicine techniques, and then illustrate findings in perfusion SPECT and (18)F-FDG PET for typical patterns of dementia, with emphasis on evidence regarding diagnostic accuracy of each modality, in comparison with accepted gold standards. Finally, we outline some future research topics within the field of nuclear medicine in dementia, including amyloid plaque imaging and dopamine transporter imaging. PMID:21881402

  5. [Molecular methods for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanyi; Guo, Baolin; Xiao, Peigen

    2011-02-01

    The resource authentication is required for quality assurance and control of Chinese medicine. This review provides an informative introduction to molecular methods used for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials. The technical features of the methods based on sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization are described, merits and demerits and development of the molecular methods in identification of Chinese medicinal materials are discussed. PMID:21585017

  6. Role of nuclear medicine in chemotherapy of malignant lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    The major role of nuclear medicine in clinical oncology is in tumor imaging, which includes evaluating specific organs or the entire body for the presence of tumor. Nuclear medicine studies have been used clinically in the initial evaluation of the tumor extent and in the subsequent management of the cancer patient to assess response to treatment, to detect early relapse, and to assist in making decisions concerning follow-up treatment. Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion study for intraarterial chemotherapy has been helpful in monitoring the catheter tip, providing a map of regional perfusion at the capillary level (tumor vascularity), evaluating the degree of arteriovenous shunt in tumor bed, and optimizing division of the dose of chemotherapeutic agent when bilateral arterial catheters are used. Quantitative and serial radionuclide angiocardiography has been useful in assessing doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Adria Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio) toxicity, and /sup 67/Ga-citrate imaging has been used to monitor chemotherapy effect on lungs and kidneys. Radionuclide venography can demonstrate suspected thrombus, and the delineation of the vascular anatomy also allows proper placement of another catheter for continuous effective chemotherapy. Serial bone scans have been the primary modality to assess the response of bone metastasis to systemic therapy in breast cancer patients, and nuclear hepatic imaging may show tumor response, hepatocellular dysfunction, and cholecystitis related to chemotherapeutic agents. 41 references.

  7. Radiation dose study in nuclear medicine using GATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguwa, Kasarachi

    Dose as a result of radiation exposure is the notion generally used to disclose the imparted energy in a volume of tissue to a potential biological effect. The basic unit defined by the international system of units (SI system) is the radiation absorbed dose, which is expressed as the mean imparted energy in a mass element of the tissue known as "gray" (Gy) or J/kg. The procedure for ascertaining the absorbed dose is complicated since it involves the radiation transport of numerous types of charged particles and coupled photon interactions. The most precise method is to perform a full 3D Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation transport. There are various Monte Carlo toolkits that have tool compartments for dose calculations and measurements. The dose studies in this thesis were performed using the GEANT4 Application for Emission Tomography (GATE) software (Jan et al., 2011) GATE simulation toolkit has been used extensively in the medical imaging community, due to the fact that it uses the full capabilities of GEANT4. It also utilizes an easy to-learn GATE macro language, which is more accessible than learning the GEANT4/C++ programming language. This work combines GATE with digital phantoms generated using the NCAT (NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom) toolkit (Segars et al., 2004) to allow efficient and effective estimation of 3D radiation dose maps. The GATE simulation tool has developed into a beneficial tool for Monte Carlo simulations involving both radiotherapy and imaging experiments. This work will present an overview of absorbed dose of common radionuclides used in nuclear medicine and serve as a guide to a user who is setting up a GATE simulation for a PET and SPECT study.

  8. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  9. DNA methods for identification of Chinese medicinal materials

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Pui Ying; Chau, Chi Fai; Mak, Chun Yin; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2007-01-01

    As adulterated and substituted Chinese medicinal materials are common in the market, therapeutic effectiveness of such materials cannot be guaranteed. Identification at species-, strain- and locality-levels, therefore, is required for quality assurance/control of Chinese medicine. This review provides an informative introduction to DNA methods for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials. Technical features and examples of the methods based on sequencing, hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are described and their suitability for different identification objectives is discussed. PMID:17803808

  10. Recent developments and future trends in nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Habib

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging using high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has advanced elegantly and has steadily gained importance in the clinical and research arenas. Continuous efforts to integrate recent research findings for the design of different geometries and various detector technologies of SPECT and PET cameras have become the goal of both the academic comcameras have become the goal of both the academic community and nuclear medicine industry. As PET has recently become of more interest for clinical practice, several different design trends seem to have developed. Systems are being designed for "low cost" clinical applications, very high-resolution research applications (including small-animal imaging), and just about everywhere in-between. The development of dual-modality imaging systems has revolutionized the practice of nuclear medicine. The major advantage being that SPECT/PET data are intrinsically aligned to anatomical information from the X-ray computed tomography (CT), without the use of external markers or internal landmarks. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology is scientifically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of a prototype small animal PET scanner coupled to three multichannel photomultipliers via optical fibers, so that the PET detector can be operated within a conventional MR system. Thus, many different design paths are being pursued--which ones are likely to be the main stream of future commercial systems? It will be interesting, indeed, to see which technologies become the most popular in the future. This paper briefly summarizes state-of-the art developments in nuclear medicine instrumentation. Future prospects will also be discussed. PMID:16696367

  11. Interface requirements in nuclear medicine devices and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, G.Q. Jr.; Brill, A.B.; Noz, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Interface designs for three nuclear medicine imaging systems, and computer networking strategies proposed for medical imaging departments are presented. Configurations for two positron-emission-tomography devices (PET III and ECAT) and a general-purpose tomography instrument (the UNICON) are analyzed in terms of specific performance parameters. Interface designs for these machines are contrasted in terms of utilization of standard versus custom modules, cost, and ease of modification, upgrade, and support. The requirements of general purpose systems for medical image analysis, display, and archiving, are considered, and a realizable state-of-the-art system is specfied, including a suggested timetable.

  12. Nuclear Medicine in Thyroid Diseases in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Volkan-Salancı, Bilge; Özgen Kıratlı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Both benign and malignant diseases of the thyroid are rare in the pediatric and adolescent population, except congenital hypothyroidism. Nuclear medicine plays a major role, both in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid pathologies. Use of radioactivity in pediatric population is strictly controlled due to possible side effects such as secondary cancers; therefore, management of pediatric patients requires detailed literature knowledge. This article aims to overview current algorithms in the management of thyroid diseases and use of radionuclide therapy in pediatric and adolescent population. PMID:26316469

  13. The birth of nuclear medicine instrumentation: Blumgart and Yens, 1925.

    PubMed

    Patton, Dennis D

    2003-08-01

    In 1925, Hermann Blumgart performed the first diagnostic procedure using radioactive indicators on humans; this first is well recognized. Less well recognized is the fact that Blumgart and his coworker Otto C. Yens, then a medical student, developed the first instrumentation used in a diagnostic procedure involving radioactive indicators. The instrumentation, a modified Wilson cloud chamber, turned out to be the detector most suitable for their purpose. Blumgart also showed remarkable foresight in outlining the requirements both for a satisfactory indicator (tracer) and for a satisfactory detector--requirements that still hold true today. The Blumgart-Yens modified cloud chamber was the birth of nuclear medicine instrumentation. PMID:12902429

  14. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography∕computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography∕CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated. PMID:18697524

  15. Nuclear medicine for imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Shahhosseini, Roza; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Usually, the diagnosis of cancer at an early stage is important to facilitate proper treatment and survival. Nuclear medicine has been successfully used in the diagnosis, staging, therapy and monitoring of cancers. Single-photon emission computed tomography and PET-based companion imaging agents are in development for use as a companion diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer. The present review discusses the basic and clinical studies related to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer, focusing on their utility and comparing them with other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and MRI. PMID:26984362

  16. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  17. Redundant array of independent disks: practical on-line archiving of nuclear medicine image data.

    PubMed

    Lear, J L; Pratt, J P; Trujillo, N

    1996-02-01

    While various methods for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine image data exist, none support rapid on-line search and retrieval of information. We assembled a 90-Gbyte redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system using 10-, 9-Gbyte disk drives. The system was connected to a personal computer and software was used to partition the array into 4-Gbyte sections. All studies (50,000) acquired over a 7-year period were archived in the system. Based on patient name/number and study date, information could be located within 20 seconds and retrieved for display and analysis in less than 5 seconds. RAID offers a practical, redundant method for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine studies that supports rapid on-line retrieval. PMID:8814767

  18. Nuclear medicine technologists and unauthorized self-injections.

    PubMed

    Miller, K L; King, S H; Eggli, D F; Thompson, L K

    2006-02-01

    An Office of Investigation (OI) investigation by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) determined that, on three separate occasions over the past 10 years, technologists in one licensed nuclear medicine program were injected with radiopharmaceuticals without Authorized User knowledge or approval. The most recent instance, the one that precipitated the investigation, was discovered by the licensee and self-reported to the NRC; the other two instances were discovered during the OI investigation and came as a complete surprise to the licensee. In a mediated Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) involving the licensee, a professional, independent mediator and representatives of the NRC, an agreement was worked out whereby the licensee would admit to the violations and work with the NRC to inform other licensees that this is not an acceptable practice and that there are additional precautions that licensees can and should take to assure that such violations do not happen on their watch. PMID:16404185

  19. Necessity of Internal Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine Staff in a Large Specialized Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Chang-Song; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Hui; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This work intends to quantify the risk of internal contaminations in the nuclear medicine staff of one hospital in Henan province, China. For this purpose, the criteria proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine whether it is necessary to conduct internal individual monitoring was applied to all of the 18 nuclear medicine staff members who handled radionuclides. The activity of different radionuclides used during a whole calendar year and the protection measures adopted were collected for each staff member, and the decision as to whether nuclear medicine staff in the hospital should be subjected to internal monitoring was made on the basis of the criteria proposed by IAEA. It is concluded that for all 18 members of the nuclear medicine staff in the hospital, internal monitoring is required. Internal exposure received by nuclear medicine staff should not be ignored, and it is necessary to implement internal monitoring for nuclear medicine staff routinely. PMID:27077874

  20. Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation

    PubMed Central

    Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

    2013-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

  1. Necessity of Internal Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine Staff in a Large Specialized Chinese Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Chang-Song; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Hui; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This work intends to quantify the risk of internal contaminations in the nuclear medicine staff of one hospital in Henan province, China. For this purpose, the criteria proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine whether it is necessary to conduct internal individual monitoring was applied to all of the 18 nuclear medicine staff members who handled radionuclides. The activity of different radionuclides used during a whole calendar year and the protection measures adopted were collected for each staff member, and the decision as to whether nuclear medicine staff in the hospital should be subjected to internal monitoring was made on the basis of the criteria proposed by IAEA. It is concluded that for all 18 members of the nuclear medicine staff in the hospital, internal monitoring is required. Internal exposure received by nuclear medicine staff should not be ignored, and it is necessary to implement internal monitoring for nuclear medicine staff routinely. PMID:27077874

  2. Establishment of a national program for quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Coca Perez, Marco A; Torres Aroche, Leonel A; Bejerano, Gladys López; Mayor, Roberto Fraxedas; Corona, Consuelo Varela; López, Adlin

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the quality of instrumentation used in nuclear medicine is mandatory to guarantee the clinical efficacy of medical practice. A national program for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments was established in Cuba and was certified and approved by the regulatory authorities. The program, which establishes official regulations and audit services, sets up educational activities, distributes technical documentation, and maintains a national phantom bank, constitutes a valuable and useful tool to guarantee the quality of nuclear medicine instrumentation. PMID:19008290

  3. Java-based PACS and reporting system for nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomka, Piotr J.; Elliott, Edward; Driedger, Albert A.

    2000-05-01

    In medical imaging practice, images and reports often need be reviewed and edited from many locations. We have designed and implemented a Java-based Remote Viewing and Reporting System (JaRRViS) for a nuclear medicine department, which is deployed as a web service, at the fraction of the cost dedicated PACS systems. The system can be extended to other imaging modalities. JaRRViS interfaces to the clinical patient databases of imaging workstations. Specialized nuclear medicine applets support interactive displays of data such as 3-D gated SPECT with all the necessary options such as cine, filtering, dynamic lookup tables, and reorientation. The reporting module is implemented as a separate applet using Java Foundation Classes (JFC) Swing Editor Kit and allows composition of multimedia reports after selection and annotation of appropriate images. The reports are stored on the server in the HTML format. JaRRViS uses Java Servlets for the preparation and storage of final reports. The http links to the reports or to the patient's raw images with applets can be obtained from JaRRViS by any Hospital Information System (HIS) via standard queries. Such links can be sent via e-mail or included as text fields in any HIS database, providing direct access to the patient reports and images via standard web browsers.

  4. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Maria; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE. PMID:25695043

  5. Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

    A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

  6. [German Society of Nuclear Medicine procedure guideline on beta-amyloid brain PET imaging].

    PubMed

    Barthel, Henryk; Meyer, Philipp T; Drzezga, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Brust, Peter; Buchert, Ralph; Coenen, Heinz H; la Fougère, Christian; Gründer, Gerhard; Grünwald, Frank; Krause, Bernd J; Kuwert, Torsten; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Tatsch, Klaus; Langen, Karl-Josef; Sabri, Osama

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a number of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have been approved for clinical use. These tracers target cerebral beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Increasing use of this method implies the need for respective standards. This German Society of Nuclear Medicine guideline describes adequate procedures for Aβ plaque PET imaging. It not only discusses the tracers used for that purpose, but also lists measures for correct patient preparation, image data generation, processing, analysis and interpretation. With that, this "S1" category (according to the German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies standard) guideline aims at contributing to quality assurance of nuclear imaging in Germany. PMID:27080914

  7. NEED FOR INDIVIDUAL CANCER RISK ESTIMATES IN X-RAY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE IMAGING.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate the justification of an X-ray or nuclear medicine investigation and for informing patients, it is desirable that the individual patient's radiation dose and potential cancer risk can be prospectively assessed and documented. The current dose-reporting is based on effective dose, which ignores body size and does not reflect the strong dependence of risk on the age at exposure. Risk estimations should better be done through individual organ dose assessments, which need careful exposure characterisation as well as anatomical description of the individual patient. In nuclear medicine, reference biokinetic models should also be replaced with models describing individual physiological states and biokinetics. There is a need to adjust population-based cancer risk estimates to the possible risk of leukaemia and solid tumours for the individual depending on age and gender. The article summarises reasons for individual cancer risk estimates and gives examples of methods and results of such estimates. PMID:26994092

  8. Accessory spleen mimicking pancreatic tumour: evaluation by 99mTc-labelled colloid SPECT/CT study. Report of two cases and a review of nuclear medicine methods utility.

    PubMed

    Pachowicz, M; Mocarska, A; Starosławska, E; Pietrzyk, Ł; Chrapko, B

    2015-01-01

    The accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly, typically asymptomatic and harmless to the patient. However, in some clinical cases, this anomaly beco-mes significant as it can be mistaken for a tumour or lymph node and be missed during a therapeutic splenectomy. There are nuclear medicine modalities which can be applied in the identification and localisation of an accessory spleen. They include scintigraphy with radiolabelled colloids or heat damaged red blood cells, which are trapped in the splenic tissue. Modern techniques, including hybrid imaging, enable simultaneous structure and tracer distribution evaluations. Additionally, radiation-guided surgery can be used in cases where the accessory spleen, which is usually small (not exceeding 1 cm) and difficult to find among other tissues, has to be removed. In the study, we would like to present 2 cases of patients in which the malignancy had to be excluded for the reason that the multiple accessory spleens were very closely related to the pancreas. There was a lack of certainty in the multi-phase computed tomography (CT) evaluation; however, this situation was clearly resolved by using the 99mTc-stannous colloid single photon emission computed tomography/ CT study. We would also like to briefly analyse the clinical applications of nuclear medicine in case of an accessory spleen. PMID:26620518

  9. Evaluation of 133Xe radiation exposure dosimetry for workers in nuclear medicine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1982-06-01

    Evaluation of past studies of 133Xe dosimetry and nuclear medicine laboratory air concentrations of 133Xe indicates that significant levels of 133Xe may exist in routine operational environments of a nuclear medicine laboratory. This leads to the question of whether present health physics radiation control methods are adequate to keep occupational personnel exposures within acceptable levels. It would appear that if personnel dosimeters (film and TLD badges) respond properly to the radiation of 133Xe, normal health physics control procedures are probably adequate. If they do not respond adequately, personnel exposures may exceed recommended levels and special instrumentation or administrative procedures are called for. Therefore, the first step in studying potential problems in the subject area is to evaluate the response of a variety of personnel radiation dosimeters to 133Xe. This paper describes the methods and materials used to expose personnel dosimeters to known amounts of 133Xe radiations in an exposure chamber constructed at the BRH Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Also presented are calculated values for Dose Equivalents (D.E.) in a phantom from external radiation resulting from immersion in clouds having a constant concentration of 133Xe but varying cloud radii. This implies the relative importance of the beta and the X + gamma radiation responses of the personnel dosimeters under various exposure conditions. Results of this study indicate that none of the dosimeter systems evaluated provide adequate performance for use as a primary indicator of the D.E. resulting from 133Xe radiations for a worker in a nuclear medicine laboratory, and that personnel dosimetry considerations in 133Xe-containing atmospheres are very dependent on the radii of the 133Xe clouds. PMID:7107291

  10. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  11. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    2010-01-01

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  12. Selected Interventions in Nuclear Medicine: Gastrointestinal Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Camilleri, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of gastrointestinal functions by scintigraphy is established in clinical practice and research. The most commonly used test is the gastric emptying test. This is acknowledged as the gold standard and is conducted according to a consensus statement from the national nuclear medicine and motility societies. Other techniques are somewhat more esoteric (e.g. measurement of gastric accommodation with SPECT) or the scintigraphic approach is not the acknowledged gold standard (e.g. colonic transit, recto-anal angle and emptying, esophageal transit). The performance characteristics of many of the scintigraphic measurements have been published and the pros and cons established in the literature. Gastrointestinal scintigraphy is an integral and important component of the assessment of gastrointestinal function. PMID:19341838

  13. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  14. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

  15. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  16. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  17. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1997-03-20

    In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated the expected good metastatic uptake of Re-188-HEDP in four patients who presented with skeletal metastases from disseminated prostatic cancer with good pain palliation and minimal marrow suppression. In addition, skeletal metastatic targeting of tracer doses of Re-188(V)-DMSA has been evaluated in several patients with metastases from prostatic cancer at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Canterbury and Kent Hospital in Canterbury, England. In this report the authors also describe further studies with the E-(R,R)-IQNP ligand developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program as a potential imaging agent for detection of changes which may occur in the cerebral muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) in Alzheimer`s and other diseases.

  18. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:27033894

  19. Radiochemistry and nuclear methods of analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    In comparison with other aspects of physical science, nuclear and radiochemistry are small contributors to the overall scheme of things. Nuclear science is, however, an important player in various aspects of medicine, life sciences, industrial technology, physical sciences, archeometry and art, and theoretical/computational sciences. This new book fills the need for a contemporary text with a good mix of simple introductory theory, experimental methodology, and instrumentation for beginning students of nuclear science.

  20. [Bone-seeking radioactive substances in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, G

    1976-12-01

    The concept of bone affinity of a radioactive tracer is developed on theoretical grounds and is discussed on the basis of the various substances used in nuclear medical diagnosis of bone disease. On the basis of results on the uptake of very short lived nuclides and extremely large molecules, evidence is provided that the incorporation of the tracer in the apatite crystal is not a primary criterion of bone affinity since incorporation cannot take place on timelimiting grounds in the former case and on spatial grounds in the latter. The fixation on bone is therefore more likely the result of non-specific adsorption processes. The utility of a radioactive substance in practical application in nuclear medicine depends on the radioactive characteristics of the nuclide and on its behavior in the organism. In this context the quality of the scintigram is particularly dependent on the mode and rate of elimination of that fraction of the tracer that is not bound by the skeleton. The various mechanism which cause differences in the uptake of tracer by healthy and pathological bone tissue are discussed with special regard to the role of blood flow. PMID:1012921

  1. Highlights lecture EANM 2015: the search for nuclear medicine's superheroes.

    PubMed

    Buck, Andreas; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    The EANM 2015 Annual Congress, held from October 10th to 14th in Hamburg, Germany, was outstanding in many respects. With 5550 participants, this was by far the largest European congress concerning nuclear medicine. More than 1750 scientific presentations were submitted, with more than 250 abstracts from young scientists, indicating that the future success of our discipline is fuelled by a high number of young individuals becoming involved in a multitude of scientific activities. Significant improvements have been made in molecular imaging of cancer, particularly in prostate cancer. PSMA-directed PET/CT appears to become a new gold standard for staging and restaging purposes. Novel tumour specific compounds have shown their potential for target identification also in other solid neoplasms and further our understanding of tumour biology and heterogeneity. In addition, a variety of nuclear imaging techniques guiding surgical interventions have been introduced. A particular focus of the congress was put on targeted, radionuclide based therapies. Novel theranostic concepts addressing also tumour entities with high incidence rates such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and lymphoma, have shown effective anti-tumour activity. Strategies have been presented to improve further already established therapeutic regimens such as somatostatin receptor based radio receptor therapy for treating advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Significant contributions were presented also in the neurosciences track. An increasing number of target structures of high interest in neurology and psychiatry are now available for PET and SPECT imaging, facilitating specific imaging of different subtypes of dementia and movement disorders as well as neuroinflammation. Major contributions in the cardiovascular track focused on further optimization of cardiac perfusion imaging by reducing radiation exposure, reducing scanning time, and improving motion correction. Besides coronary artery disease, many

  2. Integrative methods for analyzing big data in precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    We provide an overview of recent developments in big data analyses in the context of precision medicine and health informatics. With the advance in technologies capturing molecular and medical data, we entered the area of "Big Data" in biology and medicine. These data offer many opportunities to advance precision medicine. We outline key challenges in precision medicine and present recent advances in data integration-based methods to uncover personalized information from big data produced by various omics studies. We survey recent integrative methods for disease subtyping, biomarkers discovery, and drug repurposing, and list the tools that are available to domain scientists. Given the ever-growing nature of these big data, we highlight key issues that big data integration methods will face. PMID:26677817

  3. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  4. Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review*

    PubMed Central

    Zanzonico, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (“thyroid”) uptake probe, γ-camera, SPECT and SPECT/CT scanner, and PET and PET/CT scanner. It should be particularly useful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and their respective frequencies are presented only as general guidelines. PMID:18587088

  5. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  6. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  7. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  8. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  9. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  10. Examining Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice as a lifelong learning process: opportunities and challenges to the nuclear medicine professional and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas N B

    2016-08-01

    This essay will explore the critical issues and challenges surrounding lifelong learning for professionals, initially exploring within the profession and organizational context of nuclear medicine practice. It will critically examine how the peer-review process called Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice (QUANUM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be considered a lifelong learning opportunity to instill a culture of quality to improve patient care and elevate the status of the nuclear medicine profession and practice within the demands of social changes, policy, and globalization. This will be explored initially by providing contextual background to the identity of the IAEA as an organization responsible for nuclear medicine professionals, followed by the benefits that QUANUM can offer. Further key debates surrounding lifelong learning, such as compulsification of lifelong learning and impact on professional change, will then be weaved through the discussion using theoretical grounding through a qualitative review of the literature. Keeping in mind that there is very limited literature focusing on the implications of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process for nuclear medicine professionals, this essay uses select narratives and observations of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process from an auditor's perspective and will further provide a comparative perspective of QUANUM on the basis of other lifelong learning opportunities such as continuing professional development activities and observe parallelisms on its benefits and challenges that it will offer to other professionals in other medical speciality fields and in the teaching profession. PMID:27195385

  11. The traceability chain of 131I measurements for nuclear medicine in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Moreno, Y; Serra, R A; Hernández, A T

    2012-09-01

    The national traceability chain for (131)I activity measurements performed in nuclear medicine in Cuba is described. At the highest (primary) level, liquid scintillation counting employing the CIEMAT/NIST method is used; at the secondary level, a secondary standard radionuclide calibrator is utilized that allows for a quick and simple transference of the measurement unit to the tertiary level of end-users' instruments. The equivalence of Cuban standards and the assessment of measurement uncertainties at the end-user level are determined through the results of measurement comparisons. PMID:22534014

  12. Ethical dilemmas in today's nuclear medicine and radiology practice.

    PubMed

    Barron, Bruce J; Kim, E Edmund

    2003-11-01

    Throughout history, societies have developed their own codes of ethics, including those pertaining to the practice of medicine. In the United States, physicians have adopted a set of ethics based on religious values and historical teachings. We, as physicians, have been presented several codes of ethics, including the American Medical Association Code of Ethics and the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics. Over time, we have learned to appropriately apply these codes to our daily practice. With the advent of new technologies in imaging, we may lose sight as to the transfer of these principles to reflect current conditions. Recent history has shown a trend of new technology leading to potential misuse of this technology and further leading to stricter governmental regulations. It is the purpose of this review to give guidelines for dealing with new technologies, such as PET imaging, and we describe a radiologist's ethical responsibility in a doctor-patient relationship. A historical review of medical ethics will lead to discussions about various issues affecting radiologists and nuclear physicians. To be sure, not all ethical situations are black and white, and therefore there are many gray areas. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and are based on extension of already established rules of ethical conduct. PMID:14602866

  13. On the safety of persons accompanying nuclear medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Díaz Barreto, Marlenin; López Bejerano, Gladys M; Varela Corona, Consuelo; Fleitas Estévez, Ileana

    2012-12-01

    The presence of caretakers/comforters during nuclear medicine examinations is relatively common. These caretakers receive higher doses than the general public, who receive only environmental/background exposure. The aim of this research was to know about the doses received by two significant groups of caretakers: comforters of cancer patients (Group I) and mothers of small children (Group II). The patients were scheduled to undergo two different diagnostic studies: Inmuno-Scintigraphy using a monoclonal antibody bound to (99m)Tc (for adults) and Renal Scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (for children). The average effective doses were 0.27 and 0.29 mSv for Groups I and II, respectively. Additionally, environmental monitoring was performed in the waiting room for injected patients (Room I) and inside the procedure room (Room II). Equivalent environmental doses of 0.28 and 0.24 mSv for Rooms 1 and II, respectively, were found, which are similar to values reported by other authors. PMID:22517979

  14. High transparency coded apertures in planar nuclear medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Starfield, David M; Rubin, David M; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    Coded apertures provide an alternative to the collimators of nuclear medicine imaging, and advances in the field have lessened the artifacts that are associated with the near-field geometry. Thickness of the aperture material, however, results in a decoded image with thickness artifacts, and constrains both image resolution and the available manufacturing techniques. Thus in theory, thin apertures are clearly desirable, but high transparency leads to a loss of contrast in the recorded data. Coupled with the quantization effects of detectors, this leads to significant noise in the decoded image. This noise must be dependent on the bit-depth of the gamma camera. If there are a sufficient number of measurable values, high transparency need not adversely affect the signal-to-noise ratio. This novel hypothesis is tested by means of a ray-tracing computer simulator. The simulation results presented in the paper show that replacing a highly opaque coded aperture with a highly transparent aperture, simulated with an 8-bit gamma camera, worsens the root-mean-square error measurement. However, when simulated with a 16-bit gamma camera, a highly transparent coded aperture significantly reduces both thickness artifacts and the root-mean-square error measurement. PMID:18002997

  15. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  16. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

  17. Portable gamma camera for clinical use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Scopinaro, F.

    1996-12-31

    Up today Hamamatsu R3292 is the Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tube (PSPMT) with the largest sensitive area (10 cm of diameter). At the same time it has the minimum size for clinical application in Nuclear Medicine. A portable gamma camera was realized, based on 5 inches PSPMT coupled to a scintillating array. The head has a light weight (15 Kg.) spatial resolution resulted better than that of Anger Camera with good linearity response, good energy resolution and FOV coincident with intrinsic one of PSPMT. To optimize gamma camera response two different scintillating arrays were tested: YAP:Ce and CsI (Tl). Their overall size cover all photochatode active area, and crystal pixel size was 2 mm x 2 mm. The detection efficiency resulted comparable to that of Anger Camera. The best result was obtained by CsI (Tl) scintillating: an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.6 mm FWHM and a relative energy resolution of 17% FWHM. With a standard general purpose collimator a spatial resolution of about 2 mm resulted. Some preliminary results were also obtained in breast scintigraphy.

  18. Status of and trends in nuclear medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Delbeke, Dominique; Segall, George M

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear medicine in the United States has grown because of advances in technology, including hybrid imaging, the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the development of molecular imaging based on the tracer principle, which is not based on radioisotopes. Continued growth of the field will require cost-effectiveness data and evidence that nuclear medicine procedures affect patients' outcomes. Nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists will need more training in anatomic and molecular imaging. New educational models are being developed to ensure that future physicians will be adequately prepared. PMID:22144551

  19. Nuclear medicine: proof of principle for targeted drugs in diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Leitha, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Delivering a drug to a specific target in the body is comparable to the "magic bullet principle" applied in Nuclear Medicine. If clinical medicine today found treatment options by targeting specific receptors, proteins or enzymes by "small-molecule drugs" it utilizes concepts that have been initially described by Nobel Laureate George von Hevesy as "tracer principle". This article is going to show that molecular imaging probes in Nuclear Medicine can be regarded as proof of principle of many of recent trends in diagnosis and therapy and offers exciting opportunities for further developments. Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid disease has been established in Nuclear Medicine over six decades ago and is a fine example for using the same highly specific probe for diagnosis and treatment of a given disease. The use of radio labeled monoclonal antibodies against surface receptors of tumor cells (e.g. CEA) dominated diagnostic Nuclear Medicine in the eighties and sees a recent revival in lymphoma treatment radioimmunotherapy. Finally Nuclear Medicine has shown that it may advance drug development by visualizing its biodistribution and site of action. On the other hand some drugs like somatostatin analogues have been reinvented as diagnostic and therapeutic probes over a decade after their initial introduction as therapeutics. Molecular Imaging and targeted therapy are merging and potentiate their individual strength. Nuclear Medicine has ample experience in applying Molecular Imaging in clinical research and practice and has a bright future in this exciting field. PMID:19149611

  20. Radiation safety in the nuclear medicine department: impact of the UK Ionising Radiations Regulations.

    PubMed

    Harding, L K

    1987-09-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine requires integration of radiation safety with patient care and radiopharmaceutical standards. Nationally there was useful discussion in the UK before the Ionising Radiations Regulations and Approved Code of Practice were published, although such consultation had been lacking when the Medicines Act was implemented. Most of the new considerations relating to nuclear medicine stem from Schedule 6 of the Regulations. Generally, the presence of a single patient does not require a controlled area. However, when several patients are present, or radiopharmaceuticals are being prepared prior to injection, a controlled area is required. Classification of workers is not likely to be required in a typical nuclear medicine department in the UK, although most parts of the nuclear medicine department will need to be controlled areas. These include the radiopharmacy, radionuclide dispensary, injection room, and imaging rooms if patients are injected in them. The importance of finger dose measurements is emphasised. Patient wards, however, need not be controlled areas. A particular concern in nuclear medicine was that patients should not need to be admitted to hospital merely to comply with legislation. This is possibly the case and clarification will probably be available when the Notes for Guidance are published. Most procedures in nuclear medicine departments will remain unchanged. Further information is required, however, on patient waiting rooms, handling flood sources, pregnancy, and breast feeding. Within the hospital, detailed and multidisciplinary discussion will need to take place within the forum of the radiation safety committee. PMID:3664186

  1. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, Jp

    2011-01-01

    International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable. PMID:21430859

  2. The current status and future perspectives of nuclear medicine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-06-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level. PMID:25013521

  3. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

    2011-10-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  4. Nuclear medicine annual external occupational dose distribution: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, year 2005.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudia L P; Lima, Ana L S; da Silva, Herica L R; Souza-Santos, Denison; Silva, Claudio R

    2011-03-01

    Brazil has about 300 nuclear medicine services (NMS), 44 of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Most nuclear medicine staff are routinely monitored for external dose. This paper makes a statistical analysis of all the RJ NMS annual external occupational doses in year 2005. Around 100 professionals of RJ NMS received annual doses >4.0 mSv, considering only external doses, but no one receives doses higher than the mean annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Extremities dosemeters are used by about 10 % of the staff. In some cases, these doses are more than 10 times higher than the dose in thorax. The maximum ratio of extremity dose/thorax dose, in 2005, was 72. This study shows the importance to improve radiation protection procedures in nuclear medicine, mainly because the number of occupational individuals in nuclear medicine and their external doses are increasing. PMID:21051433

  5. New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

  6. CdZnTe arrays for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, H.B.

    1996-12-31

    In nuclear medicine, a gamma-ray-emitting radiotracer is injected into the body, and the resulting biodistribution is imaged using a gamma camera. Current gamma cameras use a design developed by Anger. An Anger camera makes use of a slab of scintillation detector that is viewed by an array of photomultiplier tubes and uses an analog position estimation technique to determine the position of the gamma ray`s interaction. The image-forming optics is usually a multi-bore collimator made of lead. Such cameras are characterized by poor, system spatial resolution ({approximately}1 cm) due to poor detector resolution ({approximately}0.4 cm) and poor collimator performance. Arrays of semiconductor detectors are an attractive alternative to scintillators for use in gamma cameras. Semiconductor detectors have excellent energy resolution. High spatial resolution is also possible because large semiconductor detector arrays with small pixel sizes can be produced using photolithography techniques. A new crystal growth technique (high-pressure vertical Bridgman) allows production of detector grade CdTe and CdZnTe in multikilogram ingots. Although the cost of CdZnTe detectors has come down substantially in the last few years, in part because of economies of scale, costs are still more than an order of magnitude higher than those required for a commercial camera ($20--$50/gram). High detector costs are perhaps the major stumbling block to developing a semiconductor gamma camera. The photolithography techniques required to make large CdZnTe arrays have already been demonstrated. This paper discusses the recent developments made in CdZnTe detectors.

  7. 4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  8. METHOD OF OPERATING NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for obtaining enhanced utilization of natural uranium in heavy water moderated nuclear reactors by charging the reactor with an equal number of fuel elements formed of natural uranium and of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction. The reactor is operated until the rate of burnup of plutonium equals its rate of production, the fuel elements are processed to recover plutonium, the depleted uranium is discarded, and the remaining uranium is formed into fuel elements. These fuel elements are charged into a reactor along with an equal number of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction, and reuse of the uranium is continued as aforesaid until it wlll no longer support a chain reaction when combined with an equal quantity of natural uranium.

  9. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen W.M.; Bennett, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulot, J.

    2003-08-01

    H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique

  11. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  12. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  13. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  14. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  15. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  16. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

  17. A Novel Method for Pulsometry Based on Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yousefipoor, Farzane; Nafisi, Vahidreza

    2015-01-01

    Arterial pulse measurement is one of the most important methods for evaluation of healthy conditions. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), physician may detect radial pulse by holding four fingers on the patient's wrist. By using this method, under standard condition, the detected pulses are subjective and erroneous, in case of weak and/or abnormal pulses, the ambiguity of diagnosis may rise. In this paper, we present an equipment which is designed and implemented for automation of traditional pulse detection method. By this novel system, the developed noninvasive diagnostic method and database based on the TIM are way forward to apply traditional medicine and diagnose patients with present technology. The accuracy for period measuring is 76% and systolic peak is 72%. PMID:26955566

  18. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    PubMed Central

    Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  19. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  20. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Il

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the "Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine", and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization. PMID:26908990

  1. Exposing Exposure: Enhancing Patient Safety through Automated Data Mining of Nuclear Medicine Reports for Quality Assurance and Organ Dose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Ichiro; Wasser, Elliot J.; Warden, Graham I.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. Materials and Methods: This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Results: Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient’s dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Conclusion: Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22627599

  2. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Middle East region has experienced an important growth in the last 2 decades and has become crucial in providing healthcare to the region's population of about 395 million people. Even though there are some countries in which the services provided are limited to basic coverage of studies with (99m)Tc and (131)I, most have well-established practices covering most of the available studies in this medical specialty; this is the case in for example, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. According to data provided by the NM professionals in the 17 countries included in the present publication, which was collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015, the total number of gamma cameras in the region is 910 with an average of 2.3 gamma cameras per million inhabitants. Out of these, 107 cameras, or 12%, are SPECT/CT cameras. There are 194 operating PET/CT scanners, translating to one PET/CT scanner for 2.04 million people on average. The availability of PET/CT scanners in relation to population is the highest in Lebanon and Kuwait, with 2.2 and 1.7 scanners per million people, respectively. There is a total of 628 NM centers in the 17 countries, whereas most NM centers belong to the public healthcare system and in most of the countries are widely spread and not confined exclusively to capital cities. As for the radionuclide therapies, (131)I is used regularly in diagnostic workup as well as in therapeutic applications in all the countries included in this analysis. Only five countries have the capability of assembling (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators (Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey), and cold kits are produced in several countries. Although there are no capabilities in the region to produce (99)Mo from nuclear reactors, a total of 46 cyclotrons are operated for production of PET radionuclides. The most widely used PET tracer in the region is (18)F-FDG followed by (18)F-NaF; concomitantly, the

  3. Recent progress in the application of extraction chromatography to radionuclide separations for nuclear medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry

    2004-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of {sup 212}Bi, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 213}Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators.

  4. An iterative particle filter approach for respiratory motion estimation in nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Wells, Kevin; Lewis, Emma; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

    2011-03-01

    The continual improvement in spatial resolution of Nuclear Medicine (NM) scanners has made accurate compensation of patient motion increasingly important. A major source of corrupting motion in NM acquisition is due to respiration. Therefore a particle filter (PF) approach has been proposed as a powerful method for motion correction in NM. The probabilistic view of the system in the PF is seen as an advantage that considers the complexity and uncertainties in estimating respiratory motion. Previous tests using XCAT has shown the possibility of estimating unseen organ configuration using training data that only consist of a single respiratory cycle. This paper augments application specific adaptation methods that have been implemented for better PF estimates with an iterative model update step. Results show that errors are further reduced to an extent up to a small number of iterations and such improvements will be advantageous for the PF to cope with more realistic and complex applications.

  5. Some Recent Applications of Nuclear Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csikai, J.; Dóczi, R.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper among the wide-ranging applications of nuclear methods the following topics were selected: a) Nuclear safeguards, illicit trafficking and demining; b) Bulk hydrogen analysis; c) Radiopharmaceuticals and related charged particle reactions; d) Accelerator transmutation of radioactive waste; e) Validation of nuclear data libraries by differential and integral measurements.

  6. Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

    2013-08-13

    Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

  7. Compositions and methods for treating nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; Johnsen, Amanda M; McNamara, Bruce K; Hanson, Brady D; Smith, Steven C; Peper, Shane M

    2014-01-28

    Compositions are provided that include nuclear fuel. Methods for treating nuclear fuel are provided which can include exposing the fuel to a carbonate-peroxide solution. Methods can also include exposing the fuel to an ammonium solution. Methods for acquiring molybdenum from a uranium comprising material are provided.

  8. Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: The incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, Alberto; Acampa, Wanda; Varrone, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco

    2006-03-01

    The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15-19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,670 abstracts were received. Of these, 1,399 were accepted for oral or poster presentations, with a rejection rate of 16.2%. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine, and addressed particularly advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well-established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, nephrology, and infection and inflammation. It is noteworthy that a number of studies presented at this congress focussed on the quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, and identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and management. These and many other studies presented at the congress demonstrate once more the crucial role that nuclear medicine has to play in contemporary medicine. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress proceedings book, published as volume 32, supplement 1 of the Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in September 2005. PMID:16538466

  9. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the “Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine”, and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization. PMID:26908990

  10. Intra-operative nuclear medicine in surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Perkins, A C; Hardy, J G

    1996-12-01

    The use of radionuclides for the intra-operative localization of tumours has increased steadily over the past 15 years. We reviewed more than 15 years experience of a peripatetic service using a sterilizable probe system in operating theatres throughout the UK for localizing bone and soft tissue lesions. The technique requires the positive concentration of an appropriate radiopharmaceutical, together with a suitably designed detector system which can be sterilized for use during surgery. All surgical procedures were undertaken following initial positive imaging studies. A well-collimated nuclear probe with a 5 mm diameter CdTe detector was sterilized with ethylene oxide gas and coupled to a digital counter and ratemeter for use in the operating theatre. A total of 68 surgical procedures have been undertaken at 35 hospitals. Fifty-eight patients underwent excision of osteoid osteoma subsequently proven by histology. The other lesions successfully resected included osteoblastoma, hamartoma, Brodie's abscess, chronic bone infection, ectopic parathyroid adenoma and metastatic neuroblastoma. The technique can now be regarded as the method of choice for the surgical localization of osteoid osteoma. The successful detection of lesions at surgery can be assured providing that clear localization of the radiopharmaceutical occurs on the pre-operative images. The intra-operative use of conventional and new tumour-specific radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed and we confirm an increasing role for the surgical-probe-guided localization of primary and metastatic tumours. PMID:9004295

  11. Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

    2012-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (μeτe) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

  13. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  14. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  15. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  16. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  17. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  18. Fully ceramic nuclear fuel and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Venneri, Francesco; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-03-29

    Various embodiments of a nuclear fuel for use in various types of nuclear reactors and/or waste disposal systems are disclosed. One exemplary embodiment of a nuclear fuel may include a fuel element having a plurality of tristructural-isotropic fuel particles embedded in a silicon carbide matrix. An exemplary method of manufacturing a nuclear fuel is also disclosed. The method may include providing a plurality of tristructural-isotropic fuel particles, mixing the plurality of tristructural-isotropic fuel particles with silicon carbide powder to form a precursor mixture, and compacting the precursor mixture at a predetermined pressure and temperature.

  19. Sources and magnitude of occupational and public exposures from nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-11

    This Report addresses the sources of exposures incurred in the practice of nuclear medicine and provides the necessary data to evaluate the magnitude of exposures to those directly associated with that practice and to those who provide nursing care to the patients containing radiopharmaceuticals. Exposure to members of the public are also addressed. The primary emphasis of this Report is on these individuals and not on the patient, since the patient receives the direct benefit from the nuclear medicine procedure. It is recognized that the patient also receives the bulk of any potential radiation decrement.

  20. EC Project 'GUIDELINES ON MPE': proposed qualification and curriculum frameworks and the MPE in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruana, C. J.

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of EC project 'Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert' are to provide for improved implementation of the provisions relating to the Medical Physics Expert within Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM and the proposed recast Basic Safety Standards directive. This includes harmonisation of the mission statement for Medical Physics Services as well as the education and training of the MPE. It also includes detailed knowledge-skills-competence inventories for the Medical Physics Expert in each of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy. This paper presents the proposed Qualification and Curriculum Frameworks and their application to the Medical Physics Expert in Nuclear Medicine.

  1. Internal radiation therapy: a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With increasing evidence, internal radiation therapy, also known as brachytherapy, has become a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era. In this paper, recent developments regarding internal radiation therapy, including developments in radioiodine-131 (131I) and thyroid, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases. Relevant differences and status of their applications in China were mentioned as well. These molecular mediated internal radiation therapies are gaining increasing importance by providing palliative and curative treatments for an increasing number of diseases and becoming one of the important parts of molecular nuclear medicine. PMID:26445567

  2. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M; Einstein, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray-based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the US, currently lags behind x-ray-based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This article discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray-based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying, monitoring, and reporting strategies used in x-ray-based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists, and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  3. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1996-08-01

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.

  4. [A questionnaire about radiation safety management of the draining-water system at nuclear medicine facilities].

    PubMed

    Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Narita, Hiroto; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tsukada, Masaru; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Shuji; Kusama, Keiji; Tanaka, Mamoru; Namiki, Norio; Fuiimura, Youko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Inoue, Tomio; Kusakabe, Kiyoko

    2004-05-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey about radiation-safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities to make materials of proposition for more reasonable management of medical radioactive waste. We distributed a questionnaire to institutions equipped with Nuclear Medicine facilities. Of 1,125 institutions, 642 institutes (52.8%) returned effective answers. The questionnaire covered the following areas: 1) scale of an institution, 2) presence of enforcement of radiotherapy, 3) system of a tank, 4) size and number of each tank, 5) a form of draining-water system, 6) a displacement in a radioactive rays management area, 7) a measurement method of the concentration of medical radioactive waste in draining water system, 8) planned and used quantity of radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment, 9) an average displacement of hospital for one month. In most institutions, a ratio of dose limitation of radioisotope in draining-water system was less than 1.0, defined as an upper limitation in ordinance. In 499 hospitals without facilities of hospitalization for unsealed radioisotope therapy, 473 hospitals reported that sum of ratios of dose limits in a draining-water system was less than 1.0. It was calculated by used dose of radioisotope and monthly displacement from hospital, on the premise that all used radioisotope entered in the general draining-water system. When a drainage including radioactivity from a controlled area join with that from other area before it flows out of a institution, it may be diluted and its radioactive concentration should be less than its upper limitation defined in the rule. Especially, in all institutions with a monthly displacement of more than 25,000 m3, the sum of ratio of the concentration of each radionuclide to the concentration limit dose calculated by used dose of radioisotope, indicated less than 1.0. PMID:15354724

  5. The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

  6. Is hybridic positron emission tomography/computerized tomography the only option? The future of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Zerva, Cherry; Asteriadis, Ioannis; Trontzos, Christos; Hatziioannou, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    As we all know, Nuclear Medicine is the medical science using nuclear radiation for diagnosis, treatment and research. Nuclear Medicine, in contrast to Radiology, makes use of unsealed sources of radiation. Nuclear Medicine a few years ago has partly offered Nuclear Cardiology, the most lucrative of all Nuclear Medicine "children" at that time, to Cardiology. Radiology, has succeeded in being recognized by the European Union Authorities as Clinical Radiology. The word "clinical" offers greater independence to Clinical Radiology and makes it difficult for such a specialty to relinquish any of its equipment i.e. the diagnostic CT scan or the newly developed fast angiography CT, to other specialties. Contrary to Clinical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine being a laboratory specialty in most countries seems to have no right to deny offering, after some period of "proper certified education", its PET camera to Clinical Radiologists. Nuclear Medicine by virtue of its unique diagnostic techniques and treatments, is and should be recognized as a "Clinical Specialty" The interference of other specialties in the fields of Nuclear Medicine is also indicated by the fact that in vitro techniques of Nuclear Medicine are often used by Endocrinologists and Oncologists in their own laboratories. Also in some hospitals the Director of the Radiology Department acts as the Director of Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Finally at present, Radiologists wish after "proper certified education", to be on equal terms in charge of the new hybridic equipment, the PET/CT scanner. If that is followed to happen, Nuclear Medicine will be in a difficult position losing at least part of PET and consequently should ask for help from its "Overlords and Protectors" i.e. the National and the European Societies of Nuclear Medicine and the Society of Nuclear Medicine of the United States of America. Radiology as a specialty participating om equal terms with the PET camera will then include the study of: a) "open

  7. Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

  8. Solid tumor-targeting theranostic polymer nanoparticle in nuclear medicinal fields.

    PubMed

    Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

  9. Recommendations for quality assurance programs in nuclear medicine facilities. Radiation recommendations series

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, P.; Hamilton, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The publication provides the elements that should be considered by nuclear medicine facilities to improve their existing programs or develop new quality assurance programs. The important administrative aspects of quality assurance programs are stressed. Each facility is encouraged to adopt those elements of the recommended program that are appropriate to its individual needs and resources.

  10. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Pediatric Imaging Council of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, as well as over 50 other societies, are members of this group. We are a group of over 700,000 health care professionals in radiology, pediatrics, medical physics and radiation protection. More information can be found ...

  11. Nuclear Medicine to Evaluate Complications of Cerebral Shunts: Two Cases and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vettiyil, Beth; Bessette, Sabrina; McQuiston, Samuel; Greiner, Francis

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of cerebral shunts - a ventriculopleural shunt and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, with their associated complications. We also hope to provide a comprehensive literature review on various imaging modalities, including nuclear medicine studies in evaluating cerebral shunt complications. PMID:26420995

  12. Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long‒held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases. PMID:23244780

  13. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  14. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring ... can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They ...

  15. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014. PMID:26960820

  16. Self-assessment of current knowledge in nuclear medicine (second edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.B.; Frey, G.D.; Cooper, J.F.; Klobukoski, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this updated second edition, the order of contents of the textbook has been reorganized. It has been divided into main parts: Basic Science and Clinical Nuclear Medicine. Basic Science, Part I, encompasses basic physics, radiation protection, interaction of radiation with matter and radiation detection, imaging, nuclear pharmacy, and radiation biology. Part II, Clinical Nuclear Medicine, covers the central nervous system, bone, gastroenterology (liver/spleen), cardiovascular system, pulmonary system, genitourinary system, thyroid and endocrine systems, gallium studies, radioassay, hematology, and therapy. The total number of pages of the current edition is increased to 250 from the 213 of the first edition but there are fewer questions because those in the basic science area have been carefully selected to 60 of the original 98 questions. Compared with the previous edition, there are two advantages in the current one: (1) the addition of explanatory answers; and (2) the inclusion of up-to-date scintiphotos replacing rectilinear scan illustrations.

  17. Nuclear medicine survey recommendations for a changing regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Vernig, P G; Schumacher, T A

    2001-11-01

    The revision of 10 CFR 35 approved on 23 September 2000 and due for implementation in 2001, reduces the number of required radiation and contamination surveys to one ambient radiation survey each day when an administration requiring a written directive is used. This paper compares the current requirements in 10 CFR 35; the single, remaining, specific requirement in the revised part 35; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guidance in the proposed NUREG SR1556 and the general requirement for surveys to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 20. We also make recommendations on what periodic surveys are prudent. PMID:11669196

  18. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:25766899

  19. [The method of "rational medicine" of Giovanni Battista Morgagni].

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Giovanni Battista Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. His contribution can be contextualized within the sphere of the extraordinary development of anatomy between the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the period in which this discipline became the "queen" of the natural sciences. A new pathology based upon anatomy became possible thanks to the mechanistic perspective that had characterized this science in the seventeenth century, in particular with the work of Marcello Malpighi, whom Morgagni regarded as his master. The approach of Malpighi and of the other "iatromechanists" was the subject of an ample debate in which the advocates of mechanicism and empiricism were opposed to, and intertwined with, the supporters of the "ancient," that is to say, Galenic medicine, with respect to those of the "modern," i.e., "neoteric" one. The anatomic-clinical method of Morgagni can be fully understood only when contextualized within this debate. PMID:26915233

  20. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  1. Quantitative 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance in tablets of the antidiabetic medicine Diabinese.

    PubMed

    Tate, Elizabeth; Althoefer, Kaspar; Barras, Jamie; Rowe, Michael D; Smith, John A S; Pearce, Gareth E S; Wren, Stephen A C

    2009-07-01

    Pulsed (35)Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) experiments have been performed on 250-mg tablets of the antidiabetic medicine Diabinese to establish the conditions needed for noninvasive quantitative analysis of the medicine in standard bottles. One important condition is the generation of a uniform radio-frequency (RF) field over the sample, which has been achieved by two designs of sample coil: one of variable pitch, and the other a resonator that has been fabricated from a single turn of copper sheet with a longitudinal gap bridged by tuning capacitors. The results from blind tests show that the number of tablets in a bottle could be predicted to within +/-3%. PMID:19492808

  2. Observation Leads to Improved Operations in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Religioso, Deo G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of observation--going out and seeing what is happening in daily operations---would seem like a normal management activity, but the reality in practice of the philosophy and technique is often underutilized. Once an observation has been determined, the next steps are to test and validate any discoveries on paper. For process change to be implemented, numerical data is needed to back-up observations in order to be heard and taken seriously by the executive team. Boca Raton Regional Hospital saw an opportunity to improve the process for radiopharmaceutical standing orders within its nuclear imaging department. As a result of this observation, the facility realized improved savings and an increase in employee motivation. PMID:27172652

  3. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of biokinetic models for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Hoeschen, C

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in humans were developed and are used to estimate the radiation absorbed dose for patients in nuclear medicine by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. However, due to the fact that the residence times used were derived from different subjects, partially even with different ethnic backgrounds, a large variation in the model parameters propagates to a high uncertainty of the dose estimation. In this work, a method was developed for analysing the uncertainty and sensitivity of biokinetic models that are used to calculate the residence times. The biokinetic model of (18)F-FDG (FDG) developed by the MIRD Committee was analysed by this developed method. The sources of uncertainty of all model parameters were evaluated based on the experiments. The Latin hypercube sampling technique was used to sample the parameters for model input. Kinetic modelling of FDG in humans was performed. Sensitivity of model parameters was indicated by combining the model input and output, using regression and partial correlation analysis. The transfer rate parameter of plasma to other tissue fast is the parameter with the greatest influence on the residence time of plasma. Optimisation of biokinetic data acquisition in the clinical practice by exploitation of the sensitivity of model parameters obtained in this study is discussed. PMID:20185457

  4. Semi-classical methods in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, David M.

    These lecture notes present an introduction to some semi-classical techniques which have applications in nuclear physics. Topics discussed include the WKB method, approaches based on the Feynman path integral, the Gutzwiller trace formula for level density fluctuations and the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the Vlasov equation for many-body problems. There are applications to heavy ion fusion reactions, bremsstrahlung emission in alpha decay and nuclear response functions.

  5. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.

  6. [Methods and possibilities of research in medicine in ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Quack, Joachim Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    A recent monograph on Ancient Egyptian medicine provided the occasion for this article. Apart from highlighting the monograph's shortcomings, this article discusses some crucial problems of research and possible avenues for future investigations in this field. Much additional information can be expected from hitherto unpublished sources. Also the already known source materials permit further insights. Relevant aspects are, among others, the order of recipes and the structure of texts, the relationship of magic to medicine, and the secret names for ingredients. Intensified research on the late period data will further clarify the issue of contacts to Greek medicine and of influences on Coptic medicine. PMID:14509232

  7. Botanical compounds and their regulation of nuclear receptor action: the case of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Bonneton, François; Chen, Xiao Yong; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are major pharmacological targets that allow an access to the mechanisms controlling gene regulation. As such, some NRs were identified as biological targets of active compounds contained in herbal remedies found in traditional medicines. We aim here to review this expanding literature by focusing on the informative articles regarding the mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). We exemplified well-characterized TCM action mediated by NR such as steroid receptors (ER, GR, AR), metabolic receptors (PPAR, LXR, FXR, PXR, CAR) and RXR. We also provided, when possible, examples from other traditional medicines. From these, we draw a parallel between TCMs and phytoestrogens or endocrine disrupting chemicals also acting via NR. We define common principle of action and highlight the potential and limits of those compounds. TCMs, by finely tuning physiological reactions in positive and negative manners, could act, in a subtle but efficient way, on NR sensors and their transcriptional network. PMID:25449417

  8. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-03-18

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  9. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1995-10-03

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  10. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1997-03-18

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  11. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1997-08-05

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized. by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  12. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1995-10-03

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  13. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-08-05

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  14. Nuclear physics for medicine: how nuclear research is improving human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Angela

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an associated Committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics, and its trans-disciplinary use and application in collaborative ventures between research groups.

  15. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from Ge-68/Ga-68 generator

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Pant, Gauri Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of Ga-68 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N″′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Materials and Methods: Synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Results: Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ± 0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ± 1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65± 0.82 mSv. Conclusion: Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. PMID:22174513

  16. Nuclear medicine techniques in Merkel cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    KRITIKOS, NIKOLAOS; PRIFTAKIS, DIMITRIOS; STAVRINIDES, STAVROS; KLEANTHOUS, STEFANOS; SARAFIANOU, ELENI

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of neuroendocrine cancer of the skin. It predominantly affects the elderly, with a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck. Risk factors include immune-suppressing diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma, organ transplantation, and the presence of the newly-identified Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Diagnosis is based on pathological findings, primarily the immunohistochemical determination of cytokeratin 20 positivity. By contrast, staging relies on conventional imaging methods, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine techniques, such as sentinel lymph node scintigraphy, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) or alternative radiopharmaceuticals. The treatment of MCC is primarily surgical, with possible adjuvant radiation, while the use of chemotherapy appears to be an alternative therapeutic option that is used only in specific cases. The present study describes the case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive Caucasian man with MCC located on the posterior surface of the left thigh, which was identified by cytological and histological examination of tissue sampled by fine needle aspiration and biopsy performed under CT. SRS demonstrated a high uptake of 111In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-octreotide at the affected site. Therefore, the lesion was surgically excised, and the patient received chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Three months subsequent to treatment, the patient underwent a PET/CT scan with 18F-FDG that demonstrated uptake in the cervical lymph nodes and the area of the excised lesion. These findings indicated that the disease was in remission. The aim of the present study was to highlight the value and contribution of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis, staging and

  17. Rationale for the combination of nuclear medicine with magnetic resonance for pre-clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Douglas J; Kapusta, Maciej; Li, Junqiang; Patt, Bradley E

    2006-08-01

    Multi-modality combinations of SPECT/CT and PET/CT have proven to be highly successful in the clinic and small animal SPECT/CT and PET/CT are becoming the norm in the research and drug development setting. However, the use of ionizing radiation from a high-resolution CT scanner is undesirable in any setting and particularly in small animal imaging (SAI), in laboratory experiments where it can result in radiation doses of sufficient magnitude that the experimental results can be influenced by the organism's response to radiation. The alternative use of magnetic resonance (MR) would offer a high-resolution, non-ionizing method for anatomical imaging of laboratory animals. MR brings considerably more than its 3D anatomical capability, especially regarding the imaging of laboratory animals. Dynamic MR imaging techniques can facilitate studies of perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion amongst others. Further, MR spectroscopy can provide images that can be related to the concentration of endogenous molecules in vivo. MR imaging of injected contrast agents extends MR into the domain of molecular imaging. In combination with nuclear medicine (NM) SPECT and PET modalities in small animal imaging, MR would facilitate studies of dynamic processes such as biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. However, the detectors for nearly all PET and SPECT systems are still based on vacuum tube technology, namely: photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) in which the signal is generated by transporting electrons over a substantial distance within an evacuated glass tube, making them inoperable in even small magnetic fields. Thus the combination of SPECT or PET with MR has not been practical until the recent availability of semiconductor detectors such as silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD's) for PET and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for SPECT coupled with the availability of high-density low noise ASIC electronics to read out the semiconductor detectors. The strong advantage of these

  18. MAGIC-f Gel in Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry: study in an external beam of Iodine-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarcke, M.; Marques, T.; Garrido, C.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    MAGIC-f gel applicability in Nuclear Medicine dosimetry was investigated by exposure to a 131I source. Calibration was made to provide known absorbed doses in different positions around the source. The absorbed dose in gel was compared with a Monte Carlo Simulation using PENELOPE code and a thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Using MRI analysis for the gel a R2-dose sensitivity of 0.23 s-1Gy-1was obtained. The agreement between dose-distance curves obtained with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD was better than 97% and for MAGIC-f and TLD was better than 98%. The results show the potential of polymer gel for application in nuclear medicine where three dimensional dose distribution is demanded.

  19. Some results of a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R A; Varela, C; Woods, M J

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the results obtained using a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine between 2002 and 2004. Measurements in the radionuclide calibrator are made during the different stages of the procedure. The test attempts to obtain supplementary information on the quality of the measurement, with the aim of evaluating in a more complete way the accuracy of the administered activity value compared with the prescribed one. The participants' performance has been assessed by means of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Dependences between several attributes of the simulated administration tests results are discussed. Specifically, the proportion of satisfactory results in the 2003-2004 period was found to be higher than in 2002. It reveals an improvement of the activity administration in the Cuban nuclear medicine departments since 2003. PMID:16303312

  20. [Nationwide survey of nuclear medicine practice and estimation of collective effective dose in Japan.].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaki; Nishizawa, Kanae; Iwai, Kazuo; Akahane, Keiichi; Maruyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    For the estimation of collective effective dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine diagnosis, a national survey was carried out in Japan. The survey contents covered radiopharmaceutical use, sex, age, activity, and so on of each patient in October 1997 and the monthly number of examinations in 1997. The annual number of diagnostic examinations using radiopharmaceuticals was 0.82 million for males and 0.74 million for females. The frequency of examination was about 3% for patients less than 17 years old and about 60% for those more than 60 years old. Effective dose was calculated on the basis of such literature as ICRP publications. The dose used most frequently was 5-6mSv per examination. The collective effective doses from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations were estimated to be 13100 man .Sv for males and 20200 man .Sv for females. PMID:17164536

  1. Survey of physician requirements in six specialties: manpower needs in anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report was prepared to assist the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC) in its efforts to model physician manpower requirements in six specialties: anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and radiology. The purpose of this report is to (1) survey and present the existing literature on manpower requirements in each of these six specialties, and (2) discuss the special problems present in each specialty in modeling manpower requirements, and where possible, suggest possible avenues of resolution.

  2. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  4. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Annual report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G

    1980-01-01

    The application of CdTe gamma detectors in nuclear medicine is reported on. An internal probe was developed which can be inserted into the heart to measure the efficiency of various radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of heart attacks. A second application is an array of detectors which is light enough to be worn by ambulatory patients and can measure the change in cardiac output over an eight hour period during heart attack treatment. The instrument includes an on board tape recorder. (ACR)

  5. Fast count-dependent digital filtering of nuclear medicine images: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.A.; Doherty, P.W.; Schwinger, R.B.; Jacobs, D.A.; Kidder, R.E.; Miller, T.R.

    1983-11-01

    The formulation of an ''optimal'' filter for improving the quality of digitally recorded nuclear medicine images is reported in this paper. The method forms a Metz filter for each image based upon the total number of counts in the image, which in turn determines the average noise level. The parameters of the filter were optimized for a set of simulated images using the minimization of the mean-square error as the criterion. The speed of the image formation results from the use of an array processor. In a study of localization receiver operating characteristics (LROC) using the Alderson liver phantom, a significant improvement in tumor localization was found in images filtered with this technique, compared with the original digital images and those filtered by the nine-point binomial smoothing algorithm. The technique has been found useful for the filtering of static and dynamic studies as well as the two-dimensional pre-reconstruction filtering of images from single photon emission computerized tomography.

  6. Simulation of beta radiator handling procedures in nuclear medicine by means of a movable hand phantom.

    PubMed

    Blunck, Ch; Becker, F; Urban, M

    2011-03-01

    In nuclear medicine therapies, people working with beta radiators such as (90)Y may be exposed to non-negligible partial body doses. For radiation protection, it is important to know the characteristics of the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Besides extensive measurements, simulations can provide these data. For this purpose, a movable hand phantom for Monte Carlo simulations was developed. Specific beta radiator handling scenarios can be modelled interactively with forward kinematics or automatically with an inverse kinematics procedure. As a first investigation, the dose distribution on a medical doctor's hand injecting a (90)Y solution was measured and simulated with the phantom. Modelling was done with the interactive method based on five consecutive frames from a video recorded during the injection. Owing to the use of only one camera, not each detail of the radiation scenario is visible in the video. In spite of systematic uncertainties, the measured and simulated dose values are in good agreement. PMID:21044994

  7. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    PubMed Central

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Results: Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Conclusions: Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future. PMID:26917891

  8. Applicability of radioactive 99mTc-O4- magnetic fluid to nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Keun-Ho; Kim, Chong-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized with solution of ferrous and ferric chlorides and ammonia water by sonochemical method. The hydrophilically radioactive magnetic fluids were prepared by labeling technetium pertechnetate (99mTc-O4-) and then adsorbing alginic acid on the magnetite particles. In order to measure some properties of the dispersed particles, the magnetic fluids were freezed down to -70 oC, and were dried in vacuum. The total size of the particles was about 15 nm with the core diameter of 12 nm and their superparamagnetic saturation magnetization was 63 emu/g for the core-shell of Fe3O4/Algin and 52 emu/g for that of Fe3O4/99mTc-O4-/Algin. The labeling of radioactive 99mTc-O4- to the magnetite particles was efficient to about 70 %. The fluid of magnetic particles on which the radioisotopic substance is labeled with such an efficiency level may be applied as a tracer for diagnosis in nuclear medicine.

  9. A Perspective of the Future of Nuclear Medicine Training and Certification.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Paris, Manuel; Graham, Michael M; Osborne, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine (NM) has evolved from a medical subspecialty using quite basic tests to one using elaborate methods to image organ physiology and has truly become "Molecular Imaging." Concurrently, there has also been a timely debate about who has to be responsible for keeping pace with all of the components of the developmental cycle-imaging, radiopharmaceuticals, and instrumentation. Since the foundation of the American Board of NM, the practice of NM and the process toward certification have undergone major revisions. At present, the debate is focused on the inevitable future convergence of Radiology and NM. The potential for further cooperation or fusion of the American Board of Radiology and the American Board of NM is likely to bring about a new path for NM and Molecular Imaging training. If the merger is done carefully, respecting the strengths of both partners equally, there is an excellent potential to create a hybrid NM-Radiology specialty that combines Physiology and Molecular Biology with detailed anatomical imaging that sustains the innovation that has been central to NM residency and practice. We introduce a few basic trends in imaging use in the United States. These trends do not predict future use, but highlight the need for an appropriately credentialed practitioner to interpret these examination results and provide value to the health care system. PMID:26687859

  10. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

  11. Knowledge-based factor analysis of multidimensional nuclear medicine image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Cooper, Malcolm; Treffert, Jon D.

    1994-05-01

    We have developed a knowledge-based approach to analyzing dynamic nuclear medicine data sets using factor analysis. Prior knowledge is used as constraints to produce factor images and their associated time functions which are physically and physiologically realistic. These methods have been applied to both planar and tomographic image sequences acquired using various single-photon emitting and positron emitting radiotracers. Computer-simulated data, non-human primate studies, and human clinical studies have been used to develop and evaluate the methodology. The organ systems studied include the kidneys, heart, brain, liver, and bone. The factors generated represent various isolated aspects of physiologic function, such as tissue perfusion and clearance. In some clinical studies, the factors have indicated the potential to isolate diseased tissue from normally functioning tissue. In addition, the factor analysis of data acquired using newly developed radioligands has shown the ability to differentiate the specific binding of the radioligand to the targeted receptors from the non-specific binding. This suggests the potential use of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of radiolabeled compounds as well as in the investigation of specific receptor systems and their role in diagnosing disease.

  12. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  13. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit,more » and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  14. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-bodymore » interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.« less

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, S.; Pederiva, F.; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, R.; Schmidt, K. E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2015-09-09

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments, and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. The nuclear interactions and currents are reviewed along with a description of the continuum quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. A variety of results are presented, including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. Low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars are also described. Furthermore, a coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  16. Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Pederiva, Francesco; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Schmidt, K. E,; Wiringa, Robert B.

    2014-10-19

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proved very valuable to study the structure and reactions of light nuclei and nucleonic matter starting from realistic nuclear interactions and currents. These ab-initio calculations reproduce many low-lying states, moments and transitions in light nuclei, and simultaneously predict many properties of light nuclei and neutron matter over a rather wide range of energy and momenta. We review the nuclear interactions and currents, and describe the continuum Quantum Monte Carlo methods used in nuclear physics. These methods are similar to those used in condensed matter and electronic structure but naturally include spin-isospin, tensor, spin-orbit, and three-body interactions. We present a variety of results including the low-lying spectra of light nuclei, nuclear form factors, and transition matrix elements. We also describe low-energy scattering techniques, studies of the electroweak response of nuclei relevant in electron and neutrino scattering, and the properties of dense nucleonic matter as found in neutron stars. A coherent picture of nuclear structure and dynamics emerges based upon rather simple but realistic interactions and currents.

  17. Radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine in Alagoas (Brazil) in 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Yano, V F; Lima, F F

    2010-01-01

    Use of radionuclides in medical practice has grown steadily in recent years due to the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals and new equipments. This paper presents a survey of nuclear medicine procedures performed in Alagoas, State of Brazil, in order to help establish reference levels for nuclear medicine patients. Data were gathered on the type of radiopharmaceuticals used and administered activity of each kind of examination, and the age and sex of the patients involved over the period 2002-2005. Based on ICRP-60, the effective dose (E) and collective effective dose (Ecol) have been calculated. The results showed an annual increase in the nuclear medicine examinations during the period of study and cardiac scintigraphy are the most common procedure. The results also indicated that the activities administered to patients are higher than the guidance levels of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) in most of the kind of examinations. The differences found in the administered activities may reflect the differences in the quality assurance programs implemented. It was observed that the Ecol and E/inhabitant are higher than other countries. Therefore, it is suggested that the protocols have been revised in order to reduce the patient dose without reduce the image quality. PMID:20525455

  18. USE OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN DIAGNOSTIC NUCLEAR MEDICINE IN THE UNITED STATES: 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B.; Callahan, Ronald J.; Clanton, Jeffrey A.; DePietro, Allegra; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Greenspan, Bennett S.; Gross, Milton D.; Hays, Marguerite T.; Moore, Stephen C.; Ponto, James A.; Shreeve, Walton W.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Linet, Martha S.; Simon, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, we assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered activity. This paper presents data on the changing patterns of clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals and documents the range of activity administered to adult patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the U.S. between 1960 and 2010. Data are presented for 15 diagnostic imaging procedures that include thyroid scan and thyroid uptake, brain scan, brain blood flow, lung perfusion and ventilation, bone, liver, hepatobiliary, bone marrow, pancreas, and kidney scans, cardiac imaging procedures, tumor localization studies, localization of gastrointestinal bleeding, and non-imaging studies of blood volume and iron metabolism. Data on the relative use of radiopharmaceuticals were collected using key informant interviews and comprehensive literature reviews of typical administered activities of these diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Responses of key informants on relative use of radiopharmaceuticals are in agreement with published literature. Results of this study will be used for retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to members of the U.S. radiologic technologist’s cohort and in reconstructing radiation doses from occupational or patient radiation exposures to other U.S. workers or patient populations. PMID:25811150

  19. Radionuclide radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region.

    PubMed

    Conry, B G; Burwood, R J

    2001-08-01

    The equipment, staffing levels and imaging workload of all 14 radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region are presented. These are generally single camera departments providing a broad range of imaging procedures, including cardiac studies and white cell labelling, as well as the more usual renal, lung, thyroid and bone examinations. All departments have a high throughput, averaging 2358 examinations per year. Departmental staffing levels are variable, with some institutions having inadequate consultant radiology sessions free of other commitments as well as inadequate physics support. Potentially, these are important quality and legal issues that departments may need to address with hospital Trusts and Commissioning Agencies. Four small departments provided a service without any formally contracted radiologist sessions for nuclear medicine in the radiologists' job plans. The three medium sized departments have a closer match between sessions contracted and those actually worked, but in only one of these did the contracted sessional commitment equal the recommendation of the Nuclear Medicine Committee of the Royal College of Physicians. There is a disparity between the number of contracted consultant sessions and those actually worked in most institutions (86%), being at least two sessions in eight hospitals. Recommendations are made regarding the adequacy of some of the elements of provision in South Thames and the legal and safety implications for hospital Trust management and Commissioning Agencies. PMID:11511496

  20. Review of common occupational hazards and safety concerns for nuclear medicine technologists.

    PubMed

    Bolus, Norman E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to address common occupational hazards and safety concerns of nuclear medicine technologists. There are many possible occupational hazards, but this review is intended to concentrate on common hazards and safety concerns. These include radiation safety issues and concerns about the possibility of developing latent diseases, such as eye cataracts or cancer; pregnant workers and radiation safety issues; biohazard concerns associated with patient body fluids; possible low-back pain from moving heavy equipment and performing patient transfers; and possible repetitive trauma disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, from computer work. Suggestions are made regarding how to identify potential hazards and avoid them. After reading this article, nuclear medicine technologists should be able to explain the importance of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, discuss the possible effects of ionizing radiation on the adult and the developing fetus, list several basic principles to avoid injury to the back, list and describe the more common repetitive trauma disorders or injuries and how to avoid them, and list and describe the biohazard safety issues that nuclear medicine technologists face and how to develop policy to minimize exposure risk. PMID:18287195

  1. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the design synthesis and initial animal testing of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue for the potential evaluation of clinical pancreatic insufficiency. The new agent is 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoyl] rac-glycerol(1,2-Pal-3-IPPA). Following oral administration of the iodine-125-labeled agent to rats, 34.5+8.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine within one day, demonstrating that radioiodinated IPPA is absorbed in the intestine after release from the triglyceride by pancreatic lipase. The final catabolic product of IPPA is then conjugated and excreted via the urinary bladder. Urine analysis following oral administration of this new agent to patients may thus be a new, simple method for the clinical evaluation of various gastrointestinal diseases. The synthesis and the initial biological evaluation of the 3R-isomer of [{sup 125}I]IQNP are also described.

  2. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the design synthesis and initial animal testing of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue for the potential evaluation of clinical pancreatic insufficiency. The new agent is 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoyl) rac-glycerol(1,2-Pal-3-IPPA). Following oral administration of the iodine-125-labeled agent to rats, 34.5+8.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine within one day, demonstrating that radioiodinated IPPA is absorbed in the intestine after release from the triglyceride by pancreatic lipase. The final catabolic product of IPPA is then conjugated and excreted via the urinary bladder. Urine analysis following oral administration of this new agent to patients may thus be a new, simple method for the clinical evaluation of various gastrointestinal diseases. The synthesis and the initial biological evaluation of the 3R-isomer of ({sup 125}I)IQNP are also described.

  3. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Pizzone, R. G.

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach.

  4. Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Butler, T.A.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1984-08-01

    In this report the evaluation of a new potential approach for brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated agents is described. These studies were supported by ORNL Seed Money funds. The p-aminophenethylamine group was attached as an amide linkage to the methyliodide quaternized form of nicotinic acid by reaction with the activated succinimidyl ester. The p-amino group was converted to the piperidinyl triazene and iodine-125 introduced into the p-position by decomposition with H/sup 125/I. Following reduction of the pyridinium ring with NaBH/sub 4/, the dihydro form was administered to rats and showed good brain uptake (5 min, approx. 0.3% dose). The quaternary compound, however, showed low brain uptake (5 min, approx. 0.03% dose). These studies suggest that the dihydro agent readily crosses the intact blood:brain barrier and is quaternized in vivo preventing its release. In contrast, the administered quaternary form cannot cross the blood:brain barrier and thus shows low brain uptake. These data demonstrate that brain-specific delivery of radiopharmaceuticals using this method is possible and several other model compounds are being evaluated. Studies of new radiolabeled fatty acids for the evaluation of heart disease were extended to investigate the subcellular distribution of various agents in rat heart cells following intravenous administration. Distribution profiles were determined for six radiolabeled structurally-modified fatty acids, including two Te fatty acids and three 3-methyl-branched fatty acids. It was determined that those agents which show low myocardial uptake also show low localization in microsomal and mitochrondrial fractions. Subcellular distribution experiments coupled with lipid analysis of the fractions to determine the relation between uptake, metabolism and incorporation within the various lipid pools are continuing. 5 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  5. The Trojan Horse Method in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.

    2010-11-24

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross section in nuclear reaction between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed in the non resonant reactions case. A review of applications aimed to extract the bare nucleus astrophysical S{sub b}(E) factor for two body processes are presented. The information on electron screening potential U{sub e} were obtained from comparison with direct experiments of fusion reactions.

  6. Method for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Watson, Clyde D.

    1977-01-01

    A method is disclosed for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type wherein a plurality of long metal tubes packed with ceramic fuel are supported in a spaced apart relationship within an outer metal shell or shroud which provides structural support to the assembly. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are first compacted in a stepwise manner between specially designed gag-compactors and then sheared into short segments amenable to chemical processing by shear blades contoured to mate with the compacted surface of the fuel assembly.

  7. Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

    2012-01-01

    Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging. PMID:23133813

  8. An update on radiation absorbed dose to patients from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Tehran: A study on four academic centers

    PubMed Central

    Motazedian, Motahareh; Tabeie, F; Vatankhah, P; Shafiei, B; Amoui, M; Atefi, M; Ansari, M; Asli, I Neshandar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures is one of the main sources of radiation exposure. We performed this study with respect to the rapid growth in nuclear medicine in Iran and lack of updated statistics. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained for all active Nuclear Medicine Centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences during 2009 and 2010. Results: The most frequently performed procedures were bone (30.16%), cardiac (28.96%), renal (17.97%), and thyroid (7.93%) scans. There was a significant decrease in the number of thyroid scintigraphies with 131I and 99mTc-sulfur colloid liver/spleen scans and tremendous increase in the frequencies of cardiac and bone scintigraphies compared to one decade ago. Conclusion: Compared to previous studies, there were striking changes in trends of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Tehran. This field is still evolving in the country, and this trend will further change with the introduction of positron emission tomography scanners in future. PMID:27095860

  9. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  10. Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

  11. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A.; Carvalho, A.; Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 103 barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing 57Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  12. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives. PMID:17387460

  13. Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, Sławomir; Krajewski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation in Nuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NM departments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collected information about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on the wrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q and Hp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses always were absorbed by those staff members who were involved in sources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time

  14. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    implement a scoping process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes. The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence. From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in

  15. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes.The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence.From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in comparison with other

  16. PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (YΓΕΙΑ/ΔYΓΕΙΑ/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their

  17. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

  18. Factors Affecting Definitions of and Approaches to Integrative Medicine: A Mixed Methods Study Examining China's Integrative Medicine Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Pritzker, Sonya E; Hui, Ka-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This study identifies existing definitions and approaches among China's integrative medicine (IM) experts and examines relationships with key characteristics distinguishing individual experts. Methods. Snowball sampling was used to select 73 IM experts for semistructured interviews. In this mixed methods study, we first identified definitions and approaches through analyzing core statements. Four key factors, including age, education, practice type, and working environment, were then chosen to evaluate the associations with the definitions. Results. Four unique definitions were identified, including IM as a "new medicine" (D1), as a combination of western medicine (WM) and Chinese medicine (CM) (D2), as a modernization of CM (D3), and as a westernization of CM (D4). D4 was mostly supported by those working in WM organizations, while D3 was more prominent from individuals working in CM organizations (P = 0.00004). More than 64% clinicians had D2 while only 1 (5.9%) nonclinician had D2. Only 1 clinician (1.8%) had D4 while almost 30% nonclinicians had D4 (P = 0.0001). Among nonclinicians working in WM organizations, 83.3% of them had D4 (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Findings indicate that institutional structure and practice type are factors affecting IM approaches. These results carry implications for the ways in which western countries move forward with the definition and implementation of IM. PMID:25792999

  19. Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.

    PubMed Central

    Stabin, M G

    1997-01-01

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and

  20. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A.

    2011-12-15

    The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

  1. Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

  2. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  3. Radiation safety review for 511-keV emitters in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Dell, M A

    1997-03-01

    With the advent of high-energy collimators and dual-head coincidence cameras, standard nuclear medicine facilities will soon begin imaging with PET isotopes. The use of 511-keV emitters raises new radiation safety concerns for technologists traditionally limited to handling 99mTc and other low-energy isotopes. This article is a basic review of positron emitters, measurement concerns, exposure rates, shielding requirements and external radiation exposure mitigation. Newly developed PET shielding products are presented and regulatory status is discussed briefly. PMID:9239598

  4. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitaleri, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In stars nuclear reactions take place at physical conditions that make very hard their measurements in terrestrial laboratories. Indeed in astrophysical environments nuclear reactions between charged nuclei occur at energies much lower than the Coulomb barrier and the corresponding cross section values lie in the nano or picobarn regime, that makes their experimental determination extremely difficult. This is due to the very small barrier Coulomb penetration factor, which produces an exponential fall off of the cross section as a function of energy. Additionally, the presence of the electron screening needs to be properly taken into account when dealing with cross section measurements at low-energies. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents an independent experimental technique, allowing one to measure astrophysical S(E)-factor bared from both Coulomb penetration and electron screening effects. The main advantages and the most recent results are here shown and discussed.

  5. SiPM MEPhI Megagrant Developments in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. V.; Belyaev, V. N.; Berdnikov, V. V.; Buzhan, P. Zh.; Ilyin, A. L.; Lazarenko, E. O.; Philippov, D. E.; Skryabin, A. A.; Stifutkin, A. A.

    Three projects has been started in our laboratory as part of megagrant "High energy physics and nuclear medicine with silicon photomultiplier detectors" in NRNU MEPHI. The goal of these projects is development of devices for nuclear medicine in which replacement of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) with solid-state silicon photomultipliers promises various advantages. The first project is full-body SPECT, where replacement of PMT's could reduce size of the detector module and improve spatial resolution while keeping other parameters. The second project is development of a TOF-PET module. Replacement of PMTs with silicon photomultipliers makes it possible to use that detector not only in high magnetic fields but also for Time-of-Flight measurements (higher signal-to-noise ratio on final image) due to very high timing resolution of a SiPM. And the last project is the SiPM-based position-sensitive Gamma-spectrometer for dose monitoring in neutron-capture therapy based on SiPM's.

  6. [Development of the software package of the nuclear medicine data processor for education and research].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hisato; Yamaki, Noriyasu; Azuma, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based nuclear medicine data processor for education and research in the field of nuclear medicine. We call this software package "Prominence Processor" (PP). Windows of Microsoft Corporation was used as the operating system of this PP, which have 1024 × 768 image resolution and various 63 applications classified into 6 groups. The accuracy was examined for a lot of applications of the PP. For example, in the FBP reconstruction application, there was visually no difference in the image quality as a result of comparing two SPECT images obtained from the PP and GMS-5500A (Toshiba). Moreover, Normalized MSE between both images showed 0.0003. Therefore the high processing accuracy of the FBP reconstruction application was proven as well as other applications. The PP can be used in an arbitrary place if the software package is installed in note PC. Therefore the PP is used to lecture and to practice on an educational site and used for the purpose of the research of the radiological technologist on a clinical site etc. widely now. PMID:22449907

  7. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547,500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605,000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30,700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31,100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. PMID:25848115

  8. Minimizing nuclear medicine technologist radiation exposure during 131I-MIBG therapy.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Brian K; Morris, Victoria R; Lemen, Lisa; Weiss, Brian D; Gelfand, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine is a norepinephrine analog that concentrates in adrenergic tissue and has been shown to be an effective radiotherapeutic agent used to treat tumors of neural crest origin, particularly neuroblastoma, a sympathetic nervous system malignancy of children. The purpose of this study was to determine the radiation dose received by nuclear medicine technologists while preparing and administering 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy dosages, and if any changes could be implemented that would reduce a technologist's dose. The study involves the collection of total whole body doses received by technologists during the treatment of six patients. Patient dosages ranged from 9.25 to 31.1 GBq, with radiation exposures to the nuclear medicine technologists averaging 0.024 μSv per MBq administered to the patient. Subsequently, the doses received by the technologists were analyzed with respect to specific process steps performed during 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy including package receipt, dosage preparation, and dosage administration. Results show that the largest contribution to the technologist's whole body radiation dose (>83%) is received during the dosage administration process step. After additional shielding was installed for use during the dosage administration process step, technologists' doses decreased 80%. PMID:23287519

  9. Russian practical guidance on radiological support for justification of X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations.

    PubMed

    Balonov, M; Golikov, V; Kalnitsky, S; Zvonova, I; Chipiga, L; Sarycheva, S; Shatskiy, I; Vodovatov, A

    2015-07-01

    An important part of the justification process is assessment of the radiation risks caused by exposure of a patient during examination. The authors developed official national methodology both for medical doctors and sanitary inspectors called 'assessment of radiation risks of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with the use of ionizing radiation'. The document addresses patients of various age groups and a wide spectrum of modern X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations. International scale of risk categorisation was implemented by the use of effective dose with account for age dependence of radiation risk. The survey of effective doses in radiology, including CT, mammography, and intervention radiology, and nuclear medicine, including single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography, for patients of various age groups from several regions of Russia was used for the risk assessment. The output of the methodology is a series of tables for each diagnostic technology with lists of examinations for three age groups (children/adolescents, adults and seniors) corresponding to various radiation risk categories. PMID:25862538

  10. Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1994-02-01

    New methods based on reactive organometallic precursors containing organic functional groups that are generally responsible for physiologic responses are being exploited for preparation of radiopharmaceutials. This program focuses on the design of new chemistry (molecular architecture) and technology as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceutical. The new technology which is often based on organoborane chemistry is then utilized in nuclear medicine research at the UT Biomedical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE. facilities such as Brookhaven National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New radiopharmaceutical are evaluated preclinically by colleagues at UT, Emory University and The University of Pennsylvania, and by Nova Screen.

  11. Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

    2001-02-01

    We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers. PMID:11217711

  12. Multiscale Methods for Nuclear Reactor Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Benjamin S.

    The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques, that use diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). Two different multiscale methods were developed and analyzed; the post-refinement multiscale method and the embedded multiscale method. The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is "post-refinement" and thus has no impact on the global solution. The embedded multiscale method allows the local solver to change the global solution to provide an improved global and local solution. The post-refinement multiscale method is assessed using three core designs. When the local solution has more energy groups, the fixed source method has some difficulties near the interface: however the albedo method works well for all cases. In order to remedy the issue with boundary condition errors for the fixed source method, a buffer region is used to act as a filter, which decreases the sensitivity of the solution to the boundary condition. Both the albedo and fixed source methods benefit from the use of a buffer region. Unlike the post-refinement method, the embedded multiscale method alters the global solution. The ability to change the global solution allows for refinement in areas where the errors in the few group nodal diffusion are typically large. The embedded method is shown to improve the global solution when it is applied to a MOX/LEU assembly

  13. [Manual medicine and osteopathic methods on the growing spine].

    PubMed

    Kayser, R; Harke, G

    2016-06-01

    The application of various techniques in manual medicine on infants, toddlers and adolescents enjoys widespread acknowledgement not only in the musculoskeletal field but also beyond that. For a long time, the seminars of the DGMM have been trying to structure the advanced training of doctors and the vocational training of physiotherapists and to adjust it according to the latest clinical and scientific findings (in this subject matter). Considering the controversial debates, this seems particularly necessary and meaningful. This article aims to identify the current state of discussion and the consensus between medical associations but it also means to provide assistance in daily routine. PMID:27255905

  14. Factors Affecting Definitions of and Approaches to Integrative Medicine: A Mixed Methods Study Examining China's Integrative Medicine Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weijun; Pritzker, Sonya E.; Hui, Ka-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This study identifies existing definitions and approaches among China's integrative medicine (IM) experts and examines relationships with key characteristics distinguishing individual experts. Methods. Snowball sampling was used to select 73 IM experts for semistructured interviews. In this mixed methods study, we first identified definitions and approaches through analyzing core statements. Four key factors, including age, education, practice type, and working environment, were then chosen to evaluate the associations with the definitions. Results. Four unique definitions were identified, including IM as a “new medicine” (D1), as a combination of western medicine (WM) and Chinese medicine (CM) (D2), as a modernization of CM (D3), and as a westernization of CM (D4). D4 was mostly supported by those working in WM organizations, while D3 was more prominent from individuals working in CM organizations (P = 0.00004). More than 64% clinicians had D2 while only 1 (5.9%) nonclinician had D2. Only 1 clinician (1.8%) had D4 while almost 30% nonclinicians had D4 (P = 0.0001). Among nonclinicians working in WM organizations, 83.3% of them had D4 (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Findings indicate that institutional structure and practice type are factors affecting IM approaches. These results carry implications for the ways in which western countries move forward with the definition and implementation of IM. PMID:25792999

  15. Joint CDRH (Center for Devices and Radiological Health) and state quality-assurance surveys in nuclear medicine: Phase 2 - radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.R.; Evans, C.D.

    1986-08-01

    The report discusses survey results on aspects of the quality assurance of radio-pharmaceuticals from 180 nuclear-medicine facilities in the United States. Data were collected from facilities in 8 states. Demographic information about nuclear-medicine operations and quality-assurance programs was gathered by state radiation-control-program personnel. The data collected from the survey show an incomplete acceptance of quality-assurance practices for radiopharmaceuticals. Most of the facilities in the survey indicated that, because an inferior radiopharmaceutical was prepared so infrequently, they did not believe it was cost-effective to perform extensive quality-assurance testing. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health hopes that the information from the survey will stimulate nuclear-medicine professionals and their organizations to encourage appropriate testing of all radiopharmaceuticals.

  16. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Final performance report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

  17. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist’s assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed

  18. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results: Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist's assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed

  19. Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-11-01

    PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point

  20. Lifestyle Methods for Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease From the Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Saifadini, Rostam

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is considered as a major problem for society health since it affects interpersonal and social relationships. With regard to the global attention toward complementary medicine, search for preventive, diagnostic, and treatment strategies in complementary medicine schools such as the old dynamic doctrine of traditional Persian medicine seems to be necessary. In this type of medicine, description and analysis of the disease and preventive and treatment methods have great importance. The present study provides a useful classification of recommendations for prevention and control of Alzheimer's disease. Prevention is prior to the treatment and is easier and less costly. Recommendations mentioned in traditional Persian medicine texts for prevention of Alzheimer's disease provide fields of clinical and complementary studies for researches. PMID:26494860

  1. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor κB Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-κB-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

  2. Design and operation of a nuclear medicine picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Brown, P H; Krishnamurthy, G T

    1990-07-01

    Construction of a new Veterans Administration Medical Center provided a unique opportunity to design and implement a state-of-the-art nuclear medicine department in a large teaching and research hospital. The new medical center allowed the acquisition of all new gamma cameras and computer systems without any historical need to patch together a system of old and new equipment. The picture archiving and communication system (PACS) was designed to link five gamma cameras to four image viewing areas, followed by digital archive on an optical disc. The gamma cameras' computers and viewing areas' computers are linked to a central networking computer in a manner that provides nine independent but digitally communicating image computers. Each nuclear medicine computer is capable of acquiring gamma camera data while possibly also performing up to three other simultaneous tasks: analysis of image data, transfer of image data from node to node, and patient database manipulation. The nine image computers each appear to the user as a digital file cabinet, containing various folders, which in turn contain patient studies. To transfer a patient study from one location to another, the user simply queues a transfer request by selecting a file drawer-folder combination for the source and destination locations. It takes only a few seconds to queue a transfer request, and the transfer is complete about a minute later without any further user intervention. A computer genie awakens during the early morning off-hours and performs housekeeping tasks, including movement of patient studies (based on date of acquisition) from active viewing folders to inactive archive folders. All scheduling, workload data, patient image reports, etc, are handled by a patient textual information database system. Patient reports and scheduling information are transmitted to the medical center's central computer where they are made readily available throughout the medical center. The PACS, in clinical use

  3. Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography

  4. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  5. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons

  6. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G; Valente, M

    2011-06-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8

  7. Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Church, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.

  8. Nuclear reactor flow control method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Church, J.P.

    1993-03-30

    Method and apparatus for improving coolant flow in a nuclear reactor during accident as well as nominal conditions. The reactor has a plurality of fuel elements in sleeves and a plenum above the fuel and through which the sleeves penetrate. Holes are provided in the sleeve so that coolant from the plenum can enter the sleeve and cool the fuel. The number and size of the holes are varied from sleeve to sleeve with the number and size of holes being greater for sleeves toward the center of the core and less for sleeves toward the periphery of the core. Preferably the holes are all the same diameter and arranged in rows and columns, the rows starting from the bottom of every sleeve and fewer rows in peripheral sleeves and more rows in the central sleeves.

  9. One-year clinical experience with a fully digitized nuclear medicine department: organizational and economical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anema, P. C.; de Graaf, C. N.; Wilmink, J. B.; Hall, David R.; Hoekstra, A. G.; van Rijk, P. P.; Van Isselt, J. W.; Viergever, Max A.

    1991-07-01

    At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single-modality PACS has been operational since mid-1990. After one year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences, and the acceptability of the PACS were evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed were: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy, and security. It was concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting, and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, it is felt that in the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work.

  10. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, January 1, 1985-November 1, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Developments of improved imaging systems in nuclear medicine are reported with emphasis on development of positron emission tomographs that combine high resolution, with high sensitivity and high count rate capability. A second generation cylindrical analog positron camera design has provided excellent light collection with limited light spread, characteristics needed for high spatial and temporal resolution. Other aspects of the camera development include the design of associated electronics, and provision for data storage and processing. Utilizing the above camera basic studies have been performed to evaluate blood flow in the cat brain stem during auditory stimulation, ventilation in the dog using /sup 13/N and blood flow in the canine heart. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  11. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. PMID:24560040

  12. The patient as a radioactive source: an intercomparison of survey meters for measurements in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Uhrhan, K; Drzezga, A; Sudbrock, F

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the radiation exposure in nuclear medicine is evaluated by measuring dose rates in the proximity of patients and those in close contact to sources like capsules and syringes. A huge number of different survey meters (SMs) are offered commercially. This topic has recently gained interest since dosemeters and active personal dosemeters (APD) for the new dose quantities (ambient and directional dose equivalent) have become available. One main concern is the practical use of SMs and APD in daily clinical routines. Therefore, the radiation field of four common radiopharmaceuticals containing (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc and (131)I in radioactive sources or after application to the patient was determined. Measurements were carried out with different SMs and for several distances. Dose rates decline significantly with the distance to the patient, and with some restrictions, APD can be used as SMs. PMID:25071244

  13. [A system for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste produced in in vitro tests in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Norimura, T; Ueno, T

    1983-06-01

    It is well known that very large storage tanks for radioactive liquids are necessary for the disposal of liquid radioactive waste. In vitro tests in radioimmunoassay in nuclear medicine are rapidly increasing for clinical examination causing marked increase in the volume of liquid radioactive waste. Thus we have developed a system for decontaminating radioactivity from liquid waste. In the first step, the liquid waste is boiled by a sterilizer and, in the second step, this sterilised liquid is filtered by a cylindrical filter (Toyo filter No. 84). After filtration, the liquid waste is passed into a beaded charcoal column and an ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA 402) column. After these treatments, the radioactivity level of liquid waste is lowered to less than 1% of the original radioactivity. We are now in the planning stages of building an apparatus for practical use. PMID:6622764

  14. A gaussian band pass filter for digital enhancement of nuclear medicine images

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.T.; Park, C.H.; Hichwa, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Information in nuclear medicine images is obscured due to the presence of Poisson noise and the finite resolution of the detection system. Many filters have been developed to recover resolution and suppress noise, most notably the Metz and Wiener filters. The generation of these filters requires knowledge of the system MTF. The authors have investigated the properties of a two dimensional circularly symmetric truncated Gaussian function as a filter to be applied in the spatial frequency domain. The filter is expressed as exp(-(..mu..-..mu../sub o/)/sup 2//2sigma/sup 2/) where ..mu../sub o/ is the displacement of the Gaussian from the origin and sigma is the degree of spread. These parameters are optimized from the image power spectrum according to the following empirical rules the magnitude at the origin is 0.3, and the spatial frequency at which the magnitude of the power spectrum exceeds twice that of the noise level is 2sigma from the mean of the Gaussian (..mu../sub o/). Condition 1 preferentially enhances the information in the middle frequencies while condition 2 assures that the filter goes to 0 at spatial frequencies where noise dominates. The filter can be generated automatically by computer program. It does not require the knowledge of MTF. In addition, the coordinate space representation is a Gaussian modulated by a cosine function which can be analytically determined allowing straightfoward application of this filter as a convolution in coordinate space. The filter has been successfully applied to all types of nuclear medicine images including PET brain section images.

  15. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Infection in Cancer Patients (With Emphasis on FDG-PET)

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Fidel J.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Infections are a common cause of death and an even more common cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Timely and adequate diagnosis of infection is very important. This article provides clinicians as well as nuclear medicine specialists with a concise summary of the most important and widely available nuclear medicine imaging techniques for infectious and inflammatory diseases in cancer patients with an emphasis on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). 67Ga-citrate has many unfavorable characteristics, and the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals has resulted in the replacement of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy by scintigraphy with labeled leukocytes or FDG-PET for the majority of conditions. The sensitivity of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in non-neutropenic cancer patients is comparable with that in patients without malignancy. The specificity, however, is lower because of the uptake of labeled leukocytes in many primary tumors and metastases, most probably as a result of their inflammatory component. In addition, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy cannot be used for febrile neutropenia because of the inability to harvest sufficient peripheral leukocytes for in vitro labeling. FDG-PET has several advantages over these conventional scintigraphic techniques. FDG-PET has shown its usefulness in diagnosing septic thrombophlebitis in cancer patients. It has also been shown that imaging of infectious processes using FDG-PET is possible in patients with severe neutropenia. Although larger prospective studies examining the value of FDG-PET in cancer patients suspected of infection, especially in those with febrile neutropenia, are needed, FDG-PET appears to be the most promising scintigraphic technique for the diagnosis of infection in this patient group. PMID:21680576

  16. Nuclear medicine in the detection, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kjell; Eriksson, Barbro

    2005-06-01

    Carcinoid tumours belong to the family of neuroendocrine tumours with a capacity to take up and concentrate amines and precursors as well as peptides, and can thereby be detected by nuclear medicine techniques. These rare tumours are difficult to diagnose at earlier stages because of small size and multiplicity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are mostly of benefit for detection of larger primary tumours (1-3 cm) and liver and lymph-node metastases. A majority of carcinoid tumours express somatostatin receptors, particularly receptor type 2, and thus somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) can be used for detection and staging of carcinoid tumours. The detection rate of carcinoid tumours has been reported to be somewhere between 80 and 100% in different studies. The scintigraphy gives a good staging of the disease and detection of unexpected tumour sites, which were not determined by conventional imaging. This method also indicates content of somatostatin receptors, which might indicate efficacy of treatment with octreotide or other somatostatin analogues. Another new non-invasive technique for detection of carcinoid tumours is positron emission tomography (PET). The biological substance for study can be labelled for radioactive imaging with radionuclears, such as (11)C, (15)O and (18)F, with emission of positrons. More than 95% of patients studied displayed high tracer uptake from PET with (11)C-5HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan), which is significantly higher compared to both computer tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. MIBG has been used for decades to visualize carcinoid tumours, because MIBG is concentrated in the endocrine cells. It was initially developed to detect phaeochromocytomas of the adrenal with reported high sensitivity (87%) and specificity as high as 99%. The method can be used when other methods fail to localize carcinoid tumours and particularly when treatment with (131)I-MIBG is being considered. Tumour

  17. Use of a reusable shielded marker to enhance the accuracy, safety, and efficacy of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Hayes, M; Altes, T; Teates, C D; Parekh, J

    2000-05-01

    Three cases illustrate the use of a reusable, shielded marker to identify anatomic structures and mark pathologic lesions. No other nuclear medicine marker is available with a shutter mechanism designed to interrupt radiation, thus protecting the patient and technologist from unnecessary radiation and minimizing image artifacts. PMID:10795694

  18. Swallowing disorders: proposal of a method for forensic medicine assessment.

    PubMed

    Fattori, B; Ursino, F; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Nacci, A

    2007-06-01

    For a correct classification of dysphagia, morphologic instrumental investigations capable of analysing the anatomical structures of the digestive tract, are undoubtedly essential, but the most important investigations are the functional investigations, such as videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy, manometry and pH-metry. Results of these examinations enable us to identify, in patients with dysphagia, the extent of permanent damage, as a consequence of injury to the structures designated to swallowing, must be such that it at least minimally impairs and decreases the relative function, but to a degree that can be detected and, in some manner, measured. From a legal point of view, alterations in swallowing, caused by damage to structures belonging to the respiratory-digestive tract, can be found in crimes against persons and particularly in those involving body injury. In the case of civil, but also in private or social insurance proceedings, it is necessary to distinguish which parameters are to be used as reference for evaluating and quantifying the injury in terms of reimbursement. With the introduction of complete biological well-being, injury is considered as an impairment of the worth and right to enjoy psychological-physical integrity as a quality of life. The criteria currently used internationally take into account the conception of psychological-physical efficiency; nevertheless, in Italian forensic medicine, there is no table that offers a thorough quantification of swallowing modifications, if one excludes oesophageal disorders. Herewith, an evaluation table, dividing oro-pharyngo-oesophageal dysphagia into five, progressively serious classes, is proposed. PMID:17883190

  19. Medical Image Processing Server applied to Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, C.; Graffigna, J. P.; Marino, E.; Omati, S.; Holleywell, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is framed within the area of medical image processing and aims to present the process of installation, configuration and implementation of a processing server of medical images (MIPS) in the Fundación Escuela de Medicina Nuclear located in Mendoza, Argentina (FUESMEN). It has been developed in the Gabinete de Tecnologia Médica (GA.TE.ME), Facultad de Ingeniería-Universidad Nacional de San Juan. MIPS is a software that using the DICOM standard, can receive medical imaging studies of different modalities or viewing stations, then it executes algorithms and finally returns the results to other devices. To achieve the objectives previously mentioned, preliminary tests were conducted in the laboratory. More over, tools were remotely installed in clinical enviroment. The appropiate protocols for setting up and using them in different services were established once defined those suitable algorithms. Finally, it’s important to focus on the implementation and training that is provided in FUESMEN, using nuclear medicine quality control processes. Results on implementation are exposed in this work.

  20. Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Eberlein, U.; Lassmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue.

  1. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  2. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  3. A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-06-01

    Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging. PMID:22964063

  4. Characterization and Developmental History of Problem Solving Methods in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Harbort, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    The central thesis of this paper is the importance of the framework in which information is structured. It is technically important in the design of systems; it is also important in guaranteeing that systems are usable by clinicians. Progress in medical computing depends on our ability to develop a more quantitative understanding of the role of context in our choice of problem solving techniques. This in turn will help us to design more flexible and responsive computer systems. The paper contains an overview of some models of knowledge and problem solving methods, a characterization of modern diagnostic techniques, and a discussion of skill development in medical practice. Diagnostic techniques are examined in terms of how they are taught, what problem solving methods they use, and how they fit together into an overall theory of interpretation of the medical status of a patient.

  5. Comparison of imputation methods for missing laboratory data in medicine

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K; Mukherjee, Ashin; Singal, Amit G; Zhang, Yiwei; Warren, Jeffrey; Balis, Ulysses; Marrero, Jorge; Zhu, Ji; Higgins, Peter DR

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Missing laboratory data is a common issue, but the optimal method of imputation of missing values has not been determined. The aims of our study were to compare the accuracy of four imputation methods for missing completely at random laboratory data and to compare the effect of the imputed values on the accuracy of two clinical predictive models. Design Retrospective cohort analysis of two large data sets. Setting A tertiary level care institution in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Participants The Cirrhosis cohort had 446 patients and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease cohort had 395 patients. Methods Non-missing laboratory data were randomly removed with varying frequencies from two large data sets, and we then compared the ability of four methods—missForest, mean imputation, nearest neighbour imputation and multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE)—to impute the simulated missing data. We characterised the accuracy of the imputation and the effect of the imputation on predictive ability in two large data sets. Results MissForest had the least imputation error for both continuous and categorical variables at each frequency of missingness, and it had the smallest prediction difference when models used imputed laboratory values. In both data sets, MICE had the second least imputation error and prediction difference, followed by the nearest neighbour and mean imputation. Conclusions MissForest is a highly accurate method of imputation for missing laboratory data and outperforms other common imputation techniques in terms of imputation error and maintenance of predictive ability with imputed values in two clinical predicative models. PMID:23906948

  6. [Thinking on teaching experiences of acupuncture manipulation and moxibustion method in western medicine college].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Piao, Yuan-lin; Wang, Dao-Hai; Bao, Fei

    2010-01-01

    For the problems existed in the teaching of acupuncture manipulation and moxibustion method in western medicine college, for instance, the lack of credit hours and divorce from theory and practice, in addition to visualization teaching, this paper introduced case study and problem-centered teaching approaches. Besides clinical teaching, this paper emphasized anatomical knowledge which strengthen memory. In this way, the quality of teaching and teaching effects will be improved in the education of acupuncture manipulation and moxibustion method in western medicine college. PMID:20353121

  7. Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines: A Glance at the Past, a Gaze at the Present, and a Glimpse of the Future.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Patricia A; Luis, Teofilo O L San

    2016-01-01

    While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery. PMID:27408901

  8. Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines: A Glance at the Past, a Gaze at the Present, and a Glimpse of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Patricia A.; Luis, Teofilo O.L. San

    2016-01-01

    While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery. PMID:27408901

  9. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  10. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Páez, Diana; Orellana, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ramirez, Raúl; Mut, Fernando; Torres, Leonel

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Latin American and Caribbean region has experienced important growth in the last decade. However, there is great heterogeneity among countries regarding the availability of technology and human resources. According to data collected through June 2014 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the total number of γ cameras in the region is 1,231, with an average of 2.16 per million inhabitants. Over 90% of the equipment is SPECT cameras; 7.6% of which have hybrid technology. There are 161 operating PET or PET/CT cameras in 12 member states, representing a rate of 0.3 per million people. Most NM centers belong to the private health system and are in capitals or major cities. Only 4 countries have the capability of assembling 99Mo-99mTc generators, and 2 countries produce 99mTc from nuclear reactors. Cold kits are produced in some countries, and therapeutic agents are mostly imported from outside the region. There are 35 operative cyclotrons. In relation to human resources: there is 1 physician per γ camera, 1.6 technologists per γ camera, 0.1 medical physicist per center, and approximately 0.1 radiochemist or radiopharmacist per center. Nearly 94% of the procedures are diagnostic. PET studies represent about 4% of the total. The future of NM in the Latin American and Caribbean region is promising, with great potential and possibilities. Some of the most important factors driving the region toward greater homogeneity in the availability and application of NM, and bridging the gaps between countries, are clinician awareness of the importance of NM in managing diseases prevalent in the region, increased building of capacity, continuous and strong support from international organizations such as the IAEA through national and regional projects, and strong public-private partnerships and government commitment. PMID:26229143

  11. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  12. Methods of graph network reconstruction in personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Danilov, A; Ivanov, Yu; Pryamonosov, R; Vassilevski, Yu

    2016-08-01

    The paper addresses methods for generation of individualized computational domains on the basis of medical imaging dataset. The computational domains will be used in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D)-1D coupled hemodynamic models. A 1D hemodynamic model employs a 1D network of a patient-specific vascular network with large number of vessels. The 1D network is the graph with nodes in the 3D space which bears additional geometric data such as length and radius of vessels. A 3D hemodynamic model requires a detailed 3D reconstruction of local parts of the vascular network. We propose algorithms which extend the automated segmentation of vascular and tubular structures, generation of centerlines, 1D network reconstruction, correction, and local adaptation. We consider two modes of centerline representation: (i) skeletal segments or sets of connected voxels and (ii) curved paths with corresponding radii. Individualized reconstruction of 1D networks depends on the mode of centerline representation. Efficiency of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated on several examples of 1D network reconstruction. The networks can be used in modeling of blood flows as well as other physiological processes in tubular structures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26462139

  13. Acoustic imaging with time reversal methods: From medicine to NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    This talk will present an overview of the research conducted on ultrasonic time-reversal methods applied to biomedical imaging and to non-destructive testing. We will first describe iterative time-reversal techniques that allow both focusing ultrasonic waves on reflectors in tissues (kidney stones, micro-calcifications, contrast agents) or on flaws in solid materials. We will also show that time-reversal focusing does not need the presence of bright reflectors but it can be achieved only from the speckle noise generated by random distributions of non-resolved scatterers. We will describe the applications of this concept to correct distortions and aberrations in ultrasonic imaging and in NDT. In the second part of the talk we will describe the concept of time-reversal processors to get ultrafast ultrasonic images with typical frame rates of order of 10.000 F/s. It is the field of ultrafast ultrasonic imaging that has plenty medical applications and can be of great interest in NDT. We will describe some applications in the biomedical domain: Quantitative Elasticity imaging of tissues by following shear wave propagation to improve cancer detection and Ultrafast Doppler imaging that allows ultrasonic functional imaging.

  14. A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

  15. Potential dose to nuclear medicine technologists from 99mTc-DTPA aerosol lung studies.

    PubMed

    Achey, Bryan; Miller, Ken; Erdman, Mike; King, Steve

    2004-05-01

    Air sampling performed during 190 Tc-labeled DTPA aerosol lung ventilation studies indicated that the maximum airborne concentration to which the nuclear medicine technologists might be exposed was 7.1 x 10(-1) Bq mL(-1) (1.9 x 10(-5) microCi mL(-1)). If a single technologist performed ALL the aerosol studies, at this maximum airborne concentration, based on the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), the resulting dose equivalents could be either 1 mSv (100 mrem) to the lungs or 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) to the total body. However, the procedures are shared by the technical staff, the times of exposure are represented by only a fraction of the overall procedure time, and the average airborne concentrations were found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the maximum. This resulted in a projected average annual dose equivalent of 7.0 x 10(-3) mSv (0.7 mrem) to the lungs or 7.0 x 10(-4) mSv (0.07 mrem) to the whole body from the performance of these procedures. PMID:15069295

  16. Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V; Andreopoulos, D; Frangos, S; Tselis, N; Giannopoulou, E; Lutz, S

    2011-11-01

    Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities used for assessing bone metastases treatment response include plain and digitalised radiography (XR), skeletal scintigraphy (SS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/CT. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assessment modalities as evident through different clinical trials. Additionally, we present the more established response criteria of the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization and compare them with newer MD Anderson criteria. Even though serial XR and SS have been used to assess the therapeutic response for decades, several months are required before changes are evident. Newer techniques, such as MRI or PET, may allow an earlier evaluation of response that may be quantified through monitoring changes in signal intensity and standard uptake value, respectively. Moreover, the application of PET/CT, which can follow both morphological and metabolic changes, has yielded interesting and promising results that give a new insight into the natural history of metastatic bone disease. However, only a few studies have investigated the application of these newer techniques and further clinical trials are needed to corroborate their promising results and establish the most suitable imaging parameters and evaluation time points. Last, but not least, there is an absolute need to adopt uniform response criteria for bone metastases through an international consensus in order to better assess treatment response in terms of accuracy and objectivity. PMID:21530193

  17. The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. ); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. . Cyclotron Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 μSv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 μSv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 μSv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 μSv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %. PMID:24464817

  19. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi

    2016-01-01

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the 131I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of 131I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  20. Method and apparatus for close packing of nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention is a plate of neutron absorbing material. The plate may have a releasable locking feature permitting the plate to be secured within a nuclear fuel assembly between nuclear fuel rods during storage or transportation then removed for further use or destruction. The method of the present invention has the step of placing a plate of neutron absorbing material between nuclear fuel rods within a nuclear fuel assembly, preferably between the two outermost columns of nuclear fuel rods. Additionally, the plate may be releasably locked in place.

  1. Method and apparatus for close packing of nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a plate of neutron absorbing material. The plate may have a releasable locking feature permitting the plate to be secured within a nuclear fuel assembly between nuclear fuel rods during storage or transportation then removed for further use or destruction. The method of the present invention has the step of placing a plate of neutron absorbing material between nuclear fuel rods within a nuclear fuel assembly, preferably between the two outermost columns of nuclear fuel rods. Additionally, the plate may be releasably locked in place.

  2. The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Patel, Uptal D.; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Matemu, Oliver; Omolo, Justin; Boyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region. Methods Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes. Results Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding. Conclusions In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments

  3. Highlights of the 25th Anniversary EANM Congress Milan 2012: nuclear medicine and molecular imaging at its best.

    PubMed

    Langsteger, Werner; Beheshti, Mohsen

    2013-09-01

    The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) celebrated its 25th Anniversary Congress in Milan under the chairmanship of Professor Emilio Bombardieri and the auspices of the Italian Society of Nuclear Medicine. As always, the Congress was a great success: more than 5,530 participants from 88 countries came from Europe and beyond. In spite of limited budgets, industry again made an important contribution: New innovative equipment and tracers demonstrating the latest technology and innovations were presented by 122 companies. This review is a brief summary of the major scientific contributions made in the fields of oncology, multimodality imaging, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers, and in other clinical sciences as well as in radionuclide therapy, which all show promising and great innovations. PMID:23917722

  4. Pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors as emerging players in cancer precision medicine.

    PubMed

    De Mattia, Elena; Cecchin, Erika; Roncato, Rossana; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Great research effort has been focused on elucidating the contribution of host genetic variability on pharmacological outcomes in cancer. Nuclear receptors have emerged as mediators between environmental stimuli and drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors have been reported to regulate transcription of genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Altered nuclear receptor expression has been shown to affect the metabolism and pharmacological profile of traditional chemotherapeutics and targeted agents. Accordingly, polymorphic variants in these genes have been studied as pharmacogenetic markers of outcome variability. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the roles played by pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor expression and genetics as predictive markers of anticancer drug toxicity and efficacy, which can improve cancer precision medicine. PMID:27561454

  5. A simple and effective method for vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Salacia oblonga Wall.

    PubMed

    Deepak, K G K; Suneetha, G; Surekha, Ch

    2016-01-01

    Salacia oblonga Wall. is an endangered medicinal plant whose conservation is urgently needed, as it is extensively used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. This study shows an easy, effective and simple method of conserving genetic identity and producing elite clones of S. oblonga through vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation was achieved using roots (R), stems with leaves (SL) and stems without leaves (S) with different concentrations (0-500 ppm) of indole butyric acid (IBA). Explants S and SL showed maximum shooting response with 300 ppm IBA and explant R showed maximum response with 200 ppm IBA. PMID:26267809

  6. A heartrending burden of gynaecological cancers in advance stage at nuclear institute of medicine and radiotherapy Jamshoro Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Seema; Ashfaque, Sanober; Laghari, Naeem Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In Pakistan gynaecological cancers are among the leading causes of women’s morbidity and mortality posing huge financial burden on families, communities and state. Due to lack of national cancer registry exact facts and figures are unknown therefore this study was planned to find out prevalence, age, site and stage of presentation of gynaecological cancers at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 at NIMRA Jamshoro. All cases of genital tract cancers were evaluated, required data was entered on predesigned performa and results were analyzed manually. Results: Out of 2401 total registered cancer cases, 231 (9.6%) patients were suffering from gynaecological cancer making it third most common cancer. Ovary was commonest site followed by cervix and uterus. More than 60% cases presented in advanced stage, mostly during 4th and 5th decade of life. Conclusion: Gynecological cancer was among top three cancers at one of the busiest public sector cancer institute in Sindh province and significant number presented in advance stage making treatment difficult and expensive. There is urgent need for development and implementation of an effective health policy regarding cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27022358

  7. Safety issues and new rapid detection methods in traditional Chinese medicinal materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua; Han, Jianping; Chen, Shilin

    2015-01-01

    The safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a major strategic issue that involves human health. With the continuous improvement in disease prevention and treatment, the export of TCM and its related products has increased dramatically in China. However, the frequent safety issues of Chinese medicine have become the ‘bottleneck’ impeding the modernization of TCM. It was proved that mycotoxins seriously affect TCM safety; the pesticide residues of TCM are a key problem in TCM international trade; adulterants have also been detected, which is related to market circulation. These three factors have greatly affected TCM safety. In this study, fast, highly effective, economically-feasible and accurate detection methods concerning TCM safety issues were reviewed, especially on the authenticity, mycotoxins and pesticide residues of medicinal materials. PMID:26579423

  8. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

    1993-07-01

    The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

  9. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  10. [Microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia. Relevant for each medicinal product].

    PubMed

    Norwig, J

    2014-10-01

    According to the EU Directive 2001/83 the European Pharmacopoeia is the official Pharmacopoeia of the European Union. Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia is one of the legal pharmacopoeial compendia in Germany. Any licensed medicinal product on the German market complies with the requirements of the compendial monographs, if applicable. Because the general monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia on Dosage Forms, Substances for Pharmaceutical Use and Pharmaceutical Preparations refer to the microbiological and biological methods of the Pharmacopoeia, the methods are relevant for medicinal products, too. This article presents a rough summary of the microbiological and biological methods of the European Pharmacopoeia and is intended to be a stimulus for the reader to better understand the original compendia. The short description of the methods mentioned, here, is a summary from the Pharmacopoeia and the non-official collection of comments on the texts of the European Pharmacopoeia. PMID:25200487

  11. Method for automatically scramming a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2005-12-27

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  12. Bayesian Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using the nuclear model code TALYS and the experimental nuclear reaction database EXFOR. The method is applied to all nuclides at the same time. First, the global predictive power of TALYS is numerically assessed, which enables to set the prior space of nuclear model solutions. Next, the method gradually zooms in on particular experimental data per nuclide, until for each specific target nuclide its existing experimental data can be used for weighted Monte Carlo sampling. To connect to the various different schools of uncertainty propagation in applied nuclear science, the result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by the EXFOR-based weight.

  13. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1992-08-01

    In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus_minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

  14. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1992-08-01

    In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

  15. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Kropp, A.; Lisic, E.C.; Rice, D.E.

    1989-03-01

    During this period the properties of the unknown metabolite released from Langendorff-perfused rat hearts administered radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) have been further evaluated. Identification of this metabolite is important to provide a better understanding of the myocardial metabolism of methyl-branched fatty acids and to illuminate the factors affecting myocardial retention of such agents. The metabolite is the principal component in the outflow of the isolated rat hearts. Following isolation and purification of the metabolite, treatment with NaBH/sub 4/ had no effect on the chromatographic properties. In contrast, a much less polar product was formed by treatment with acetic anhydride, suggesting the presence of a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. In addition, the metabolite is soluble in dilute base and extracted from an acid solution with ether, demonstrating the presence of a carboxyl group. These combined results suggest BMIPP is metabolized to a hydroxy acid of unknown structure. Studies are now in progress to identify this material. Studies of the effects of chain length on the complexation of a series of p-carboxyalkylphenylglyoxal bis-(N-alkylthiosemicarbazones) (TSC) have continued. After complexation with either Cu-64 or Cu-67 followed by activation to the tetrafluorophenyl esters, the bifunctional ligands were attached to BSA and purified by G-25 Sephadex. Yields varied from 2--3% to 40%, with higher yields for the shorter chain analogues. Because of simpler formation and higher yield, future studies will focus on the radiolabeling of antibodies with the short-chain analogues of the 1,2-diketone TSC derivatives. Also during this period (I-131)IPPA was supplied to collaborators at the Institute of Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, for studies with an isolated working rat heart model.

  16. Characterisation of crystal matrices and single pixels for nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, D. J.; Belcari, N.; Camarda, M.; Guerra, A. Del; Vaiano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially constructed crystal matrices are characterised for use with PSPMT detectors for PET system developments and other nuclear medicine applications. The matrices of different scintillation materials were specified with pixel dimensions of 1.5×1.5 mm2 in cross-section and a length corresponding to one gamma ray interaction length at 511 keV. The materials used in this study were BGO, LSO, LYSO, YSO and CsI(Na). Each matrix was constructed using a white TiO loaded epoxy that forms a 0.2 mm septa between each pixel. The white epoxy is not the optimum choice in terms of the reflective properties, but represents a good compromise between cost and the need for optical isolation between pixels. We also tested a YAP matrix that consisted of pixels of the same size specification but was manufactured by a different company, who instead of white epoxy, used a thin aluminium reflective layer for optical isolation that resulted in a septal thickness of just 0.01 mm, resulting in a much higher packing fraction. The characteristics of the scintillation materials, such as the light output and energy resolution, were first studied in the form of individual crystal elements by using a single pixel HPD. A comparison of individual pixels with and without the epoxy/dielectric coatings was also performed. Then the matrices themselves were coupled to a PSPMT in order to study the imaging performance. In particular, the system pixel resolution and the peak to valley ratio were measured at 511 and 122 keV.

  17. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of 18F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with 11C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. 11C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as 11C-Choline or 11C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as 68Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. 177Lu- or 90Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  18. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Hasan, A.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1989-12-01

    In this report, an evaluation of the effects of albumin and albumin plus sodium palmitate in the phosphate buffer perfusate on the relative of unmetabolized fatty acid and the unknown metabolite(s) from isolated rat hearts administered 15-(p-(I-125)iodophenyl)-3-(R, S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is described. Earlier studies had demonstrated the presence of a major unidentified polar radioactive component in the outflow of hearts injected with BMIPP and perfused with the traditional Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, which does not contain albumin. The current studies were performed with KH buffer containing either albumin (BSA) or albumin and palmitate (BSA/PAL) to assess the relative loss of the metabolite and unmetabolized BMIPP from the perfused hearts. The results demonstrated that in the presence of albumin both the unidentified material and BMIPP are present in the outflow (i.e., 5 min perfusate buffer, % BMIPP: KH, 3%; KH + BSA, 10%; KH + BSA/PAL, 41%). These results demonstrate that BMIPP is a major radioactive component in the outflow of isolated hearts using a perfusate containing BSA and palmitate and, more importantly, suggest for the first time that the slow myocardial wash-out observed in humans after administration of (I-123)BMIPP probably represents loss of both unmetabolized BMIPP and the unidentified metabolite. Coronary sinus sampling studies with dogs are now in progress to relate the relative contribution of these two components to the release of radioactivity from the heart. Also in this report, our population experience for several radioisotopes being used by the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program is summarized.

  19. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of (18)F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with (11)C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. (11)C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as (11)C-Choline or (11)C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as (68)Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. (177)Lu- or (90)Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  20. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  1. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  2. [Advances of studies on new technology and method for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Guo, Baolin; Zhang, Guijun; Yan, Zhuyun; Luo, Guangming; Sun, Suqin; Wu, Hezhen; Huang, Linfang; Pang, Xiaohui; Chen, Jianbo

    2012-04-01

    In this review, the authors summarized the new technologies and methods for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials, including molecular identification, chemical identification, morphological identification, microscopic identification and identification based on biological effects. The authors introduced the principle, characteristics, application and prospect on each new technology or method and compared their advantages and disadvantages. In general, new methods make the result more objective and accurate. DNA barcoding technique and spectroscopy identification have their owner obvious strongpoint in universality and digitalization. In the near future, the two techniques are promising to be the main trend for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials. The identification techniques based on microscopy, liquid chromatography, PCR, biological effects and DNA chip will be indispensable supplements. However, the bionic identification technology is just placed in the developing stage at present. PMID:22779348

  3. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    PubMed

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    2016-01-01

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. PMID:27238553

  4. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Eshetu, Gebremedhin Romha; Dejene, Tewedros Ayalew; Telila, Lidet Befkadu; Bekele, Daniel Fekadu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%), followed by whole roots (20.4%). Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68). Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective preparations and

  5. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

    2013-11-01

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

  6. A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  7. Methods for implementing a medicine outlet survey: lessons from the anti-malarial market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years an increasing number of public investments and policy changes have been made to improve the availability, affordability and quality of medicines available to consumers in developing countries, including anti-malarials. It is important to monitor the extent to which these interventions are successful in achieving their aims using quantitative data on the supply side of the market. There are a number of challenges related to studying supply, including outlet sampling, gaining provider cooperation and collecting accurate data on medicines. This paper provides guidance on key steps to address these issues when conducting a medicine outlet survey in a developing country context. While the basic principles of good survey design and implementation are important for all surveys, there are a set of specific issues that should be considered when conducting a medicine outlet survey. Methods This paper draws on the authors’ experience of designing and implementing outlet surveys, including the lessons learnt from ACTwatch outlet surveys on anti-malarial retail supply, and other key studies in the field. Key lessons and points of debate are distilled around the following areas: selecting a sample of outlets; techniques for collecting and analysing data on medicine availability, price and sales volumes; and methods for ensuring high quality data in general. Results and conclusions The authors first consider the inclusion criteria for outlets, contrasting comprehensive versus more focused approaches. Methods for developing a reliable sampling frame of outlets are then presented, including use of existing lists, key informants and an outlet census. Specific issues in the collection of data on medicine prices and sales volumes are discussed; and approaches for generating comparable price and sales volume data across products using the adult equivalent treatment dose (AETD) are explored. The paper concludes with advice on practical considerations

  8. Conventional and Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Sbardella, Emilia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Boschetti, Mara; Vitale, Giovanni; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. Evidence Acquisition: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (females, 50.2%; age, 42.6 ± 17 y). Overall, 52.4% (121/231) had “overt” ECS, 18.6% had “occult” ECS, and 29% had “covert” ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%), and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (54.8%), pancreatic NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus NETs (6.9%), gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), magnetic resonance imaging in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), 131/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in 30.8% (4/13), and 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used in only seven covert cases (sensitivity, 85.7%). Notably, 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases. Conclusions: Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site

  9. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E

    2012-10-23

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the

  10. A Compton camera for low energy gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, James Walter

    C-SPRINT is a prototype electronically-collimated imaging system that has been built using pixellated, low-noise, position-sensitive silicon as the first detector, and a sodium iodide scintillation detector ring as the second detector. The camera was intended to characterize potential performance gains of Compton cameras in nuclear medicine applications. The system consists of a single 4.5 x 1.5 x 0.03 cm3 silicon pad detector module with 2 keV energy resolution centered at the front face of a 50 cm diameter, 12 cm long NaI detector annulus. Calculations of the Uniform Cramer-Rao lower bound show that a "design Compton camera" based on our prototype can challenge existing mechanically-collimated systems at low to medium energies (˜140.5 - 400 keV) despite the deleterious effects of Doppler broadening. Measurements with our current system have yielded system sensitivity and spatial resolution estimates using 99mTc and 131I isotopes. Results showed an absolute efficiency of 1.8 x 10 -7 for 99mTc and 1.2 x 10-6 for 131I. The 99mTc value is an order of magnitude lower than predicted because of a combination of worse than expected silicon detector triggering performance, timing resolution issues, and system dead time effects. After correcting for these, efficiency predictions based on Monte Carlo analysis fall within 10% of the measured values. Spatial resolution estimates are also within 10% of analytical predictions. Measured resolution for the 99mTc point source was 15 min FWHM while in the 131I case, resolution improved to 8 mm FWHM. Extended source imaging was performed to characterize system performance under more challenging conditions. Images obtained were compared with measurements using a clinically-available mechanically collimated Anger camera. A resolution-variance study was also conducted for both isotopes. The results showed that the C-SPRINT camera performance on a per-detected photon basis was worse than the Anger camera for 99mTc but was similar for

  11. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesús, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-01

    A building project of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  12. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  13. Using an Electronic Decision Support Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Polypharmacy and Optimize Medicines: Rationale and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, June; Dovey, Susan; Reith, David; Lloyd, Hywel; Tilyard, Murray; Smith, Alesha

    2016-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy and inappropriate continuation of medicines can lead to a significant risk of adverse drug events and drug interactions with patient harm and escalating health care costs as a result. Thorough review of patients’ medications focusing on the need for each drug can reduce the potential for harm. Limitations in performing effective medicine reviews in practice include consultation time constraints and funding for pharmacy services. We will aim to overcome these problems by designing an automatic electronic decision support tool (the medicines optimization/review and evaluation (MORE) module) that is embedded in general practice electronic records systems. The tool will focus on medicines optimization and reducing polypharmacy to aid prescribers in reviewing medicines and improve patient outcomes. Objective The objectives of this study are: (1) to develop an electronic decision support tool to assist prescribers in performing clinical medication reviews with a particular focus on patients experiencing multimorbidity and polypharmacy, and (2) evaluate and assess the use of the electronic decision support tool, providing pilot data on its usefulness in supporting prescribers during consultations with patients. Methods The first three study phases involve development of clinical rules outlining clinical interventions and the creation and validation of the MORE decision support tool. Phase four is a community-based, single-blind, prospective, 6-month controlled trial involving two interventions and two control general practices, matched for practice demographics. We will be measuring the number of times prescribers engage with the tool, total number of interventions suggested by the tool, and total number of times prescribers change medicines in response to recommendations. There will also be prospective follow-up of patients in the intervention group to examine whether changes to medications are upheld, and to determine the number of

  14. [Sudeck syndrome--a combined clinico-roentgenologic-nuclear medicine study].

    PubMed

    Schurawitzki, H; Wickenhauser, J; Fezoulidis, I; Sadil, V; Fialka, V

    1988-10-01

    147 patients with clinical suspicion of a Sudeck syndrome were submitted to X-ray and nuclear medical examinations. The clinical suspicion was confirmed in 122 patients. In six cases showing no X-ray symptoms, the diagnosis could only be confirmed by scintigraphy. A new classification of stages was necessary for therapeutic reasons: I = early stage, II = acute/subacute stage, III = healing stage, IV = defective recovery. Modifications due to therapy were demonstrated early by 100 scintigraphic check-up examinations, whereas the evidence of such modifications in X-ray pictures was delayed. The study describes the X-ray morphology as well as the scintigraphic manifestations of the Sudeck syndrome. The study shows that scintigraphy is a valuable examination method. It is useful in diagnosing early stages often not detected in X-ray examination, in the assessment of the evolution of a disease, and in the classification of stages. PMID:2467419

  15. Historical Patterns in the Types of Procedures Performed and Radiation Safety Practices Used in Nuclear Medicine From 1945-2009.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Doody, Michele M; Lim, Hyeyeun; Bolus, Norman E; Simon, Steven L; Alexander, Bruce H; Kitahara, Cari M

    2016-07-01

    The authors evaluated historical patterns in the types of procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and the associated radiation safety practices used from 1945-2009 in a sample of U.S. radiologic technologists. In 2013-2014, 4,406 participants from the U.S. Radiologic Technologists (USRT) Study who previously reported working with medical radionuclides completed a detailed survey inquiring about the performance of 23 diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide procedures and the use of radiation safety practices when performing radionuclide procedure-related tasks during five time periods: 1945-1964, 1965-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2009. An overall increase in the proportion of technologists who performed specific diagnostic or therapeutic procedures was observed across the five time periods. Between 1945-1964 and 2000-2009, the median frequency of diagnostic procedures performed substantially increased (from 5 wk to 30 wk), attributable mainly to an increasing frequency of cardiac and non-brain PET scans, while the median frequency of therapeutic procedures performed modestly decreased (from 4 mo to 3 mo). Also a notable increase was observed in the use of most radiation safety practices from 1945-1964 to 2000-2009 (e.g., use of lead-shielded vials during diagnostic radiopharmaceutical preparation increased from 56 to 96%), although lead apron use dramatically decreased (e.g., during diagnostic imaging procedures, from 81 to 7%). These data describe historical practices in nuclear medicine and can be used to support studies of health risks for nuclear medicine technologists. PMID:27218293

  16. Method for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Kehayias, J.J.; Joel, D.D.; Adams, W.H.; Stein, H.L.

    1988-05-26

    A method for in vivo NMR imaging of the blood vessels and organs of a patient characterized by using a dark dye-like imaging substance consisting essentially of a stable, high-purity concentration of D/sub 2/O in a solution with water.

  17. Method for storing nuclear fuel in respositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Sastre, C.

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing polyphenyl or silicon oil as the storage medium is disclosed. Polyphenyls and silicon oils are non-corrosive and are not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  18. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect path to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S(E) factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. This is done by measuring the quasi free cross section of a suitable three body process. The basic features of the THM will be presented together with some applications to demonstrate its practical use.

  19. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, E; Nelson, J; Hangiandreou, N

    2014-06-15

    communication, use optimization (dose and technique factors), automated analysis and data management (automated QC methods, protocol tracking, dose monitoring, issue tracking), and meaningful QC considerations. US 2.0: Ultrasound imaging is evolving at a rapid pace, adding new imaging functions and modes that continue to enhance its clinical utility and benefits to patients. The ultrasound talk will look ahead 10–15 years and consider how medical physicists can bring maximal value to the clinical ultrasound practices of the future. The roles of physics in accreditation and regulatory compliance, image quality and exam optimization, clinical innovation, and education of staff and trainees will all be considered. A detailed examination of expected technology evolution and impact on image quality metrics will be presented. Clinical implementation of comprehensive physics services will also be discussed. Nuclear Medicine 2.0: Although the basic science of nuclear imaging has remained relatively unchanged since its inception, advances in instrumentation continue to advance the field into new territories. With a great number of these advances occurring over the past decade, the role and testing strategies of clinical nuclear medicine physicists must evolve in parallel. The Nuclear Medicine 2.0 presentation is designed to highlight some of the recent advances from a clinical medical physicist perspective and provide ideas and motivation for designing better evaluation strategies. Topics include improvement of traditional physics metrics and analytics, testing implications of hybrid imaging and advanced detector technologies, and strategies for effective implementation into the clinic. Learning Objectives: Become familiar with new physics metrics and analytics in nuclear medicine, CT, and ultrasound. To become familiar with the major new developments of clinical physics support. To understand the physics testing implications of new technologies, hardware, software, and applications

  20. A method in search of a purpose: the internal morality of medicine.

    PubMed

    Arras, J D

    2001-12-01

    I begin this commentary with an expanded typology of theories that endorse an internal morality of medicine. I then subject these theories to a philosophical critique. I argue that the more robust claims for an internal morality fail to establish a stand-alone method for bioethics because they ignore crucial non-medical values, violate norms of justice and fail to establish the normativity of medical values. I then argue that weaker versions of internalism avoid such problems, but at the cost of failing to provide a clear sense in which their moral norms are internal or can ground a comprehensive approach to moral problems. Finally, I explore various functions that an internal morality might serve, concluding with the observation that, while there may be a core of good sense to the notion of an internal morality of medicine, our expectations for it must be drastically lowered. PMID:11735054

  1. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S.; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D.; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA ® for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and 192Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as 131I and 90Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ({{M}0},{{M}1},{{M}2} ), energy group structures ({{E}0},{{E}1},{{E}2} ) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders (≤ft. {{S}4},{{S}8},{{S}16}\\right) , and scattering order expansions ({{P}0} –{{P}6} ); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  ‑3% to  ‑20% with larger differences at lower energies (‑3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  ‑20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for 90Y and 131I were  ‑6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a

  2. [Bibliographic consideration of proper management of radioactive waste on short-lived period nuclides that are used in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayakawa, Toshio

    2009-05-20

    A rational clearance system for medical radioactive waste has not yet been established in Japan. As Europe and USA's ways, the establishment of DIS that medical radioactive waste what are kept in storage room for more than decided period each nuclide except from regulation of radiation's control. The purpose of this report is to clarify the problems with the establishment of DIS in Japan through a literature review of the experience in Europe and the USA and previous research that has been reported in Japan. To establish the DIS system, the radiation control system in nuclear medicine should be rebuilt and put into effect. PMID:19498253

  3. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-21

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA (®) for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and (192)Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as (131)I and (90)Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ([Formula: see text]), energy group structures ([Formula: see text]) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders ([Formula: see text], and scattering order expansions ([Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  -3% to  -20% with larger differences at lower energies (-3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  -20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for (90)Y and (131)I were  -6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a

  4. The Collective Vector method in nuclear and atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, S.D.

    1989-12-01

    We present a brief review of the method of the Collective Vector (CV) and its use in conjunction with the Lanczos algorithm (LA). The combination of these two ideas produces a method for contracting super-large hamiltonians (up to 10{sup 6} {times} 10{sup 6}) by factors of 1000 or more. The contracted hamiltonians, which we call quasi-hamiltonians, typically have dimensions of the order of 10{sup 2} {times} 10{sup 2} and produce corresponding quasi-spectra with associated quasi-eigenfunctions which reproduce the features of the full microscopic spectrum thru the conservation of the spectral moments. Examples of applications to both nuclear and atomic physics are given demonstrating the convergence properties of the method. The application of the LA/CV approach to the problem of modelling nuclear level densities is described and finally we discuss the possibility of conjoining new collective models of nuclear structure with the LA/CV method. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Review of Drying Methods for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Large, W.S.

    1999-10-21

    SRTC is developing technology for direct disposal of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The development program includes analyses and tests to support design and safe operation of a facility for ''road ready'' dry storage of SNF-filled canisters. The current technology development plan includes review of available SNF drying methods and recommendation of a drying method for aluminum SNF.

  6. METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)

  7. New method for calculation of nuclear cluster structure of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibishi, A.I.

    2005-05-06

    In the calculations of the many-nucleon bound states, using the realistic nucleon-nucleon potential, and a three- and four-nucleon potential, the Exact Many-Body Nuclear Cluster Model (EMBNCM) was found to give accurate results, that converege much more rapidly, than those obtained by the Faddeev equation calculations. With the use of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and many-nucleon potentials, containing strong tensor, Majorana, and repulsive core components, the many-body cluster structure of 16O, 27Al, 44Ti, and 48Ti is discussed. In 27Al(p,x)Na reactions we assume that two different nuclear cluster structures of 27Al, gives us two different isotopes of Na: 22Na and 24Na. But the most important result is the existence of two different permutations symmetries of 27Al. Using new method for calculation of nuclear cluster structure of 27Al, we have found two different nuclear cluster structures of 27Al: 24Na+3He and 25Na+d. The internal nuclear cluster wave functions of different nuclear cluster models (nuclear cluster isomers) of the same isotope are not equivalent, if we take into account Many-Body Nuclear Forces, such as 3BF and 4BF. The core clusters of 16O, 27Al, 44Ti, and 48Ti nuclei have a trigonal-pyramide Td, D2d, and C3v symmetry, while exterior clusters in 16O and 27Al[(24Na +3 He)model] nuclei have a trigonal symmetry C2v, and D3h. We have developed a new system of Jacobi coordinates for our EMBNCM model with the symmetry above. The new computer code for determination of direct nuclear cluster reactions has been written in Mathematica 5 programming language. We have found a high level of dependence of the nuclear cluster wave functions from the center of mass and cluster effects.

  8. A nuclear method to authenticate Buddha images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaweerat, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Channuie, J.; Wonglee, S.; Picha, R.; Promping, J.; Silva, K.; Liamsuwan, T.

    2015-05-01

    The value of Buddha images in Thailand varies dramatically depending on authentication and provenance. In general, people use their individual skills to make the justification which frequently leads to obscurity, deception and illegal activities. Here, we propose two non-destructive techniques of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) to reveal respectively structural and elemental profiles of small Buddha images. For NR, a thermal neutron flux of 105 n cm-2s-1 was applied. NAAR needed a higher neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 to activate the samples. Results from NR and NAAR revealed unique characteristic of the samples. Similarity of the profile played a key role in the classification of the samples. The results provided visual evidence to enhance the reliability of authenticity approval. The method can be further developed for routine practice which impact thousands of customers in Thailand.

  9. A simple method to identify the unprocessed Strychnos seeds used in herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Han, Quan-Bin; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Song, Jing-Zheng; Cai, Zong-Wei; Pui-Hay But, Paul; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2008-03-01

    The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica are popularly used in the treatment of arthritis. Being extremely toxic, the raw seeds are forbidden and must be processed before clinical use. The quality of crude and processed Strychnos seeds can be controlled by examining the toxic alkaloids using established HPLC methods. But this procedure does not work in the case where the seeds are powdered and mixed with other medicinal materials in proprietary production. In this quality control study on Strychnos seeds, the contents of two major toxic alkaloids (strychnine and brucine) and a major non-alkaloid constituent (loganic acid) in twenty-four samples of Strychnos seeds (nine processed and fifteen unprocessed) were compared using published HPLC-UV methods. The results showed that the better the seeds were processed, the less loganic acid was found. The alkaloids and non-alkaloid components simultaneously decreased in processed seeds. The content ratio between alkaloids and loganic acid was clearly different in well-processed and crude Strychnos seeds. Based on this interesting discovery, a simple chromatographic method was established which allows a simultaneous determination of loganic acid and the alkaloids strychnine and brucine. The relative peak area (RPA) of strychnine-to-loganic acid was revealed to be a reliable key quality control parameter in order to effectively identify the processed seeds. This new method has been successfully applied to detect the insufficiently processed Strychnos material in marketed herbal medicinal products. PMID:18484543

  10. Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bill; Ruff, Tilman A

    2007-01-01

    Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'. PMID:17987979

  11. Initial tests of a new phantom for investigation of spatial resolution, partial volume effect and detectability in nuclear medicine tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, M.; Engeland, U.; Mattsson, S.; Ebel, G.; Leide-Svegborn, S.

    2011-09-01

    A new phantom has been designed that can provide simultaneously different target to background activity ratios with a linearly changing diameter of lesions. The purpose of the study was to describe and perform initial measurements with the phantom aimed to characterize different nuclear medicine tomographic systems and reconstruction algorithms in their performance and behaviour concerning partial volume effect (PVE) and detectability by varying the acquisition parameters and the count statistics. The phantom has an external vessel whose outline is half-cylindrical and allows it to be incorporated into an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. The phantom itself contains 16 fillable cones with an inner diameter linearly decreasing from 16 mm to 2 mm and a wall thickness of 1 mm acrylic glass. They as well as the outer vessel were separately filled with 99mTc- and 18F-solutions respectively of different activity concentrations. The phantom was easy to fill and air bubbles could easily be avoided. Images taken using a SPECT/CT and a PET/CT system are presented as well as evaluations of PVE. The new phantom seems to be useful for comparison and optimisation of different acquisition and reconstruction parameters in nuclear medicine tomographic studies and for comparisons between various tomographic units.

  12. Nuclear fuel particles and method of making nuclear fuel compacts therefrom

    DOEpatents

    DeVelasco, Rubin I.; Adams, Charles C.

    1991-01-01

    Methods for making nuclear fuel compacts exhibiting low heavy metal contamination and fewer defective coatings following compact fabrication from a mixture of hardenable binder, such as petroleum pitch, and nuclear fuel particles having multiple layer fission-product-retentive coatings, with the dense outermost layer of the fission-product-retentive coating being surrounded by a protective overcoating, e.g., pyrocarbon having a density between about 1 and 1.3 g/cm.sup.3. Such particles can be pre-compacted in molds under relatively high pressures and then combined with a fluid binder which is ultimately carbonized to produce carbonaceous nuclear fuel compacts having relatively high fuel loadings.

  13. Methods for Assessing Nuclear Rotation and Nuclear Positioning in Developing Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Meredith H; Bray, Matthew G; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle cells are large syncytia, containing hundreds of nuclei positioned regularly along the length of the fiber. During development, nuclei are actively distributed throughout the myotube by the microtubule motor proteins, kinesin-1, and cytoplasmic dynein. Nuclear movement consists of translocation along the long axis of the cell concurrent with three-dimensional rotation of nuclei. In this chapter we describe methods for quantitatively assessing the speed of nuclear rotation in cultured myotubes using live-cell imaging techniques coupled with rigid body kinematic analyses. Additionally, we provide protocols for analyzing nuclear distribution in myotubes. PMID:27147049

  14. Helen Flanders Dunbar, John Dewey, and clinical pragmatism: reflections on method in psychosomatic medicine and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Hart, Curtis W

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the method utilized by physicians and major figures in the founding of Clinical Pastoral Education, Helen Flanders Dunbar, in her work of 1943, Psychosomatic Diagnosis, and relates it to the currently evolving approach in bioethics known as clinical pragmatism. It assesses Dewey's influence on both Dunbar in psychosomatic medicine and clinical pragmatism in bioethics, and illustrates the breadth of influence of the school of philosophical thought known as pragmatism with which Dewey's name and those of William James and Charles Sanders Pierce are most often identified. PMID:12385140

  15. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  16. Data Mining Methods for Omics and Knowledge of Crude Medicinal Plants toward Big Data Biology

    PubMed Central

    Afendi, Farit M.; Ono, Naoaki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Darusman, Latifah K.; Kibinge, Nelson; Morita, Aki Hirai; Tanaka, Ken; Horai, Hisayuki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md.; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu) as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology. PMID:24688691

  17. Data Mining Methods for Omics and Knowledge of Crude Medicinal Plants toward Big Data Biology.

    PubMed

    Afendi, Farit M; Ono, Naoaki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Darusman, Latifah K; Kibinge, Nelson; Morita, Aki Hirai; Tanaka, Ken; Horai, Hisayuki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in metabolomics and related area, discusses several statistical methods for handling multivariate data and shows their application on Indonesian blended herbal medicines (Jamu) as a case study. Exploration using Biplot reveals many plants are rarely utilized while some plants are highly utilized toward specific efficacy. Furthermore, the ingredients of Jamu formulas are modeled using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. This model produces 71.6% correct classification in predicting efficacy. Permutation test then is used to determine plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu formula by evaluating the significance of the PLS-DA coefficients. Next, in order to explain the role of plants that serve as main ingredients in Jamu medicines, information of pharmacological activity of the plants is added to the predictor block. Then N-PLS-DA model, multiway version of PLS-DA, is utilized to handle the three-dimensional array of the predictor block. The resulting N-PLS-DA model reveals that the effects of some pharmacological activities are specific for certain efficacy and the other activities are diverse toward many efficacies. Mathematical modeling introduced in the present study can be utilized in global analysis of big data targeting to reveal the underlying biology. PMID:24688691

  18. [Design method of constitution regulating and healthcare foods based on medicinal property combination mode].

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Yan, Su-rong; Ma, Li; Zu, Wen-qiang; Du, Li; Zhang, Yan-ling; Wang, Yun

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the herbal prescription therapy for corresponding constitutional diseases is a common constitution regulating method. This method has an obvious effect in treating and regulating constitution-related diseases. However, for people who do not have disease, they prefer to regulate constitution with dietary therapy. In this paper, the researchers came up with a design method of constitution regulating and healthcare foods based on medicinal property combination mode of clinical empirical formulas. With "Yupinfeng San", a common formula for Qi-insufficiency constitution and specific endowment constitution, as the example for constitution regulating and healthcare foods, the researchers proved the effectiveness and rationality of healthcare food schemes in terms of the efficacy of single herb and the modern pharmacological study. PMID:26983217

  19. ITPI: Initial Transcription Process-Based Identification Method of Bioactive Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baixia; Li, Yanwen; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Zhiyong; Bi, Tian; He, Yusu; Song, Kuokui; Wang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Identification of bioactive components is an important area of research in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. The reported identification methods only consider the interaction between the components and the target proteins, which is not sufficient to explain the influence of TCM on the gene expression. Here, we propose the Initial Transcription Process-based Identification (ITPI) method for the discovery of bioactive components that influence transcription factors (TFs). In this method, genome-wide chip detection technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The TFs of DEGs were derived from GeneCards. The components influencing the TFs were derived from STITCH. The bioactive components in the formula were identified by evaluating the molecular similarity between the components in formula and the components that influence the TF of DEGs. Using the formula of Tian-Zhu-San (TZS) as an example, the reliability and limitation of ITPI were examined and 16 bioactive components that influence TFs were identified. PMID:27034696

  20. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTROL OF A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.

    1962-12-11

    A method and apparatus are described for controlling an overmoderated nuclear reactor containing columns of fuel elements aligned in a plurality of coolant tubes in a stream of coolant water. The invention includes means for adjusting the distance between halves of the fuel element column to vary the relative proportion of fuel and moderator at the center of the reactor. (AEC)

  1. [Modified histological methods using a nuclear dye gallocyanine].

    PubMed

    Zadorozhnyĭ, V V

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that a nuclear stain; gallocyanine, be used simultaneously with the three main histological staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin, Van-Gieson's, and Nissl' stainings. This modification is technically simple, gives preparations of a high quality, and is time- and labour-saving. PMID:6186229

  2. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hauth, J.J.; Anicetti, R.J.

    1962-12-01

    A method is described for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. According to the patent uranium dioxide is compacted in a metal tabe by directlng intense sound waves at the tabe prior to tamp packing or vibration compaction of the powder. (AEC)

  3. METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roake, W.E.; Evans, E.A.; Brite, D.W.

    1960-06-21

    A method of preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor is given in which an internally and externally cooled fuel element consisting of two coaxial tubes having a plurality of integral radial ribs extending between the tubes and containing a powdered fuel material is isostatically pressed to form external coolant channels and compact the powder simultaneously.

  4. Bayesian Monte Carlo Method for Nuclear Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, A.J.

    2015-01-15

    A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using TALYS. The result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by an experiment based weight.

  5. Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2010-02-23

    Methods for manufacturing porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's). Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, a thin coating of nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made, for example, of reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  6. Applications of automatic mesh generation and adaptive methods in computational medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.A.; Macleod, R.S.; Johnson, C.R.; Eason, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Important problems in Computational Medicine exist that can benefit from the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement techniques. Biological systems are so inherently complex that only efficient models running on state of the art hardware can begin to simulate reality. To tackle the complex geometries associated with medical applications we present a general purpose mesh generation scheme based upon the Delaunay tessellation algorithm and an iterative point generator. In addition, automatic, two- and three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement methods are presented that are derived from local and global estimates of the finite element error. Mesh generation and adaptive refinement techniques are utilized to obtain accurate approximations of bioelectric fields within anatomically correct models of the heart and human thorax. Specifically, we explore the simulation of cardiac defibrillation and the general forward and inverse problems in electrocardiography (ECG). Comparisons between uniform and adaptive refinement techniques are made to highlight the computational efficiency and accuracy of adaptive methods in the solution of field problems in computational medicine.

  7. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    Weitekamp, Daniel P.; Bielecki, Anthony; Zax, David B.; Zilm, Kurt W.; Pines, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nucleii. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques.

  9. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Method of determining a content of a nuclear waste container

    DOEpatents

    Bernardi, Richard T.; Entwistle, David

    2003-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for identifying contents of a nuclear waste container. The method includes the steps of forming an image of the contents of the container using digital radiography, visually comparing contents of the image with expected contents of the container and performing computer tomography on the container when the visual inspection reveals an inconsistency between the contents of the image and the expected contents of the container.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring nuclear magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    Weitekamp, D.P.; Bielecki, A.; Zax, D.B.; Zilm, K.W.; Pines, A.

    1987-12-01

    A method for studying the chemical and structural characteristics of materials is disclosed. The method includes placement of a sample material in a high strength polarizing magnetic field to order the sample nuclei. The condition used to order the sample is then removed abruptly and the ordering of the sample allowed to evolve for a time interval. At the end of the time interval, the ordering of the sample is measured by conventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. 5 figs.

  12. [Local straight line screening method for the detection of Chinese proprietary medicines containing undeclared prescription drugs].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Cao, Yan; Le, Jian; Chen, Gui-Liang; Chai, Yi-Feng; Lu, Feng

    2009-02-01

    The present paper constructs a new approach named local straight-line screening (LSLS) to detect Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) containing undeclared prescription drugs (UPD). Different from traditional methods used in analysis of multi-component spectrum, LSLS is proposed according to the characteristics of original infrared spectra of the UPD and suspected CPM, without any pattern recognition or concentration model establishment. Spectrum-subtraction leads to the variance in local straight line, which serves as a key in discrimination of whether suspected CPD is adulterated or not. Sibutramine hydrochloride, fenfluramine hydrochloride, sildenafil citrate and lovastatin were used as reference substances of UPD to analyze 16 suspected CPM samples. The results show that LSLS can obtain an accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis of suspected CPM. It is possible for the method to be potentially used in the preliminary screening of CPM containing possible UPD. PMID:19445196

  13. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  14. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  15. NUCLEAR MEDICINE PRACTICES IN THE 1950s THROUGH THE mid-1970s AND OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION DOSES TO TECHNOLOGISTS FROM DIAGNOSTIC RADIOISOTOPE PROCEDURES

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B.; Mettler, Fred A.; Beckner, William M.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Gross, Milton D.; Hays, Marguerite T.; Kirchner, Peter T.; Langan, James K.; Reba, Richard C.; Smith, Gary T.; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, we collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s-1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered 131I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of 203Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using 99mTc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of 99mTc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  16. Simulation of Thermal Responses of 125TeO2 Solid Target to Energetic Proton Bombardment from Cyclotron When Fabricating 124I Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peir, Jinn-Jer; Liang, Jenq-Horng; Duh, Ting-Shieh

    With nuclear medicine receiving greater attention due to its unique characteristics in both diagnostics and therapeutics during recent decades, finding a highly controllable fabrication method becomes more urgent. The radioisotope 124I (T1/2=4.18d Eβ+=2.13MeV Iβ+=25%) has gained plentiful interests in the medical usages such as functioning imaging of cell proliferation in brain tumors using [124I]iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), imaging of immunoreactions in tumors using 124I-labelled monoclonal antibodies, the in-vivo imaging of 124I-labelled tyrosine derivatives, and the classical imaging of thyroid diseases with 124I, among others. Furthermore, it is because that thermal response of target during the fabrication process may affect the production of 124I to some extent and needs thorough investigations. Hence, the compact cyclotron located in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was employed in this study to generate 20MeV protons to irradiate TeO2 solid targets in which the radioisotopes 124I were produced through the 125Te(p, 2n)124I nuclear reaction. In addition, the widely-used ANSYS computer code was adopted to theoretically analyze thermal responses of TeO2 to irradiation cases with variations in ion beam current and its thermal conductivity. The results indicate that TeO2 temperature is strongly dependent on its thermal conductivity and ion beam current. In particular, TeO2 surface temperature is extremely sensitive to the air-gap size between TeO2 and target holder. Thus the target holder is suggested to be re-designed in order to prevent TeO2 from melting and a high efficiency production of radioisotopes 124I for nuclear medical diagnostics can be successfully achieved.

  17. [Problem-based learning, description of a pedagogical method leading to evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Chalon, P; Delvenne, C; Pasleau, F

    2000-04-01

    Problem-Based Learning is an educational method which uses health care scenarios to provide a context for learning and to elaborate knowledge through discussion. Additional expectations are to stimulate critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and to develop clinical reasoning taking into account the patient's psychosocial environment and preferences, the economic requirements as well as the best evidence from biomedical research. Appearing at the end of the 60's, it has been adopted by 10% of medical schools world-wide. PBL follows the same rules as Evidence-Based Medicine but is student-centered and provides the information-seeking skills necessary for self-directed life long learning. In this short article, we review the theoretical basis and process of PBL, emphasizing the teacher-student relationship and discussing the suggested advantages and disadvantages of this curriculum. Students in PBL programs make greater use of self-selected references and online searching. From this point of view, PBL strengthens the role of health libraries in medical education, and prepares the future physician for Evidence-Based Medicine. PMID:10909306

  18. Evaluation of sample pretreatment methods for analysis of polonium isotopes in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sathyapriya R; Nair, Madhu G; Rao, D D

    2014-12-01

    Herbal infusions like ayurvedic aristas are widely consumed by Indian population for good health. With increasing awareness about radiological assessment, an effort was made to assess the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in herbal medicines. (210)Po is an important alpha particle emitter contributing to internal dose to man from ingestion. Though (210)Po can be spontaneously deposited on silver disk for alpha spectrometric measurements with less radiochemical step, great care has to be taken during the sample pretreatment step owing to the high volatility of polonium even at low temperatures. Aim of the study was to evaluate an appropriate sample pretreatment method for estimation of polonium in herbal medicines. (209)Po was used for radiochemical yield calculation. Conventional open vessel wet ashing, physical evaporation, freeze-drying and microwave digestion in a Teflon vessel were examined. The recovery ranged between 9 and 79%. The lowest recovery was obtained for the samples that were processed by open vessel digestion without any volume reduction. The recoveries were comparable for those samples that were freeze dried and subjected to HNO3 + HClO4 + H2O2 + HF acid digestion and microwave digested samples. (210)Po concentration in the samples ranged from 11.3 to 39.6 mBq/L. PMID:25176601

  19. Design and manufacturing of anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom for use in nuclear medicine centres in Chile.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, A; Díaz Londoño, G; García, M; Ruíz, F; Andrade, P; Pérez, A

    2014-12-01

    Anthropomorphic phantoms are used in nuclear medicine for imaging quality control, calibration of gamma spectrometry system for the study of internal contamination with radionuclides and for internal dosimetric studies. These are constructed of materials that have radiation attenuation coefficients similar to those of the different organs and tissues of the human body. The material usually used for the manufacture of phantoms is polymethyl methacrylate. Other materials used for this purpose are polyethylene, polystyrene and epoxy resin. This project presents the design and manufacture of an anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom that includes the cervical spine, trachea and oesophagus, using a polyester resin (ρ = 1.1 g cm(-3)). Its linear and mass attenuation coefficients were experimentally determined and simulated by means of XCOM software, finding that this material reproduces the soft tissue ICRU-44 in a range of energies between 80 keV and 11 MeV, with less than a 5 % difference. PMID:24567500

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy For Metabolic Profiling of Medicinal Plants and Their Products.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy has multidisciplinary applications, including excellent impact in metabolomics. The analytical capacity of NMR spectroscopy provides information for easy qualitative and quantitative assessment of both endogenous and exogenous metabolites present in biological samples. The complexity of a particular metabolite and its contribution in a biological system are critically important for understanding the functional state that governs the organism's phenotypes. This review covers historical aspects of developments in the NMR field, its applications in chemical profiling, metabolomics, and quality control of plants and their derived medicines, foods, and other products. The bottlenecks of NMR in metabolic profiling are also discussed, keeping in view the future scope and further technological interventions. PMID:26575437

  1. Nuclear war in the Middle East: where is the voice of medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Cham E; Burkle, Frederick M

    2011-10-01

    Once again, the politically volatile Middle East and accompanying rhetoric has escalated the risk of a major nuclear exchange. Diplomatic efforts have failed to make the medical consequences of such an exchange a leading element in negotiations. The medical and academic communities share this denial. Without exaggeration, the harsh reality of the enormous consequences of an imminently conceivable nuclear war between Iran and Israel will encompass an unprecedented millions of dead and an unavoidable decline in public health and environmental devastation that would impact major populations in the Middle East for decades to come. Nuclear deterrence and the uncomfortable but real medical and public health consequences must become an integral part of a broader global health diplomacy that emphasizes health security along with poverty reduction and good governance. PMID:22509536

  2. Discovery of rhenium and masurium (technetium) by Ida Noddack-Tacke and Walter Noddack. Forgotten heroes of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Biersack, H-J; Stelzner, F; Knapp, F F

    2015-01-01

    The history of the early identification of elements and their designation to the Mendeleev Table of the Elements was an important chapter in German science in which Ida (1896-1978) and Walter (1893-1960) Noddack played an important role in the first identification of rhenium (element 75, 1925) and technetium (element 43, 1933). In 1934 Ida Noddack was also the first to predict fission of uranium into smaller atoms. Although the Noddacks did not for some time later receive the recognition for the first identification of technetium-99m, their efforts have appropriately more recently been recognized. The discoveries of these early pioneers are even more astounding in light of the limited technologies and resources which were available during this period. The Noddack discoveries of elements 43 and 75 are related to the subsequent use of rhenium-188 (beta/gamma emitter) and technetium-99m (gamma emitter) in nuclear medicine. In particular, the theranostic relationship between these two generator-derived radioisotopes has been demonstrated and offers new opportunities in the current era of personalized medicine. PMID:26478117

  3. Nuclear-weighted X-ray maximum entropy method - NXMEM.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sebastian; Bindzus, Niels; Christensen, Mogens; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Subtle structural features such as disorder and anharmonic motion may be accurately characterized from nuclear density distributions (NDDs). As a viable alternative to neutron diffraction, this paper introduces a new approach named the nuclear-weighted X-ray maximum entropy method (NXMEM) for reconstructing pseudo NDDs. It calculates an electron-weighted nuclear density distribution (eNDD), exploiting that X-ray diffraction delivers data of superior quality, requires smaller sample volumes and has higher availability. NXMEM is tested on two widely different systems: PbTe and Ba(8)Ga(16)Sn(30). The first compound, PbTe, possesses a deceptively simple crystal structure on the macroscopic level that is unable to account for its excellent thermoelectric properties. The key mechanism involves local distortions, and the capability of NXMEM to probe this intriguing feature is established with simulated powder diffraction data. In the second compound, Ba(8)Ga(16)Sn(30), disorder among the Ba guest atoms is analysed with both experimental and simulated single-crystal diffraction data. In all cases, NXMEM outperforms the maximum entropy method by substantially enhancing the nuclear resolution. The induced improvements correlate with the amount of available data, rendering NXMEM especially powerful for powder and low-resolution single-crystal diffraction. The NXMEM procedure can be implemented in existing software and facilitates widespread characterization of disorder in functional materials. PMID:25537384

  4. Introduction of the treatment method of Thai traditional medicine: its validity and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Disayavanish, C; Disayavanish, P

    1998-12-01

    Thai traditional medicine is one of the most valuable heritages handed down from Thai ancestors. In spite of increasing popularity of Western modern medicine, Thai traditional medicine is still widely used in taking care of health in daily life especially among the rural Thais. For the past decade, the government and private organizations have worked in collaboration to restore the values and popularity of Thai traditional medicine. Recently, the Ministry of Public Health has promoted the use of herbal medicine, and the Center for Herbal Information has collected data and performed scientific studies on this matter. Thai Massage Restoration Project has also revised the text on Thai traditional massage, which is now widely practised. The future prospects of Thai traditional medicine are rather positive because the Foundation for Restoring Thai Traditional Medicine and the College of Ayurvedic Medicine have the program and curriculum to produce personnel on traditional medicine. They have also attempted to integrate the basic knowledge of Western medicine into the study and practice of Thai traditional medicine. PMID:9895186

  5. More accurate matrix-matched quantification using standard superposition method for herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Shi, Xiao-Wei; Liu, E-Hu; Sheng, Long-Sheng; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2012-09-01

    Various analytical technologies have been developed for quantitative determination of marker compounds in herbal medicines (HMs). One important issue is matrix effects that must be addressed in method validation for different detections. Unlike biological fluids, blank matrix samples for calibration are usually unavailable for HMs. In this work, practical approaches for minimizing matrix effects in HMs analysis were proposed. The matrix effects in quantitative analysis of five saponins from Panax notoginseng were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Matrix components were found to interfere with the ionization of target analytes when mass spectrometry (MS) detection were employed. To compensate the matrix signal suppression/enhancement, two matrix-matched methods, standard addition method with the target-knockout extract and standard superposition method with a HM extract were developed and tested in this work. The results showed that the standard superposition method is simple and practical for overcoming matrix effects for quantitative analysis of HMs. Moreover, the interference components were observed to interfere with light scattering of target analytes when evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was utilized for quantitative analysis of HMs but was not indicated when Ultraviolet detection (UV) were employed. Thus, the issue of interference effects should be addressed and minimized for quantitative HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-MS methodologies for quality control of HMs. PMID:22835696

  6. Social science theory and methods in the study of alternative and complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, C M

    1995-01-01

    Anthropology is a holistic science with theory, data, and methods that can be of great service to researchers on alternative medicine. In this paper useful models and methodologic stances were identified that can help researchers to deal creatively with the stresses imposed on science by worldview preferences that differ among both scientists and healthcare systems. I have argued that rather than prefer one paradigm over another, researchers should select techniques based on a rationale featuring deep knowledge of the context of the healthcare issue they want to study. This will not only produce the most accurate and useful data, but should also help free science of its current strictures and allow expansion into a wider conversation about human and medical realities. PMID:9395601

  7. Nuclear fuel alloys or mixtures and method of making thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mariani, Robert Dominick; Porter, Douglas Lloyd

    2016-04-05

    Nuclear fuel alloys or mixtures and methods of making nuclear fuel mixtures are provided. Pseudo-binary actinide-M fuel mixtures form alloys and exhibit: body-centered cubic solid phases at low temperatures; high solidus temperatures; and/or minimal or no reaction or inter-diffusion with steel and other cladding materials. Methods described herein through metallurgical and thermodynamics advancements guide the selection of amounts of fuel mixture components by use of phase diagrams. Weight percentages for components of a metallic additive to an actinide fuel are selected in a solid phase region of an isothermal phase diagram taken at a temperature below an upper temperature limit for the resulting fuel mixture in reactor use. Fuel mixtures include uranium-molybdenum-tungsten, uranium-molybdenum-tantalum, molybdenum-titanium-zirconium, and uranium-molybdenum-titanium systems.

  8. Regularization methods for Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Nico; Lee, Dean; Liu, Weitao; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory for the two-body system for several lattice spacings at lowest order in the pionless as well as in the pionful theory. We discuss issues of regularizations and predictions for the effective range expansion. In the pionless case, a simple Gaussian smearing allows to demonstrate lattice spacing independence over a wide range of lattice spacings. We show that regularization methods known from the continuum formulation are necessary as well as feasible for the pionful approach.

  9. Method of preparing nuclear wastes for tansportation and interim storage

    DOEpatents

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Galvin, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste is formed into a substantially water-insoluble solid for temporary storage and transportation by mixing the calcined waste with at least 10 weight percent powdered anhydrous sodium silicate to form a mixture and subjecting the mixture to a high humidity environment for a period of time sufficient to form cementitious bonds by chemical reaction. The method is suitable for preparing an interim waste form from dried high level radioactive wastes.

  10. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or

  11. Methods and apparatuses for the development of microstructured nuclear fuels

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Carroll, David W.; Devlin, David J.

    2009-04-21

    Microstructured nuclear fuel adapted for nuclear power system use includes fissile material structures of micrometer-scale dimension dispersed in a matrix material. In one method of production, fissile material particles are processed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fluidized-bed reactor including a gas inlet for providing controlled gas flow into a particle coating chamber, a lower bed hot zone region to contain powder, and an upper bed region to enable powder expansion. At least one pneumatic or electric vibrator is operationally coupled to the particle coating chamber for causing vibration of the particle coater to promote uniform powder coating within the particle coater during fuel processing. An exhaust associated with the particle coating chamber and can provide a port for placement and removal of particles and powder. During use of the fuel in a nuclear power reactor, fission products escape from the fissile material structures and come to rest in the matrix material. After a period of use in a nuclear power reactor and subsequent cooling, separation of the fissile material from the matrix containing the embedded fission products will provide an efficient partitioning of the bulk of the fissile material from the fission products. The fissile material can be reused by incorporating it into new microstructured fuel. The fission products and matrix material can be incorporated into a waste form for disposal or processed to separate valuable components from the fission products mixture.

  12. Ab initio methods for nuclear properties - a computational physics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Pieter

    2011-04-01

    A microscopic theory for the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses formidable challenges for high-performance computing. Several ab-initio methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The ab-initio no-core full configuration (NCFC) approach is based on basis space expansion methods and uses Slater determinants of single-nucleon basis functions to express the nuclear wave function. In this approach, the quantum many-particle problem becomes a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalues of this matrix give us the binding energies, and the corresponding eigenvectors the nuclear wave functions. These wave functions can be employed to evaluate experimental quantities. In order to reach numerical convergence for fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds 1 billion, and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. I discuss different strategies for distributing and solving this large sparse matrix on current multicore computer architectures, including methods to deal with with memory bottleneck. Several of these strategies have been implemented in the code MFDn, which is a parallel fortran code for nuclear structure calculations. I will show scaling behavior and compare the performance of the pure MPI version with the hybrid MPI/OpenMP code on Cray XT4 and XT5 platforms. For large core counts (typically 5,000 and above), the hybrid version is more efficient than pure MPI. With this code, we have been able to predict properties of the unstable nucleus 14F, which have since been confirmed by experiments. I will also give an overview of other recent results for nuclei in the A = 6 to 16 range with 2- and 3-body interactions. Supported in part by US DOE Grant DE-FC02-09ER41582.

  13. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  14. A novel method to precisely assemble loose nanofiber structures for regenerative medicine applications.

    PubMed

    Beachley, Vince; Katsanevakis, Eleni; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-02-01

    Polymer nanofibers are favorable for tissue engineering scaffolds because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and biomimicry of the extracellular matrix. Random and uniaxially oriented polymer nanofibers are easily fabricated by conventional electrospinning techniques; however, control over fiber organization within nanofiber structures is limited when they are collected directly from an electrospinning jet. The regenerative medicine applications of electrospun scaffolds could be expanded by developing assembly methods that allow better control of fiber organization. Here, a novel technique is presented that utilizes parallel automated tracks to orient and collect nanofibers from an electrospinning jet. The stabilized fibers are then subsequently assembled into desirable structures. It is difficult to assemble complex structures directly from an electrospinning jet because of high electrical charge and velocities, so this technology adds an intermediate step where nanofibers are immobilized on automated tracks. The result is a continuous steady-state delivery of static stabilized nanofibers that provides a unique and promising platform for automated post processing into useful nanofiber structures. This technique also allows for an indefinite amount of time, as determined by design parameters, for fibers to dry or cool before they contact other nanofibers in the collection site, thus eliminating potential for fiber-to-fiber adhesions even with slow evaporating solvents or high-temperature melts. To demonstrate potential in regenerative medicine applications, several nanofiber structures were fabricated, including: 2D structures with well-controlled fiber density; 3D loosely assembled aligned nanofiber structures with good cell penetration properties; and, complex layer-by-layer 3D aligned fiber structures assembled by integration with post-processing techniques. PMID:23184622

  15. Clinical holistic medicine: teaching orgasm for females with chronic anorgasmia using the Betty Dodson method.

    PubMed

    Struck, Pia; Ventegodt, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the Betty Dodson method of breaking the female orgasm barrier in chronic anorgasmic women. The aim was sexual and existential healing (salutogenesis) through direct confrontation and integration of both the repressed shame, guilt, and other negative feelings associated with body, genitals, and sexuality, and the repressed sexual pleasure and desire. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinic data from holistic sexological manual therapeutic intervention, an intensive subtype of clinical holistic medicine (CHM). The patients received 3 "e 5 h of group therapy, integrating short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) and complementary medicine (CAM bodywork, manual sexology similar to the inverted exclamation mark section signsexological examination inverted exclamation mark ). The therapy used the advanced tools of reparenting, genital acceptance, acceptance through touch, and direct sexual clitoral stimulation. A clitoral vibrator was used. Participants were 500 female patients between 18 and 88 years of age (mean of 35 years) with chronic anorgasmia (for 12 years on average) who were participating in the inverted exclamation mark section signorgasm course for anorgasmic women inverted exclamation mark ; 25% of the patients had never experienced an orgasm. Our results show that 465 patients (93%) had an orgasm during therapy, witnessed by the therapist, and 35 patients (7%) did not. Postmenopausal women were as able to achieve orgasm as fertile women, as were women who never had an orgasm. No patients had detectable negative side effects or adverse effects. NNT: 1.04 < NNT < 1.12, NNH > 500. Therapeutic value: TV = NNH/NNT > 446. Our conclusions are that holistic sexological manual therapy may be rational, safe, ethical, and efficient. PMID:18836654

  16. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling & paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche. PMID:26134619

  17. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche.

  18. Systems and methods for dismantling a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Heim, Robert R; Adams, Scott Ryan; Cole, Matthew Denver; Kirby, William E; Linnebur, Paul Damon

    2014-10-28

    Systems and methods for dismantling a nuclear reactor are described. In one aspect the system includes a remotely controlled heavy manipulator ("manipulator") operatively coupled to a support structure, and a control station in a non-contaminated portion of a workspace. The support structure provides the manipulator with top down access into a bioshield of a nuclear reactor. At least one computing device in the control station provides remote control to perform operations including: (a) dismantling, using the manipulator, a graphite moderator, concrete walls, and a ceiling of the bioshield, the manipulator being provided with automated access to all internal portions of the bioshield; (b) loading, using the manipulator, contaminated graphite blocks from the graphite core and other components from the bioshield into one or more waste containers; and (c) dispersing, using the manipulator, dust suppression and contamination fixing spray to contaminated matter.

  19. Teaching methods in Hawler College of Medicine in Iraq: A qualitative assessment from teachers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical education in Iraq is poorly assessed and there is a general lack of documented knowledge about the challenges facing this field and the needs for its development. This study aimed to assess the existing teaching methods in the Hawler College of Medicine, Iraq from teaching staff perspectives and assess the knowledge of the teaching staff about student-centred learning. Methods A qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of a purposive sample of 83 teaching staff in Hawler Medical University was conducted. The questionnaire addressed the participants’ view on the positive aspects and problems of the current teaching methods and priorities to change it. The qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis. Results The study revealed significant problems facing the existing teaching methods including having large number of students in the lecture hall (45.0 %), having focus on teacher-centred teaching (45.0 %) and lack of infrastructures and facilities suitable for proper teaching (26.7 %). The priorities for improving the quality of teaching methods included adoption of small group teaching strategy in all study years (34.6 %), improving the infrastructure and facilities for teaching in the college (34.6 %) and provision of continuous academic development programs for the teaching staff (24.3 %). Conclusions The existing medical education system face significant problems and it needs important and comprehensive improvements in different areas. There is a need for further research in this field to explore the identified problems in a more in-depth manner in order to better understand of the problems and needs of this important area of education. PMID:22840193

  20. Radiologic and nuclear medicine studies in the United States and worldwide: frequency, radiation dose, and comparison with other radiation sources--1950-2007.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A; Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Faulkner, Keith; Gilley, Debbie B; Gray, Joel E; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Lipoti, Jill A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCrohan, John L; Stabin, Michael G; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation each conducted respective assessments of all radiation sources in the United States and worldwide. The goal of this article is to summarize and combine the results of these two publicly available surveys and to compare the results with historical information. In the United States in 2006, about 377 million diagnostic and interventional radiologic examinations and 18 million nuclear medicine examinations were performed. The United States accounts for about 12% of radiologic procedures and about one-half of nuclear medicine procedures performed worldwide. In the United States, the frequency of diagnostic radiologic examinations has increased almost 10-fold (1950-2006). The U.S. per-capita annual effective dose from medical procedures has increased about sixfold (0.5 mSv [1980] to 3.0 mSv [2006]). Worldwide estimates for 2000-2007 indicate that 3.6 billion medical procedures with ionizing radiation (3.1 billion diagnostic radiologic, 0.5 billion dental, and 37 million nuclear medicine examinations) are performed annually. Worldwide, the average annual per-capita effective dose from medicine (about 0.6 mSv of the total 3.0 mSv received from all sources) has approximately doubled in the past 10-15 years. PMID:19789227

  1. A Delphi Method Analysis to Create an Emergency Medicine Educational Patient Satisfaction Survey

    PubMed Central

    London, Kory S.; Singal, Bonita; Fowler, Jennifer; Prepejchal, Rebecca; Simmons, Stefanie; Finefrock, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Feedback on patient satisfaction (PS) as a means to monitor and improve performance in patient communication is lacking in residency training. A physician’s promotion, compensation and job satisfaction may be impacted by his individual PS scores, once he is in practice. Many communication and satisfaction surveys exist but none focus on the emergency department setting for educational purposes. The goal of this project was to create an emergency medicine-based educational PS survey with strong evidence for content validity. Methods We used the Delphi Method (DM) to obtain expert opinion via an iterative process of surveying. Questions were mined from four PS surveys as well as from group suggestion. The DM analysis determined the structure, content and appropriate use of the tool. The group used four-point Likert-type scales and Lynn’s criteria for content validity to determine relevant questions from the stated goals. Results Twelve recruited experts participated in a series of seven surveys to achieve consensus. A 10-question, single-page survey with an additional page of qualitative questions and demographic questions was selected. Thirty one questions were judged to be relevant from an original 48-question list. Of these, the final 10 questions were chosen. Response rates for individual survey items was 99.5%. Conclusion The DM produced a consensus survey with content validity evidence. Future work will be needed to obtain evidence for response process, internal structure and construct validity. PMID:26759663

  2. Method for producing heat treated composite nuclear fuel containers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described for producing composite constructed nuclear fuel containers for service in water cooled nuclear fission reactors comprising a tubular zirconium alloy casing having a protective lining of a zirconium metal covering the inside surface of the zirconium alloy tubular casing and being metallurgically bonded thereto, consisting essentially of the steps of: heat treating a large diameter zirconium alloy tube comprising a beta-quench treatment of heating the zirconium alloy to a temperature sufficient to recrystallize the zirconium alloy to its beta phase of at least about 970 C and then rapidly cooling the thus heated and recrystallized zirconium alloy tube stock, heat treating a large diameter zirconium metal hollow liner stock comprising a beta-quench treatment of heating the zirconium metal to a temperature sufficient to recrystallize the zirconium metal to its beta phase of at least about 900 C and then rapidly cooling the thus heated and recrystallized zirconium metal hollow liner stock, assembling the heat treated zirconium alloy tube stock and heat treated lining stock with the hollow zirconium metal lining stock inserted inclose fitting contact within the tube stock, metallurgically bonding the tube and liner stocks providing a composite tubular stock unit with the tube stock surrounding the lining stock, and reducing the circumference of the assembled composite tubular stock unit down to a size suitable for service as a lined tubular container for nuclear fuel in a series of progressive reductions in circumference applied in sequence.

  3. Decommissioning and Cutting Methods in the Nuclear Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bensoussan, E.

    2008-07-01

    A few states started in the early forties/fifties the first development of nuclear technologies. Some of them now own a great amount of nuclear installations which entirely fulfil their assignment. In some cases, the life time of the nuclear power plants which were scheduled for approximately 30 years have been extended by more than 50%, the other ones as well as fuel production and enrichment plants, experimental or research reactors, will have to be dismantled in the near future. The decommissioning of those installations is definitely one of the twenty first century challenge. It is differently managed depending on the countries and their energetic and development policies, their financial consideration, the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site in its original condition. A real cooperation is existing in between the people involved in different countries through different types of conferences and meetings during which the main subjects are: - The safety of the operators during all the phases of decommissioning operations; - Restrictions and dimensioning of the required equipment; - Storage and waste management; - Elaboration of procedures for recording all different steps and processes. Some of the techniques are described in this paper without being exhaustive: Hot cutting, oxy-fuel and plasma cutting; Band saw; Milling saw; Milling; Cutting tool; Wheel cutting; Shear cutting; And any other cutting processes or dismantling methods. (authors)

  4. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    In this report the excitation functions for production of gallium-66 via {alpha}-induced nuclear reactions on enriched zinc-66 have been measured with E{sub {alpha}}{le}27.3 Mev and E{sub {alpha}}{le}43.7 MeV employing the stack thin-target technique. In addition, the induced activity of gallium-67 in the same sets of targets allowed an evaluation of the excitation functions of the corresponding nuclear reactions. These preliminary studies have demonstrated that sufficient levels of gallium-66 can be produced by {alpha}-induced reactions on enriched zinc targets. A series of radioiodinated analogues of 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}, {alpha}-diphenylacetate (QNB) have been prepared. These new analogues include 1-azabicyclo-(2.2.2)oct-3-yl{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(4-iodophenyl)-{alpha}-methylacetate(2,I-WNA), 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl (3-iodo)-xanthene-9-carboxylate (3,I-QNX), and 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(E-1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (4,I-QNP), which have also been radiolabeled with iodine-125 with high specific activity. The biodistribution, brain uptake, and receptor specificity of these new analogues are currently being studied. Shipments of radioactive agents made to collaborators during this period included. One shipment of iodine-125-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Applications of the Trojan Horse method in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, Claudio

    2015-02-24

    The study of the energy production in stars and related nucleosyntesis processes requires increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction cross section and reaction rates at interaction energy. In order to overcome the experimental difficulties, arising from small cross-sections involved in charge particle induced reactions at astrophysical energies, and from the presence of electron screening, it was necessary to introduce indirect methods. Trough these methods it is possible to measure cross sections at very small energies and retrieve information on electron screening effect when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect technique to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S-factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic theory of the THM is discussed in the case of non-resonant.

  6. Applications of the Trojan Horse method in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitaleri, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    The study of the energy production in stars and related nucleosyntesis processes requires increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction cross section and reaction rates at interaction energy. In order to overcome the experimental difficulties, arising from small cross-sections involved in charge particle induced reactions at astrophysical energies, and from the presence of electron screening, it was necessary to introduce indirect methods. Trough these methods it is possible to measure cross sections at very small energies and retrieve information on electron screening effect when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect technique to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S-factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic theory of the THM is discussed in the case of non-resonant.

  7. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  8. HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Quercetin and Curcuminoids in Traditional Chinese Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Lee Fung; Yam, Mun Fei; Fung, Yvonne Tan Tze; Kiang, Peh Kok; Darwin, Yusrida

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Quercetin and curcuminoids are important bioactive compounds found in many herbs. Previously reported high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) methods for the detection of quercetin and curcuminoids have several disadvantages, including unsatisfactory separation times and lack of validation according the standard guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Methods: A rapid, specific, reversed phase, HPLC-UV method with an isocratic elution of acetonitrile and 2% v/v acetic acid (40% : 60% v/v) (pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 1.3 mL/minutes, a column temperature of 35°C, and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 370 nm was developed. The method was validated and applied to the quantification of different types of market available Chinese medicine extracts, pills and tablets. Results: The method allowed simultaneous determination of quercetin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin in the concentration ranges of 0.00488 ─ 200 μg/mL, 0.625 ─ 320 μg/mL, 0.07813 ─ 320 μg/mL and 0.03906 ─ 320 μg/mL, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, were 0.00488 and 0.03906 μg/mL for quercetin, 0.62500 and 2.50000 μg/mL for bisdemethoxycurcumin, 0.07813 and 0.31250 μg/mL for demethoxycurcumin, and 0.03906 and 0.07813 μg/mL for curcumin. The percent relative intra day standard deviation (% RSD) values were 0.432 ─ 0.806 μg/mL, 0.576 ─ 0.723 μg/mL, 0.635 ─ 0.752 μg/mL and 0.655 ─ 0.732 μg/mL for quercetin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin, respectively, and those for intra day precision were 0.323 ─ 0.968 μg/mL, 0.805 ─ 0.854 μg/mL, 0.078 ─ 0.844 μg/mL and 0.275 ─ 0.829 μg/mL, respectively. The intra day accuracies were 99.589% ─ 100.821%, 98.588% ─ 101.084%, 9.289% ─ 100.88%, and 98.292% ─ 101.022% for quercetin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and

  9. Adopting a blended learning approach to teaching evidence based medicine: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is a core unit delivered across many medical schools. Few studies have investigated the most effective method of teaching a course in EBM to medical students. The objective of this study was to identify whether a blended-learning approach to teaching EBM is more effective a didactic-based approach at increasing medical student competency in EBM. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted consisting of a controlled trial and focus groups with second year graduate medical students. Students received the EBM course delivered using either a didactic approach (DID) to learning EBM or a blended-learning approach (BL). Student competency in EBM was assessed using the Berlin tool and a criterion-based assessment task, with student perceptions on the interventions assessed qualitatively. Results A total of 61 students (85.9%) participated in the study. Competency in EBM did not differ between the groups when assessed using the Berlin tool (p = 0.29). Students using the BL approach performed significantly better in one of the criterion-based assessment tasks (p = 0.01) and reported significantly higher self-perceived competence in critical appraisal skills. Qualitative analysis identified that students had a preference for the EBM course to be delivered using the BL approach. Conclusions Implementing a blended-learning approach to EBM teaching promotes greater student appreciation of EBM principles within the clinical setting. Integrating a variety of teaching modalities and approaches can increase student self-confidence and assist in bridging the gap between the theory and practice of EBM. PMID:24341502

  10. Exploring the Ligand-Protein Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current Databases, Methods, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingzhu; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has thousands of years of clinical application among China and other Asian countries, is the pioneer of the “multicomponent-multitarget” and network pharmacology. Although there is no doubt of the efficacy, it is difficult to elucidate convincing underlying mechanism of TCM due to its complex composition and unclear pharmacology. The use of ligand-protein networks has been gaining significant value in the history of drug discovery while its application in TCM is still in its early stage. This paper firstly surveys TCM databases for virtual screening that have been greatly expanded in size and data diversity in recent years. On that basis, different screening methods and strategies for identifying active ingredients and targets of TCM are outlined based on the amount of network information available, both on sides of ligand bioactivity and the protein structures. Furthermore, applications of successful in silico target identification attempts are discussed in detail along with experiments in exploring the ligand-protein networks of TCM. Finally, it will be concluded that the prospective application of ligand-protein networks can be used not only to predict protein targets of a small molecule, but also to explore the mode of action of TCM. PMID:23818932

  11. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

  12. Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2008-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

  13. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

  14. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  15. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators-A tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R; Varela, C

    2005-10-01

    A national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators was begun in 2000. Nuclides of the most wide-spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 131I, 201Tl and (99m)Tc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed. In this paper, the participants' performance is assessed by mean of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Performance tables have been obtained and a chi2 statistic is calculated from observed and expected frequencies, with the aim of testing the hypothesis about the independence of some characteristics of the comparison results, at a significance level alpha=0.05. The proportion of satisfactory results in the years 2002-2004 were found to be at the same level, but higher than in 2000. It reveals an improvement of the measurement quality since 2002. The causes of improvement were investigated using the statistical treatment of several data available as supplementary information. PMID:16039865

  16. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  17. Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease (CNMR) at the Health Sciences Center, at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia for the construction and operation was prepared by DOE. The EA documents analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts that might occur as a result of these actions, and characterizes potential impacts on the environment. In the EA, DOE presents its evaluation of potential impacts of construction and operation of the CNMR on health and safety of both workers and the public, as well as on the external environment. Construction impacts include the effects of erosion, waste disposal, air emissions, noise, and construction traffic and parking. Operational impacts include the effects of waste generation (domestic, sanitary, hazardous, medical/biological, radioactive and mixed wastes), radiation exposures, air emissions (radioactive, criteria, and air toxics), noise, and new workers. No sensitive resources (wetlands, special sources of groundwater, protected species) exist in the area of project effect.

  18. Software development for ACR-approved phantom-based nuclear medicine tomographic image quality control with cross-platform compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Choi, Jae Min; Nam, Ki Pyo; Chae, Sun Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae Seung

    2015-07-01

    Quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been two of the most important issues in modern nuclear medicine (NM) imaging for both clinical practices and academic research. Whereas quantitative QC analysis software is common to modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, the QC of gamma cameras and/or single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners has not been sufficiently addressed. Although a thorough standard operating process (SOP) for mechanical and software maintenance may help the QC/QA of a gamma camera and SPECT-computed tomography (CT), no previous study has addressed a unified platform or process to decipher or analyze SPECT phantom images acquired from various scanners thus far. In addition, a few approaches have established cross-platform software to enable the technologists and physicists to assess the variety of SPECT scanners from different manufacturers. To resolve these issues, we have developed Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based in-house software for crossplatform (in terms of not only operating systems (OS) but also manufacturers) analyses of the QC data on an ACR SPECT phantom, which is essential for assessing and assuring the tomographical image quality of SPECT. We applied our devised software to our routine quarterly QC of ACR SPECT phantom images acquired from a number of platforms (OS/manufacturers). Based on our experience, we suggest that our devised software can offer a unified platform that allows images acquired from various types of scanners to be analyzed with great precision and accuracy.

  19. Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumna, S.; Yiannakkaras, Ch; Avraamides, P.; Demetriadou, O.

    2011-09-01

    The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010, with a maximum time interval of ± 9 months between the two types of medical exams. For 51 patients, the indication was the detection of CAD. For 45 patients, the indication was to assess viability and/or ischemia after MI, PCI or CABG. Out of 84 patients with CAD confirmed by angiography, 80 patients resulted in abnormal MPI (sensitivity of 95% and positive predictive value of 98%). Out of 12 patients with normal coronaries, 10 patients resulted in normal MPI (specificity of 83% and negative predictive value of 71%).In conclusion, for the patients with abnormal MPI and confirmed CAD, MPI was a useful aid for further therapy management.

  20. Practitioner versus analyst methods: a nuclear decommissioning case study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy; Cooper, Mhairi; Thompson, Pauline; Jenkins, Dan

    2014-11-01

    A requirement arose during decommissioning work at a UK Magnox Nuclear Power Station to identify the hazards involved in removing High Dose Rate Items from a Cartridge Cooling Pond. Removing objects from the cooling pond under normal situations is a routine event with well understood risks but the situation described in this paper is not a routine event. The power station has shifted from an operational phase in its life-cycle to a decommissioning phase, and as such the risks, and procedures to deal with them, have become more novel and uncertain. This raises an important question. Are the hazard identification methods that have proven useful in one phase of the system lifecycle just as useful in another, and if not, what methods should be used? An opportunity arose at this site to put the issue to a direct test. Two methods were used, one practitioner focussed and in widespread use during the plant's operational phase (the Structured What-If method), the other was an analyst method (Cognitive Work Analysis). The former is proven on this site but might not be best suited to the novelty and uncertainty brought about by a shift in context from operations to decommissioning. The latter is not proven on this site but it is designed for novelty and uncertainty. The paper presents the outcomes of applying both methods to a real-world hazard identification task. PMID:24947001