Sample records for nuclear medicine progress

  1. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  2. Progressive medicine.

    PubMed

    Martin, W John

    2005-06-01

    The term Progressive Medicine combines the evidence-based foundation of orthodox medicine with the growing understanding that life comprises much more than a series of biochemical reactions. Recent studies have identified an alternative cellular energy (ACE) pathway as an auxiliary defense mechanism against various diseases, including both conventional and stealth-adapted virus infections. This pathway can be activated through non-pharmaceutical methods that work through biophysical rather than biochemical reactions. Validation of these methods requires well-documented and successful clinical outcome studies. The methods also need to be fully disclosed to regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These requirements have been largely ignored by many practitioners of complimentary and alternative medicine. They are essential elements of Progressive Medicine. PMID:15924875

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  5. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  6. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  7. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePLUS

    Nuclear Medicine Imaging What you need to know about… A nuclear medicine procedure is sometimes described as ... nuclear medicine scan. Estudios de Imagen de Medicina Nuclear Lo que usted necesita saber acerca de... Un ...

  8. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Hasan, A.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1989-12-01

    In this report, an evaluation of the effects of albumin and albumin plus sodium palmitate in the phosphate buffer perfusate on the relative of unmetabolized fatty acid and the unknown metabolite(s) from isolated rat hearts administered 15-(p-(I-125)iodophenyl)-3-(R, S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is described. Earlier studies had demonstrated the presence of a major unidentified polar radioactive component in the outflow of hearts injected with BMIPP and perfused with the traditional Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, which does not contain albumin. The current studies were performed with KH buffer containing either albumin (BSA) or albumin and palmitate (BSA/PAL) to assess the relative loss of the metabolite and unmetabolized BMIPP from the perfused hearts. The results demonstrated that in the presence of albumin both the unidentified material and BMIPP are present in the outflow (i.e., 5 min perfusate buffer, % BMIPP: KH, 3%; KH + BSA, 10%; KH + BSA/PAL, 41%). These results demonstrate that BMIPP is a major radioactive component in the outflow of isolated hearts using a perfusate containing BSA and palmitate and, more importantly, suggest for the first time that the slow myocardial wash-out observed in humans after administration of (I-123)BMIPP probably represents loss of both unmetabolized BMIPP and the unidentified metabolite. Coronary sinus sampling studies with dogs are now in progress to relate the relative contribution of these two components to the release of radioactivity from the heart. Also in this report, our population experience for several radioisotopes being used by the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program is summarized.

  9. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1997-03-20

    In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated the expected good metastatic uptake of Re-188-HEDP in four patients who presented with skeletal metastases from disseminated prostatic cancer with good pain palliation and minimal marrow suppression. In addition, skeletal metastatic targeting of tracer doses of Re-188(V)-DMSA has been evaluated in several patients with metastases from prostatic cancer at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Canterbury and Kent Hospital in Canterbury, England. In this report the authors also describe further studies with the E-(R,R)-IQNP ligand developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program as a potential imaging agent for detection of changes which may occur in the cerebral muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) in Alzheimer`s and other diseases.

  10. Recent progress in the application of extraction chromatography to radionuclide separations for nuclear medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry

    2004-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of {sup 212}Bi, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 213}Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators.

  11. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

  12. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1992-08-01

    In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

  13. Internet and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Nyssen, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims in analyzing the effectiveness of the technological impact of internet technology on nuclear medicine. To make this evaluation we will first determine what we consider is the 'internet technology' and then see how the 'production line' in nuclear medicine benefits from this internet technology, putting both side by side. PMID:11137797

  14. Society of Nuclear Medicine

    Cancer.gov

    June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

  15. Evaluative studies in nuclear medicine research. Progress report, October 1, 1979June 30, 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Potchen

    1980-01-01

    Effort since the last progress report (September 1979) has been directed toward assessing the potential short and long term benefits of continued development and application and medical research of emission computed tomograhy (ECT). This report contains a review of existing ECT technology, including functional descriptions of current and proposed image systems, for both sngle-photon ECT (SPECT) and positron ECT (PECT)

  16. Nuclear medicine data communications.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, J C

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear Medicine was one of the earliest imaging modalities to adopt the use of computers for acquisition, processing, storage, and display of digital images. Originally used for processing images, computer technologies were quickly adopted for image storage, display, and transmission. Modern nuclear medicine cameras produce digital images that can be transmitted over computer networks to other cameras, storage devices, workstations, and printers. In order to achieve nuclear medicine data communication, images must be successfully acquired and transmitted to the appropriate location to be displayed or printed. Standards have been developed over the years to facilitate the creation of interfaces between vendors and equipment, notably the interfile format for nuclear medicine and the DICOM standard for medical images. Studies can be transmitted over network communication links to other sites using telecommunication protocol standards where they can be stored and/or displayed on a wide variety of devices. This ability to move images in a well-understood format to general purpose devices using standard equipment enables the use of the Internet to disseminate nuclear medicine study information over a wide area for clinical use, research, and education. A number of universities have created Internet sites with nuclear medicine teaching files and information. As technology advances, it will be feasible to transmit medical images of all kinds to virtually anyone who needs them in near real-time, without regard to the distance between locations, or the types of instrumentation and computers used. The next few years should prove to be very interesting for digital medical imaging in general and nuclear medicine in particular. PMID:9579417

  17. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  18. healthcare.utah.edu/radiology What is Nuclear Medicine?

    E-print Network

    Feschotte, Cedric

    healthcare.utah.edu/radiology Radiology What is Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear Medicine is a specialized area of radiology often used to help diagnose and treat abnormalities early in the progression depending on the specific procedure and preparations. Nuclear Medicine #12;healthcare.utah.edu/radiology

  19. Pulmonary nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Pulmonary Nuclear Medicine; Radionuclide Venography as an Adjunct to V-P Imaging in the Assessment of Thromboembolic Disease; Assessment of Mucous Transport in the Respiratory Tract by Radioisotopic Techniques; Radiolabeled Blood Cells and Tracers in the Study of Acute Pulmonary Injury and ARDS; and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lungs.

  20. Nuclear medicine case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This text presents case studies in nuclear medicine which emphasize the diagnosis of the patient's problem rather than the technical performance of the procedure. The book is arranged by organ systems and each section begins with a description of the technique and findings in a normal study.

  1. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  2. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  3. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  4. Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1994-02-01

    New methods based on reactive organometallic precursors containing organic functional groups that are generally responsible for physiologic responses are being exploited for preparation of radiopharmaceutials. This program focuses on the design of new chemistry (molecular architecture) and technology as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceutical. The new technology which is often based on organoborane chemistry is then utilized in nuclear medicine research at the UT Biomedical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE. facilities such as Brookhaven National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New radiopharmaceutical are evaluated preclinically by colleagues at UT, Emory University and The University of Pennsylvania, and by Nova Screen.

  5. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  6. Radioactivity in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The use of radioactivity in biomedical research probably goes back to the efforts of George von Hevesy and his concept of the tag(tracer). The first use of a tracer in humans was perhaps the work of H. Blumgart in 1927 when he used a solution of radon to trace the human bloodstream. In the mid 1930`s Robley Evans (MIT) suggested using {open_quotes}radioiodine{close_quotes} as a tracer in thyroid disease. From that point on radionuclides weir, firmly entrenched in medicine and biomedical research. At first iodine-128 was used, then iodine-131. In 1938 Segre and Seaborg described the discovery of Technetium-99m, the isotope which in later years would account for the major use in nuclear medicine practice. In 1946, the AEC issued its now classic list of radioisotopes for use in the scientific community. The age of the reactor had begun bringing about a revolution in one area of medical practice. The accelerator started coming back into favor in the 1950s but began to hit its stride in the 1960s and beyond, principally with making available iodine-123, thallium-201 and the positron emitters carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The history of radiochemistry, chemistry and uses of these and the number of other important radionuclides will be discussed.

  7. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W. (East Moriches, NY); Brill, A. Bertrand (Shoreham, NY); Bizais, Yves J. C. (Upton, NY); Rowe, R. Wanda (Upton, NY); Zubal, I. George (Upton, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  8. Progress in the development of large-area modular 64 x 64 CdZnTe imaging arrays for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Matherson, K.J.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.; Eskin, J.D.; Dereniak, E.L.; Marks, D.G.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Young, E.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Augustine, F.L. [Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA (United States)] [Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Previous efforts by this group have demonstrated the potential of hybrid semiconductor detector arrays for use in gamma-ray imaging applications. In this paper, the author describes progress in the development of a prototype imaging system consisting of a 64 x 64-pixel CdZnTe detector array mated to a multiplexer readout circuit that was custom designed for their nuclear medicine application. The detector array consists of a 0.15 cm thick slab of CdZnTe which has a 64 x 64 array of 380 {micro}m square pixel electrodes on one side produced by photolithography; the other side has a continuous electrode biased at {minus}150 V. Electrical connections between the detector electrodes and corresponding multiplexer bump pads are made with indium bump bonds. Although the CdZnTe detector arrays characterized in this paper are room-temperature devices, a slight amount of cooling is necessary to reduce thermally generated dark current in the detectors. Initial tests show that this prototype imager functions well with more than 90% of its pixels operating. The device is an excellent imager; phantom images have a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm, limited by the collimator bore.

  9. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science). Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of [F18]fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), [F18]fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of [F18]-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  10. Nuclear Medicine CT Angiography

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    rotation is based at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center and gives the cardiology fellow experience. Understand the indications for exercise treadmill testing and specific nuclear cardiology tests, safe use patient and learn the importance of physical and pharmacologic stress in nuclear cardiology 3. Interpret

  11. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Dear Author,

    E-print Network

    Piana, Michele

    of Publications Society of Nuclear Medicine 1850 Samuel Morse Drive Reston, VA 20190-5316 Fax: (703) 708-9018 Tel of Publications Society of Nuclear Medicine 1850 Samuel Morse Drive Reston, VA 20190-5316 USA Corrections may also

  12. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  13. Data resources for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Lemmel, H.D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Data Section

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this article is to list data resources needed for nuclear medicine and provide information on how to access them. This list will include publications of data compilations or evaluations, databases, and data processing codes for both nuclear structure and decay, as well as reaction data. Sources of bibliographic and related information on nuclear data are also be listed. The authors of this article have used their judgement in choosing a representative list of data sources; a more complete listing may be found in the references.

  14. New procedures in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review the recent emergence of functional studies in nuclear medicine in this critical and informative text. The new procedures are presented in terms of their underlying physiology, indications, contraindications, methodology, results, interpretation and relationship to other evaluations. The volume includes discussions on the central nervous system, interventional studies, cardiac studies, bone densitometry, plus radiolabeled antibodies, radiolabeling of blood elements and flow and distribution.

  15. Graduates of 2004 Heidi Ambrose ---Nuclear Medicine

    E-print Network

    Michael Congrove --- Marine Biology Justin Crocker --- Biology Karen Culbertson --- Nuclear Medicine Medicine Dustin Earnhardt --- Chemistry and Biochemistry Rebecca Echipare --- Biology Assen Gueorguiev Laroia --- Biology Monica Lea --- Communication Rebecca Long --- Exercise Science Erin Mehalic

  16. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  17. Complementary alternative medicine and nuclear medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Werneke; V. Ralph McCready

    2004-01-01

    Complementary alternative medicines (CAMs), including food supplements, are taken widely by patients, especially those with cancer. Others take CAMs hoping to improve fitness or prevent disease. Physicians (and patients) may not be aware of the potential side-effects and interactions of CAMs with conventional treatment. Likewise, their known physiological effects could interfere with radiopharmaceutical kinetics, producing abnormal treatment responses and diagnostic

  18. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

  19. Enhancing laboratory activities in nuclear medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Vesper; Martin, Chris; Schmitz, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Hands-on or active learning is important in nuclear medicine education. As more curricula start to require greater standards and as distance education expands, the effective use of laboratories in nuclear medicine education remains important in physics, instrumentation, and imaging but is often overlooked or underutilized. Laboratory exercises are a unique opportunity for nuclear medicine educators to facilitate students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a manner that often cannot occur in lectures or during online education. Given the lack of current laboratory tools and publications, there exists a requirement for nuclear medicine educators to develop, enhance, and monitor educational tools for laboratory exercises. Expanding technologies, variations in imaging and measurement systems, and the need to ensure that the taught technology is relevant to nuclear medicine students are issues faced by nuclear medicine educators. This article, based on principles of instructional design, focuses on the components and development of effective and enhanced nuclear medicine laboratories in our current educational environment. PMID:19914977

  20. Brief overview of nuclear medicine in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.C.; Chou, C.E.

    1989-04-01

    The year 1956 witnessed the birth of Nuclear Medicine in China, when the first course, Biomedical Applications of Isotopes, was offered in our country by the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). This course was preceded by a training course in nuclear instruments in which students learned to construct the radiation detection devices required for performing experiments using radioisotopes. In 1958, several courses in clinical nuclear medicine brought up the first generation of nuclear medicine physicians in China. Historically, some of the chief events include: (1) operation of the first reactor, producing 33 radioactive isotopes in 1958; (2) first linear scanner built in 1960; (3) setting up an organization for the control of radiopharmaceuticals in 1961; (4) distribution of the first batch of cyclotron-produced isotopes in 1963; (5) development and use of the first radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure in 1963; (6) production of tritium in 1964; (7) production of 99.8% enriched heavy water in 1965; (8) supply of 99mTc and 113mIn generators in 1972; (9) first gamma camera imported in 1972 and first homemade gamma camera installed in 1977; (10) founding of Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine (CSNM) in 1980; (11) publication of the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine beginning in 1981; (12) first single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imported in 1983. At present, there are 556 nuclear medicine departments in China with 4,000 staff.

  1. In vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine. Pediatric experience

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, W.A.; Hendee, W.R.; Gilday, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic tests in children is increasing and interest in these is evidenced by the addition of scientific sessions devoted to pediatric medicine at annual meetings of The Society of Nuclear Medicine and by the increase in the literature on pediatric dosimetry. Data presented in this paper describe the actual pediatric nuclear medicine experience from 26 nationally representative U.S. hospitals and provide an overview of the pediatric procedures being performed the types of radiopharmaceuticals being used, and the activity levels being administered.

  2. A Training Manual for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H.; Alexander, George W.

    This manual was prepared for a training program in Nuclear Medicine Technology at the University of Cincinnati. Instructional materials for students enrolled in these courses in the training program include: Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation, Radionuclide Measurements, Radiation Protection, and Tracer Methodology and Radiopharmaceuticals. (CS)

  3. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

  5. Nuclear Medicine Reporting System for Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Daniel; Haberman, Seth

    1982-01-01

    Description: In this paper we present a completely user-defined reporting system for nuclear medicine. It is inexpensive, highly flexible and can be adapted for general radiology. Equipment: Apple II with 2 disc drives and printer. Language: Microsoft basic with microcode subroutines Availability: Pending

  6. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  7. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  8. Progress toward personalized medicine for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Raoof, Duna A; Reed, David M; Zöllner, Sebastian; Qin, Zhaohui; Richards, Julia E

    2013-01-01

    How will you respond when a patient asks, “Doctor, what can I do to prevent myself from going blind from glaucoma like mom?”. There is optimism that genetic profiling will help target patients to individualized treatments based on validated disease risk alleles, validated pharmacogenetic markers and behavioral modification. Personalized medicine will become a reality through identification of disease and pharmacogenetic markers, followed by careful study of how to employ this information in order to improve treatment outcomes. With advances in genomic technologies, research has shifted from the simple monogenic disease model to a complex multigenic and environmental disease model to answer these questions. Our challenges lie in developing risk models that incorporate gene–gene interactions, gene copy-number variations, environmental interactions, treatment effects and clinical covariates. PMID:23914252

  9. Wavelet domain filtering for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, R.D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Baraniuk, R.G. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Hellman, R.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We propose a new filtering/estimation method for nuclear medicine imaging. The statistical method of cross-validation is used to design optimal wavelet domain filters for improved image estimation. The quality of the resulting images is much better than standard image estimates, in both visual and mean square error senses. Moreover, experiments have shown that, using the new estimate, we can reduce the acquisition time by a factor of two and still retain high image quality.

  10. A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry. PMID:25406520

  11. Nuclear transfer: Progress and quandaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuemei Li; Ziyi Li; Alice Jouneau; Qi Zhou; Jean-Paul Renard

    2003-01-01

    Cloning mammals by nuclear transfer is a powerful technique that is quickly advancing the development of genetically defined animal models. However, the overall efficiency of nuclear transfer is still very low and several hurdles remain before the power of this technique will be fully harnessed. Among these hurdles include an incomplete understanding of biologic processes that control epigenetic reprogramming of

  12. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

  13. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  14. Nuclear medicine: will I glow in the dark, nurse?

    PubMed

    Sherry, I

    Nursing in nuclear medicine is an unknown field for most nurses. This article sheds light on the impact nuclear medicine can have on patients and on the nursing role in caring for patients undergoing diagnosis and treatment using radioisotopes. PMID:11209390

  15. Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    The 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Hartford BE 281 - BE 381 Biomedical Engineering Seminar I and II Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Study of Nuclear Medicine Supply Chains is a combination

  16. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  17. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R&D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  18. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  19. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  20. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  1. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  2. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  3. Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K. [Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2007-11-26

    Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

  4. Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

    1983-12-01

    To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

  5. Recommendations on strengthening the development of nuclear medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-chen

    2009-03-01

    This paper outlines briefly the role of nuclear medicine in life sciences and health care. Molecular imaging by using isotopic tracers can noninvasively visualize the chemistry or hidden process in the cells and tissues inside the body, obtaining "functional" images to provide early information of any disease and revealing the secrets of life. The vitality of nuclear medicine is its ability to translate bench into new clinical application that can benefits the patients. Although nuclear medicine community in China has made significant achievement with a great effort since 1950s, there are many obstacles to future development. Recommended measures are proposed here in an attempt to solve our existing problems. PMID:19382417

  6. CRC manual of nuclear medicine: Procedures. Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J.E.; Kline, R.C.; Keyes, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the procedures applied for the clinical nuclear medicine laboratory. The procedures are presented as proven guidelines. The chapters are included on quality assurance, radionuclide handling, and radiation safety.

  7. Left-ventricle boundary detection from nuclear medicine images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Dai; Wesley E. Snyder; Griff L. Bilbro; Rodney Williams; Robert Cowan

    1998-01-01

    We present here a new algorithm for segmentation of nuclear medicine images to detect the left-ventricle (LV) boundary. In\\u000a this article, other image segmentation techniques, such as edge detection and region growing, are also compared and evaluated.\\u000a In the edge detection approach, we explored the relationship between the LV boundary characteristics in nuclear medicine images\\u000a and their radial orientations: we

  8. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... imagegently.org What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine uses ... provide patients, parents and caregivers with information about nuclear medicine and radiation exposure. We hope this pamphlet answers your questions. ...

  9. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  10. Development and progress in sleep medicine as a new discipline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Schmidt-Nowara

    1999-01-01

    Summary  In this article the evolution of sleep medicine as a new medical specialty is described from an American perspective. The development of sleep medicine has mainly taken place during the last 10 years. Three topics are discussed which have mainly influenced sleep medicine to become an independent discipline. These are science of sleep medicine, the role of professional organizations, and

  11. PRESENT LIMITATIONS OF CdTe DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    365 PRESENT LIMITATIONS OF CdTe DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE R. ALLEMAND, P. BOUTEILLER, M. LAVAL quality criteria, it is necessary to compare Cd-Te detectors results (or estimated characteristics) with other methods (i. e. 8cintillation cameras) in order to know the effective interest of Cd-Te in nuclear

  12. [Research progress in medicinal plant cell suspension culture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Wei, Chang-Long

    2012-12-01

    China consumes and exports traditional Chinese medicinal resources the most in the world. However, we cannot anchor our hope on field production of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and their active ingredients, due to limited land resources. Therefore, the development of biotechnology is of great importance for China to solve the problem of traditional Chinese medicinal resources. Plant cell culture is an important approach for the sustainable development of precious medicinal resources. This essary summarizes the optimization of conditions for medicinal plant cell culture, the regulation of secondary metabolic pathways and cell bioreactor culture, and realizes that the authentic commercial production of more medicinal plants requires efforts from all aspects. PMID:23630994

  13. Comparative analysis of dosimetry parameters for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For years many have employed the concept of ``total-body dose`` or ``whole-body dose,`` i.e., the total energy deposited in the body divided by the mass of the body, when evaluating the risks of different nuclear medicine procedures. The effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}), first described in ICRP Publication 26, has been accepted by some as a better quantity to use in evaluating the total risk of a procedure, but its use has been criticized by others primarily because the tissue weighting factors were intended for use in the radiation worker, rather than the nuclear medicine patient population. Nevertheless, in ICRP Publication 52, the ICRP has suggested that the H{sub E} may be used in nuclear medicine. The ICRP also has published a compendium of dose estimates, including H{sub E} values, for various nuclear medicine procedures at various ages in ICRP Publication 53. The effective dose (E) of ICRP Publication 60 is perhaps more suitable for use in nuclear medicine, with tissue weighting factors based on the entire population. Other comparisons of H{sub E} and E have been published. The authors have used the program MIRDOSE 3.1 to compute total-body dose, H{sub E}, and E for 62 radiopharmaceutical procedures, based on the best current biokinetic data available.

  14. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Haines; C de B White; J Gleisner

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil

  15. The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, B; Balan, K

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered. PMID:11696487

  16. Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1985-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, April 1984-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1984-12-01

    Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; and supporting studies. 33 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1983-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; and supporting studies. 58 figures, 22 tables.

  19. Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

    1988-01-01

    This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

  20. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  1. Theoretical nuclear physics. 1998 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Summaries of progress made on the following topics are given: (1) nonresonant contributions to inelastic N{r_arrow}{Delta}(1232) parity violation; (2) neutron distribution effects in elastic nuclear parity violation; (3) Wilson RG for scalar-plus-fermion field theories at finite density; (4) Perturbation theory for spin ladders using angular momentum coupled bases; (5) mean-field theory for spin ladders using angular momentum density; (6) finite temperature renormalization group effective potentials for the linear Sigma model; (7) negative-parity baryon resonances from lattice QCD; (8) the N{r_arrow}{Delta} electromagnetic transition amplitudes from QCD sum rules; and (9) higher nucleon resonances in exclusive reactions ({gamma}, {pi}N) on nuclei.

  2. Respiratory medicine in China: progress, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Xiao, Fei; Qiao, Renli; Shen, Ying H

    2013-06-01

    The past century witnessed a rapid development of respiratory medicine in China. The major burden of respiratory disease has shifted from infectious diseases to chronic noninfectious diseases. Great achievements have been made in improving the national standard of clinical management of various respiratory diseases and in smoking control. The specialty of respiratory medicine is expanding into pulmonary and critical care medicine. Nevertheless, respiratory diseases remain a major public health problem, with new challenges such as air pollution and nosocomial infections. This review describes the history, accomplishments, new challenges, and opportunities in respiratory medicine in China. PMID:23732587

  3. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2004-01-01

    Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

  4. Overall system design of a PACS for nuclear medicine images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fenno P. Ottes; Albert R. Bakker; Chel Vangennip; Bas M. van Poppel; Pieter J. Toussaint; Ruud Weber; Onno Weier

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the global system design of a PACS for nuclear medicine images. This NM PACS provides facilities for image capture, storage, display, manipulation and analysis. The NM PACS workstation displays besides images also the patient data from the HIS database. The NM PACS is equipped with well-defined HIS interface, which provides interoperability with HIS systems. The system design

  5. Nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of pharmaceutical formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Perkins; M. Frier

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging techniques have great potential in the study of the behaviour of drug formulations and drug delivery systems in human subjects. No other technique can locate so precisely the site of disintegration of a tablet in the Gl tract, the depth of penetration of a nebulised solution into the lung, or the residence time of a drug on

  6. Edge detection in gated cardiac nuclear medicine images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff X. Wang; Lon Small; Wesley E. Snyder; Rodney Williams

    1994-01-01

    Mean field annealing using a piecewise linear model was applied to gated cardiac nuclear medicine images as a preprocessing tool for image smoothing and noise reduction. A second derivative operator was then used to extract the edges for ventricle boundary estimation. Combined with the user input initial boundary estimate, the extracted edge information was used to find a minimum cost

  7. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-07-15

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS {bar p} experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance.

  8. Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services

    SciTech Connect

    Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage.

  9. Explore the Latest Progress on Medicines in Development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Nearly 400 Medicines in Development for Infectious Diseases Mental Health Mental health conditions exact a heavy human and economic toll in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates that 1 in 4 American adults— ...

  10. Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

  11. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  12. Nuclear medicine from Becquerel to the present.

    PubMed

    Graham, L S; Kereiakes, J G; Harris, C; Cohen, M B

    1989-11-01

    During a period of a little over ninety years, the use of radioactive materials has moved from the discovery of natural radioactivity by Becquerel to the use of highly sophisticated equipment for in-house production of biologically important molecules labeled with radionuclides, for the measurement of body functions. Radiation detectors have progressed from photographic plates and the gold leaf electroscope to the routine use of improved scintillation detectors for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of radioactive materials in the body as a function of space and time. It is expected that future improvements will be along the line of instruments with better spatial resolution, contrast, and sensitivity. Advances in hardware and software will be more than matched by developments in radiopharmaceuticals, including the use of monoclonal antibodies and receptor mapping agents which promise the exquisite specificity and sensitivity of radioimmunoassay procedures. PMID:2685940

  13. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  14. * DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSION Nuclear medicine uses radioactivity to diagnose and treat disease. It is a multi-

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Mei-Fang

    1 * DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSION Nuclear medicine uses radioactivity to diagnose and treat disease, and medicine. Though there are many diagnostic techniques currently available, nuclear medicine uniquely medicine from other imaging modalities, such as X-ray. Nuclear medicine procedures are safe, they involve

  15. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  16. Source book of educational materials for nuclear medicine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pijar, M.L.; Lewis, J.T.

    1981-08-01

    The Source Book has been divided into 22 sections. Each section corresponds to subject areas included in a compilation of curricula for nuclear medicine technology. Each section is subdivided into subsections entitled 'Publications' and in some chapters, 'Audiovisuals', and 'Training Aids'. Entries include title, author, producer, or publisher, data, ordering number if available, price, and when possible, a brief description. Publishers', producers' and manufacturers' addresses are found in Section 22 - Parts, A, B, and C. Section 22 - Part D lists periodicals of special interest to individuals involved in nuclear medicine. This list of resource materials is not exhaustive but in the opinion of the compilers is a representative sample of the material available in the field.

  17. Population exposure from nuclear medicine procedures: Measurement data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony R. Benedetto; Timothy W. Dziuk; Martin L. Nusynowitz

    1989-01-01

    In order to estimate the public radiation burden from nuclear medicine studies, a TLD chip in a sealed plastic bag was taped on the abdomen of patients who received ¹¹¹In as chloride or oxine, ²°¹T1 chloride, or one of four common {sup 99m}Tc agents. The TLD chip was removed after 24 h. Additionally, abdominal skin surface exposure rate measurements were

  18. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  19. Electron Accelerator's Production of Technetium-99m for Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, V. L.; Dikiy, N. P.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Medvedyeva, Ye. P.; Pugachov, G. D.; Tur, Yu. D.; Abramova, L. P.; Staren'ky, V. P.

    1997-05-01

    Technetium-99m provides up to 90nuclear medicine at present. His generator Mo-99 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation. One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in Mo-100 under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of Tc-99m production. Report contents both an analysis of some technical, economical and ecological aspects of Method and the results of experimental production of Tc-99m with KIPT electron linac as well as results of medical tests of produced radiopharmaceuticals.

  20. [Nuclear Medicine in diagnosis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Ioannis P; Giannoula, Evanthia

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide, creating a significant need for improved imaging modalities. The advantage of molecular imaging over other imaging methods, as confirmed by clinical experience, is the ability of providing functional information. This process is achieved by labeling a biomarker with an isotope of choice. Therefore imaging methods such as scintimammography (SM), (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT), positron emission mammography (PEM), lymphoscintigraphy, have proved to be extremely efficient compared to morphological imaging of anatomical lesions, as they allow the diagnosis, staging, assessment of therapeutic efficacy and patient monitoring to contribute as much as possible to improve the prognosis. The development of new radiopharmaceuticals in PET imaging, allowing the visualization and quantification of biomarkers, such as (18)F-fluoro-17-estradiol, which is bound by the estrogen receptors (ER), (18)F-fluoro-l-thymidine (FLT) which is a marker of cell proliferation, (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FISO) a marker of tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis markers such as (18)F-fluoroazomycinarabinoside, may give us additional information on the characteristics and progress of the disease and allow the conduct of targeted therapy. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) using monoclonal antibodies in order to recognize serum markers such as CA 15.3, CEA, cytokeratins TPA, TPS and Cyfra 21.1, are necessary in the diagnosis of a possible recurrence of the disease as well as the degree of response to treatment. Modern research focusing on the development of new specific functional breast imaging methods improves diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with breast cancer. PMID:25397630

  1. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  2. Education and training in family medicine: progress and a proposed national vision for 2030.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lee Gan; Ong, Chooi Peng

    2014-03-01

    This review provides an update of education and training in family medicine in Singapore and worldwide. Family medicine has progressed much since 1969 when it was recognised as the 20th medical discipline in the United States. Three salient changes in the local healthcare landscape have been noted over time, which are of defining relevance to family medicine in Singapore, namely the rise of noncommunicable chronic diseases, the care needs of an expanding elderly population, and the care of a larger projected population in 2030. The change in the vision of family medicine into the future refers to a new paradigm of one discipline in many settings, and not limited to the community. Family medicine needs to provide a patient-centred medical home, and the discipline's education and training need to be realigned. The near-term training objectives are to address the service, training and research needs of a changing and challenging healthcare landscape. PMID:24664375

  3. Education and training in family medicine: progress and a proposed national vision for 2030

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lee Gan; Ong, Chooi Peng

    2014-01-01

    This review provides an update of education and training in family medicine in Singapore and worldwide. Family medicine has progressed much since 1969 when it was recognised as the 20th medical discipline in the United States. Three salient changes in the local healthcare landscape have been noted over time, which are of defining relevance to family medicine in Singapore, namely the rise of noncommunicable chronic diseases, the care needs of an expanding elderly population, and the care of a larger projected population in 2030. The change in the vision of family medicine into the future refers to a new paradigm of one discipline in many settings, and not limited to the community. Family medicine needs to provide a patient-centred medical home, and the discipline’s education and training need to be realigned. The near-term training objectives are to address the service, training and research needs of a changing and challenging healthcare landscape. PMID:24664375

  4. Progress in standards for nuclear air and gas treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burchsted

    1978-01-01

    Standardization in nuclear air and gas treatment spans a period of more than 25 years, starting with military specifications for HEPA filters and filter media, and now progressing to the development of a formal code analogous to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Whereas the current standard for components and installation of nuclear air cleaning systems is limited to

  5. Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Vanbrocklin, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 - 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled "Photons Across Medicine", organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

  6. Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

  7. Center of Excellence in laser medicine. Progress performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.A.

    1993-04-29

    Achievements during the last 12 months of funding to initiate a Center of Excellence in biomedical laser development include: seven specific research projects within the Center`s three broad interest areas, and program development to establish the MGH Laser Center and its activities. Progress in the three interest areas namely new medical laser systems development, optical diagnostics and photo sensitization is reported. Feasibility studies and prototype development were emphasized, to enhance establishing a substantial Center through future support. Specific projects are outlined below. In addition, the interdepartmental MGH Laser Center`s activities and accomplishments.

  8. Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation

    PubMed Central

    Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

    2013-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

  9. Nuclear Imaging of a Pregnant Patient: Should We Perform Nuclear Medicine Procedures During Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Bural, Gonca G.; Laymon, Charles M.; Mountz, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is extremely rare, nuclear imaging of a pregnant woman presents a unique challenge to the nuclear medicine physician because of the high concern for radiation risk to the embryo or the fetus. This challenge has been exacerbated due to recent heightened public concern of medical procedures involving radiation. This awareness also has been emphasized to the referring physicians to the extent that the risks of most nuclear medicine scans are overstressed relative to the benefit. Radionuclide procedures are reluctantly ordered by clinicians in pregnant patients, because of the malpractice fear or because of uncertainty regarding fetal radiation dose. However, when used appropriately, the benefits of nuclear imaging procedures usually outweigh the minimal risks associated with small amount of radiation even in pregnant patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487481

  10. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  11. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

  12. Application of pet radionuclides for nuclear medicine targeted therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.D.; Macapinlac, H.; Humm, J.; Pentlow, K.; McDevitt, M.; Tjuvajev, J.; Blasberg, R.; Scheinberg, D.; Larson, S.; Zweit, J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York and The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (England)

    1997-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is the specialty of medical imaging which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts in this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radio-labeled tracers necessary to achieve the time-dependent molecular image. Preliminary results from our laboratory directed at oncologic applications include the preparation of specific PET radionuclides which allow an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. Illustrative examples and operational considerations of specific accelerator-produced radionuclides are presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Nuclear rocket propulsion. NASA plans and progress, FY 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.; Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for space explorer initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the moon and Mars. An interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. The activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and 1991 are summarized. The progress to date is discussed, and the project plan is reviewed. Critical technology issues were identified and include: (1) nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; (2) nuclear system ground test; (3) safety; (4) autonomous system operation and health monitoring; and (5) minimum mass and high specific impulse.

  14. Recent progress on nuclear parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, M.; Saito, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science 2641, Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kumano, S. [KEK Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK and Department of Particle and Nuclear Studies, Graduate University for Advanced Studies 1-1, Ooho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    We report current status of global analyses on nuclear parton distribution functions (NPDFs). The optimum NPDFs are determined by analyzing high-energy nuclear reaction data. Due to limited experimental measurements, antiquark modifications have large uncertainties at x > 0.2 and gluon modifications cannot be determined. A nuclear modification difference between u and d quark distributions could be an origin of the long-standing NuTeV sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub w} anomaly. There is also an issue of nuclear modification differences between the structure functions of charged-lepton and neutrino reactions. Next, nuclear clustering effects are discussed in structure functions F{sub 2}{sup A} as a possible explanation for an anomalous result in the {sup 9}Be nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Last, tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions are extracted from HERMES data on the polarized structure function b{sub 1} of the deuteron, and they could be used for testing theoretical models and for proposing future experiments, for example, the one at JLab. Such measurements could open a new field of spin physics in spin-one hadrons.

  15. Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine

    E-print Network

    Yang, Xiaowen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    The transport of highly perishable goods, in particular nuclear medicine, is subject to stringent regulations. Carefully designed transport selection criteria considering available alternatives, product attributes, decay ...

  16. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  17. Modern problems of technical progress and methodological support in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novyc'kyy, Victor V.; Lushchyk, Ulyana B.

    2001-06-01

    A rapid development of modern computer technologies gave a powerful incentive to technical progress as a whole and to medical equipment in particular. A range of medical diagnostic computer-based systems has recently appeared. There are various fields these techniques are used in: roentgenology, ultrasound diagnostic, neurophysiology, angiology etc. The advantages of the use of computer interface are undoubted: it gives possibility to enhance the functioning of the system itself, speed up all technological processes, carry out a reliable and easy archivation and exchange the information obtained. But the most important advantage of using PC in diagnostic system lies in an unlimited freedom of use mathematical algorithms and flexible mathematical models for processing information obtained. On the other hand, the absence of clinical techniques for interpretation of the data obtained is an obstacle to the use of software at its full potential. As a result, a close connection of a scientific development of hardware with high-informative techniques for clinical interpretation of the instrumental data obtained has become topical as never before. We see an optimal solution in introducing the interpretation patterns in conjunction with purely numerical computations into mathematical simulations.

  18. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While the main emphasis is on experimental problems, the authors have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of their measurements. During the last year they have had several experiments at the ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory, the GAMMASPHERE at the LBL 88 Cyclotron, and with the NORDBALL at the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem. Also, they continue to be very active in the WA93/98 collaboration studying ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in the PHENIX Collaboration at the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During the last year their experimental work has been in three broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (3) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas are described in this document. These studies concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Another area of research is heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions, which utilize the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions.

  19. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1986-02-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems conducted for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 15 figs.

  20. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1986-05-01

    This quarterly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  1. Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1989-02-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1985-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 41 figs.

  3. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  4. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1994-10-31

    The most significant development this year has been the outcome of a survey of EO transition strength, {rho}{sup 2}(EO), in heavy nuclei. The systematics of {rho}{sup 2}(EO) reveals that the strongest EO`s are between pairs of excited states with the same spin and parity. This is observed in the regions Z,N = 38,60; 48,66; 64,88; and 80,106. Unlike other multipoles it is rare that nuclear ground states are strongly connected to excited states by monopole transitions. Another significant finding is in the results of the experimental study of levels in {sup 187}Au. Two bands of states are observed with identical spin sequences, very similar excitation energies, and EO transitions between the favored band members but not between the unfavored band members. This is interpreted in terms of nearly identical diabatic structures. Experimental data sets for the radioactive decays of {sup 183}Pt and {sup 186}Au to {sup 183}Ir and {sup 186}Pt, respectively, have been under analysis. The studies are aimed at elucidating shape coexistence and triaxiality in the A = 185 region. An extensive program of systematics for nuclei at and near N = Z has been continued in preparation for the planned nuclear structure research program using the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge. A considerable effort has been devoted to HRIBF target development.

  5. Recent progress in understanding activity cliffs and their utility in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The activity cliff concept is of high relevance for medicinal chemistry. Recent studies are discussed that have further refined our understanding of activity cliffs and suggested different ways of exploiting activity cliff information. These include alternative approaches to define and classify activity cliffs in two and three dimensions, data mining investigations to systematically detect all possible activity cliffs, the introduction of computational methods to predict activity cliffs, and studies designed to explore activity cliff progression in medicinal chemistry. The discussion of these studies is complemented with new findings revealing the frequency of activity cliff formation when different molecular representations are used and the distribution of activity cliffs across different targets. Taken together, the results have a number of implications for the practice of medicinal chemistry. PMID:23981118

  6. Research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging countries. The currently used drugs including donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine are effective in managing the symptoms. However, they are hardly capable of preventing, halting, or reversing the disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, much experience has accumulated and is summarized in treatment of diseases that correspond to the concept of AD. In recent years, exploration of natural active ingredients from medicinal herbs for treatment of AD has attracted substantial attention. Some flavonoids have been revealed to have a variety of biological actions such as scavenging free radicals, inhibiting neuron apoptosis, and nurturing neuronal cells that constitute the basis for treatment of AD. In this article, we review recent research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine against AD and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25343094

  7. Research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging countries. The currently used drugs including donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine are effective in managing the symptoms. However, they are hardly capable of preventing, halting, or reversing the disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, much experience has accumulated and is summarized in treatment of diseases that correspond to the concept of AD. In recent years, exploration of natural active ingredients from medicinal herbs for treatment of AD has attracted substantial attention. Some flavonoids have been revealed to have a variety of biological actions such as scavenging free radicals, inhibiting neuron apoptosis, and nurturing neuronal cells that constitute the basis for treatment of AD. In this article, we review recent research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine against AD and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25343094

  8. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 ?Sv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 ?Sv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled therapeutic 131I (2.5 mSv). In conclusion, the maximum expected annual dose to extremities is less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y).

  9. NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

  10. Physics of Nuclear Medicine Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201

    E-print Network

    Suel, Torsten

    Physics of Nuclear Medicine Yao Wang Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L are from the textbook. #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 2 Lecture Outline of decay · Radiotracers #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 3 What is Nuclear

  11. ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.

    PubMed

    Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

    2011-06-01

    The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21571791

  12. A modular scintillation camera for use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Milster, T.D.; Arendt, J.; Barrett, H.H.; Easton, R.L.; Rossi, G.R.; Selberg, L.A.; Simpson, R.G.

    1984-02-01

    A ''modular'' scintillation camera is discussed as an alternative to using Anger cameras for gamma-ray imaging in nuclear medicine. Each module is an independent gamma camera and consists of a scintillation crystal, light pipe and mask plane, PMT's, and processing electronics. Groups of modules efficiently image radionuclide distributions by effectively utilizing crystal area. Performance of each module is maximized by using Monte-Carlo computer simulations to determine the optical design of the camera, optimizing the signal processing of the PMT signals using maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators, and incorporating digital lookup tables. Each event is completely processed in 2 ..mu..sec, and FWHM of the PSF over the crystal area is expected to be 3 mm. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional prototypes are tested for spatial and energy resolution

  13. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

  14. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  15. Nuclear medicine technology. Progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    The successful detection of experimentally produced myocardial infarctions in rats and dogs using /sup 123m/Te-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA) is described. Preferential localization of radioactivity in normal myocardial tissue of rats that had experimentally produced infarctions was also demonstrated by tissue distribution studies following injection of 9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA. The effects of chain length on the myocardial uptake of /sup 75/Se-labeled long-chain fatty acids was also studied further. Selenium-75-labeled 13-selenaheneicosonic acid (H/sub 3/C-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 7/-/sup 75/Se-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/-COOH, 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA) shows the highest heart uptake in rats of the agents studied. These results indicate that myocardial imaging may be possible with 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA and also suggest that potential positron emission tomography of the myocardium with the /sup 73/Se-labeled agent should be explored. The results of continuing studies with /sup 11/C and /sup 195m/Pt-labeled agents are also described. A variety of /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids were prepared and tested as pancreas and tumor localizing agents in a Medical Cooperative Program with the Oak Ridge Associated Universities. The microscale synthesis of /sup 195m/Pt-labeled cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-(isopropylamine)platinum(IV) (/sup 195m/Pt-CHIP) was developed further and preliminary tissue distribution studies with this important second-generation antitumor drug were completed in rats. Platinum-195m-labeled cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (/sup 195m/Pt-cis-DDP) was supplied for testing to a number of Medical Cooperative Programs. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Further investigation of this arsenic-induced cytotoxicity has demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship and a difference in the permanence of the growth inhibitory effect using different doses.

  16. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  17. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    The experimental program in nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is led by Professors Carrol Bingham, Lee Riedinger, and Soren Sorenseni who respectively lead the studies of the exotic decay modes of nuclei far from stability, the program of high-spin research, and our effort in relativistic heavy-ion physics. Over the years, this broad program of research has been successful partially because of the shared University resources applied to this group effort. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has allowed us to build extremely strong programs of joint research, and in addition to play an important leadership role in the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research (JIHIR). Our experimental program is also very closely linked with those at other national laboratories: Argonne (collaborations involving the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) and {gamma}-ray arrays), Brookhaven (the RHIC and Phenix projects), and Berkeley (GAMMASPHERE). We have worked closely with a variety of university groups in the last three years, especially those in the UNISOR and now UNIRIB collaborations. And, in all aspects of our program, we have maintained close collaborations with theorists, both to inspire the most exciting experiments to perform and to extract the pertinent physics from the results. The specific areas discussed in this report are: properties of high-spin states; study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability; and high energy heavy-ion physics.

  18. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  19. Nuclear iASPP may facilitate prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Morris, E V; Cerundolo, L; Lu, M; Verrill, C; Fritzsche, F; White, M J; Thalmann, G N; ten Donkelaar, C S; Ratnayaka, I; Salter, V; Hamdy, F C; Lu, X; Bryant, R J

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in prostate cancer (PCa) research is the identification of key players that control the progression of primary cancers to invasive and metastatic disease. The majority of metastatic PCa express wild-type p53, whereas loss of p63 expression, a p53 family member, is a common event. Here we identify inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP), a common cellular regulator of p53 and p63, as an important player of PCa progression. Detailed analysis of the prostate epithelium of iASPP transgenic mice, iASPP(?8/?8) mice, revealed that iASPP deficiency resulted in a reduction in the number of p63 expressing basal epithelial cells compared with that seen in wild-type mice. Nuclear and cytoplasmic iASPP expression was greater in PCa samples compared with benign epithelium. Importantly nuclear iASPP associated with p53 accumulation in vitro and in vivo. A pair of isogenic primary and metastatic PCa cell lines revealed that nuclear iASPP is enriched in the highly metastatic PCa cells. Nuclear iASPP is often detected in PCa cells located at the invasive leading edge in vivo. Increased iASPP expression associated with metastatic disease and PCa-specific death in a clinical cohort with long-term follow-up. These results suggest that iASPP function is required to maintain the expression of p63 in normal basal prostate epithelium, and nuclear iASPP may inactivate p53 function and facilitate PCa progression. Thus iASPP expression may act as a predictive marker of PCa progression. PMID:25341046

  20. Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man Yu

    2014-05-01

    As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

  1. Author's personal copy Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 62 (2009) 468472

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Author's personal copy Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 62 (2009) 468­472 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics journal homepage: www.ppnp.2008.12.035 #12;Author's personal copy T. Strother, W. Bauer / Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics

  2. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-04-01

    Progress and activities are reported on the following: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization programs, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, monitoring of unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions technology, spent fuel and fuel pool integrity program, and engineered barriers. (DLC)

  3. TR4 Nuclear Receptor Different Roles in Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Yang, Dong-Rong; Li, Gonghui; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are important to maintain the tissue homeostasis. Each receptor is tightly controlled and under a very complicated balance. In this review, we summarize the current findings regarding the nuclear receptor TR4 and its role in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. In general, TR4 can inhibit the PCa carcinogenesis. However, when PPAR? is knocked out, activation of TR4 can have an opposite effect to promote the PCa carcinogenesis. Clinical data also indicates that higher TR4 expression is found in PCa tissues with high Gleason scores compared to those tissues with low Gleason scores. In vitro and in vivo studies show that TR4 can promote PCa progression. Mechanism dissection indicates that TR4 inhibits PCa carcinogenesis through regulating the tumor suppressor ATM to reduce DNA damages. On the other hand, in the absence of PPAR?, TR4 tends to increase the stem cell population and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) via regulating CCL2, Oct4, EZH2, and miRNA-373-3p expression that results in increased PCa carcinogenesis. In opposition to PCa initiation, TR4 can increase PCa metastasis via modulating the CCL2 signals. Finally, targeting TR4 enhances the chemotherapy and radiation therapy sensitivity in PCa. Together, these data suggest TR4 is a key player to control PCa progression, and targeting TR4 with small molecules may provide us a new and better therapy to suppress PCa progression. PMID:26074876

  4. Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Musungu, Sisule F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:16710545

  5. From prenatal genomic diagnosis to fetal personalized medicine: progress and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Diana W

    2015-01-01

    Thus far, the focus of personalized medicine has been the prevention and treatment of conditions that affect adults. Although advances in genetic technology have been applied more frequently to prenatal diagnosis than to fetal treatment, genetic and genomic information is beginning to influence pregnancy management. Recent developments in sequencing the fetal genome combined with progress in understanding fetal physiology using gene expression arrays indicate that we could have the technical capabilities to apply an individualized medicine approach to the fetus. Here I review recent advances in prenatal genetic diagnostics, the challenges associated with these new technologies and how the information derived from them can be used to advance fetal care. Historically, the goal of prenatal diagnosis has been to provide an informed choice to prospective parents. We are now at a point where that goal can and should be expanded to incorporate genetic, genomic and transcriptomic data to develop new approaches to fetal treatment. PMID:22772565

  6. Multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging: artefacts, pitfalls and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    van Dalen, Jorn A.; Vogel, Wouter V.; Corstens, Frans H.M.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming an essential tool in oncology. Clinically, the best example of multimodality imaging is seen in the rapid evolution of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT scanners. However, use of multi-modality imaging is prone to artefacts and pitfalls. Important artefacts that may lead to clinical misinterpretation result from the use of CT data to correct for attenuation and the existence of mismatches between the fused images, for example due to respiratory movement. Furthermore, for institutions who proceed from a standalone PET to a hybrid PET-CT, there is an issue of interchangeability between these systems, especially for quantitative studies. Another issue is visualisation: hospital PACS is not sufficiently capable of adequately viewing integrated images. This article reviews and illustrates the most common artefacts and pitfalls that can be encountered in multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging. For correct management of oncological patients it is essential to be able to detect and correctly interpret these artefacts and pitfalls. Therefore, solutions and recommendations to these problems are provided. PMID:17535775

  7. New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

  8. Nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.J.; Schwarz, S.W.; Welch, M.J. (Washington Univ. Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology)

    1994-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is the field of medical practice that involves the oral or intravenous administration of radioactive materials for use in diagnosis and therapy. The majority of radiopharmaceutical available are used for diagnostic purposes. These involve the determination of organ function, shape, or position from an image of the radioactivity distribution within an organ or at a location within the body. After administration, the radiopharmaceutical localizes within an organ or target tissue due to its biological or physiologic characteristics. This diagnostic capability is usually the result of the emission of gamma radiation from the radiopharmaceutical localized within an organ. This allows for external detection and imaging using a special type of camera known as a gamma camera. When a positron-emitting radionuclide decays, a positron (positive electron) is emitted from the nucleus. The positron then annihilates with an electron, resulting in the release of energy in the form of two 511-KeV [gamma]-rays at 180[degree] to one another. The energy of these photons is sufficient to pass through tissue. Thus, placing a series of detectors around the patient allows technicians to monitor the emission of both of the photons that result from a single positron annihilation. this ultimately allows an accurate quantification of the distribution of radioactivity in the body not possible when only a single [gamma]-ray is emitted.

  9. Nuclear medicine image segmentation using a connective network

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, J.; Smith, M.F.; Coleman, R.E. [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A method for post-reconstruction nuclear medicine image segmentation based on an analogy to the Ising model of a two-dimensional square lattice of N particles (pixel values) is presented. A reconstructed 2-D slice image is analyzed as a multi-pixel system where pixel values correspond to a 2-D lattice of points with non-zero interaction energy with their nearest neighbors. The model assumes that pixel intensities belonging to the same homogeneous image region are relatively constant, where region intensity means (or labels) are determined by both statistical parameter estimation and deterministic image analysis. The change in value of each pixel during the segmentation process depends on (1) the statistical properties in the reconstructed image and (2) the values (or states) of its nearest neighbors. These changes are either in the direction of statistically estimated intensity means or other previously analyzed regions of significance. The segmentation technique uses a new innovative relaxation labeling connective network. The global relaxation dynamics of the network are controlled by the interaction of local synergetic and logistic functions assigned to each pixel. This result may improve the localization of hot and cold regions of interest as compared to the original image.

  10. Portable gamma camera for clinical use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Scopinaro, F. [Univ. of Rome, La Sapienza (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Up today Hamamatsu R3292 is the Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tube (PSPMT) with the largest sensitive area (10 cm of diameter). At the same time it has the minimum size for clinical application in Nuclear Medicine. A portable gamma camera was realized, based on 5 inches PSPMT coupled to a scintillating array. The head has a light weight (15 Kg.) spatial resolution resulted better than that of Anger Camera with good linearity response, good energy resolution and FOV coincident with intrinsic one of PSPMT. To optimize gamma camera response two different scintillating arrays were tested: YAP:Ce and CsI (Tl). Their overall size cover all photochatode active area, and crystal pixel size was 2 mm x 2 mm. The detection efficiency resulted comparable to that of Anger Camera. The best result was obtained by CsI (Tl) scintillating: an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.6 mm FWHM and a relative energy resolution of 17% FWHM. With a standard general purpose collimator a spatial resolution of about 2 mm resulted. Some preliminary results were also obtained in breast scintigraphy.

  11. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  12. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; ?ahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 ?Sv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 ?Sv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  13. Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

    2011-09-01

    Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

  14. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

    2006-07-05

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  15. Introduction In nuclear medicine, a pharmaceutical tagged with a radioactive isotope (a radio

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    tomography we can overcome the superposition of information and obtain cross­sectional views of a patient. In nuclear medicine, the detection of radioactive emission and the subsequent cross sectional image in medicine is a method used to view or image a selected cross section of a patient without surgical

  16. Quality management in nuclear medicine for better patient care: the IAEA program.

    PubMed

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Pascual, Thomas; Paez, Diana; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency promotes the practice of nuclear medicine among its Member States with a focus on quality and safety. It considers quality culture as a part of the educational process and as a tool to reduce heterogeneity in the practice of nuclear medicine, and in turn, patient care. Sensitization about quality is incorporated in all its delivery mechanisms. The Agency has developed a structured peer-review process called quality management (QM) audits in nuclear medicine practices to help nuclear medicine facilities improve their quality through this voluntary comprehensive audit process. The process is multidisciplinary, covering all aspects of nuclear medicine practice with a focus on the patient. It complements other QM and accreditation approaches developed by professional societies or accreditation agencies. The Agency is committed to propagate its utility and assist in the implementation process. Similar auditing programs for practice in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, called QUADRIL and QUATRO, respectively, are also in place. Necessary amendments in the auditing process and content are incorporated based on technological and practice changes with time. The reader will become familiar with the approach of the Agency on QM in nuclear medicine and its implementation process to improve patient care. PMID:23561453

  17. Nuclear location and the control of developmental progression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin C; Murre, Cornelis

    2013-04-01

    It is now well established that the mammalian genome is highly organized. Chromosomes are structured as territories that only sporadically intermingle. Chromosome territories themselves are segregated into distinct environments, that is, the transcriptionally inert/repressive (heterochromatic) and permissive (euchromatic) compartments. The transcriptionally permissive compartment is organized into domains (?0.5-3 Mb) that consist of bundles of loops, are gene-rich and closely associated by activating epigenetic marks. During ontogeny and developmental progression chromatin states are highly dynamic. Recent studies have shown that loci and domains readily switch compartments. Switching nuclear neighborhoods is closely associated with changes in transcriptional activity and extensive chromatin reorganization. Here we discuss the implications of a dynamic genome and how it relates to the control of developmental progression. PMID:23266214

  18. Progress in nuclear data for accelerator applications in Europe

    E-print Network

    Frank Goldenbaum

    2007-09-19

    This contribution essentially will be divided into two parts: First, a brief overview on topical accelerator applications in Europe, a selection of the European 6th framework accelerator and ADS programs will be given, second the emphasis will be put on selected nuclear data required for designing facilities planned or even under construction. In this second part the progress on nuclear data in the EU FP6 Integrated Project IP-EUROTRANS (specifically NUDATRA) is summarized. For proton-induced reactions in the energy range of 200-2500 MeV experimental data and model comparisons are shown on total and double differential production cross sections of H- and He-isotopes and intermediate mass fragments.

  19. CdZnTe arrays for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, H.B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In nuclear medicine, a gamma-ray-emitting radiotracer is injected into the body, and the resulting biodistribution is imaged using a gamma camera. Current gamma cameras use a design developed by Anger. An Anger camera makes use of a slab of scintillation detector that is viewed by an array of photomultiplier tubes and uses an analog position estimation technique to determine the position of the gamma ray`s interaction. The image-forming optics is usually a multi-bore collimator made of lead. Such cameras are characterized by poor, system spatial resolution ({approximately}1 cm) due to poor detector resolution ({approximately}0.4 cm) and poor collimator performance. Arrays of semiconductor detectors are an attractive alternative to scintillators for use in gamma cameras. Semiconductor detectors have excellent energy resolution. High spatial resolution is also possible because large semiconductor detector arrays with small pixel sizes can be produced using photolithography techniques. A new crystal growth technique (high-pressure vertical Bridgman) allows production of detector grade CdTe and CdZnTe in multikilogram ingots. Although the cost of CdZnTe detectors has come down substantially in the last few years, in part because of economies of scale, costs are still more than an order of magnitude higher than those required for a commercial camera ($20--$50/gram). High detector costs are perhaps the major stumbling block to developing a semiconductor gamma camera. The photolithography techniques required to make large CdZnTe arrays have already been demonstrated. This paper discusses the recent developments made in CdZnTe detectors.

  20. A dynamic renal phantom for nuclear medicine studies.

    PubMed

    SabbirAhmed, A S M; Demir, Mustafa; Kabasakal, Levent; Uslu, Ilhami

    2005-02-01

    Dynamic radionuclide renal study (renography) provides functional and structural information of the kidney and urinary tract noninvasively. Our purpose in this study is to describe the construction and test results of a dynamic renal phantom with different clinical features of radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five pieces of different shaped Plexiglas boxes: Two kidneys, one liver, two square shaped boxes (one heart and one bladder). The bladder was internally divided into two compartments in order to collect each kidney output separately. The dynamic circulation of the phantom was maintained under a hydrostatic pressure approximately equal to 13.3 kPa (average human blood pressure). The standard dose distribution among different organs and different renographic parameters were calculated from series of normal patients study (91 with 99mTc-DTPA, 68 with 99mTc-EC). All the studies were performed with same camera (Siemens Orbiter Digitrac 7500) equipped with LEAP (low energy all purpose) collimator using ADAC Pegasys II analytic package program under the same clinical procedure. Different regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn for concerning organs and counts per second (CPS) were collected for each ROI. The series of renogram curves were generated by phantom-studies with different flow rates for left kidney (LK) and right kidney (RK). The renal index (RI) for an individual study was calculated as the product of two indexes: "Relative Renal Function" (RRF) (water-volume of LK/RK) and "Relative Renal Time" (RRT) (Tmax of LK/RK). The most significant correlation was found in total CPS for LK and RK between the EC group and phantom studies (p < 0.001). The calculated RI values were used to simulate the patients' study with different clinical features. The dynamics were found reproducible. The phantom is suitable for using in calibration and quality control protocols of the renogram procedure used in Nuclear Medicine. PMID:15789599

  1. Progress in medicinal plant Rehmannia glutinosa : Metabolite profiling, tissue culture, growth and its regulation, and functional genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ling; R. R. Liu

    2009-01-01

    As an important medicinal plant, Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. is widely spread in East Asian countries, and its root, possessing multiple pharmacological values, is used as traditional\\u000a Chinese medicine in clinics. Recently, much progress in R. glutinosa has been made. Tissue culture and micropropagation have been applied to generate virus-free germs or homogeneous plants.\\u000a In vitro culture and generation of transgenic

  2. Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

    2004-01-01

    The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

  3. Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs. PMID:20019312

  4. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j) Radiation biology; (k) Nuclear medicine in vivo and in vitro procedures; (l) Radionuclide therapy; (m) Computer...

  5. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j) Radiation biology; (k) Nuclear medicine in vivo and in vitro procedures; (l) Radionuclide therapy; (m) Computer...

  6. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j) Radiation biology; (k) Nuclear medicine in vivo and in vitro procedures; (l) Radionuclide therapy; (m) Computer...

  7. Tax-benefit incidence of value added tax on food and medicine to fund progressive social expenditure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Acosta-Margain

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Mexican Congress received a proposal of a generalized 2% increase in the statutory VAT rate, including currently untaxed food and medicine. Whereas opponents emphasized the regressive effect, supporters argued that progressivity of the compensatory expenditures included in the bill more than compensated the bottom income quintiles. In this paper I present a tax-benefit incidence of this proposal

  8. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1981-03-01

    Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

  9. Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

  10. Comparison between Impact factor, SCImago journal rank indicator and Eigenfactor score of nuclear medicine journals.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Sadeghi; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Despite its widespread acceptance in the scientific world, impact factor (IF) has been criticized recently on many accounts: including lack of quality assessment of the citations, influence of self citation, English language bias, etc. In the current study, we evaluated three indices of journal scientific impact: (IF), Eigenfactor Score (ES), and SCImago Journal rank indicator (SJR) of nuclear medicine journals. Overall 13 nuclear medicine journals are indexed in ISI and SCOPUS and 7 in SCOPUS only. Self citations, Citations to non-English articles, citations to non-citable items and citations to review articles contribute to IFs of some journals very prominently, which can be better detected by ES and SJR to some extent. Considering all three indices while judging quality of the nuclear medicine journals would be a better strategy due to several shortcomings of IF. PMID:22936507

  11. Trends of population radiation adsorbed dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran: 1985-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, H.; Tabeie, F.; Saghari, M. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    In view of the rapid expansion of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran, this study was undertaken to examine trends of nuclear medicine practice in the country and to determine the mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita. Comprehensive national data covering 93% of all nuclear medicine centers in 1985-1989 were obtained. The total number of nuclear medicine examinations inc teased by 42% during these years. The relative frequency of thyroid investigations was 84% followed by liver/spleen and bone procedures (7% and 6%, respectively). {sup 99m}Tc was the radionuclide of choice for 86% of investigation while {sup 131}I alone accounted for 59% of collective effective dose equivalent. The annual average number of nuclear medicine procedures per 1,000 people was 1.9. For the thyroid, the highest number (48%) of patients investigated was in the 15-29 y age group and the lowest (3%) was in the >64 y age group. The male to female ratio of thyroid and cardiac patient was 0.18 and 3.64, respectively. The numbers of males and females studied for the remaining eight procedures were less frequent and about the same. The mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita was about 4.3 mSv and 8 {mu}Sv, respectively. {sup 131}I was responsible for most of collective effective dose equivalent produced by nuclear medicine. Therefore, future efforts should be concentrated on dose reduction for diagnostic {sup 131}I tests.

  12. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  13. Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 73 (2013) 134 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Mcdonough, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 73 (2013) 1­34 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ppnp Review Geo field between Geology and Physics: the study of the Earth's geo-neutrino flux. We describe competing

  14. Progress in Nuclear Energy 53 (2011) 618 625 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Demazière, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Progress in Nuclear Energy 53 (2011) 618 625 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress in Nuclear Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/pnucene Comparison of thorium-based fuels Fhager a , Christophe Demazière b a Thor Energy, Sommerrogaten 13 15, NO-0255 Oslo, Norway b Chalmers

  15. Ethical Dilemmas in Today's Nuclear Medicine and Radiology Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Barron; E. Edmund Kim; M. D. Anderson

    Throughout history, societies have developed their own codes of ethics, including those pertaining to the practice of medicine. In the United States, physicians have adopted a set of ethics based on religious values and historical teachings. We, as phy- sicians, have been presented several codes of ethics, including the American Medical Association Code of Ethics and the Amer- ican College

  16. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the U.S., currently lags behind x-ray based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This paper discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying monitoring and reporting strategies used in x-ray based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  17. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  18. STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA N, a proton beam extracted from C-80 will be used for eyes therapy (high precision 80 MeV beam with low of radioisotopes for nu- clear medicine. The proton synchrotron S-230 was designed at G.N. Budker Nuclear Physics

  19. Nuclear medicine PACS with an Interfile\\/ACR-NEMA interface and on-line medical record interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice C. Honeyman; Meryll M. Frost; Edward V. Staab; Walter E. Drane; Mike Nicole

    1993-01-01

    A PACS system has been implemented at the University of Florida that has eliminated the use of film in Nuclear Medicine. Six acquisition devices, four display devices, three paper printers, and a digital archive comprise the system. Nuclear Medicine images are viewed on display workstations for diagnosis and are printed in color on paper to be placed in the patient's

  20. Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  1. Translating Extra-Nuclear Steroid Receptor Signaling to Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ellis R

    2014-01-01

    The existence and function of extra-nuclear steroid receptors (SR) to rapidly modulate signal transduction is now acknowledged as present in cells and organs throughout the body. Work over the past 15 years has defined key mechanisms that are required for sex steroid receptors to traffic to the plasma membrane, but mechanisms of localization in other cell organelles such as mitochondria is still unclear. Signaling by membrane-localized SR has now been reported to impact many aspects of adult organ functions, while the roles in organ development are under investigation. In hormone-responsive cancers, both extra-nuclear and nuclear sex steroid receptors appear to collaborate in the regulation of some key genes that promote malignancy. Here I review what is understood about the impact of extra-nuclear steroid receptor signaling to mitigate or promote disease processes. PMID:24752388

  2. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms: Progress, Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    BENNETT, M. D.; LEITCH, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    CONTENTSINTRODUCTION45PROGRESS46????Improved systematic representation (species and families)46????????(i) First estimates for species46????????(ii) First estimates for families47PROBLEMS48????Geographical representation and distribution48????Plant life form48????Obsolescence time bomb49????Errors and inexactitudes49????Genome size, ‘complete’ genome sequencing, and, the euchromatic genome50????The completely sequenced genome50????Weeding out erroneous data52????What is the smallest reliable C-value for an angiosperm?52????What is the minimum C-value for a free-living angiosperm and other free-living organisms?53PROSPECTS FOR THE NEXT TEN YEARS54????Holistic genomics55LITERATURE CITED56APPENDIX59????Notes to the Appendix59????Original references for DNA values89 • Background The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. • Scope The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. • Conclusions 1998–2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many densitometers used to measure DNA C-values proved less serious than feared, owing to the development of relatively inexpensive flow cytometers and computer-based image analysis systems. New uses of the term genome (e.g. in ‘complete’ genome sequencing) can cause confusion. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative C-value for Arabidopsis thaliana (125 Mb) was a gross underestimate, and an exact C-value based on genome sequencing alone is unlikely to be obtained soon for any angiosperm. Lack of this expected benchmark poses a quandary as to what to use as the basal calibration standard for angiosperms. The next decade offers exciting prospects for angiosperm genome size research. The database (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage) should become sufficiently representative of the global flora to answer most questions without needing new estimations. DNA amount variation will remain a key interest as an integrated strand of holistic genomics. PMID:15596457

  3. Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

  4. Assesment of Population Dose from Nuclear Medicine Procedures in Pernambuco (Brazil) During the Period 1990 - 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Khoury; M. A. Pereira; M. G. Stabin; C. A. Hazin; G. Drexler

    Pernambuco, with its population of 7.1 million, is the most important States of the northeast region of Brazil, and many patients from other States of the region come to be treated in Recife. In Recife there were two clinics, one private the other public, with nuclear medicine practices during the period of 1990-1994. Data were collected on: a) the types

  5. The diffusion of a vanguard technique: The case of nuclear medicine in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bouckaert; X. Leroy

    1985-01-01

    How does a new technology spread across a country? Which are the factors influencing its spreading across time and space? We have attempted to answer to those questions through the example of nuclear medicine. We have used a macro-economic approach, based on regional and diachronic data (43 areas and three larger 'regions' from 1974 to 1982). Two separate fields have

  6. Possibilities for the production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medicine problems by means of photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhilavyan, L. Z., E-mail: dzhil@cpc.inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Karev, A. I.; Raevsky, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    For electrons of energy about 55 MeV that create an average current of about 40 Micro-Sign A, it is shown that the production of many of the radioisotopes important for nuclear medicine is possible in significant amounts.

  7. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine examinations in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Skrk, Damijan; Zontar, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Background A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia. Methods A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. Conclusions The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures. PMID:24133396

  8. A general algorithm for optimal sampling schedule design in nuclear medicine imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianjin Li; David Dagan Feng; Koon-pong Wong

    2001-01-01

    Optimal sampling schedule (OSS) is of great interest in biomedical experiment design, as it can improve the physiological parameter estimation precision and significantly reduce the samples required. A number of well designed algorithms and software packages have been developed, which deal with the instantaneous measurements at discrete times. However, in nuclear medicine tracer kinetic studies, the imaging systems, such as

  9. Photon dose kernels dataset for nuclear medicine dosimetry, using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis Papadimitroulas; George Loudos; Panagiotis Georgoulias; George C. Kagadis

    2011-01-01

    Photon dose point kernels (DPKs) were generated using the GATE toolkit for different media and for radionuclides of interest in nuclear medicine. In the present work the primary photon contribution of different isotopes in different media is calculated, since this dataset is not available in the literature according to our knowledge. The generated dataset consists of photon DPKs for some

  10. Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics Contract Number DE-FG02-96ER40980 Title: Nuclear and Particle Physics Research at the University. The experimental work described here is part of the electromagnetic nuclear physics program in Hall B at the Thomas

  11. Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics Contract Number DE-FG02-96ER40980 Title: Nuclear and Particle Physics Research at the University. The experimental work is part of the electromagnetic nuclear physics program in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson

  12. Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics Contract Number DE-FG02-96ER40980 Title: Nuclear and Particle Physics Research at the University Jordan, Matt King, and Mark Moog) worked in Gilfoyle's nuclear physics lab at the University of Richmond

  13. Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics Contract Number DE-FG02-96ER40980 Title: Nuclear and Particle Physics Research at the University's nuclear physics lab at the University of Richmond. One of these students presented his work at the Fall

  14. Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meziani, Z.E.

    1992-01-01

    The project discussed in this progress report focusses on understanding the many facets and scales of strongly interacting systems using the electromagnetic probe. On one hand we are investigating the spin properties of the nucleon (proton and neutron) through its fundamental constituents (quarks and gluons). On the other hand we are studying the properties of nucleons in nuclei and the few-body systems. The E142 and the newly approved E143 experiments planned at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are designed to provide an answer to the mystery of the missing spin of the proton, while the new letter of intent submitted to SLAC, will investigate the so called Color transparency effect related to the prediction of PQCD for the (e,e{prime}p) quasielastic process in nuclei. Our research involvement at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility focusses in Hall A. From the technical point of view we are building the Coemption polarimeter for the Hall A beam line. This device should allow a precise measurement of the electron beam polarization for several approved experiments. From the physics aspect of the project we plan to perform the transverse/longitudinal separation of the nuclear response at high momentum transfer in the quasielastic region, the photodisintegration of deuterium with the measurement of the recoil polarization of the proton and the electromagnetic form factor of few body systems experiment.

  15. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  16. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  17. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:25766899

  18. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  19. Routes for supply of technetium-99m for diagnostic nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Goeij, J.J.M. de [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    Technetium-99m is the most frequently used radio nuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Although competing noninvasive diagnostic techniques are emerging, the prospects for the next decades are that {sup 99m}Tc will continue to play an indispensable role in diagnostic medicine. However, this applies only when the requirements of a reliable, cheap, frequent, and worldwide supply of {sup 99m}Tc to hospitals are met. This latter issue has been frequently addressed in recent years in publications and presentations at scientific meetings. This paper presents an overview of current and future methods to supply {sup 99m}Tc.

  20. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  1. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-03-31

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  2. Modular 64x64 CdZnTe arrays with multiplexer readout for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.; Barrett, H.H.; Dereniak, E.L.; Eskin, J.D.; Marks, D.G.; Matherson, K.J.; Young, E.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Augustine, F.L. [Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The authors are developing modular arrays of CdZnTe radiation detectors for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging. Each detector is delineated into a 64x64 array of pixels; the pixel pitch is 380 {micro}m. Each pixel is connected to a corresponding pad on a multiplexer readout circuit. The imaging system is controlled by a personal computer. They obtained images of standard nuclear medicine phantoms in which the spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm was limited by the collimator that was used. Significant improvements in spatial resolution should be possible with different collimator designs. These results are promising for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging.

  3. Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science

    SciTech Connect

    Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Survey of physician requirements in six specialties: manpower needs in anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report was prepared to assist the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC) in its efforts to model physician manpower requirements in six specialties: anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and radiology. The purpose of this report is to (1) survey and present the existing literature on manpower requirements in each of these six specialties, and (2) discuss the special problems present in each specialty in modeling manpower requirements, and where possible, suggest possible avenues of resolution.

  5. 25 years of the WHO essential medicines lists: progress and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Laing; Brenda Waning; Andy Gray; Nathan Ford; Ellen't Hoen

    2003-01-01

    In 1977, the birth of the WHO model list of essential drugs led the organisation to advocate for the principle that some medicines were more essential than others, pointing out that many medicines in developing countries were not useful, whereas others that were did not reach populations at need. In the past 25 years, 11 revisions of the list have

  6. Physical dosimetry and mathematical dose calculation in nuclear medicine: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Amiri, Mehrangiz

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This paper addresses a comparison between physical dosimetry and mathematical dose calculation in nuclear medicine. Materials and Methods: Dose rate was calculated by mathematical external dose calculation formula and by physical dosimetry from the surface of 38 adult patients’ body referred to nuclear medicine department. Results of the methods were compared and correlation and regression tests were also performed. Results: Although the physical dosimetry data in this study are in good consistency with other researches, they are much lower than the results of mathematical dose calculation formula. The correlation coefficient between measured dose rate with calculated values derived by mathematical formula was found to be 0.852 (P value=0.148). Conclusion: It seems that physical dosimetry data are more accurate than the results of mathematical dose calculation. In case of using mathematical dose calculation formula, other correction factors should be considered and applied for getting reliable data. PMID:20844662

  7. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547 500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605 000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30 700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31 100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. PMID:25848115

  8. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-09-01

    This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Population characteristics and absorbed dose to the population from nuclear medicine: United States1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred A. Mettler; James H. Christie; Arvis G. Williams; Robert D. Moseley; Charles A. Kelsey

    1986-01-01

    Those in the U.S. population who receive nuclear medicine examinations have been characterized by age and sex. Males received 42% of examinations while females received 58%. More than one-third of the examinations were done on persons older than 64 y of age and more than two-thirds on patients older than 45 y of age. The per caput effective dose equivalent

  10. Internal irradiation from nuclear medicine investigations: A comparison between effective dose equivalent and effective dose

    SciTech Connect

    Ostinelli, A.; Monti, A.; Milan, M. [Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy)

    1994-10-01

    ICRP Publication 60 (1990) proposes a partially revised method to calculate effective dose, a quantity previously defined in ICRP Publication 26 (1977) as effective dose equivalent. The authors applied these two different approaches to calculate the effective dose equivalent and the effective dose, in the case of internal irradiations from the most common nuclear medicine investigations. The results show clear differences between the two examined quantities, even if the differences are not statistically significant. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  12. Conventional Nuclear Medicine in the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Tract Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariane Boubaker

    \\u000a Conventional nuclear medicine investigations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are not commonly performed in routine clinical\\u000a practice, although prevalence of disorders affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract is quite high ranging from 15% to 40%\\u000a in European countries. Most diagnostic tests used to differentiate organic from nonorganic cause are invasive (endoscopy,\\u000a manometry, pH monitoring) and may be not well tolerated by

  13. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by stannous chloride associated to nuclear medicine kits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anderson P. Guedes; Valbert N. Cardoso; Jose C. P. De Mattos; Flavio J. S. Dantas; Vanessa C. Matos; Josiane C. F. Silva; Roberto J. A. C. Bezerra; Adriano Caldeira-de-Araujo

    2006-01-01

    At present, more than 75% of routine nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures use technetium-99m (99mTc). The binding between 99mTc and the drug to obtain the radiopharmaceutical needs a reducing agent, with stannous chloride (SnCl2) being one of the most used. There are controversies about the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of SnCl2 in the literature. Thus, the approaches below were used

  14. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  15. Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 (Mexico)

    2006-09-08

    The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system.

  16. Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaytán-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G.

    2006-09-01

    The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in México (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system.

  17. Applied Nuclear Science Research and Development progress report, June 1, 1984-May 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Mutschlecner, A.D. (comps.)

    1985-09-01

    This progress report describes the activities of the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group for June 1, 1984 through May 31, 1985. The topical content includes the theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections; neutron cross section processing and testing; neutron activation, fission products and actinides; and core neutronics code development and application. 70 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs. (WRF)

  18. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine in the United States: 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Callahan, Ronald J; Clanton, Jeffrey A; DePietro, Allegra; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Greenspan, Bennett S; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Moore, Stephen C; Ponto, James A; Shreeve, Walton W; Melo, Dunstana R; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2015-05-01

    To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, the authors assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered activity. This paper presents data on the changing patterns of clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals and documents the range of activity administered to adult patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the U.S. between 1960 and 2010. Data are presented for 15 diagnostic imaging procedures that include thyroid scan and thyroid uptake; brain scan; brain blood flow; lung perfusion and ventilation; bone, liver, hepatobiliary, bone marrow, pancreas, and kidney scans; cardiac imaging procedures; tumor localization studies; localization of gastrointestinal bleeding; and non-imaging studies of blood volume and iron metabolism. Data on the relative use of radiopharmaceuticals were collected using key informant interviews and comprehensive literature reviews of typical administered activities of these diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Responses of key informants on relative use of radiopharmaceuticals are in agreement with published literature. Results of this study will be used for retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to members of the U.S. radiologic technologists' cohort and in reconstructing radiation doses from occupational or patient radiation exposures to other U.S. workers or patient populations. PMID:25811150

  19. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  20. Nuclear physics for medicine: how nuclear research is improving human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Angela

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an associated Committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics, and its trans-disciplinary use and application in collaborative ventures between research groups.

  1. Research progress on the mechanism of single-Chinese medicinal herbs in treating diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Xia; Liu, Tong-Hua; Huang, Zong-Tao; Li, Juan-E; Wu, Li-Li

    2011-03-01

    Treating diabetes mellitus (DM) with Chinese medicine (CM) has had a few thousands years of history. Past Chinese medical texts had already recorded numerous medicinal herbs as well as recipes for treating DM and accumulated much clinical experience. In the following article, the prevention of DM using CM in the past 5 years is retrospectively studied, and mainly focuses on the usage of simple Chinese herbal extracts or monomers in terms of cellular as well as molecular biology. PMID:21359928

  2. Nuclear waste programs; Semiannual progress report, October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Emery, J.W.; Feng, X.; Finn, P.A.; Gerding, T.J.; Hoh, J.C. [and others

    1993-11-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Programs of the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1991-March 1992. In these programs, studies are underway on the performance of waste glass and spent fuel in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories

  3. A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24319488

  4. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Keith H S

    2002-03-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  5. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.L.

    1991-09-30

    This report discusses nuclear structure from radioactive decay of the following: Neutron-Deficient Iridium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Platinum Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Gold Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Mercury Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Thallium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Lead Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Samarium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Promethium Isotopes; Neutron-Deficient Neodymium Isotopes; and Neutron-Deficient Praseodymium Isotopes. Also discussed are Nuclear Systematics and Models.

  6. A file format for the exchange of nuclear medicine image data: a specification of Interfile version 3.3.

    PubMed

    Todd-Pokropek, A; Cradduck, T D; Deconinck, F

    1992-09-01

    Working Group 1 of the European project COST-B2 on quality assurance of nuclear medicine software has been concerned with the development of an appropriate mechanism for the transfer of nuclear medicine image data files between computer systems from different vendors. To this end a protocol based upon Report No. 10 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) [1] was adopted. A previous publication [2] gave a specification (V3.2) for an intermediate file format with a list of key-value pairs for the header data associated with nuclear medicine image data files. This paper presents a revised specification for the intermediate file format and associated keys, now called V3.3, which has evolved from the experience in using the earlier version. It is hoped that the modifications proposed will improve the definition and usability of the file format as given in the earlier version. PMID:1448241

  7. Recent progress and prospects in Sasang constitutional medicine: a traditional type of physiome-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Noble, Denis

    2014-09-01

    The history of the constitution perspective in medical care dates back thousands of years and extends from the East to the West. Among the various forms of constitutional medicine, Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a holistic, tailored medical approach that is based on a well-structured theoretical system that includes physiopathological disciplines. Scientific evidence has demonstrated that SCM typology has a constitution-specific basis in anthropometrics, physiological characteristics, disease vulnerability, and genetic origins. Furthermore, the recent rise of systems biology, which requires whole body modeling, uses a state-of-the-art approach in interpreting the holistic spirit of Oriental medicine. This article aims to provide an overview of the recent achievements in SCM research and to discuss how the concept of balance in SCM may contribute to the development of large scale modeling in systems biology. PMID:25240519

  8. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1983-06-01

    This document is one of a series of technical progress reports designed to report radioactive waste management programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Accomplishments in the following programs are reported: waste stabilization; Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; low-level waste management; remedial action; and supporting studies.

  9. Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine* Progress Over the Past 25 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Louis Vincent; Mitchell P. Fink; John J. Marini; Michael R. Pinsky; William J. Sibbald; Mervyn Singer; Peter M. Suter; Deborah Cook; Paul E. Pepe; Timothy Evans

    Over the last quarter of a century, intensive care medicine has developed into an established hospital specialty with its own unique identity and characteristics. Significant advances have occurred, mostly in a succession of small steps rather than any dramatic leap, with many being linked to advances in health care across other disciplines. In addition, many changes have resulted from the

  10. Progress in Bright Ion Beams for Industry, Medicine and Fusion at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-12-01

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  11. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-05-31

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  12. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  13. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1985-10-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing and recovery, and safety technology program (biaxial testing, iridium chemistry).

  14. Development Progress of the GAIA Nuclear Data Processing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferran, G.; Haeck, W.; Gonin, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a general status of the development of GAIA, a new nuclear data processing software. The first part mainly focuses on the concrete developments for resonance reconstruction in the general R-matrix formalism. Then the second part is about a new method for Doppler broadening using Fourier transform.

  15. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARa,...

  16. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G. (comp.)

    1985-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. 36 figs.

  17. A strategy for intensive production of molybdenum-99 isotopes for nuclear medicine using CANDU reactors.

    PubMed

    Morreale, A C; Novog, D R; Luxat, J C

    2012-01-01

    Technetium-99m is an important medical isotope utilized worldwide in nuclear medicine and is produced from the decay of its parent isotope, molybdenum-99. The online fueling capability and compact fuel of the CANDU(®)(1) reactor allows for the potential production of large quantities of (99)Mo. This paper proposes (99)Mo production strategies using modified target fuel bundles loaded into CANDU fuel channels. Using a small group of channels a yield of 89-113% of the weekly world demand for (99)Mo can be obtained. PMID:21816619

  18. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferid Haddad; Ludovic Ferrer; Arnaud Guertin; Thomas Carlier; Nathalie Michel; Jacques Barbet; Jean-François Chatal

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity\\u000a and high-energy cyclotron.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy\\u000a and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of

  19. Progress in Understanding the Nuclear Equation of State at the Quark Level

    SciTech Connect

    A.W. Thomas; P.A.M. Guichon

    2007-01-03

    At the present time there is a lively debate within the nuclear community concerning the relevance of quark degrees of freedom in understanding nuclear structure. We outline the key issues and review the impressive progress made recently within the framework of the quark-meson coupling model. In particular, we explain in quite general terms how the modification of the internal structure of hadrons in-medium leads naturally to three- and four-body forces, or equivalently, to density dependent effective interactions.

  20. [Progress of diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive renal damage by Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive renal damage is based on the extent and duration of hypertension, renal damage caused by varying severity. Hypertensive renal damage due to various causes imbalance of vascular active substances, renal arteriosclerosis, so that the abnormal renal hemodynamic, renal ischemia, low specific gravity of urine, low osmotic pressure and urine. The rapidly increasing incidence of hypertensive renal damage has become one of the most important reasons of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Effective treatment of hypertension is limited by poor compliance and significant adverse reaction of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, some patients have turned to Chinese medicine (CM), hoping that such treatments might improve the efficiency. The author reviews relevant theory and the latest researches, on the basis of combining diseases and syndrome, discusses state and achievement of hypertensive renal damage with Chinese herbal medicines from fundamental and clinical research and action mechanism from standpoints of Chinese herbal compound and herbal effective chemical composition to take future research for important reference. PMID:24754161

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  2. Recent Progress in Voice-Based Sasang Constitutional Medicine: Improving Stability of Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Su; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine is a unique form of tailored medicine in traditional Korean medicine. Voice features have been regarded as an important cue to diagnose Sasang constitution types. Many studies tried to extract quantitative voice features and standardize diagnosis methods; however, they had flaws, such as unstable voice features which vary a lot for the same individual, limited data collected from only few sites, and low diagnosis accuracy. In this paper, we propose a stable diagnosis model that has a good repeatability for the same individual. None of the past studies evaluated the repeatability of their diagnosis models. Although many previous studies used voice features calculated by averaging feature values from all valid frames in monotonic utterance like vowels, we analyse every single feature value from each frame of a sentence voice signal. Gaussian mixture model is employed to deal with a lot of voice features from each frame. Total 15 Gaussian models are used to represent voice characteristics for each constitution. To evaluate repeatability of the proposed diagnosis model, we introduce a test dataset consisting of 10 individuals' voice recordings with 50 recordings per each individual. Our result shows that the proposed method has better repeatability than the previous study which used averaged features from vowels and the sentence. PMID:24062794

  3. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection.

  4. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  5. [Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

  6. Nuclear technology programs; Semiannual progress report, October 1989--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1989--March 1990. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of metal fuel and blanket materials of the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned water waste stream generated in production of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

  7. Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, October 1988--March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E. [ed.

    1990-12-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1988--March 1989. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of metal fuel and blanket materials of the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned with examining the feasibility of substituting low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in the production of fission product {sup 99}Mo. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories. 127 refs., 76 figs., 103 tabs.

  8. Transportation issues in nuclear medicine and the release of radioactivity into the environment.

    PubMed

    Westerman, B R

    1986-07-01

    Large volumes of radioactive materials are shipped daily over the nation's highways, by air, and by other transportation modes for a variety of purposes. These shipments include those intended for nuclear medicine applications. Shipments are governed by the Federal Department of Transportation, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and, for international shipments, the International Atomic Energy Agency. Knowledge of the regulations of these agencies is essential for maintenance of a viable radiation safety program. The use of radioactive materials is invariably accompanied by the potential for release of radioactivity into the environment. This potential is addressed in the recommendations and regulations of several voluntary and governmental agencies. Recently, new concepts have been introduced into these recommendations and regulations that use the concepts of "annual limit of intake," "committed effective dose equivalent," and "derived air concentrations." These concepts improve the applicability of present standards for the release of radioactive materials into the environment and for the protection of individuals from these materials. PMID:3749916

  9. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist in improving the accuracy and tractability of dose and shielding calculations for nuclear medicine facility design. PMID:24849904

  10. Theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of research: Pion double charge exchange and the role of meson exchange currents, including vector mesons, deltas, and nuclear correlations. K{sup +}-nucleus scattering and the role of meson exchange currents in supplying ``missing cross section.`` Pion excess distributions in nuclei, and the role of nuclear correlations. Interactions of two hyperons and the possibility of an H dibaryon. Shell model spectra and the NN tensor interaction. Statistical nuclear spectroscopy, including state densities and expectation values evaluated in terms of one-point and two-point (correlation) functions.

  11. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    PubMed Central

    Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  12. Investigation of Recoil Collection Method for Production of High Specific Activity Nuclear Medicine Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan

    Production of high specific activity, reactor -produced isotopes will be important for the new generation of nuclear medicine anti-cancer radiopharmaceuticals, When the radiopharmaceuticals are prepared for applications in nuclear medicine or in-vivo trials, the product should be very high quality and normally of very high specific activity to avoid the risk of a contamination with impurities such as stable nuclides, i.e. the resultant solution needs to be in most cases as "carrier free" as possible, as well as free of extraneous nuclides. Unfortunately, many useful isotopes made by (n, gamma) reactions such as Au-198, Re -186 and Re-188 are not carrier-free. The aim of this research is to evaluate the production of high specific activity isotopes by (n, gamma) reactions using a hot atom recoil collection method. The apparatus designed for gold and rhenium recoil experiments has been constructed and operated in the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) to collect the recoil Au-198 and Re-188 atoms. The degree of isotopic enrichment of the product will then be ascertained. The results from the recoil experiments are discussed, and plans for modifications to improve the desired yield are discussed.

  13. Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, K.M. [comp.

    1996-05-01

    Progress is reported for Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1996. Development and production activities in Plutonium Recovery and Processing, Plutonium Packaging, and Uranium Recovery and Processing are covered. Packaging quality assurance activities are reported.

  14. The nuclear medicine therapy care coordination service: a model for radiologist-driven patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Applegate, Kimberly E; Duszak, Richard; Barron, Bruce J; Fitz, Jim; Halkar, Raghuveer K; Lee, Daniel J; Schuster, David M

    2015-06-01

    We developed a longitudinal care coordination service to proactively deliver high-quality and family-centered care in patients receiving radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. In an iterative, multidisciplinary team manner, a pretherapy consultation service, which included scripted interactions, documentation, and checklists for quality control, evolved over time into a robust patient-centered longitudinal care coordination nuclear medicine service. Radiation safety precautions, the rationale for therapy, and management of patient expectations were addressed through the initial consultation, and discharge and posttreatment care were managed during subsequent follow-up. The patient-physician relationship created during longitudinal nuclear medicine therapy care is one tool to help counteract the growing commoditization of radiology. This article describes the process that the nuclear medicine specialists in our department established to enhance radiologist value by providing both exceptional thyroid cancer treatment and continuity of care. PMID:25766086

  15. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, April 1-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Carew, J.F.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Ginsberg, T.; Greene, G.A.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.; Perkins, K.R.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Pratt, W.T.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Taylor, J.H.; van Tuyle, G.J.; Unwin, S.D.; Wulff, W.; Weiss, A.J. (comp.)

    1988-06-01

    The Advanced and Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Reports have been combined and are included in this report entitled, ''Safety Research Programs Sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research/endash/Progress Report.'' This progress report will describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Reactor Accident Analysis, and Division of Reactor and Plant Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in February 1987. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

    1993-07-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

  17. Identifying disease mutations in genomic medicine settings: current challenges and how to accelerate progress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The pace of exome and genome sequencing is accelerating, with the identification of many new disease-causing mutations in research settings, and it is likely that whole exome or genome sequencing could have a major impact in the clinical arena in the relatively near future. However, the human genomics community is currently facing several challenges, including phenotyping, sample collection, sequencing strategies, bioinformatics analysis, biological validation of variant function, clinical interpretation and validity of variant data, and delivery of genomic information to various constituents. Here we review these challenges and summarize the bottlenecks for the clinical application of exome and genome sequencing, and we discuss ways for moving the field forward. In particular, we urge the need for clinical-grade sample collection, high-quality sequencing data acquisition, digitalized phenotyping, rigorous generation of variant calls, and comprehensive functional annotation of variants. Additionally, we suggest that a 'networking of science' model that encourages much more collaboration and online sharing of medical history, genomic data and biological knowledge, including among research participants and consumers/patients, will help establish causation and penetrance for disease causal variants and genes. As we enter this new era of genomic medicine, we envision that consumer-driven and consumer-oriented efforts will take center stage, thus allowing insights from the human genome project to translate directly back into individualized medicine. PMID:22830651

  18. Nuclear structure studies. Progress report, [1988--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.B.

    1993-07-31

    In this report, newly initiated work at the FMA is described where the use of double-sided strip detectors for charged particle spectroscopy on nuclides near the proton drip line has been investigated. Half lives for proton emitting nuclides have been determined with improved uncertainties. Several sections report on the results of studies of model parameters in the Z = 50 region for even-even nuclides, for odd-mass nuclides and for odd-odd nuclides. Other studies are reported for nuclear orientation in Br and for structure of Pr-147 which lies in a transition zone between reflection-asymmetric, spherical, and prolate nuclides. And there is a section in which the positions of the single Particle levels in the A = 100 region are discussed.

  19. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-09-01

    The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

  20. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R.

    1997-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels of radiation effects in glass and ceramics. This research will provide the underpinning science and models for evaluation and performance assessments of glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scrap, and excess weapons plutonium. Studies will focus on the effects of ionization and elastic collision interactions on defect production, defect interactions, diffusion, solid-state phase transformations, and gas accumulation using actinide-containing materials, gamma irradiation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of a-decay and p-decay on nuclear waste glasses and ceramics. This program will exploit a variety of structural, optical, and spectroscopic probes to characterize the nature and behavior of the defects, defect aggregates, and phase transforma-tions. Computer simulation techniques will be used to determine defect production, calculate defect stability, defect energies, damage processes within an a-recoil cascade, and defect/gas diffusion and interactions. A number of irradiation facilities and capabilities will be used, including user facilities at several national laboratories, to study the effects of irradiation under different conditions.'

  1. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comp.)

    1981-06-01

    Reports and summaries are provided for the following programs: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclide in soils; low-level waste generation reduction handbook; waste management system studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

  2. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology developed in this work to other nuclear medicine services where significant activities of (131)I are routinely handled as an effective means to optimize individual exposures and improve occupational radiation protection safety. PMID:25523310

  3. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, M.W.

    1993-10-10

    The project on ``Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance`` was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds.

  4. Applications of extraction chromatography in the development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Horwitz, E. P.; Chemistry

    2000-10-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of {sup 212}Bi, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 213}Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators.

  5. Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

  6. Job-sharing in nuclear medicine: an 8-year experience (1998-2006).

    PubMed

    Als, Claudine; Brautigam, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Job-sharing is generally defined as a situation in which a single professional position is held in common by two separate individuals, who alternatively, on a timely basis, deal with the workload and the responsibilities. The aim of the present paper is to discuss prerequisites and characteristics of job-sharing by medical doctors and implications in a department of nuclear medicine. Job-sharing facilitates the combination of family life with professional occupation and prevents burnout. The time schedule applied by job-sharers is relevant: will both partners work for half-days, half-weeks, or rather alternatively during one to two consecutive weeks? This crucial choice, depending on personal as well as on professional circumstances, certainly influences the workflow of the department. PMID:16791813

  7. Advancing the science of dissemination and implementation in behavioral medicine: evidence and progress.

    PubMed

    Chan, Carina K Y; Oldenburg, Brian; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2015-06-01

    The enormous time lag between the discovery of new knowledge and its implementation poses a significant challenge to improving public health because of the very slow uptake into policy and practice. The field of dissemination and implementation research in behavioral medicine is receiving increased attention because of the keen interest in accelerating knowledge transfer from relevant research to improve the health and wellbeing of populations in many different settings, contexts, and countries around the world. This is particularly important in high-risk populations, resource-poor and developing regions of the world where the difference in health systems, languages, and cultures very significantly influences the translation of evidence into policy and practice. Moreover, demonstrating the broader societal and economic value of behavioral interventions in settings where they are implemented can further support the sustainability, uptake, and implementation of these findings in other settings and contexts. This special issue presents a series of empirical studies, reviews, and case studies that address dissemination, implementation, and translation issues in both developed and developing countries. Specifically, the learnings from the application of many and varied theories and research methodologies are very relevant for bridging the current division between research findings and their translation and uptake into policy and practice. PMID:26001382

  8. Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. H.; Dong, S. L.; Yang, H. J. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chen, S. [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical Univ., Taiwan (China); Shih, C. T. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chuang, K. S. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Lin, C. H. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Yao, W. J. [PET Center, National Cheng Kung Univ. Hospital, Taiwan (China); Jan, M. L. [Physics Div., Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used to validate the accuracy of this system. The S values for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 18}F and {sup 131}I obtained by the system were compared to those from the MCNP4C code and OLINDA. The ratios of S values computed by this system to those obtained with OLINDA for various organs were ranged from 0.93 to 1.18, which are comparable to that obtained from MCNP4C code (0.94 to 1.20). The average ratios of S value were 0.99{+-}0.04, 1.03{+-}0.05, and 1.00{+-}0.07 for isotopes {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, and {sup 99m}Tc, respectively. The simulation time of SimSET was two times faster than MCNP4C's for various isotopes. A 3D dose calculation was also performed on a patient data set with PET/CT examination using this system. Results from the patient data showed that the estimated S values using this system differed slightly from those of OLINDA for ORNL phantom. In conclusion, this system can generate patient-specific dose distribution and display the isodose curves on top of the anatomic structure through a friendly graphic user interface. It may also provide a useful tool to establish an appropriate dose-reduction strategy to patients in nuclear medicine environments. (authors)

  9. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  10. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Botta; M. Cremonesi; A. Di Dia; G. Pedroli; A. Mairani; G. Battistoni; A. Fassò; A. Ferrari; M. Ferrari; G. Paganelli; M. Valente

    2011-01-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for

  11. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  12. Recent Progress Toward Hydrogen Medicine: Potential of Molecular Hydrogen for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Persistent oxidative stress is one of the major causes of most lifestyle-related diseases, cancer and the aging process. Acute oxidative stress directly causes serious damage to tissues. Despite the clinical importance of oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. We have proposed that molecular hydrogen (H2) has potential as a “novel” antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications [Ohsawa et al., Nat Med. 2007: 13; 688-94]. H2 has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H2. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2, including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (hydrogen water), taking a hydrogen bath, injecting H2-dissolved saline (hydrogen saline), dropping hydrogen saline onto the eye, and increasing the production of intestinal H2 by bacteria. Since the publication of the first H2 paper in Nature Medicine in 2007, the biological effects of H2 have been confirmed by the publication of more than 38 diseases, physiological states and clinical tests in leading biological/medical journals, and several groups have started clinical examinations. Moreover, H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 regulates various gene expressions and protein-phosphorylations, though the molecular mechanisms underlying the marked effects of very small amounts of H2 remain elusive. PMID:21736547

  13. Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1979-August 31, 1980. [Univ. of Rochester

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: statistical spectroscopy (including random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions, and to problems of ergodicity; group symmetries in spectral-distribution theory; electromagnetic and ..beta.. transitions); meson scattering and absorption by nuclei (including general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, statistical theory of absorption); and meson currents in electromagnetic transitions.

  14. A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline.

  15. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  16. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  17. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  18. Support of nuclear engineering education and research at the University of Michigan. Progress report, May 15, 1992--May 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.R.

    1993-03-01

    This report describes progress on four different projects in the fission reactor area that have been supported by the grant during the past year. These projects are: Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (Steve Pearson); neutronic analysis of the Ford Nuclear Reactor (Brent Renkema); developing Monte Carlo benchmarks for commercial LWR configurations (Jie Du); Monte Carlo depletion capability for massively parallel processors (Amit Majumdar); these tasks are briefly described and progress to date is presented.

  19. Support of nuclear engineering education and research at the University of Michigan. Progress report, May 15, 1993--May 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, W.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes progress on four different projects in the fission reactor area that have been supported by the grant during the past year. These projects are: Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (Steve Pearson); Neutronic analysis of the Ford Nuclear Reactor (Brent Renkema); and Monte Carlo depletion capability and new perturbation Monte Carlo algorithms, with utilization of massively parallel processors (Amit Majumdar). These tasks are briefly described and progress to date is presented.

  20. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J. (comp.)

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  1. Division of Nuclear Physics Mentoring Award Talk: Progress in Mentoring of Young Scientists in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoennessen, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The future of nuclear physics depends on attracting and retaining bright students. Several initiatives have begun to address issues related to successful recruiting and retention on various levels. Examples for undergraduate students, graduate students, post-docs, and faculty include the Conference Experience for Undergraduates at DNP meetings, the APS/AAPT Conference on Graduate Education, the NSF requirement for a post-doctoral mentoring plan, and the AAPT/AAS/APS New Faculty Workshops, respectively. In addition to these organized efforts, each member of the community can and should contribute to portraying nuclear physics as the exciting field that it is.

  2. Advances in computers and image processing with applications in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Todd-Pokropek, A

    2002-03-01

    The continuing advances in hardware performance had made many previously computationally unattractive methods feasible, an example being iterative reconstruction in tomography, which is now routine. Dynamic SPECT can also be performed. However the aim of image processing is not just to produce pretty pictures, but to extract good clinical information. The methods also need to incorporate clinical knowledge and be defined using clinical constraints. In general data in nuclear medicine are n-D, often 3-D plus time. Data reduction for example by the extraction of physiological information, is important. Such data are in any case hard to visualise without compression, for example some kind of dimensionality reduction, going from n-D to a 2-D "functional" image. Both linear and non-linear operations can be considered. To extract physiological data, we need to fit models. Two classes of method are important: data driven and hypothesis driven. Examples of data driven methods are principal component analysis and factor analysis, where the model is derived form the data. Hypothesis driven methods are all implicitly or explicitly based on model fitting. A preliminary data driven step followed by an hypothesis driven approach could be called constrained statistical image analysis. Examples are shown as used in nuclear medicine and are being extended to MRI. Another important problem considered is that of multi-modality image registration and fusion. Although many methods exist, all based on the minimisation of an appropriate distance functions between 2 image data sets such as mutual information, additional constraints are required when the images are not so similar. Additional constraints can be imposed by means of cluster analysis of the n-dimensional feature space. In the analysis of such data, tests against reference data sets (atlases) are required, normally requiring warping the data sets in space, for example by the use of optic flow, or some kind of diffusion equation. Real time analysis of data during acquisition can lead to optimisation of acquisition procedures. Incorporation of such image analysis into a decision support system is desirable. PMID:12072846

  3. Soraya Boudia, Radioisotopes "economy of promises : On the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities" in X. Roqu et N. Herran(eds), Isotopes: Science, Medicine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    at "redeeming" the act of having used the nuclear bomb.2 This desire for redemption made it possible in public legitimization of nuclear activities" in X. Roqué et N. Herran(eds), Isotopes: Science, Medicine": On the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities Soraya Boudia 7 rue de l

  4. ERF nuclear shuttling, a continuous monitor of Erk activity that links it to cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Le Gallic, Lionel; Virgilio, Laura; Cohen, Philip; Biteau, Benoit; Mavrothalassitis, George

    2004-02-01

    The ets domain transcriptional repressor ERF is an effector of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/Erk pathway, which, it has been suggested, is regulated by subcellular localization as a result of Erk-dependent phosphorylation and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and ras-induced tumorigenicity. Here, we analyze the effect of ERF phosphorylation on nuclear import and export, the timing of its phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in relation to its subcellular location, Erk activity, and the requirements for ERF-induced cell cycle arrest. Our findings indicate that ERF continuously shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of ERF occur within the nucleus. While nuclear import is not affected by phosphorylation, ERF nuclear export and cytoplasmic release require multisite phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. ERF export is CRM1 dependent, although ERF does not have a detectable nuclear export signal. ERF phosphorylation and export correlate with the levels of nuclear Erk activity. The cell cycle arrest induced by nonphosphorylated ERF requires the wild-type retinoblastoma protein and can be suppressed by overexpression of cyclin. These data suggest that ERF may be a very sensitive and constant sensor of Erk activity that can affect cell cycle progression through G(1), providing another link between the Ras/Erk pathway and cellular proliferation. PMID:14729966

  5. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  6. College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped and advanced topics in nuclear medicine imaging physics, including positron emission tomographic procedures IN RADIATION MEDICINE. (1-6) Applied field work at the graduate level in the sciences relating to radiation

  7. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-06-30

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4. The analysis of the effect of cracks on the acceleration of the calcium leaching process of cement-based materials has been pursued. During the last period (Technical Progress Report No 3), we have introduced a modeling accounting for the high diffusivity of fractures in comparison with the weak solid material diffusivity. It has been shown through dimensional and asymptotic analysis that small fractures do not significantly accelerate the material aging process. This important result for the overall structural aging kinetics of containment structure has been developed in a paper submitted to the international journal ''Transport in Porous Media''.

  8. Production of 99Mo for Nuclear Medicine by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    2009-03-01

    We have proposed a new route to produce 99Mo for nuclear medicine by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction. The reaction cross section is known to be ˜1.5 b in the neutron energy, En, range from 12 to 17 MeV: 10-times larger than the thermal-neutron capture cross section of 98Mo. By irradiating an enriched 100Mo target for 198 h with neutrons of ˜1013 n/(cm2 s) at En˜ 14 MeV, one can produce 79 GBq/g specific activity of 99Mo. Since the cross sections for 100Mo(n, p)100Nb, 100Mo(n,n p)99Nb and 100Mo(n,?)97Zr at 12? En? 17 MeV are small, less than a few mb, radioactive waste during and/or after chemical processing of 99Mo would not be a serious problem. The proposed route could bring a major breakthrough in the solution of ensuring a constant and reliable supply of 99Mo without using highly enriched 235U.

  9. Constrained least-squares restoration of nuclear medicine images: selecting the coarseness function

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, B.C.; King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Baker, S.P.; Stritzke, P.; Doherty, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Image restoration using the constrained least-squares (CLS) method theoretically adapts to the image being processed. In addition, it only requires knowing the modulation transfer function of the imaging system when applied to nuclear medicine images. Prompted by these observations, a systematic evaluation of the effects of the form of the coarseness function (C(f)) used by the CLS method has been conducted. Nine C(f)'s are evaluated using an observer preference and a normalized mean-squared error (NMSE) criterion. This evaluation is conducted for three modulation transfer functions and a wide range of count levels. The results of the subjective studies support using the form of C(f) which has been most widely employed in previous studies, i.e., the form designed to minimize the energy in the second derivative of the restored image. A different form of C(f) is generally found to be optimal by the mean-squared error criterion. The CLS method is then compared to: (1) no processing, (2) count-dependent smoothing, and (3) count-dependent Metz restoration. When evaluated using objective measurements of error and contrast, the CLS method is found to be slightly inferior to the best method, Metz restoration. However, CLS restoration is found to be equal to or better than the other methods when judged by the results of observer preference studies.

  10. Clinical use of differential nuclear medicine modalities in patients with ATTR amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Walter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Slart, Riemer H J A; Dierckx, Rudi A; Hazenberg, Bouke P C

    2012-12-01

    Histological proof remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of amyloidosis. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are able to determine the amyloid load in the body. Currently, the best imaging modality is (123)I-SAP scintigraphy. This modality has high sensitivity for detecting amyloid deposits in all amyloid subtypes. Involvement of liver and spleen can be visualized before clinical signs are present. The addition of single photon emission computed tomography improves the differentiation of overlying organs. However, (123)I-SAP is not FDA approved. Its availability is limited to two centres in Europe. Furthermore, it is not suitable for imaging cardiac involvement of amyloidosis, due to movement, blood-pool content and lack of fenestrated endothelial in the myocardium. Phosphate derivates labelled with (99m)Tc, are able to detect calcium compounds in cardiac amyloidosis. Finally, (123)I-MIBG, an analogue of norepinephrine, can detect cardiac sympathetic innervation abnormalities as a consequence of amyloid deposits. Both these last techniques seem to be able to detect cardiac involvement before echocardiographic parameters are present. We illustrate the clinical use of these modalities with two patients with ATTR type amyloidosis. PMID:22913327

  11. Holospectral imaging: a multidimensional energy space representation of nuclear medicine information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Arsenault, Arnold; Gregoire, J.; Dupras, G.; Todd-Pokropek, Andrew

    1990-12-01

    Holospectral Imaging (HI), unlike the conventional technique, acquires data over a wide energy range. The new data is then used to form a series of frames corresponding to the object's spatial distribution at different energies. The multidimensional information is examined using the principal component analysis in order to characterize the different energy-dependent processes, namely: the primary photon information, the Compton scattering, the camera distorsions and the quantum noise. Each one of these factors has a typical location in the energy space RN (N is the number of energy frames). The primary photon is the main source of variance and has the most important contribution to the "principal" axis. In theory, without interference from other processes, the primaiy photon distribution defines a straight line in RN. Quantum noise will be distributed "around" this principal axis. However, scattering and camera distorsions will tend to pull the distribution toward a definite direction in the energy space. HI then finds, for each set of data, a transformation optimizing the "principal" information, the quality of this information being limited by the level of the statistical noise. Resulting images show an improvement in contrast to noise ratio and in quantitative analysis. We conclude that HI is a useful tool to describe the different contributions of scatter, camera non-uniformity and quantum noise to image variance. Therefore, energy variable should be included in the generalized transfer function of future nuclear medicine imaging systems.

  12. A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

  13. Scene setting: criteria for acceptability and suspension levels in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malone, Jim; Faulkner, Keith; Christofides, Stelios; Lillicrap, Stephen; Horton, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    The EC (European Commission) Directive on radiation protection of patients requires that Criteria for Acceptability of Equipment in Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy be established throughout the member states. This paper reviews the background to this requirement and to its implementation in practice. It notes parallel requirements in the EC medical devices directive and International Electrotechnical Commission standards. It is also important to be aware and that both sets of requirements should ideally be harmonised due to the global nature of the equipment industry. The paper further reviews the type of criteria that can be well applied for the above purposes, and defines qualitative criteria and suspension levels suitable for application. Both are defined and relationships with other acceptance processes are considered (including acceptance testing at the time of purchase, commissioning and the issue of second-hand equipment). Suspension levels are divided into four types, A, B, C and D, depending on the quality of evidence and consensus on which they are based. Exceptional situations involving, for example, new or rapidly evolving technology are also considered. The publication and paper focuses on the role of the holder of the equipment and related staff, particularly the medical physics expert and the practitioner. Advice on how the criteria should be created and implemented and how this might be coordinated with the supplier is provided for these groups. Additional advice on the role of the regulator is provided. PMID:23173218

  14. Nuclear medicine technology progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Results of experiments demonstrated that the alkyl portion of 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-THDA) is retained in the myocardial tissue of rats to the same extent as radioactivity from /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. Tissue distribution experiments in rats one hr after injection of 10-(/sup 14/C)-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid were compared with the results of a parallel study using /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. The results indicate that the alkyl region of 9-THDA is retained in the myocardium and that labeling of this portion of the 9-THDA molecule with radiohalogens such as /sup 123/I may be an attractive approach for evaluation of myocardial function. Results of preliminary studies for the development of radiolabeled barbiturates as a new class of agents for the measurement of regional blood perfusion in the brain are also described. Several new barbiturates substituted at the C-5 position were prepared and characterized. These compounds will be labeled with /sup 117m/Sn, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 123m/Te and brain uptake studies performed in rats. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Studies employing /sup 74/As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ have demonstrated that uptake of radioactivity from test substances administered to rats can be detected in cells taken from the intraperitoneally-implanted diffusion chambers. Preliminary synthetic studies of gold-based antirheumatoid complexes are also reported. Several /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids have been prepared for clinical testing. Platinum-195m-labeled-cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum(II) was supplied to collaborators for further testing and /sup 75/Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled long-chain fatty acids were supplied to several medical investigators for the evaluation of myocardial function in experimental animals. (ERB)

  15. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

    1995-02-01

    1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(l-fluoropentan-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (PQNPe) has been prepared and evaluated as a new candidate for the determination of muscarinic cholinergic receptor density by positron emission tomography (PET). The results of in vitro binding assays demonstrated that FONPe has high affinity for m{sub l} and M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtypes. Pretreatment of female Fisher rats with unlabeled FQNPe one hour prior to the intravenous administration of radioiodinated Z-(R,R)-IQNP, a high affinity muscarinic ligand, demonstrated FONPE significantly blocked the uptake of radioactivity in the brain and heart measured three hours post-injection of the radiolabeled ligand. These results demonstrate that this new fluoro analogue of QNB has high affinity for the muscarinic receptor and is able to effectively pass the blood-brain-barrier and localize in tissues rich in muscarinic receptors. The fluorine-18-labeled analogue thus represents an important target ligands for evaluation as potential receptor imaging agents in conjunction with PET. During this period several radioisotopes were provided to collaborators. Tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators were provided as part of a CRADA project.

  16. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

    1994-08-01

    In this report we describe tile first successful synthesis and in vivo evaluation of a fluorinated analogue of the IQNP muscarinic-cholinergic receptor ligand. Unanticipated synthetic hurdles lead to several unsuccessful approaches before the synthesis of a model compound was achieved. The successful route involved introduction of the fluoroethyl moiety at an early stage of the synthesis by alkylation of ethyl 1,3-dithiane-2-carboxylate with 1-fluoro-2-bromoethane. Subsequent unmasking of the carbonyl, followed by introduction of the phenyl group with phenylmagnesium bromide and subsequent transesterification with racemic quinuclidinol afforded the target compound, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoroethan-2-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (QNF). Pretreatment of Fisher rats with QNF one hour prior to the intravenous administration of the [I-131]-Z-(R,R) IQNP isomer demonstrated that the new fluoro analogue blocked uptake of iodine-131 in those regions of the brain rich in muscarinic-cholinergic receptors measured three hours after injection. As an example, the control values for group of nontreated animals were (5 animals; mean {+-} SD): cortex, 1.20{+-}0.27; striatum, 0.73{+-}0.19; pons, 0.70{+-}0.20; cerebellum, 0.43{+-}0.114. Brains from animals pretreated with the fluoro analogue had the following values (mean{+-}SD; % decrease): cortex, 0.67{+-}0.15 (65%); striatum, 0.35{+-}0.114 (52%); pons, 0.40{+-}0.08 (43%); cerebellum, 0.16{+-}0.09(63%). Also during this period several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators and tin-117m samples were provided for collaborative studies.

  17. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor production yields of tungsten-188 produced by neutron capture by enriched tungsten-186 in the HFIR and other reactors are nearly an order of magnitude lower than expected by calculation using established cross section values. Since neutron capture of tungsten-188 may be the major factor which significantly reduces the observed yields of tungsten-188, the authors have evaluated the possible burn-up cross section of the tungsten-188 product. Tungsten-189 was produced by irradiating a radioactive target containing a known amount of {sup 188}W. In order to reduce the radiation level to an acceptable level (<20% detector dead time), the authors chemically removed >90% of {sup 188}Re, which is the decay product of {sup 188}W, prior to irradiation. They were able to confirm the two predominant {gamma}-rays in the decay of {sup 189}W, 260.1 {+-} 1.4 and 421.5 {+-} 1.6 keV. By following the decay of these {gamma}-rays in two sets of experiments, a half-life of 10.8 {+-} 0.3 m was obtained for {sup 189}W. Based on a knowledge of the {sup 188}W content of target (52.6 mBq), neutron flux of 5 {times} 10{sup 13} n {center_dot} s{sup {minus}1} {center_dot} cm{sup {minus}2}, irradiation time of 10 min and with the assumption of 100% intensity for 260.1 and 421.5 keV {gamma}-rays, a cross-section of 12.0 {+-} 2.5 b was calculated for burn-up cross-section of {sup 188}W, which helps explain the greatly reduced production yields of {sup 188}W.

  18. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Guhlke, S.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F.

    1996-10-01

    Biodistribution studies with the radioiodinated 3(R)- and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers in rats have shown that 3(R)-BMIPP has 20-25% higher heart uptake (15-180 min) than 3(S)-BMIPP, while uptake in other tissues examined is similar. To evaluate the possible differences in metabolic fate of the two isomers, a mixture of [I-125]-3(R)/[I-131]- 3(S)-BMIPP was administered to fasted female Fisher rats. Groups (n=3 rats per group) were sacrificed after 15, 60 and 180 min, and urine and feces collected from another group. Samples of blood, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and urine were Folch-extracted. The distribution of I-125 and I-131 in the organic, aqueous, and pellet samples were determined. Organic samples were then analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The relative distribution of I-125/I-131 in the lipid, aqueous, and pellet samples was similar for both isomers. Distribution of I-125/I-131 in the various components of the lipid extracts observed by TLC was similar, with principal incorporation into the free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) pools. HPLC analyses (Cl8) of the FFA fraction showed similar I-125/I-131 profiles, corresponding to BMIPP, and the {alpha}-methyl-C,4 (PIPA) and C12, Cl0 and C6 carbon chain-length catabolites. By TLC, urine I-125/I-131 chromatographed with hippuric acid. HPLC analyses (Cl 8) of acid-hydrolyzed urine gave a single I-125/I-131 component with the same RRT as 2-({beta}-iodophenyl)acetic acid, the final {alpha}/{beta}-oxidative BMIPP catabolite. Unexpectedly, HPLC of lipids from base hydrolyzed TG from the heart tissue, showed I-125/I-125 co-chromatographing with short-chain fatty acids, with only levels in BMIPP. These unexpected results demonstrate that the 3(R)-BMIPP and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers are metabolized similarly in rat tissues, and that the higher myocardial extraction observed for the 3(R)-BMIPP may reflect differences in the relative membrane transport of the two isomers.

  19. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

    1994-05-01

    The authors` new radioiodinated ``IQNP`` agent, an analogue of ``4-IQNB``, has a high affinity for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor (m-AChR). Iodine is stabilized in ``IQNP`` by attachment as a vinyl iodide. To evaluate the potential usefulness of a [Br-76]-labeled analogue as a candidate for positron emission tomography (PET), they have synthesized the trans-3-bromopropenyl analogue (BrQNP) and evaluated its ability in vivo to block uptake of [I-125]-Z-(R,R)-IQNP. Reaction of bromine with the trans-tributylstannyl substrate prepared from ethyl -{alpha}-hydroxy -{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}-(1-propyn-3-yl)acetate, followed by column purification and transesterification with (R,S)-3-quinuclidinol gave BrQNP. Female rats were pre-treated with the oxalate salt of BrQNP one hour prior to I.V. injection of [I-125]-IQNP. While the brain and heart uptake in BrQNP pre-treated animals was significantly decreased, the control animals showed the expected high uptake of IQNP in these tissues. The ease of preparation and ability to block m-AChR suggest that [Br-76]-labeled BrQNP is a potential candidate for PET studies. In this report, the authors also summarize their current on-going collaborative studies assessing the usefulness of various rhenium-188-labeled therapeutic agents. In addition, collaborative programs have been established to evaluate rhenium-188-labeled particles for treatment of arthritis (synovectomy), treatment of bone pain resulting from cancer metastheses with rhenium-188-phosphonates (palliation), and other applications.

  20. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Guhlke, S.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1996-12-31

    The four stereoisomers of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe, 4) have been resolved and were evaluated as potential candidates for PET imaging agents. Labeling with fluorine-18 involved a two-step synthesis via fluoride displacement of a mesylate intermediate at the ethyl ester stage followed by transesterification with (R)-quinuclidinol. In vitro data utilizing cloned human receptor subtypes demonstrated that while the (+,+)-isomer did not have significant receptor binding, the other stereoisomers of FNPe bound with high affinity to the various mA ChR subtypes tested (K{sub i}, nm: m1, ({minus},{minus}), 0.33; ({minus},+), 1.4; (+,{minus}), 3.8; m2, ({minus},{minus}), 0.1; ({minus},+), 4.2; +,{minus}), < 75% binding; m3, ({minus},{minus}), 0.34; ({minus},+), 3.1; (+;{minus}), 7.6. [{sup 18}F]-({minus},{minus})- and [{sup 18}F]-({minus},+)-FQNPe (4) were prepared in decay corrected radiochemical yields of 14% ([{sup 18}F]-({minus},{minus})-4) and 8% ([{sup 18}F]-({minus},+)-4). In vivo biodistribution studies were conducted in female rats with [18F]-({minus},{minus})- and (+,{minus})-FQNPe (4). [{sup 18}F]({minus},{minus})-4 demonstrated high uptake in mA ChR regions of the brain up to 3 hours post injection and low accumulation of radioactivity in the bone indicated good in vivo stability.

  1. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F

    1995-12-31

    In this report we describe the first resolution of the 3R-(+)-and 3S- ({minus})-methyl BMIPP methyl-branched fatty acid stereoisomers and biodistribution of the radioiodinated isomers in rats to investigate the effects of the configuration of the 3({beta})-methyl group on the organ distribution and myocardial uptake and release kinetics. Synthesesis of 3R-(+)BMIPP was accompanied by initial acylation of the thiophene template with the acid chloride of ethyl 3R- methylglutarate. The amide of the synthetic 3R-BMIPP isomer prepared S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine exhibited identical spectral and chromatographic properties with the chromatographically more polar isomer (TLC and HPLC) which was separated from the mixture of amides prepared from reaction of the acid chloride of racemic BMIPP with the S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The second less chromatographically polar amide isomer was assigned the 3S-(-)-methyl configuration. The free acids were obtained by acid hydrolysis of the amides and converted to the radioiodinated analogues. While biodistribution studies in separate groups of rats demonstrated greater myocardial uptake of 3R-BMIPP compared with the 3S-isomer values for most other tissues evaluated (blood, lungs, kidneys and thyroid) were similar, whereas the 3S-BMIPP isomer consistently showed higher liver uptake. These results were confirmed in a [l-131]-3S-BMIPP/[l-125]-3R-BMIPP dual label study and both isomers had similar myocardial wash-out curves (5-180 min). These studies suggest that [l-123]-3R-BMIPP is a candidate for clinical evaluation and may show greater myocardial uptake than the 3S-isomer and thus may require a reduced injected dose compared to racemic BMIPP.

  2. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this report we describe the synthesis of the Z (cis) isomers of R-l-azabicyclo [2.2.2] oct-3-yl R-and S-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(liodo-l-propen-3-yl) - {alpha}-phenylacetate. We also report the results of the in vitro binding assays of the E and Z isomers of the (R, R)- and (R, S)-isomers of IQNP. The Z isomers of IQNP were prepared by there action of (R, R)- or (R, S)-l-azabicyclo [2.2.2] oct-3-yl - {alpha} - hydroxy - {alpha} - phenyl - {alpha} - (l-propyn-3-yl) acetate with tributyltin hydride in HMPA followed by subsequent reaction of the cis tributylstannyl substrate with iodine. In an attempt to increase the yield of the Z isomers, the preparation of the Z isomers of the R-or S-ethyl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}-(l-propyn-3-yl)acetate was also investigated under a variety of reaction conditions. Results of the in vitro binding assays demonstrated that although all the isomers showed high affinity for the muscarinic receptor, the E-(R, R)-IQNP isomer had a 100 times greater higher affinity for m{sub 1} and m{sub 3} receptor subtypes as compared to m{sub 2} subtype. We are currently evaluating the in vivo biodistribution properties and pharmocokinetic and autoradiographic analyses of these promising new ligands in detail for potential use of the iodine-123-labeled agents to study muscarinic receptors by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT).

  3. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-06-01

    In this report the conditions for ``direct`` labeling of the anti-granulocyte (MAb) BW 250/183 monoclonal antibody with rhenium-188 (Re-188) from a generator are described. Re-188-BW 250/183 is of interest for potential use for bone marrow ablation. The labeling time, temperature, pH, and the amount of tin and citric acid were optimized utilizing IgG. Radiolabeling yields of greater than 97% were achieved using 1 mL of a phthalate/tartrate buffer (pH 5.{und M}=?), 250 {micro} g BW 250/183, 1.0 mg citric acid, 400 {micro} g tin (II) chloride, and 1 mL of the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator eluent (200--800 {micro} Ci of Re-188). Analysis of the Re-188-labeled IgG and BW 250/183 was performed by Instant Thin Layer Chromatography (ITLC), Sephadex purification and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). When the labeling was performed at room temperature or 37 C, in vitro stability studies performed in HSA solution, cysteine solution, 6 {und M} urea solution and a 1% casein solution showed that the Re-188 label demonstrated a similar stability profile in all solutions. Initial studies indicate that Re-188-BW 250/183 retained {approximately} 90% of immunoreactivity when compared to the technetium-99m labeled antibody prepared from the same kit. During this period, several radioisotopes prepared in the ORNL HFIR were also supplied on a cost-recovery basis or provided to collaborators for ongoing collaborative projects. These include tin-117m, processed tungsten-188 and the ORNL alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators.

  4. Nuclear medicine program. Progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L. [and others

    1995-09-01

    In this report we describe the first synthesis of the (-)(-) and (-)(+) isomers of 1-azabicyclo oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate ({open_quotes}FQNPe{close_quotes}). Earlier studies with the racemic FQNPe mixture had demonstrated high in vitro binding affinity for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor and showed that pre-treatment of rats with this new agent significantly blocked receptor localization of subsequently injected -Z-(-,-)-IQNP. Because of the potential important use of fluorine-18-labeled analogues for clinical evaluation of changes in muscarinic-cholinergic receptors by positron emission tomography (PET), we have now synthesized the diastereomeric isomers of FQNPe. Multi-gram quantities of ethyl-{alpha}- (1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate were prepared and then saponified into the racemic {alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetic acid mixture. The racemic acid was resolved into (-)- and (+)-{alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetic acid enantiomers by isolation of the (-) salt of (S-)-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine and the (+) salt of (R)-(+)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The resolved (-)- ([{alpha}]{sub D} = -12.1{degrees}, c = 5.8, chloroform) and (+)-acetic acids ([{alpha}]{sub D} = + 11.6{degrees}, c = 6.0, chloroform) were fully characterized and then converted to the enantiomeric ethyl-{alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetates by a four-step reaction sequence. The (-)- and (+)-ethyl-{alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetates were then each transesterified with (-)-quinuclidinol to form the (-)(-) FQNPe and (-)(+) FQNPe diastereomers. These diastereomeric esters will now be evaluated in in vitro studies. The availability of the substrates for preparation of the fluorine-18-labeled enantiomers will now allow evaluation of the radiolabeled compounds in animals.

  5. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1991-02-01

    An evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 (W-188/Re-188) generator system has continued. Our goal is to develop a prototype system which will provide sufficient levels of Re-188 for radiolabeling of tumor-specific antibodies for radioimmunotherapy. During this review period several samples were supplied for collaborative studies. Samples of rhenium-188 from the ORNL W-188/Re-188 generators were supplied to the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a calibration standard. Iodine-125-labeled IMP protein labeling agent was supplied to the University of Michigan for antibody radiolabeling studies (D. Buchsbaum, Ph.D.). The iodine-123-labeled BMIPP fatty acid analogue developed at ORNL was also supplied to collaborators at BNL for SPECT imaging studies of the effects of cocaine intoxication on myocardial fatty acid uptake in a canine model. Iodine-125-BMIPP was also supplied to the University of Bonn, Germany for continuing metabolic studies in an isolated heart model. In this report the resumption of radioisotope production in the HFIR following the restart of this important facility in July 1990 and the preparation and review and evaluation of issues for the DOE Tiger Team visit to ORNL on November 1--December 7 are also discussed. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Nuclear medicine program: Progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, A.P.; Callahan, A.P.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Lisic, E.C.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Rice, D.E.; Rogers, C.J.; Umbricht, G.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes our initial studies on developing techniques of attaching radioisotopes of copper (Cu-64 and Cu-67) and rhenium (Re-186 and Re-188) to proteins. Our work has focussed on the synthesis of para-carboxyalkylphenylglyoxal-bis-(N/sub 4/-methylthiosemi-carbazone) ligands (TSC). Because of the strong binding of Cu(II) to the bis-TSC ligand, the development of bifunctional chelates for attachment of radioisotopes of copper to antibodies is of interest. We have developed an improved synthesis of the requisite ..cap alpha..-ketoaldehyde and 1,2-diketone substrates used for derivatization to the bis-TSC ligand chelates. This approach uses the ''Kornbloom'' method which provides a simple alternative to the usual method for fabrication of the 1,2-bis-thiosemicarbazone compounds and avoids the use of selenium dioxide for oxidation of substituted acetophenones. Acylation of the -phenyl carboxylic acid with bromoacetyl chloride or 2-bromopropionyl chloride followed by treatment with silver nitrate readily provides the nitrate esters. Oxidative elimination with sodium acetate in DMSO then provides the ..cap alpha..-ketoaldehyde or 1,2-diketo products. The overall yields are in the 40-60% range. Also in this report are the results of studies with the Langendorff-perfused rat heart system. Comparison of the incorporation of (I-131)IPPA and (I-125)BMIPP in dual-labeled studies under normoxia and hypoxia (pO/sub 2/ > 120 mm) clearly showed the expected preferential incorporation into triglyceride (TG) storage products. Basic hydrolysis of the TG fraction purified by chromatography showed release of the radioactivity into products chromatographing in the free fatty acid fraction.

  7. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are ``Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}n) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),`` NIKHEF Proposal 93-09, ``Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and ``Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this past year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year. In addition, we have continued to make progress on data analysis and publication of results of previous measurements at Bates, LAMPF, and NIKHEF.

  8. A study of professional radiation hazards in CT scan and nuclear medicine workers using GTG-banding and solid stain

    PubMed Central

    Changizi, Vahid; Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Mousavi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: CT scan and nuclear medicine exams deliver a great part of medical exposures. This study examined professional radiation hazards in CT scan and nuclear medicine workers. Methods: In a cross sectional study 30 occupationally exposed workers and 7 controls (all from personnel of a laboratory) were selected. Physical dosimetry was performed for exposed workers. Blood samples were obtained from the experimental and control groups. Three culture mediums for each one were prepared in due to routine chromosome analysis using G-banding and solid stain. Results: There were significant increased incidence of chromatid gap (ctg) and chromatid break (ctb) with mean±SD frequencies of 3±0.84 and 3.1±1.40 per 100 cells respectively in the nuclear medicine workers versus controls with mean±SD frequencies of 1.9±0.69 and 1.3±0.84 for ctg and ctb, respectively. Chromosome gaps (chrg) were higher significantly in the nuclear medicine population (2.47±0.91) than in controls (1.4±0.9) (p< 0.05). In CT scan group the ctg and ctb were increased with a mean±SD frequency of 2.7±0.79 and 2.6±0.91 per 100 cells respectively compared with control group. The mean±SD frequencies of the chrb were 2.0±0.75 and 0.86±0.690 per 100 cells for exposed workers and control group, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes using solid stain method are reasonable biomarker reflecting personnel radiation damage.

  9. The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

  10. Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using hyperons and photons. Progress report, January 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cotanch, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    This report details research progress and results obtained during the 12 month period from January 1991 through 31 December 1991. The research project, entitled ``Theoretical Nuclear Reaction and Structure Studies Using Hyperons and Photons,`` is supported by grant DE-FG05-88ER40461 between North Carolina State University and the United States Department of Energy. In compliance with grant requirements the Principal Investigator, Professor Stephen R. Cotanch, has conducted a research program addressing theoretical investigations of reactions involving hyperons and photons. The new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following sections.

  11. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics. Technical progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-12-31

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs.

  12. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, M.W.

    1995-01-10

    The project on {open_quotes}Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance{close_quotes} has been undertaken in order to address the important problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Most of the creativity in formulating such concepts has focused upon improving the mechanical reliability of safety related plant systems. However, the lack of a mature theory has retarded similar progress in reducing the likely frequencies of human errors. The main design mechanism used to address this class of concerns has been to reduce or eliminate the human role in plant operations and accident response. The plan of work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subject who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants. In the tests the systems are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds. Ultimately this computer is also to be used in compiling the results of the project. The work of this project is focused upon nuclear power plant applications. However, the persuasiveness of human errors in using all sorts of electromechanical machines gives it a much greater potential importance. Because of this we are attempting to pursue our work in a fashion permitting broad generalizations.

  13. Nuclear physics and astrophysics. Progress report for period June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1993-06-01

    The authors report on recent progress of research at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. During the past year, the authors continued to work on Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis, the solar neutrino problem, the equation of state for dense matter, the quark-hadron phase transition, and the origin of gamma-ray bursts; and began studying the consequences of nuclear reaction rates in the presence of strong magnetic fields. They have shown that the primordial production of B and Be cannot explain recent detections of these elements in halo stars and have looked at spallation as the likely source of these elements. By looking at nucleosynthesis with inhomogeneous initial conditions, they concluded that the Universe must have been very smooth before nucleosynthesis. They have also constrained neutrino oscillations and primordial magnetic fields by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. On the solar neutrino problem, they have analyzed the implications of the SAGE and GALLEX experiments. They also showed that the presence of dibaryons in neutron stars depends weakly on uncertainties of nuclear equations of state. They have started to investigate the consequences of strong magnetic fields on nuclear reactions and implications for neutron star cooling and supernova nucleosynthesis.

  14. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, October 1December 31, 1985. Volume 5, No. 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced and Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Reports have been combined and are included in this report entitled, ''Safety Research Programs Sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research - Quarterly Progress Report.'' This progress report will describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Accident Evaluation,

  15. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

  16. Nuclear medicine staff and patient doses in Manitoba (1981-1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, W.; Gordon, K.

    1989-03-01

    The number of diagnostic in vivo nuclear medicine (NM) procedures in the Province of Manitoba (population 1 million) has been examined over the period 1981 to 1985. The annual number of procedures performed has remained relatively constant at about 25 per thousand population. The isotope 99mTc accounted for 86% of all the studies performed and the number of NM procedures per imaging system was approximately 1,300 per annum. The total number of NM operators in the province increased from 30 in 1981 to about 40 in 1985. The mean NM operator dose was reduced from 3.8 mSv to 2.5 mSv over this five-year period and the collective operator dose underwent a smaller reduction of 13% to about 100 person-mSv in 1985. The value of the mean patient effective dose equivalent (HE) was relatively constant at 5.2 mSv. The contribution of diagnostic NM procedures to the annual per caput population dose in Manitoba was 0.13 mSv. Three diagnostic procedures (brain, bone and cardiac) accounted for approximately 80% of the collective patient HE. Patient profiles (age, sex and medical history) were obtained for the patients undergoing these three procedures, which showed them to be atypical in comparison to a normal working population. These data suggested that the application of the International Commission on Radiological Protection risk factor of 1.65 X 10(-2) Sv-1 to this patient population would have significantly overestimated the expected radiation detriment.

  17. Use of volume-rendered images in registration of nuclear medicine studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, J.W.; Miller, T.R.; Hsu, S.S. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology] [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology

    1995-08-01

    A simple operator-guided alignment technique based on volume-rendered images was developed to register tomographic nuclear medicine studies. For each of 2 three-dimensional data sets to be registered, volume-rendered images were generated in 3 orthogonal projections (x,y,z) using the method of maximum-activity projection. Registration was achieved as follows: (a) One of the rendering orientations (e.g. x) was chosen for manipulation; (b) The two dimensional rendering was translated and rotated under operator control to achieve the best alignment as determined by visual assessment; (c) This rotation and translation was then applied to the underlying three-dimensional data set, with updating of the rendered images in each of the orthogonal projections; (d) Another orientation was chosen, and the process repeated. Since manipulation was performed on the small two-dimensional rendered image, feedback was instantaneous. To aid in the visual alignment, difference images and flicker images (toggling between the two data sets) were displayed. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of separate clinical data sets acquired without patient movement. After arbitrary rotation and translation of one of the two data sets, the 2 data sets were registered. Mean registration error was 0.36 pixels, corresponding to a 2.44 mm registration error. Thus, accurate registration can be achieved in under 10 minutes using this simple technique. The accuracy of registration was assessed with use of duplicate SPECT studies originating from separate reconstructions of the data from each of the detectors of a triple-head gamma camera.

  18. Estimation of physiological parameters using knowledge-based factor analysis of dynamic nuclear medicine image sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, J.T.; Chen, C.T.; Cooper, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The authors have previously developed a knowledge-based method of factor analysis to analyze dynamic nuclear medicine image sequences. In this paper, the authors analyze dynamic PET cerebral glucose metabolism and neuroreceptor binding studies. These methods have shown the ability to reduce the dimensionality of the data, enhance the image quality of the sequence, and generate meaningful functional images and their corresponding physiological time functions. The new information produced by the factor analysis has now been used to improve the estimation of various physiological parameters. A principal component analysis (PCA) is first performed to identify statistically significant temporal variations and remove the uncorrelated variations (noise) due to Poisson counting statistics. The statistically significant principal components are then used to reconstruct a noise-reduced image sequence as well as provide an initial solution for the factor analysis. Prior knowledge such as the compartmental models or the requirement of positivity and simple structure can be used to constrain the analysis. These constraints are used to rotate the factors to the most physically and physiologically realistic solution. The final result is a small number of time functions (factors) representing the underlying physiological processes and their associated weighting images representing the spatial localization of these functions. Estimation of physiological parameters can then be performed using the noise-reduced image sequence generated from the statistically significant PCs and/or the final factor images and time functions. These results are compared to the parameter estimation using standard methods and the original raw image sequences. Graphical analysis was performed at the pixel level to generate comparable parametric images of the slope and intercept (influx constant and distribution volume).

  19. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

  20. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are {open_quotes}Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),{close_quotes} NIKHEF Proposal 93-09 {open_quotes}Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and {open_quotes}Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP) for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this part year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year.

  1. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Nineteenth annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1983-08-31

    Our effort is centered on radioactive decay studies of far-from-stable nuclides produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). Progress is reported on the following studies: lifetime of the g/sub 7/2/ level in /sup 109/Ag; halflife of the h/sub 9/2/ level in /sup 187/Au; decay of 8.4 min /sup 187/Au ..-->.. /sup 187/Pt; orbital EC probabilities and decay energy of /sup 207/Bi; decay of 9 min /sup 201m/Po and 16 min /sup 201g/Po; decay of 2.5 min /sup 125/Ba; decay of 7.4 min /sup 203/At; exploration of neutron-deficient Sm, Pm, and Nd nuclides; preparation of thoron active deposit conversion electron sources; inception of nuclear laser spectroscopy at UNISOR; and nuclear structure calculations with nuclear models. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  2. Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bouland, Daniel L.; Doram, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in internal medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in internal medicine that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The items of progress listed below were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Internal Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under its direction. PMID:8191758

  3. Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

  4. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

    2010-12-07

    A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  5. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesús, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-01

    A building project of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  6. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms: a research proposal (renewal) and report of progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1981-07-31

    Research progress is reported on the following subjects: (1) diamagnetism, gauge transformations and sum rules, (2) quantal motion in an electric field, (3) a theorem concerning quadrupole absorption and scattering of photons, (4) excitation of natural parity states by Raman scattering in nuclei, (5) retarded E1 transitions and isoscaler giant dipole resonances, (6) low energy photon scattering from nuclei, (7) few-body models of nuclear reactions, (8) three- and four-nucleon configuration space calculations, (9) time-dependent few-body calculations, (10) atomic and molecular structure calculations, (11) bound state approximations, (12) extended Faddeev theory, (13) configuration-space techniques, and (14) time-dependent approach to scattering problems. (WHK)

  7. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute San Fernando Avenue No.22, Col. Section XVI (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

  8. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

    2012-10-01

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 ± 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 ± 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 ± 1.53 and 4.18 ± 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

  9. Mutation of the nuclear lamin gene LMNB2 in progressive myoclonus epilepsy with early ataxia.

    PubMed

    Damiano, John A; Afawi, Zaid; Bahlo, Melanie; Mauermann, Monika; Misk, Adel; Arsov, Todor; Oliver, Karen L; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M; Shearer, A Eliot; Smith, Richard J H; Hall, Nathan E; Mahmood, Khalid; Leventer, Richard J; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Muona, Mikko; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Korczyn, Amos D; Herrmann, Harald; Berkovic, Samuel F; Hildebrand, Michael S

    2015-08-15

    We studied a consanguineous Palestinian Arab family segregating an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with early ataxia. PME is a rare, often fatal syndrome, initially responsive to antiepileptic drugs which over time becomes refractory and can be associated with cognitive decline. Linkage analysis was performed and the disease locus narrowed to chromosome 19p13.3. Fourteen candidate genes were screened by conventional Sanger sequencing and in one, LMNB2, a novel homozygous missense mutation was identified that segregated with the PME in the family. Whole exome sequencing excluded other likely pathogenic coding variants in the linked interval. The p.His157Tyr mutation is located in an evolutionarily highly conserved region of the alpha-helical rod of the lamin B2 protein. In vitro assembly analysis of mutant lamin B2 protein revealed a distinct defect in the assembly of the highly ordered fibrous arrays typically formed by wild-type lamin B2. Our data suggests that disruption of the organisation of the nuclear lamina in neurons, perhaps through abnormal neuronal migration, causes the epilepsy and early ataxia syndrome and extends the aetiology of PMEs to include dysfunction in nuclear lamin proteins. PMID:25954030

  10. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq)] [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

  11. Knowledge about the availability of the pharmacist in the Nuclear Medicine Department: A questionnaire-based study among health-care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Bin Hashim, Tin Soe @ Saifullah; Muralidharan, Selvadurai; Kumar, Kalaimani Jayaraja; Ping, Wu Yet; Syamittra, Balakrishnan; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge about the availability of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department among health-care professionals through a prospective cohort study. Methods: A total of 741 health-care professionals participated in the study by answering 10 simple questions about the role of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department and the availability of pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department. An online questionnaire system was used to conduct the study, and participants were invited to participate through personal communications and by promoting the study through social websites including Facebook, LinkedIn and Google (including Gmail and Google+). The study was conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 using the http://www.freeonlinesurveys.com/Webserver. Finally, the data provided by 621 participants was analyzed. Group frequency analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc. USA). Results: The participants were from Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, UAE and Nepal. In total, 312 (50.2%) female health-care professionals and 309 (49.8%) male health-care professionals participated in the study. Of the 621 participants, 390 were working in hospitals, and 231 were not working in hospitals. Of the participants who were working in hospitals, 57.6% were pharmacists. The proportion of study participants who were aware of nuclear pharmacists was 55.39%. Awareness about the role of the pharmacist in nuclear medicine was poor. Conclusion: The role of the pharmacist in a nuclear medicine unit needs to be highlighted and promoted among health-care professionals and hence that the nuclear medicine team can provide better pharmaceutical care. PMID:25538467

  12. Pilot Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study of Herbal Medicine Hochuekkito as an Adjunct to Conventional Treatment for Progressed Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Yasunori; Hagiwara, Eri; Komatsu, Shigeru; Nishihira, Ryuichi; Baba, Tomohisa; Kitamura, Hideya; Sekine, Akimasa; Nakazawa, Atsuhito; Ogura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hochuekkito, a traditional herbal medicine, is occasionally prescribed in Japan to treat patients with a poor general condition. We aimed to examine whether this medicine was beneficial and tolerable for patients with progressed pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods This pilot open-label quasi-randomized controlled trial enrolled 18 patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease who had initiated antimycobacterial treatment over one year ago but were persistently culture-positive or intolerant. All patients continued their baseline treatment regimens with (n?=?9) or without (n?=?9) oral Hochuekkito for 24 weeks. Results Baseline characteristics were generally similar between the groups. Most patients were elderly (median age 70 years), female, had a low body mass index (<20 kg/m2), and a long-term disease duration (median approximately 8 years). After the 24-week treatment period, no patient achieved sputum conversion. Although the number of colonies in sputum tended to increase in the control group, it generally remained stable in the Hochuekkito group. Radiological disease control was frequently observed in the Hochuekkito group than the control group (8/9 vs. 3/9; p?=?0.05). Patients in the Hochuekkito group tended to experience increase in body weight and serum albumin level compared with those in the control group (median body weight change: +0.4 kg vs. ?0.8 kg; median albumin change: +0.2 g/dl vs. ±0.0 g/dl). No severe adverse events occurred. Conclusions Hochuekkito could be an effective, feasible adjunct to conventional therapy for patients with progressed pulmonary MAC disease. Future study is needed to explore this possibility. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000009920 PMID:25093868

  13. The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).

    PubMed

    Bischof Delaloye, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    The emergence of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) provides a new therapeutic approach in which monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-specific antigens are used to target therapeutic radioisotopes to sites of disseminated disease. The target cell is eliminated and adjacent tumor cells, to which antibody has not bound, are also killed. To date, 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab are the only FDA-approved, and most extensively studied, radioimmunoconjugates for RIT of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Both 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab utilize an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody to target radioactivity to malignant B-cells. 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan emits pure therapeutic beta radiation, permitting outpatient treatment. The high energy of the beta particles emitted by 90Y (2.3 MeV) achieves a wide-ranging crossfire effect. Approximately 90% of the energy is deposited within 5 mm of the radiation source, which kills not only antibody-bound cells but also neighboring malignant cells within a diameter of up to 12 mm. In addition, the half-life of 90Y matches the in vivo biological half-life of the monoclonal antibody (64 h), with negligible excretion of 90Y in urine. With 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, hematological adverse events correlate with the degree of bone marrow involvement and the bone marrow reserve, rather than with dosimetric parameters, and doses to normal organs and red marrow are well below the accepted limits of 20 Gy to normal organs and 3 Gy to red marrow. A dosing schedule based on patient weight and baseline platelet counts has therefore been developed, and dosimetry is not routinely required. 131I, the isotope used in tositumomab RIT, emits both therapeutic beta radiation and highly penetrating gamma emissions. The lower energy of the beta particles emitted by 131I (0.6 MeV) achieves a crossfire effect of up to 2 mm in diameter, which is used to treat tumors. The gamma radiation emitted by 131I allows both dosimetry and biodistribution studies to be performed; such studies are important because the rate of 131I-tositumomab clearance varies among individuals. Therefore, dosimetry must be performed in each patient before the therapeutic dose of 131I-tositumomab is administered. Similarly, because of this variability in 131I clearance, the dosage of 131I-tositumomab is calculated accordingly for each patient. 131I-tositumomab is a substrate for dehalogenases, which decouple the radioisotope from the antibody moiety, resulting in free, circulating 131I, which can accumulate in the thyroid. Patients who receive 131I-tositumomab therapy are usually hospitalized in radioprotection wards, and are treated by specially trained hospital staff. The administration of RIT requires an integrated team approach, involving nuclear medicine (or, in some countries, radiation oncology), hematology-oncology, nursing, radiopharmacy and radiation safety personnel. Effective collaboration between all members of the RIT team is essential to treatment success, and understanding the properties of these novel agents will facilitate their safe and effective administration. PMID:15154740

  14. [Noninvasive measurement of cerebrovascular circulation with the scintillation camera. A neurologic nuclear medicine study].

    PubMed

    Podreka, I

    1984-01-01

    Repeated CBF-measurements can be performed after inhalation or intravenous injection of 133Xe. After the development of a bicompartmental model by Obrist et al. in 1975 atraumatic CBF-measurements became widely used but there were still some difficulties concerning the sensitivity of different flow-indices towards CBF changes in normals under test conditions or ischemia in stroke patients. Due to the "slippage phenomenon" mostly noncompartmental flow-indices are used for the detection of ischemic brain areas. In this study a scintillation camera, that is usually available in every nuclear medicine department, was used for atraumatic CBF-studies. A collimator consisting of hexagonal lead tubes (septa 0.2 mm thick; FWHM 1.7 cm in 10 cm) was constructed for this purpose. The obtained counting rate varied between 2432 and 9081 cps over the whole hemisphere and 116-1094 cps in regions of approximately 2.5 X 2.5 cm. In 31 patients with CVD CBF was measured with the intracarotid (i.c.) technique and 1 hour later after i.v. 133Xe-injection. Intravenous flow values were comparable to those obtained after i.c. 133Xe injection (fB X MFr = 0.904; p less than 0.001). In 12 of the used 13 regions also significant correlation coefficients were found. In order to estimate the reproducibility of the intravenous injection method CBF-measurements were performed in both hemispheres of 10 patients on two consecutive days. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found for hemispheric blood flow (r = 0.933; p less than 0.001) and temporal, frontotemporal, temporoparietal and praecentral regions, while in the high parietal, frontal and occipital region lower reporducibility was found. Normal CBF-values were obtained from 12 healthy volunteers (MF right hemisphere: 50.7 +/- 4.6 ml/100 g/min; MF left hemisphere: 50.6 +/- 4.6 ml/100 g/min). MF did not show any hyperfrontality, while F1 and the ISI gave highest flow values in frontal regions. The clinical status of 76 patients suffering from cerebral ischemia (68 with flow disturbances in one hemisphere, 8 with vertebrobasilar insufficiency) was estimated by a semiquantitative scorescale at time of admission and after an observation period lasting from 6 to 35 months. In each case CBF was measured twice: once in the subacute stage after onset of symptoms and once after the observation period. The duration of neurologic symptoms (TIA, RIND, CS) was compared to the obtained flow values. A significant relationship was found between the duration of symptoms and impairment of CBF, thus showing the prognostic value of intravenous CBF measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6595871

  15. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  16. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  17. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, March 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ayik, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress on grant No.FG05-89ER40530 during the period March 1, 1993 to April 30, 1994. By extending our previous work on the fluid dynamical treatment of the nuclear collective motion, we deduced from the Boltzmann-Langevin (BL) model a set of transport equations for N collective variables and calculated the associated transport coefficients. Work has also continued on investigating the relation between the BUU model and the BL model for the average evolution. The principle investigator spent a fruitful summer (1993) at LBL, where in collaboration with J. Raindrop, we developed a numerical method for simulating the stochastic evolution of the phase-space density near local equilibrium. Two papers have appeared in Phys. Rev. C and Nucl. Phys. A, two papers have been accepted for publication, both in Nucl. Phys. A, and two manuscripts have been submitted to Z. Phys. A for publication. Several seminars/contributed talks were given at various meetings and an invited talk was presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institution Hot and Dense Matter, Bodrum/Turkey.

  18. Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypic analysis capabilities that can be used by the nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, the project will investigate the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses, as well as within a new deterministic code that allows specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model the geometry details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored. This report summarizes the progress achieved after only seven months of work on a three-year project.'

  19. Cyclotron-based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Research at the cyclotron institute is summarized. These major areas are covered: nuclear structure; nuclear reactions and scattering; polarization studies; interdisciplinary nuclear science; instrumentation and systems development; and publications. (GHT)

  20. Faculty of Medicine PhD Program in Experimental Medicine

    E-print Network

    Tübingen, Universität

    Faculty of Medicine PhD Program in Experimental Medicine Form 6 Individual Training Plan in Experimental Medicine 5 PEX-03 Progress report and/or Journal club (in student's department) 3 Institute modules" you may choose out of a variety of courses, either from the Module Handbook Experimental Medicine

  1. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Bezler, P.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Greene, G.A.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Khatib-Rahbar, H.; Luckes, W.J. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Accident Evaluation, Division of Engineering Technology, and Division of Risk Analysis and Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The projects reported are the following: High Temperature Reactor Research, SSC Code Improvements, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Safety Experiments, Thermodynamic Core-Concrete Interaction Experiments and Analysis, Plant Analyzer, Code Assessment and Application, Code Maintenance (RAMONA-3B), MELCOR Verification and Benchmarking, Source Term Code Package Verification and Benchmarking, Uncertainty Analysis of the Source Term; Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Soil-Structure Interaction Evaluation and Structural Benchmarks, Identification of Age Related Failure Modes; Application of HRA/PRA Results to Support Resolution of Generic Safety Issues Involving Human Performance, Protective Action Decisionmaking, Rebaseling of Risk for Zion, Containment Performance Design Objective, and Operational Safety Reliability Research.

  2. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Bezler, P.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Greene, G.A.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Khatib-Rahbar, H.; Luckas, W.J. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    This progress report will describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Accident Evaluation, Division of Engineering Technology, and Division of Risk Analysis and Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The projects reported are the following: High Temperature Reactor Research, SSC code improvements, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Safety Experiments, Thermodynamic Core-Concrete Interaction Experiments and Analysis, Plant Analyzer, Code Assessment and Application, Code Maintenance (RAMONA-3B), MELCOR Verification and Benchmarking, Source Term Code Package Verification and Benchmarking, Uncertainty Analysis of the Source Term; Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Soil-Structure Interaction Evaluation and Structural Benchmarks, Identification of Age Related Failure Modes; Application of HRA/PRA Results to Support Resolution of Generic Safety Issues Involving Human Performance, Protective Action Decisionmaking, Rebaseling of Risk for Zion, Containment Performance Design Objective, and Operational Safety Reliability Research.

  3. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M. [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (I.N.F.N.), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Nuclear Medicine Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 2014 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina C.P. 5000 (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90}, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution. Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

  4. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G

    2011-06-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9·X90, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution.Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

  5. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

  6. [Introduction of a quality management system compliant with DIN EN 9001:2000 in a university department of nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Jansen-Schmidt, V; Paschen, U; Kröger, S; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

    2001-12-01

    In 1995, the management of the University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf proposed to establish a total quality assurance (QA) system. A revised QA-system has been introduced stepwise in the department of nuclear medicine since 1997, and certification was achieved in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 on February 14, 2001. The QA-handbook is divided into two parts. The first part contains operational (diagnostic and therapeutic) procedures in so-called standard operating procedures (SOP). They describe the indication of procedures as well as the competences and time necessary in a standardized manner. Up to now, more than 70 SOPs have been written as a collaborative approach between technicians and physicians during daily clinical routine after analysing and discussing the procedures. Thus, the results were more clearly defined processes and more satisfied employees. The second part consists of general rules and directions concerning the security of work and equipment as well as radiation protection tasks, hygiene etc. as it is required by the law. This part was written predominantly by the management of the department of nuclear-medicine and the QA-coordinator. Detailed information for the patients, documentation of the work-flows as well as the medical report was adopted to the QM-system. Although in the introduction phase of a QA-system a vast amount of time is necessary, some months later a surplus for the clinical workday will become available. The well defined relations of competences and procedures will result in a gain of time, a reduction of costs and a help to ensure the legal demands. Last but not least, the QA-system simply helps to build up confidence and acceptance both by the patients and the referring physicians. PMID:11797512

  7. Consensus Recommendations for Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy: A Joint Report of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Abell; Michael Camilleri; Kevin Donohoe; William L. Hasler; Henry C. Lin; Alan H. Maurer; Richard W. McCallum; Thomas Nowak; Martin L. Nusynowitz; Henry P. Parkman; Paul Shreve; Lawrence A. Szarka; William J. Snape; Harvey A. Ziessman

    2008-01-01

    This consensus statement from the members of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine recommends a standardized method for measuring gastric emptying (GE) by scintigraphy. A low-fat, egg-white meal with imaging at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after meal ingestion, as described by a published multicenter protocol, provides standardized information about normal and delayed

  8. PROGRESS REPORT. CORROSION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL: THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The successful disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the most serious challenges to the success of the nuclear fuel cycle and the future of nuclear power generation. Spent nuclear fuel is essentially UO2 with approximately 4-5 atomic percent actinides and fission product...

  9. Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

    2001-02-01

    We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers. PMID:11217711

  10. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Guidry, M.W.

    1981-03-01

    Research in nuclear spectroscopy at University of Tennessee from June 1980 through May 1981 is summarized. Topics covered include: radioactive decay studies; high spin states; inelastic scattering and reactions of heavy ions from deformed nuclei; and nuclear structure theory. (GHT)

  11. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content distribution in the subsurface. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of the project is to evaluate Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( NMRI) for determining water content distribution in the subsurface. In NMRI the interaction of the magnetic moment of hydrogen ( protons) nuclei with external applied electromagnetic ( EM ) fields is measured. In surface NMRI the Earth''s magnetic field causes alignment of the spinning protons. An alternating EM field is generated by a loop of wire laid on the Earth surface. The alternating current driven through the loop at the Lamor frequency of protons in liquid water. The component of the EM field perpendicular to the Earth''s field causes a precession of protons from thier equilibrium position. Water content distribution in the subsurface is derived from measurements on the EM field caused by the return of the precessing protons to equilibrium after the current in the transmitter loop is terminated. The scientific goals of the R and D are: to verify and validate the theoretical concepts and experimental results of Russian scientists, who first introduced this method; to evaluate the range of applications and limitations of this technology for practical field measurements. NMRI has the potential of providing a remote, direct, unique method for subsurface water measurements. All present methods are either intrusive or indirect ( e.g. electrical resitivity measurements). In the past year progress has been made along two separate paths. These are: (1) Field Measurements. Surface NMRI equipment manufactured by IRIS Instruments of France was tested over a number of sites with good hydrogeologic control. The results of these measurements can be summarized as follows: The NMRI measurement directly and uniquely determines water distribution in coarse grained aquifers; geologic formation from which water can be readily withdrawn. Water content can not be determined by this technique in fine grained sediments. The signal to be measured is very small and EM interference''s from power lines makes NMRI a difficult measurement in an urban setting. The presence of minerals with a high magnetic susceptibility interfere with reliable measurements. (2) Theoretical Computations. The inversion of the experimental measurements requires the computation of the EM field within the Earth. The authors have extended these computations with the design of fast algorithms for computing the EM field for Earth stratified in electrical resitivity.'

  12. Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

  13. Site characterization progress report, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. [Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113). October 1, 1998 - March 30, 1999. Number 20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hoxie; T. Booth; G. Neider-Westermann

    1999-01-01

    The 20th semiannual report of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) summarizes activities during the period from October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999. YMP activities are aimed at evaluating Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for permanent geologic disposal of nuclear materials, as directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). The progress report documents activities this period

  14. A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

  15. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  16. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  17. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1991: Volume 32, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  18. ORNL nuclear waste programs annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Research progress is reported in 20 activities under the headings: spent fuels, defense waste management, commercial waste management, remedial action, and conventional reactors. Separate entries were prepared for each activity.

  19. Experimental development of nuclear pumped laser candidate inertial confinement fusion driver. Technical progress report, Phase 1, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1989-05-31

    This progress report is submitted at the end of the first year of a 3-year project grant studying development of a nuclear pumped atomic iodine laser. The first section of the report will provide background on the study and briefly describe the original plans for the 3-year project. The second section will detail the work done to date. Included will be a description of the preparations made for experimentation, as well as some preliminary results recently obtained. Plans for the upcoming budget year are covered in the accompanying proposal, ``Project Plans for 1989--1990.``

  20. Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1979-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    The results of work performed from July 1, 1979 through September 30, 1979 on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

  1. Theoretical research in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. [Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses progress that has been made on the following seven problems: (1) (e, e{prime}p) at high momentum transfer; (2) post,acceleration effects in two-nucleon interferometry of heavy-ion collisions; (3) pion-nucleus interactions above 0.5 GeV; (4) chiral symmetry breaking in nuclei and picnic atom anomaly; (5) atomic screening on nuclear astronomical reactions; (6) QCD related work (coherent pion production from skyrmion-antiskyrmion annihilation, QCD in 1 + 1 dimensions, and correlation functions in the QCD vacuum), and (7) kaonic hydrogen atom experiment. The problems deal with various topics mostly in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. We place priority on (1) and (2), and describe them somewhat in detail below. Other problems are our on-going projects, but we are placing lower priority on them in the second and third year.

  2. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, 14080, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  3. Management of Radioactive Spills in Nuclear Medicine; Teaching and Assessing with Objectively Structured Assessment of Technical Skills.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Riffat Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Routine work in nuclear medicine requires the careful elution of radioactivity and its subsequent, storage and handling. Though all effort is maintained to prevent any "spill" of this radioactivity, accidents are bound to happen. The response to this spill is a methodically worked out a plan that is written and adopted as a "standard operating procedure." This protocol is taught to all involved in the area of working as a mock drill/apprenticeship model. No formal evaluation of learning is in place except for the mock drills. The objectively structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) is a variation on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, which is a form of workplace based assessment. The OSATS is cited in the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education evaluation toolbox on the website as the most desirable evaluation tool for the patient care topics. It is the objective of this paper is to introduce the "OSATS" for teaching, and assessment of the learning, of the protocol for the management of radioactive spill. As a review of the literature on the subject failed to reveal any such teaching protocol/material/document for this important technical skill, we hope that it may act as a landmark for the development of teaching and assessment of other technical skills also. PMID:26097418

  4. Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease (CNMR) at the Health Sciences Center, at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia for the construction and operation was prepared by DOE. The EA documents analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts that might occur as a result of these actions, and characterizes potential impacts on the environment. In the EA, DOE presents its evaluation of potential impacts of construction and operation of the CNMR on health and safety of both workers and the public, as well as on the external environment. Construction impacts include the effects of erosion, waste disposal, air emissions, noise, and construction traffic and parking. Operational impacts include the effects of waste generation (domestic, sanitary, hazardous, medical/biological, radioactive and mixed wastes), radiation exposures, air emissions (radioactive, criteria, and air toxics), noise, and new workers. No sensitive resources (wetlands, special sources of groundwater, protected species) exist in the area of project effect.

  5. Usefulness of specific calibration coefficients for gamma-emitting sources measured by radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bochud, Francois O.; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sebastien; Kosinski, Marek; Bailat, Claude J. [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In nuclear medicine, the activity of a radionuclide is measured with a radionuclide calibrator that often has a calibration coefficient independent of the container type and filling. Methods: To determine the effect of the container on the accuracy of measuring the activity injected into a patient, The authors simulated a commercial radionuclide calibrator and 18 container types most typically used in clinical practice. The instrument sensitivity was computed for various container thicknesses and filling levels. Monoenergetic photons and electrons as well as seven common radionuclides were considered. Results: The quality of the simulation with gamma-emitting sources was validated by an agreement with measurements better than 4% in five selected radionuclides. The results show that the measured activity can vary by more than a factor of 2 depending on the type of container. The filling level and the thickness of the container wall only have a marginal effect for radionuclides of high energy but could induce differences up to 4%. Conclusions: The authors conclude that radionuclide calibrators should be tailored to the uncertainty required by clinical applications. For most clinical cases, and at least for the low-energy gamma and x-ray emitters, measurements should be performed with calibration coefficients specific to the container type.

  6. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  7. Management of Radioactive Spills in Nuclear Medicine; Teaching and Assessing with Objectively Structured Assessment of Technical Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Riffat Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Routine work in nuclear medicine requires the careful elution of radioactivity and its subsequent, storage and handling. Though all effort is maintained to prevent any “spill” of this radioactivity, accidents are bound to happen. The response to this spill is a methodically worked out a plan that is written and adopted as a “standard operating procedure.” This protocol is taught to all involved in the area of working as a mock drill/apprenticeship model. No formal evaluation of learning is in place except for the mock drills. The objectively structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) is a variation on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, which is a form of workplace based assessment. The OSATS is cited in the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education evaluation toolbox on the website as the most desirable evaluation tool for the patient care topics. It is the objective of this paper is to introduce the “OSATS” for teaching, and assessment of the learning, of the protocol for the management of radioactive spill. As a review of the literature on the subject failed to reveal any such teaching protocol/material/document for this important technical skill, we hope that it may act as a landmark for the development of teaching and assessment of other technical skills also. PMID:26097418

  8. Nuclear physics studies with medium energy probes. Progress report and renewal proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    Research is concerned with nuclear reactions, nuclear structure, pion production in elementary collisions, symmetry tests, and searches for dibaryon structures. Increasing emphasis is being placed on fundamental problems relating to quantum chromodynamics. A list of publications is provided. 43 refs., 12 figs. (DWL)

  9. [Integrative medicine development in China: enlightenment from Kampo medicine].

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng-fei

    2011-10-01

    Japanese Kampo medicine has made huge progress in the 300-year development, especially in Kampo education, research and development of Kampo medicinal drugs, and industrialization and internationalization of Kampo medicine in recent 30 years. Based on the study of Japanese Kampo medicine, this article discussed some characteristics of Kampo medicine. For example, the emphasis of Kampo medicine research is the effectiveness and scientificalness; classical prescriptions are the main application in Kampo medicine while it also values correspondence between prescription and syndrome as well as abdomen examination; Kampo medicine emphasized the continuity of education after graduation; international development is accelerating in the research of Kampo medicinal drugs. Such a development strategy of Kampo medicine may benefit the development of integrative medicine in China. PMID:22015183

  10. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-12-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A {approx_equal} 182 region, structure of {sup 182}Hg and {sup 182}Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm and the anomalous h{sub 11/2} proton crossing in the A{approximately}135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier {alpha} particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4{pi} channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  11. The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France, pp. PM1-4, 2003 1 Abstract--Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of deaths

    E-print Network

    The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (phone: 631- 444-7837; fax: 631, WI 53201, USA. Wang is with the Department of Radiology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa

  12. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, May 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ayik, S.

    1995-02-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memory effect in Boltzmann-Langevin model; effect of memory time on agitation of unstable modes in nuclear matter; and non-markovian approach to damping of giant monopole resonances in nuclei.

  13. COMPREHENSIVE PROGRESS REPORT FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR (NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE) OF METALS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions of the metals cadmium and selenium with various biologically important substrates were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cadmium-113 NMR was used for a critical examination of three metalloproteins: concanavalin A, bovine superoxide dismutase ...

  14. Disposal of SNL-designed electronics assemblies associated with the nuclear weapons program: Challenges and progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Chambers; S. L. Chavez

    1992-01-01

    One of the common waste streams generated throughout the nuclear weapon complex is hardware'' originating from the nuclear weapons program. The activities associated with this hardware at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) include design and development, environmental testing, reliability and stockpile surveillance testing, and military liaison training. SNL-designed electronic assemblies include radars, arming\\/fusing\\/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems.

  15. Disposal of SNL-designed electronics assemblies associated with the nuclear weapons program: Challenges and progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Chambers; S. L. Chavez

    1992-01-01

    One of the common waste streams generated throughout the nuclear weapon complex is ``hardware`` originating from the nuclear weapons program. The activities associated with this hardware at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) include design and development, environmental testing, reliability and stockpile surveillance testing, and military liaison training. SNL-designed electronic assemblies include radars, arming\\/fusing\\/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems.

  16. Study of a New Design of P-N Semiconductor Detector Array for Nuclear Medicine Imaging by Monte Carlo Simulation Codes

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh-Safar, M.; Ghorbani, M.; Khoshkharam, S.; Ashrafi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc99_m activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

  17. Studies of nuclear processes; Progress report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    Results for the period 1 Sep 92 through 31 Aug 93 are presented in nearly a hundred brief papers, some of which present new but preliminary data. Activities reported may be grouped as follows: Fundamental symmetries in the nucleus (parity-mixing measurements, time reversal invariance measurements, signatures of quantum chaos in nuclei), Internucleon reactions (neutron -- proton interactions, the neutron -- neutron scattering length, reactions between deuterons and very light nuclei), Dynamics of very light nuclei (measurements of D states of very light nuclei by transfer reactions, nuclear reactions between very light nuclei, radiative capture reactions with polarized sources), The many-nucleon problem (nuclear astrophysics, high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation, the nuclear mean field: Dispersive relations and nucleon scattering, configuration mixing in {sup 56}Co and {sup 46}Sc using (d,{alpha}) reactions, radiative capture studies, high energy resolution resonance studies at 100--400 keV, nuclear data evaluation for A=3--20), Nuclear instruments and methods (FN tandem accelerator operation, KN accelerator operation and maintenance, atomic beam polarized ion source, development of techniques for determining the concentration of SF{sub 6} in the accelerator insulating gas mixture, production of beams and targets, detector systems, updating of TeX, Psprint, and associated programs on the VAX cluster), and Educational Activities.

  18. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1994-08-01

    This renewal proposal requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past three years we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons at CEBAF. We are part of the Hall-B Collaboration at CEBAF. We are co-spokespersons on two approved CEBAF experiments, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei, and we are preparing another, Nondiffractive Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson with Linearly Polarized Photons, for presentation to the next CEBAF PAC. We are part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger and a high-energy tagged polarized-photon beam for Hall B; some of the instrumentation for these projects is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Our recent measurements of pion scattering from {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He at LAMPF and of cluster knockout from few-body nuclei at NIKHEF have yielded very provocative results, showing the importance of the very light nuclei as a laboratory for quantifying important aspects of the nuclear many-body force. We look forward to expanding our studies of short-range forces in nuclei, particularly the very fight nuclei using electromagnetic probes and employing the extraordinary power of CEBAF and the CLAS.

  19. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  20. The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; Jaszczak, R.J. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0 to 4.0 mm diameter apertures. Curves of the form sin{sup x}{theta}, where {theta} is the angle of the incident ray with the surface of the detector crystal, were fit to sensitivity measurements from the projection data. Experimentally measured x values were between 3.3 and 4.1 for Tc-99m and between 5.1 and 7.2 for I-131. Penetration near the pinhole aperture was modeled using (1) an expression for effective pinhole diameter that is a generalization of Anger{close_quote}s formula for normally incident photons and (2) a photon transport simulation code. Experimentally measured sensitivity exponents x from new and previously reported experimental observations were modeled within 15{percent} by the numerical simulations. For modeling using the generalized expression for effective diameter the average error was 1.4{percent} and the standard deviation was 7.7{percent}. For the photon transport simulation code the average error was 1.5{percent} and the standard deviation also was 7.7{percent}. The effect of pinhole aperture design parameters on angle-dependent sensitivity for high resolution pinhole apertures was modeled using a photon transport simulation code. The sensitivity exponents x were greater for 364 keV photons than for 140 keV photons and were greater for small aperture diameters, small acceptance angles, and large aperture channel heights. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  2. Theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, October 1, 1991August 1, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rost; J. R. Shephard

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in

  3. ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT. IRON PHOSPHATE GLASSES: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR VITRIFYING CERTAIN NUCLEAR WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high priority has been given to investigating the vitrification of three specific nuclear wastes in iron phosphate glasses (IPG). These wastes, which were recommended by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) group of Hanford, are poorly suited for vitrification in the currently DOE-approve...

  4. Theoretical and computational studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Elster, C.

    1993-08-01

    The research includes applications of many-body scattering theory to nuclear systems and studies of few-body systems described by effective hadronic field theories. Progress was made in bringing all first-order effects into the nonrelativistic elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering in a consistent fashion. This work is directed towards completely and reliably calculating the first-order term in a Watson expansion including a modification through the nulear medium. The research effort in few-body physics was concentrated on nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering below pion production threshold, where recent measurements indicated that the backward-angle neutron-proton (np) differential cross section may show sensitivity to the size of the pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  5. Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

    2008-10-01

    In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

  6. Research in nuclear astrophysics: stellar collapse and supernovae. Progress report and renewal proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, J.M.; Yahil, A.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between nuclear theory and the problem of stellar collapse and supernovae is examined. Experimentally determined nuclear parameters (compressibility, symmetry energies, level densities) are being used to determine a finite temperature equation of state. Detailed studies of shock propagation, neutrino transport and electron capture in stellar collapse are continued. The long-term evolution of collapsed stars (hot proto-neutron stars) is extended to find characteristic signatures of the neutrino spectrum, important for the experiments that can detect extraterrestrial neutrinos. A novel, conservative hydrodynamical code is used to alleviate the requirement of using artificial viscosity to follow shocks. This is coupled with a new, fast numerical scheme for the equation of state (but one which retains all the important physics).

  7. Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.

    SciTech Connect

    Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

  8. Progress in recoil spectrometers for separation of fast-nuclear-reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, H A

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of electromagnetic instruments used for detection and separation of heavy nuclear species emitted from or recoiling from targets in fusion, spallation or fission processes. In the case of fusion reactions, the nuclei, called evaporation residues, are emitted in a narrow cone about zero degree and hence have to be separated from the beam. The beam separation process is a major function of the apparatus.

  9. [Cyclotron based nuclear science]. Progress in research, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the {mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal {mu} decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Z{sub projectile} -- Z{sub target} combinations. Studies of the ({alpha},2{alpha}) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references.

  10. Thematic planning: the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in promoting education, medical research, and technology transfer among nuclear medicine communities of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Dondi, Maurizio

    2008-03-01

    One of the major mechanisms of implementing the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programs in nuclear medicine has been through coordinated research projects (CRPs). In recent years, the IAEA has initiated a new type of CRP, called Doctoral CRP, in an attempt to further improve the effectiveness of its programs. The structure of the Doctoral CRP has been built on the structure of the existing CRP concept, but with a broader "thematic" approach. The word "thematic" indicates that these CRPs should both have a fairly broad scope and be designed so that their outcome, in terms of practical applications, might readily fit into the selected nuclear applications that are offered to Member States under the IAEA's mechanism for thematic planning. The Nuclear Medicine Section of IAEA's Division of Human Health initiated the first Doctoral CRP of IAEA in the year 2000, entitled, "Management of Liver Cancer Using Radionuclide Methods with Special Emphasis on Trans-Arterial Radio-conjugate Therapy and Internal Dosimetry." Since then, the CRP has accomplished several milestones, including development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical ((188)Re lipiodol) and successfully carrying out Phase I and Phase II clinical trials on patients using the new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. PMID:18243840

  11. Progression of nuclear sclerosis based on changes in refractive values after lens-sparing vitrectomy in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Minami, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Kida, Teruyo; Fukumoto, Masanori; Sato, Takaki; Ishizaki, Eisuke

    2014-01-01

    Background Nuclear sclerosis (NS) based on the Emery–Little classification and refractive values after lens-sparing vitrectomy was compared between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients and nondiabetic patients. Methods Progression of NS based on the Emery–Little classification and changes in refractive values were compared between 13 proliferative DR patients (14 eyes, DR group) and 14 nondiabetic patients (14 eyes, non-DR group) who underwent lens-sparing vitrectomy. All patients revealed grade I NS based on the Emery–Little classification. Mean patient age and refractive value just after surgery were 56.07 years and ?0.33 diopters (D) in the DR group, and 57.06 years and ?0.96 D in the non-DR group. Results The Emery–Little classification in the DR group at 6 and 24 months postoperative were grade I (13 eyes)/grade II (one eye) and grade I (eleven eyes)/grade II (three eyes), respectively. Mean refractive values in the DR group at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative were +0.28 D, +0.27 D, and +0.37 D, respectively. The Emery–Little classification in the non-DR group at 6 and 24 months (or preoperative for patients undergoing cataract surgery) were grade I (five eyes)/grade II (eight eyes) and grade I (zero eyes)/grade II (eight eyes)/grade III (five eyes), respectively. The mean refractive value in the non-DR group at 6 months postoperative was ?3.20 D. All eyes exhibited myopic changes and progression of NS. Conclusion The findings of this study show that the progression of NS postvitrectomy is mild, even for DR patients 50 years of age or older, thus suggesting the need to reconsider the indications for simultaneous cataract surgery with vitrectomy. PMID:24876762

  12. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to radiation during air travel. Radiation, known as cosmic radiation, is in the upper atmosphere due to ... and Man-made Sources of Radiation Natural Sources Cosmic rays from space 8% Medical x-rays 11% ...

  13. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images. PMID:26009552

  14. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.

  15. Extracellular Matrix, Nuclear and Chromatin Structure, and Gene Expression in Normal Tissues and Malignant Tumors: A Work in Progress

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Virginia A.; Xu, Ren; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-01-01

    Almost three decades ago, we presented a model where the extracellular matrix (ECM) was postulated to influence gene expression and tissue-specificity through the action of ECM receptors and the cytoskeleton. This hypothesis implied that ECM molecules could signal to the nucleus and that the unit of function in higher organisms was not the cell alone, but the cell plus its microenvironment. We now know that ECM invokes changes in tissue and organ architecture and that tissue, cell, nuclear, and chromatin structure are changed profoundly as a result of and during malignant progression. Whereas some evidence has been generated for a link between ECM-induced alterations in tissue architecture and changes in both nuclear and chromatin organization, the manner by which these changes actively induce or repress gene expression in normal and malignant cells is a topic in need of further attention. Here, we will discuss some key findings that may provide insights into mechanisms through which ECM could influence gene transcription and how tumor cells acquire the ability to overcome these levels of control. PMID:17419950

  16. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-15

    This report presents the results of work performed from July 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983 on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for very high temperature reactor (VHTR) applications, particularly nuclear process heat (NPH) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposure on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs and to develop the critical high temperature materials data needed for the design of major system components, especially those in the primary coolant circuit. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with modifications and operation of the simulated reactor helium supply system and testing equipment. Progress on the multispecimen creep testing extensions to 15,000 hours is discussed. The status of creep rupture testing in simulated HTGR helium and in air is covered. The status of fatigue testing in simulated HTGR helium is described; the test results obtained are listed and discussed. The status of materials and specimens procurement for the contract extension work is presented; also discussed is the status of exposures and testing for the contract extension work. 7 figures, 16 tables.

  17. Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

    1999-05-13

    Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

  18. Development of inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, A.; Egan, B.Z.; Bortun, A.I.; Bortun, L.N.; Khainakov, S.; Sylvester, P.

    1998-06-01

    'To expand the authors efforts to provide families of inorganic ion exchangers useful on a global scale. In carrying out this objective, they will synthesize a variety of ion exchange materials, determine their structures and where necessary alter these structures to build in the desired properties. The underlying thermodynamic, kinetic and molecular basis of ion exchange behavior will be elucidated and their suitability for nuclear waste remediation will be assessed. As of September 1, 1996, they have synthesized a number of highly selective inorganic ion exchangers, determined their crystal structures and elucidated the mechanism of exchange for a number of these exchangers.'

  19. Progress on Cleaning Up the Only Commercial Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facility to Operate in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T. J.; MacVean, S. A.; Szlis, K. A.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the progress on cleanup of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), an environmental management project located south of Buffalo, NY. The WVDP was the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in the United States (1966 to 1972). Former fuel reprocessing operations generated approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste stored in underground tanks. The U.S. Congress passed the WVDP Act in 1980 (WVDP Act) to authorize cleanup of the 220-acre facility. The facility is unique in that it sits on the 3,345-acre Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), which is owned by New York State through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has overall responsibility for the cleanup that is authorized by the WVDP Act, paying 90 percent of the WVDP costs; NYSERDA pays 10 percent. West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) is the management contractor at the WVDP. This paper will provide a description of the many accomplishments at the WVDP, including the pretreatment and near completion of vitrification of all the site's liquid high-level radioactive waste, a demonstration of technologies to characterize the remaining material in the high-level waste tanks, the commencement of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to place the site in a safe configuration for long-term site management options, and achievement of several technological firsts. It will also include a discussion of the complexities involved in completing the WVDP due to the various agency interests that require integration for future cleanup decisions.

  20. Applied nuclear data research and development. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Baxman, C.I.; Young, P.G. (comps.)

    1981-07-01

    Activities of the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Group for January 1 through March 31, 1981, are described. Topics include: (1) peripheral effects in R-matrix theory; (2) Coulomb corrections in light nuclei; (3) new R-matrix analysis of reactions in the /sup 7/Li system; (4) variance-covariance analysis of n + Li reactions; (5) calculated charged-particle emission in the mass-90 region; (6) determination of deformed optical model parameters for neutron reactions on /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu; (7) calculation of excited state cross sections for actinide nuclei; (8) calculation of the prompt neutron spectrum and ..nu../sub p/ for the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf; (9) international nuclear model codes comparison study; (10) an improved calculation of heating and radiation damage from neutron capture; (11) LMFBR cross-section production with MAX; (12) TRANSX development; (13) THOR calculations; (14) covariance processing; (15) analysis of charges for use of central computing facility; (16) S/sub n/ calculations for D/sub 2/O sphere; (17) integral data testing of ENDF/B fission-product data; (18) decay power comparisons using ENDF/B-IV and -V data in CINDER-10; (19) ENDF/B-V data testing and summary data; (20) SPEC5: code to produce multigroup spectra; and (21) calculation of H. B. Robinson-2 fuel isotopics and comparison with measurements. (WHK)

  1. Short term ex vivo storage of kidneys cause progressive nuclear ploidy changes of renal tubular epitheliocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huaibin; Tian, Jun; Xian, Wanhua; Xie, Tingting; Yang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    In renal transplantation, there has been considerable success, mainly in term of post-transplant graft function. However, upon closer scrutiny, it is known that severe dysfunction, including persistence of renal failure is seen after transplantation. The major condition that potentially cause significant lesion may be hypothesized to be related to the hypothermic approach to storage. To systematically examine these issues, we stored mammalian (sheep) kidneys in UWS at 4?°C for four different time points (0, 1, 3 and 6?hours). We obtained renal histological sections and examined tubular architecture as well as nuclear characteristics of tubular epitheliocytes. The results of our preliminary investigations suggest that there are temporal changes of tubular epitheliocytes, as well as genomic changes. These changes were also seen in tissues stored at room temperature. Our observations suggest the need for additional studies for redesigning of improvised storage solutions. Pilot studies using Celsior also revelaed similar kind of nuclear changes, suggesting that storage conditons are contributory, including perfusion versus static conditions. The results may explain persistence of tubular injury several days after orthotopic transplantation, and may potentially be contributory to delayed graft function (DGF). PMID:26036971

  2. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report, June 1, 1984-May 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.

    1985-02-01

    During this report period we have led several experiments at HHIRF, two at McMaster University Tandem Laboratory, and plan follow-up experiments to those reported in last years report at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, England. Significant advances have been made in the (1) study of the low-energy properties of nuclei far from stability, (2) use of the Spin Spectrometer and internal avalanche detectors to sort out greater details of direct reactions between heavy ions, and (3) understanding the structure of deformed and transitional nuclei at high angular momentum and feeding patterns of the high-spin yrast levels. Theoretical work included application of the cranked shell model to understanding structure at high angular momentum, description of the general features of spectra observed for single-nucleon transfer between heavy ions, and application of Dynamical Symmetries in a fermion space to deduce a general description of nuclear structure over a broad range of states and behavior. Details are given.

  3. Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Galan, Jacob A.; Normandin, Karine; Bonneil, Éric; Hickson, Gilles R.; Roux, Philippe P.; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cell division requires the coordination of critical protein kinases and phosphatases. Greatwall (Gwl) kinase activity inactivates PP2A-B55 at mitotic entry to promote the phosphorylation of cyclin B–Cdk1 substrates, but how Gwl is regulated is poorly understood. We found that the subcellular localization of Gwl changed dramatically during the cell cycle in Drosophila. Gwl translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in prophase. We identified two critical nuclear localization signals in the central, poorly characterized region of Gwl, which are required for its function. The Polo kinase associated with and phosphorylated Gwl in this region, promoting its binding to 14-3-3? and its localization to the cytoplasm in prophase. Our results suggest that cyclin B–Cdk1 phosphorylation of Gwl is also required for its nuclear exclusion by a distinct mechanism. We show that the nucleo-cytoplasmic regulation of Gwl is essential for its functions in vivo and propose that the spatial regulation of Gwl at mitotic entry contributes to the mitotic switch. PMID:23857770

  4. Short term ex vivo storage of kidneys cause progressive nuclear ploidy changes of renal tubular epitheliocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaibin; Tian, Jun; Xian, Wanhua; Xie, Tingting; Yang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    In renal transplantation, there has been considerable success, mainly in term of post-transplant graft function. However, upon closer scrutiny, it is known that severe dysfunction, including persistence of renal failure is seen after transplantation. The major condition that potentially cause significant lesion may be hypothesized to be related to the hypothermic approach to storage. To systematically examine these issues, we stored mammalian (sheep) kidneys in UWS at 4?°C for four different time points (0, 1, 3 and 6?hours). We obtained renal histological sections and examined tubular architecture as well as nuclear characteristics of tubular epitheliocytes. The results of our preliminary investigations suggest that there are temporal changes of tubular epitheliocytes, as well as genomic changes. These changes were also seen in tissues stored at room temperature. Our observations suggest the need for additional studies for redesigning of improvised storage solutions. Pilot studies using Celsior also revelaed similar kind of nuclear changes, suggesting that storage conditons are contributory, including perfusion versus static conditions. The results may explain persistence of tubular injury several days after orthotopic transplantation, and may potentially be contributory to delayed graft function (DGF). PMID:26036971

  5. PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE

    SciTech Connect

    KNOLLMEYER, P.M.; PHILLIPS, C; TOWNSON, P.S.

    2006-01-30

    This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

  6. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ayik, S.

    1993-02-01

    Investigations of various aspects of heavy-ion collisions were carried out in the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin Model (BLM). In a previous work, by projection the BLM onto a collective space, a memory-dependent collective transport model was reduced. This model was applied to thermal fission to investigate the influence of the memory effects on the fission dynamics. Some results of the calculations are presented. In addition a reduction of the relativistic BLM to a two-fluid model was carried out, and transport coefficients associated with fluid dynamical variables was carried out. Then this model was applied to investigate equilabration and fluctuation properties in a counter-streaming nuclear fluid.

  7. Theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, October 1, 1991--August 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, E.; Shephard, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in the {triangle}-resonance region; hadronic matter in a nontopological soliton model; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda} {Lambda}} reaction; 0+ and 2+ strengths in pion double-charge exchange to double giant-dipole resonances; and nucleons in a hybrid sigma model including a quantized pion field.

  8. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Sixteenth annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1980-10-31

    Nuclear spectroscopic studies included the decay of /sup 201/Po to /sup 201/Bi, decay of /sup 201/At, decay of /sup 187/Au, and g/sub 7/2/ intruder band in /sup 109/Ag. A systematic comparison was conducted of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Approximation model predictions with experiment on neutron-deficient odd-A gold isotopes. An international comparison of /sup 133/Ba ..gamma..-ray standards was completed. L/sub 1/, L/sub 2/, and L/sub 3/ subshells were studied, and the decay energy of /sup 207/Bi is being measured. Carrier-free /sup 18/F has been prepared in crown ether solution. (DLC)

  9. Expression of nuclear matrix proteins binding matrix attachment regions in prostate cancer. PARP-1: New player in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Barboro, Paola; Ferrari, Nicoletta; Capaia, Matteo; Petretto, Andrea; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Balbi, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) displays infrequent point mutations, whereas genomic rearrangements are highly prevalent. In eukaryotes, the genome is compartmentalized into chromatin loop domains by the attachment to the nuclear matrix (NM), and it has been demonstrated that several recombination hot spots are situated at the base of loops. Here, we have characterized the binding between NM proteins and matrix attachment regions (MARs) in PCa. Nontumor and 44 PCa tissues were analyzed. More aggressive tumors were characterized by an increase in the complexity of the NM protein patterns that was synchronous with a decrease in the number of proteins binding the MAR sequences. PARP-1 was the protein that showed the most evident changes. The expression of the PARP-1 associated with NM increased and it was dependent on tumor aggressiveness. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the protein was significantly overexpressed in tumor cells. To explore the role of PARP-1 in PCa progression, PCa cells were treated with the PARP inhibitor, ABT-888. In androgen-independent PC3 cells, PARP inhibition significantly decreased cell viability, migration, invasion, chromatin loop dimensions and histone acetylation. Collectively, our study provides evidence that MAR-binding proteins are involved in the development and progression of PCa. PARP could play a key role in the compartmentalization of chromatin and in the development of the more aggressive phenotype. Thus, PARP can no longer be viewed only as an enzyme involved in DNA repair, but that its role in chromatin modulation could provide the basis for a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of PCa. PMID:25808111

  10. Recent progress in the feasibility study for the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Subki, I.R.; Iskandar, A.; Supadi, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1994-12-31

    Many have come to realise that an increasing demand for and supply of energy is a necessity to support national development. Conservation efforts also contribute, by the more efficient use of energy and by avoiding its unnecessary use. However, some are of the opinion that conservation would be able to add to the supply of energy, but this viewpoint still requires further consideration. In Indonesia, the energy consumption since 1970 has been continually increasing with an average rate of 10.6%/year in support of the development in all sectors. In the case of electric energy for the whole of Indonesia, in the year 1990/1991 the installed capacity was 9275 MW in the State Electricity Company (PLN) network with an electrical consumption during that year amounting to 34.0 TWh. The increase of consumption during the last two years amounted to 17.5% and 17.9%/year. Over this period the share of supply of electricity has consistently increased. Specifically for the island of Java, which accounts for 80% of all of the Indonesian electricity consumptions, the installed capacity by PLN in the year 1990/1991 was 6363 MW (the same amount of capacity also exists outside PLN), and increased by 17%/year during it last three years. The actual and projected figures at Oven. It is worth noting that, for example, the projected installed capacity for 2003-04 is now 31.8 GW, which is far higher than the previous projection for 2010-11 of only 25.5 GW. In view of this the government has decided to conduct feasibility studies of the nuclear option, with the goal of fulfilling the deficit or gap in supply where other options are likely to reach their limitations.

  11. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-12

    Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, 950 and 1050/sup 0/C. Initiation of controlled purity helium creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the results of 1000-hour exposures at 750 and 850/sup 0/C on several experimental alloys are discussed.

  12. Taking Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Taking Medicines Drugs in the Body Medicines can enter the body in many different ways, ... many steps happen along the way. Understanding how medicines work in your body can help you learn ...

  13. COPD Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here: Health Information > Medications > COPD COPD Medicine Your doctor may prescribe medicine to control the ... Learn how to manage your medications . Signs the Medicine Is Helping How can you work with your ...

  14. ADHD Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Learning & Emotional Problems > ADHD ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  15. Nuclear Regulatory Commission should report on progress in implementing lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowsher

    1985-01-01

    Following the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission prepared an Action Plan consisting of 176 items that it believed were necessary to improve utilities' operations and NRC's regulation of nuclear plants. Responsibility for implementing the Plan was divided among utilities building and operating nuclear plants, the NRC staff, and the NRC

  16. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of technetium(V)-oxo complexes useful in nuclear medicine. 1. Complexes of mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG{sub 3}) and its methyl ester derivative (MAG{sub 3}OMe)

    SciTech Connect

    Grummon, G.; Rajagopalan, R.; Palenik, G.J. [Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-03-29

    Mercptoacetylpeptide complexes of {sup 99g}Tc are useful compounds for nuclear medicine. This work describes the synthesis and structural characterization of a mercaptoacetylglyclglycylglycine complex and its esterified analog. Structural characterization is accomplished through NMR, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography.

  17. International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau, Germany, July 9-13, 2007 Abstract--Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)

    E-print Network

    International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau is with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (e-mail: jingwang@mil.sunysb.edu). H. Lu was with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA

  18. Production of therapeutic radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for applications in nuclear medicine, oncologyand interventional cardiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mirzadeh; A. L. Beets; M. Du

    2005-01-01

    Summary  Angiogenesis is integral to the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease and solid tumor growth. New microvessels form in atherosclerotic plaque and the presence of new vessels has been associated with carotid plaque instability. Likewise, solid tumor growth depends upon angiogenesis to provide tumor cells with oxygen and nutrients. Recently, Lanza et al. have demonstrated molecular imaging of angiogenesis both

  19. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and credibility: now involving organizations with 145,000 members in 41 countries, IPPNW has become the international voice of medicine's concern about nuclear war. PMID:21274253

  20. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  1. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Nuclear physics, lasers, and medicine(Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 14 December 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    The scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 14 December 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Kotov Yu D (National Research Nuclear University 'Moscow Engineering Physics Institute' (MEPhI), Institute of Astrophysics, Moscow) "High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS"; (2) Pakhlov P N (Russian Federation State Scientific Center 'Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,' Moscow) "Exotic charmonium"; (3) Shcherbakov I A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser and plasma technologies in medicine"; (4) Balakin V E (Center for Physics and Technology, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Protvino, Moscow region) "New-generation equipment and technologies for the ray therapy of oncological diseases using a proton beam"; (5) Kravchuk L V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS." Papers based on reports 1, 3, and 5 are published below. The expanded content of the report by Pakhlov is presented in review form in Physics-Uspekhi 53 219 (2010). • High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS, Yu D Kotov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 619-631 • Laser physics in medicine, I A Shcherbakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 631-635 • Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, L V Kravchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 635-639

  2. Revised 11/2/2012 UCI School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Revised 11/2/2012 UCI School of Medicine POLICY ON SATISFACTORY ACADEMIC PROGRESS (SAP adopted by the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine. The policy applies to all students The School of Medicine does not measure academic progress by means of a cumulative grade point average

  3. microRNA-365-targeted nuclear factor I/B transcriptionally represses cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and 4 to inhibit the progression of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Wang, Yinghui; Ou, Chengshan; Lin, Zhixiang; Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Hongxia; Zhou, Meijuan; Ding, Zhenhua

    2015-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases are either post-transcriptionally regulated by interacting with cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors or are transcriptionally regulated by transcription factors, but the latter mechanism has not been extensively investigated. Dysregulated transcription factors resulting from aberrantly expressed microRNAs play critical roles in tumor development and progression. Our previous work identified miR-365 as an oncogenic microRNA that promotes the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma via repression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6, while miR-365 also targets nuclear factor I/B. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of the interaction between nuclear factor I/B and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 are unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that miR-365-regulated nuclear factor I/B transcriptionally inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases 6 and 4 by binding to their promoter regions. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that the loss of nuclear factor I/B after miR-365 expression or treatment with small interfering RNAs results in the upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases 6 and 4. This upregulation, in turn, enhances the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and tumor progression. Characterizing this transcriptional repression of cyclin-dependent kinases 6 and 4 by nuclear factor I/B contributes to the understanding of the transcriptional regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases by transcription factors and also facilitates the development of new therapeutic regimens to improve the clinical treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26072217

  4. Lamin b1 polymorphism influences morphology of the nuclear envelope, cell cycle progression, and risk of neural tube defects in mice.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Sandra C P; Malhas, Ashraf; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gustavsson, Peter; Vaux, David J; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2012-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, are common birth defects whose complex multigenic causation has hampered efforts to delineate their molecular basis. The effect of putative modifier genes in determining NTD susceptibility may be investigated in mouse models, particularly those that display partial penetrance such as curly tail, a strain in which NTDs result from a hypomorphic allele of the grainyhead-like-3 gene. Through proteomic analysis, we found that the curly tail genetic background harbours a polymorphic variant of lamin B1, lacking one of a series of nine glutamic acid residues. Lamins are intermediate filament proteins of the nuclear lamina with multiple functions that influence nuclear structure, cell cycle properties, and transcriptional regulation. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching showed that the variant lamin B1 exhibited reduced stability in the nuclear lamina. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the variant also affects neural tube closure: the frequency of spina bifida and anencephaly was reduced three-fold when wild-type lamin B1 was bred into the curly tail strain background. Cultured fibroblasts expressing variant lamin B1 show significantly increased nuclear dysmorphology and diminished proliferative capacity, as well as premature senescence, associated with reduced expression of cyclins and Smc2, and increased expression of p16. The cellular basis of spinal NTDs in curly tail embryos involves a proliferation defect localised to the hindgut epithelium, and S-phase progression was diminished in the hindgut of embryos expressing variant lamin B1. These observations indicate a mechanistic link between altered lamin B1 function, exacerbation of the Grhl3-mediated cell proliferation defect, and enhanced susceptibility to NTDs. We conclude that lamin B1 is a modifier gene of major effect for NTDs resulting from loss of Grhl3 function, a role that is likely mediated via the key function of lamin B1 in maintaining integrity of the nuclear envelope and ensuring normal cell cycle progression. PMID:23166514

  5. The Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Src1 Is Required for Stable Post-Mitotic Progression into G1 in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Osmani, Aysha H.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    How membranes and associated proteins of the nuclear envelope (NE) are assembled specifically and inclusively around segregated genomes during exit from mitosis is incompletely understood. Inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins play key roles by providing links between DNA and the NE. In this study we have investigated the highly conserved INM protein Src1 in Aspergillus nidulans and have uncovered a novel cell cycle response during post mitotic formation of G1 nuclei. Live cell imaging indicates Src1 could have roles during mitotic exit as it preferentially locates to the NE abscission points during nucleokinesis and to the NE surrounding forming daughter G1 nuclei. Deletion analysis further supported this idea revealing that although Src1 is not required for interphase progression or mitosis it is required for stable post-mitotic G1 nuclear formation. This conclusion is based upon the observation that in the absence of Src1 newly formed G1 nuclei are structurally unstable and immediately undergo architectural modifications typical of mitosis. These changes include NPC modifications that stop nuclear transport as well as disassembly of nucleoli. More intriguingly, the newly generated G1 nuclei then cycle between mitotic- and interphase-like states. The findings indicate that defects in post-mitotic G1 nuclear formation caused by lack of Src1 promote repeated failed attempts to generate stable G1 nuclei. To explain this unexpected phenotype we suggest a type of regulation that promotes repetition of defective cell cycle transitions rather than preventing progression past the defective cell cycle transition. We suggest the term “reboot regulation” to define this mode of cell cycle regulation. The findings are discussed in relationship to recent studies showing the Cdk1 master oscillator can entrain subservient oscillators that when uncoupled cause cell cycle transitions to be repeated. PMID:26147902

  6. SPACE-R Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System: Design and Technology Demonstration Program. Semiannual technical progress report for period ending March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This Semiannual Technical Progress Report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments for the Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System (TI-SNPS) Design and Technology Demonstration Program of the Prime Contractor, Space Power Incorporated (SPI), its subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories during the first half of the Government Fiscal Year (GFY) 1993. SPI`s subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories include: Babcock & Wilcox for the reactor core and externals; Space Systems/Loral for the spacecraft integration; Thermocore for the radiator heat pipes and the heat exchanger; INERTEK of CIS for the TFE, core elements and nuclear tests; Argonne National Laboratories for nuclear safety, physics and control verification; and Oak Ridge National laboratories for materials testing. Parametric trade studies are near completion. However, technical input from INERTEK has yet to be provided to determine some of the baseline design configurations. The INERTEK subcontract is expected to be initiated soon. The Point Design task has been initiated. The thermionic fuel element (TFE) is undergoing several design iterations. The reactor core vessel analysis and design has also been started.

  7. Reporting nuclear cardiology: a joint position paper by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, Elin; Hesse, Birger; Knuuti, Juhani; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J; Edenbrandt, Lars; Delgado, Victoria; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Galderisi, Maurizio; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Nieman, Koen; Rosenhek, Raphael; Agostini, Denis; Gimelli, Alessia; Lindner, Oliver; Slart, Riemert; Ubleis, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The report of an imaging procedure is a critical component of an examination, being the final and often the only communication from the interpreting physician to the referring or treating physician. Very limited evidence and few recommendations or guidelines on reporting imaging studies are available; therefore, an European position statement on how to report nuclear cardiology might be useful. The current paper combines the limited existing evidence with expert consensus, previously published recommendations as well as current clinical practices. For all the applications discussed in this paper (myocardial perfusion, viability, innervation, and function as acquired by single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography or hybrid imaging), headings cover laboratory and patient demographics, clinical indication, tracer administration and image acquisition, findings, and conclusion of the report. The statement also discusses recommended terminology in nuclear cardiology, image display, and preliminary reports. It is hoped that this statement may lead to more attention to create well-written and standardized nuclear cardiology reports and eventually lead to improved clinical outcome. PMID:25618478

  8. Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  9. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  10. Proteomic analysis indicates that overexpression and nuclear translocation of lactoylglutathione lyase (GLO1) is associated with tumor progression in murine fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Okada, Futoshi; Baron, Byron; Akada, Junko; Kitagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2014-08-01

    Lactoylglutathione lyase (GLO1), a ubiquitously expressed methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification enzyme, is implicated in the progression of various human malignant diseases. However, the role of GLO1 in the development or progression of murine fibrosarcoma is still unclear. We performed proteomic analysis to identify differences in the intracellular proteins of the regressive tumor cell line QR-32 and the inflammatory cell-promoting progressive tumor cell line QRsP-11 of murine fibrosarcoma by 2DE combined with MS. Seven upregulated proteins were identified in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 cells, namely, GLO1, annexin A1, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, transcription factor BTF3, myosin light polypeptide 6, low molecular weight phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B. Heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), a methylglyoxal-adducted protein, is concomitantly over-expressed in QRsP-11 as compared to QR-32 cells. We also found out that GLO1 is translocated into the nucleus to a higher extent in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 cells, which can be reversed by using a MEK inhibitor (U0126). Moreover, U0126 and GLO1 siRNA can inhibit cell proliferation and migration in QRsP-11 cells. Our data suggest that overexpression and nuclear translocation of GLO1 might be associated with tumor progression in murine fibrosarcoma. PMID:24532130

  11. The Differential Effects of Anti-Diabetic Thiazolidinedione on Prostate Cancer Progression Are Linked to the TR4 Nuclear Receptor Expression Status12

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Lin, Chang-Yi; Yang, Dong-Rong; Izumi, Kouji; Yan, Emily; Niu, Xiaodan; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Wang, Nancy; Li, Gonghui; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    The insulin sensitizers, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), have been used as anti-diabetic drugs since the discovery of their ability to alter insulin resistance through transactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, their side effects in hepatitis, cardiovascular diseases, and bladder cancer resulted in some selling restrictions in the USA and Europe. Here, we found that the potential impact of TZDs on the prostate cancer (PCa) progression might be linked to the TR4 nuclear receptor expression. Clinical surveys found that 9% of PCa patients had one allele TR4 deletion in their tumors. TZD increased cell growth and invasion in PCa cells when TR4 was knocked down. In contrast, TZD decreased PCa progression in PCa cells with wild type TR4. Mechanism dissection found that the Harvey Rat Sarcoma (HRAS) oncogene increased on TZD treatment of the TR4 knocked-down CWR22Rv1 and C4-2 cells, and interruption with HRAS inhibitor resulted in reversal of TZD-induced PCa progression. Together, these results suggest that TZD treatment may promote PCa progression depending on the TR4 expression status that may be clinically relevant since extra caution may be needed for those diabetic PCa patients receiving TZD treatment who have one allele TR4 deletion. PMID:25925376

  12. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March, 2005).

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Toyoda, Shin; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Simon, Steven L; Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Sasaki, Masao S; Rosenson, Rafail I; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2006-02-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima(9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site(SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry(RLD) method for Dolon' village(Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy(background dose has been subtracted).Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose approximately 440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance(ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy(above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained by RLD and calculations. A possible explanation of the differences between ESR and RLD/calculations doses is the following: for interpretation of ESR data the "shielding and behaviour" factors for investigated persons should be taken into account. The "upper level" of the combination of "shielding and behaviour" factors of dose reduction for inhabitants of Dolon' village of about 0.28 was obtained by comparing the individual ESR tooth enamel dose estimates with the calculated mean dose for this settlement. The biological dosimetry data related to the settlements near SNTS were presented at the Workshop. A higher incidence of unstable chromosome aberrations, micronucleus in lymphocytes, nuclear abnormalities of thyroid follicular cells, T-cell receptor mutations in peripheral blood were found for exposed areas (Dolon', Sarjal) in comparison with unexposed ones(Kokpekty). The significant greater frequency of stable translocations (results of analyses of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes by the FISH technique) was demonstrated for Dolon' village in comparison with Chekoman(unexposed village). The elevated level of stable translocations in Dolon' corresponds to a dose of about 180 mSv, which is close to the results of ESR dosimetry for this village. The importance of investigating specific morphological types of thyroid nodules for thyroid dosimetry studies was pointed out. In general the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop has demonstrated remarkable progress in developing an international level of common approaches for retrospective dose estimations around the SNTS and in understanding the tasks for the future joint work in this direction. In the framework of a special session the problems of developing a database and registry in order to support epidemiological studies around SNTS were discussed. The results of investigation of psychological consequences of nuclear tests, which are expressed in the form of verbal behaviour, were presented at this session as well. PMID:16571923

  14. Shell model progress on neutrinoless double beta decay: nuclear matrix element uncertainties, neutrino exchange mechanism in seesaw models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Menéndez

    2011-01-01

    We study the neutrinoless double beta decay in the context of the interacting shell model. Firstly, we estimate the uncertainties associated to the different approximations performed in the calculation of the nuclear matrix elements, which are necessary to obtain information about the neutrino masses. We then study the dependence of the nuclear matrix elements on the mass of the exchanged

  15. Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Rasmussen, John C.

    2010-01-01

    We compare and contrast the development of optical molecular imaging techniques with nuclear medicine with a didactic emphasis for initiating readers into the field of molecular imaging. The nuclear imaging techniques of gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography are first briefly reviewed. The molecular optical imaging techniques of bioluminescence and fluorescence using gene reporter/probes and gene reporters are described prior to introducing the governing factors of autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. The use of dual-labeled, near-infrared excitable and radio-labeled agents are described with comparative measurements between planar fluorescence and nuclear molecular imaging. The concept of time-independent and -dependent measurements is described with emphasis on integrating time-dependent measurements made in the frequency domain for 3-D tomography. Finally, we comment on the challenges and progress for translating near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging agents for personalized medicine. PMID:19021311

  16. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    SCHOOL OF MEDICINE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE #12;School of Medicine 127 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE School of Medicine http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medschool/ The Doctor of Medicine degree requires the satisfactory OF MEDICINE When you apply to the School of Medicine, you must submit the results from the Medical College

  17. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Twentieth annual progress report, September 1, 1983-August 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1984-08-31

    Research under this continuing DOE contract centers on radioactive decay studies of nuclei far from stability produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). These investigations encompass three aspects of nuclear structure research: nuclear spectroscopic measurements involving detailed ..gamma gamma..t, ..gamma..e/sup -/t, and X..gamma..t three-parameter coincidence spectrometry; on-line laser hyperfine structure (hfs) and isotope shift spectroscopy for determining quadrupole moments, nuclear spins, and mean nuclear charge radii; and computer calculations of nuclear model predictions for comparison with the experimental level schemes. The focus of this research program is on odd-mass nuclei in which the odd nucleon probes the core, making possible observation of such phenomena as the onset of abrupt shape changes, the occurrence of shape coexistence, and shell-model intruder states. These phenomena are critical tests of concepts fundamental to an understanding of low-energy nuclear structure, such as nuclear deformations, shell models, collective models, and particle-core couplings.

  18. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Twenty-first annual progress report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1985-08-31

    The nuclear chemistry group in the School of Chemistry continues investigating the radioactive decay of nuclei far from stability under this DOE contract. These nuclei are produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). Radioactive decay represents a unique method for the population of low-energy, low-spin structures in nuclei, and new phenomena which do not occur near stability can be explored. Our research encompasses three aspects of nuclear structure: (1) nuclear spectroscopy with detailed elelt, e elt, Xelt, etc., multiparameter coincidence spectrometry; (2) on-line laser hyperfine structure (hfs) and isotope shift measurements for the determination of nuclear quadrupole moments, nuclear spins, and changes in mean nuclear charge radii as a means of revealing systematic shape changes in nuclei; and (3) theoretical calculations of predictions of nuclear models for comparison with experimental level structures in nuclei studied at UNISOR. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Depth of interaction in scintillation crystal by light collimation for the design of {open_quotes}universal nuclear medicine imager{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bosnjakovic, V.B. [Univ. Clinical Center and Vinca Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    The detector head for a dual headed {open_quotes}Universal Nuclear Medicine Imager{close_quotes} (UNMI) is designed. It is based on position sensitive (PS) area detectors fitted with a thick (0.75 inches) NaI(Tl) crystal. In order to make it {open_quotes}universal{close_quotes}, a means for determining the depth of interaction (DOI) in the crystal is devised. Crystal thickness is divided into two layers, each 3/8 inches thick, by insertion of a thin (0.03 inches) quartz (glass) layer; these layers added to the external lower and upper surfaces of crystal, too, form two internal {open_quotes}light collimator{close_quotes} (LC) channels by their reflectively (specular) polished couplings. These DOI channels, according to the light refraction / reflection law direct the light reflected from quartz layers (as exceeding a critical angle) through NaI(Tl) layers to the external parts of LC system; these are connected via quartz optical cables to the DOI determining PM tubes. DOI electronics including a coincidence circuit, connecting signals from conventional PS and DOI PM tubes arrays, identifies a DOI layer and shifts an, x, y, address to the particular DOI memory stack. The UNMI design is likely to retain spatial resolution of PS detectors - gamma cameras for low energy single photon emitters and to improve spatial resolution in PET studies done by PS detectors fitted with thick NaI crystals, enabling a proper correction for parallax error.

  20. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Tichauer, Kenneth M; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W; Liu, Jonathan T C

    2015-07-21

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche. PMID:26134619

  1. Development of tailored ceramics for geologic storage of nuclear wastes. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-15

    Tailored ceramics are crystalline assemblages made by high-temperature and pressure consolidation of a nuclear waste with selected additives. The multitask program includes waste form development and characterizations, and process and equipment development. (DLC)

  2. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, Tetsuo; Serot, B.D.

    1991-12-03

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992), work focused on six main areas: (1) Relativistic Theories of Nuclear Structure and Saturation, (2) Relativistic Descriptions of Proton-Nucleus and Electron-Nucleus Scattering, (3) Nonrelativistic Theory of Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions, (4) Relativistic Many-Body Theory at Finite Temperature and Density, (5) Neutrino Interactions in Dense Matter, (6) Quark Models of Nuclear and Quark Matter.

  3. Nuclear chemistry research and spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Twenty-second annual progress report, February 1, 1986-January 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, R.W.

    1986-08-31

    The nuclear chemistry group in the School of Chemistry continues investigations of radioactive decay of nuclei far from stability under this DOE contract. These nuclei are produced with heavy ions from the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and studied on-line with the University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge (UNISOR). Radioactive decay represents a unique method for the population of low-energy, low-spin structures in nuclei, and new phenomena which do not occur near stability can be explored. Our research interest encompasses three aspects of nuclear structure: (1) nuclear spectroscopy with detailed ..gamma gamma..t, e/sup -/..gamma..t, X..gamma..t, ..cap alpha gamma..t multiparameter coincidence spectrometry; (2) measurements of single ..gamma..-ray angular distributions and magnetic moments of mass separated low-temperature oriented nuclei, using the helium dilution refrigerator ''ORIENT'' being installed on-line to the isotope separator; and (3) on-line laser hyperfine structure (hfs) and isotope shift measurements for determination of nuclear quadrupole moments, nuclear spins, and changes in mean nuclear charge radii as a means of revealing systematic shape changes in nuclei. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Nuclear

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  5. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamb, Frank W [UNWIN CORPORATION

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ Nondestructive Assay of Radioactive Materials. Some of the information that will be presented includes observations made during site visits, how information useful to all facilities using nondestructive assay to determine holdup material quantities will be disseminated, and preliminary results of a gap analysis performed on current in situ nondestructive assay holdup measurements.

  6. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, June-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Deutsch, W.J.; Gee, G.W.; Hartley, J.N.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.; Nelson, R.W.; Opitz, B.E.; Peterson, S.R.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report documents progress for the following major research projects: stabilization, engineering, and monitoring alternatives assessment for improving regulation of uranium recovery operations and waste management; attenuation of radon emission from uranium tailings; assessment of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings; and methods of minimizing ground-water contaminants from in-situ leach uranium mining.

  7. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2007--2008 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Takao Shimizu Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The Faculty of Medicine

  8. Experiments in progress: The geography of science in the Atomic Energy Commission's peaceful uses of nuclear explosives program, 1956-1973

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Scott Lawrence

    From 1957 to 1973, the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) actively pursued the "peaceful uses of nuclear explosives" through Project Plowshare. Nuclear excavation, the detonation of shallowly buried hydrogen bombs for massive earthmoving projects like harbors and canals, was considered the most promising of the Plowshare applications, and for a time, the most economically and technically "feasible." With a basis in and contributing to theory in critical human geography and science studies, the purpose of this dissertation is to examine the collisions of science, ideology, and politics which kept Plowshare designs alive--but only as "experiments in progress." That is, this research asks how the experimental program persisted in places like the national weapons laboratory in Livermore, California, and how its ideas were tested at the nuclear test site in Nevada, yet Plowshare was kept out of those spaces beyond AEC control. Primary research focuses on AEC-related archival materials collected from the Department of Energy Coordination and Information Center, Las Vegas, Nevada, and from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as well as the public discourse through which support for and opposition to Plowshare projects was voiced. Through critical analysis of Plowshare's grandiose "geographical engineering" schemes, I thus examine the complex relations between the social construction of science and technology, on one hand, and the social production of space, on the other.

  9. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  10. Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems; NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    ERROR, [value too long for type character varying(50); Hejzlar, Pavel; Yarsky, Peter; Driscoll, Mike; Wachs, Dan; Weaver, Kevan; Czerwinski, Ken; Pope, Mike; Parry, James; Marshall, Theron D.; Davis, Cliff B.; Crawford, Dustin; Hartmann, Thomas; Saha, Pradip

    2005-01-31

    This project is organized under four major tasks (each of which has two or more subtasks) with contributions among the three collaborating organizations (MIT, INEEL and ANL-West): Task A: Core Physics and Fuel Cycle; Task B: Core Thermal Hydraulics; Task C: Plant Design; Task D: Fuel Design The lead PI, Michael J. Driscoll, has consolidated and summarized the technical progress submissions provided by the contributing investigators from all sites, under the above principal task headings.

  11. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  12. Vulnerable Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  13. Cough Medicines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-08-16

    A recent report in the journal Pediatrics questioned the effectiveness of over-the-counter children's cough medicines. In this Science Update, you'll hear more about the study, and why some medicines may have escaped this sort of rigorous testing.

  14. Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF NIOBIUM-BASE ALLOYS FOR USE IN A NUCLEAR SUPERHEATER. Quarterly Progress Report, October-December 1962

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. DeMastry; A. A. Bauer; F. A. Rough

    1963-01-01

    The development and evaluation of niobium-base alloys resistant to 1000 ; to 1300 deg F steam for structural or cladding applications in a nuclear ; superheater are discussed. Thirty-nine experimental alloys containing aluminum, ; iron, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium were exposed to 1000 deg F ; 1500-psi steam for 56 days. The addition of titanium and vanadium appeared to

  16. Annual progress report to Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratories on prediction of phase separation of simulated nuclear waste glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Sung; M. Tomozawa

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to predict the immiscibility boundaries of multi-component borosilicate glasses, on which many nuclear waste glass compositions are based. The method used is similar to the prediction method of immiscibility boundaries of multi-component silicate glass systems successfully made earlier and is based upon the superposition of immiscibility boundaries of simple systems using an appropriate parameter.

  17. Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center. Twenty-first progress report, January 1December 31, 1984

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Krohn; J. E. Petesch; R. D. Rogers; P. Sandel; G. S. Stasny

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Science Center is operated by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station as a service to the Texas A and M University System and the State of Texas. The facility is available to the University, other educational institutions, governmental agencies, and private organizations and individuals. Reactor utilization decreased from 1983 as indicated by a slightly smaller number of samples irradiated

  18. PM1 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PROGRAM 3RD QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR SEPTEMBER 1 TO NOVEMBER 30, 1959

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Smith; J. S. Sieg

    1960-01-01

    A description is presented of work on the design, development, ; fabrication, installation, and initial testing and operation of a prepackaged air-; transportable pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant, the PM-1. The ; specified output is 1 Mw(e) and 7 million Btu\\/hr of heat. The plant is to be ; operational by March 1962. The principal efforts during the third

  19. Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

    2013-05-01

    Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants, including persons providing student support, in the program. PMID:23561457

  20. SU-C-9A-02: Structured Noise Index as An Automated Quality Control for Nuclear Medicine: A Two Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J; Christianson, O; Samei, E [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flood-field uniformity evaluation is an essential element in the assessment of nuclear medicine (NM) gamma cameras. It serves as the central element of the quality control (QC) program, acquired and analyzed on a daily basis prior to clinical imaging. Uniformity images are traditionally analyzed using pixel value-based metrics which often fail to capture subtle structure and patterns caused by changes in gamma camera performance requiring additional visual inspection which is subjective and time demanding. The goal of this project was to develop and implement a robust QC metrology for NM that is effective in identifying non-uniformity issues, reporting issues in a timely manner for efficient correction prior to clinical involvement, all incorporated into an automated effortless workflow, and to characterize the program over a two year period. Methods: A new quantitative uniformity analysis metric was developed based on 2D noise power spectrum metrology and confirmed based on expert observer visual analysis. The metric, termed Structured Noise Index (SNI) was then integrated into an automated program to analyze, archive, and report on daily NM QC uniformity images. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated over a period of 2 years. Results: The SNI metric successfully identified visually apparent non-uniformities overlooked by the pixel valuebased analysis methods. Implementation of the program has resulted in nonuniformity identification in about 12% of daily flood images. In addition, due to the vigilance of staff response, the percentage of days exceeding trigger value shows a decline over time. Conclusion: The SNI provides a robust quantification of the NM performance of gamma camera uniformity. It operates seamlessly across a fleet of multiple camera models. The automated process provides effective workflow within the NM spectra between physicist, technologist, and clinical engineer. The reliability of this process has made it the preferred platform for NM uniformity analysis.

  1. Confronting the problem of Cu-67 radiation measurement in the presence of contaminating Cu-64 isotope, using simple nuclear medicine radioisotope dose calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Salako, Q.; DeNardo, G.L.; Shen, S. [Molecular Cancer Institute, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    In order to assess the contribution of contaminating Cu-64 to dosimetry after administration of Cu-67 labeled monoclonal antibody, differential measurement of Cu-67 and Cu-64 radiations from their mixture has been Investigated, using both multichannel analyzer (MCA) and dose calibrator techniques. Dose calibrator readings were collected on an aliquot from seven Cu-67 chloride (in 0.1 M HCI) supplies at varying time points after end of bombardment, at dial 052 (calibrator manufacturer`s recommendation for Cu-67 measurement). Least squares fitting analysis of these measurements and the supplier`s Cu-67/Cu-64 calibration values, were used to determine calibrator correction factors. Radiopharmaceutical doses were measured at injection times, and later analyzed for the individual Cu-67, Cu-64 contributions using the correction factors. Both {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and counting analysis were conducted on an aliquot of the Cu-67/Cu-64 mixture, using the MCA for 15 minutes, at times of dose calibrator measurements, using the 184 and 1346 keV photopeaks for Cu-67 and Cu-64 quantitation, respectively. The {gamma}-spectrum did not indicate the presence of radionuclidic impurities other than Cu-64, in the Cu-67 sample at the time of delivery. The results of analysis by dose calibrator gave correction factors of 1.04{plus_minus}0.04, 0.62{plus_minus}0.23 for Cu-67 and Cu-64 respectively, at dial 052. The estimates of Cu-67 and Cu-64 contributions from both methods were comparable with the supplier`s calibrated values, within experimental limits. The dose calibrator method is direct, rapid, reliable and useful to Nuclear Medicine clinics that do not have an MCA.

  2. Progressive Accumulation of Activated ERK2 within Highly Stable ORF45-Containing Nuclear Complexes Promotes Lytic Gammaherpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Evonne N.; Anderson, Melissa S.; Loftus, Matthew S.; Kedes, Dean H.

    2014-01-01

    De novo infection with the gammaherpesvirus Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a close homolog of the human oncogenic pathogen, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), led to persistent activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and increasing nuclear accumulation of pERK2 complexed with the RRV protein, ORF45 (R45) and cellular RSK. We have previously shown that both lytic gene expression and virion production are dependent on the activation of ERK [1]. Using confocal microscopy, sequential pull-down assays and FRET analyses, we have demonstrated that pERK2-R45-RSK2 complexes were restricted to the nucleus but that the activated ERK retained its ability to phosphorylate nuclear substrates throughout infection. Furthermore, even with pharmacologic inhibition of MEK beginning at 48 h p.i., pERK2 but not pERK1, remained elevated for at least 10 h, showing first order decay and a half-life of nearly 3 hours. Transfection of rhesus fibroblasts with R45 alone also led to the accumulation of nuclear pERK2 and addition of exogenous RSK augmented this effect. However, knock down of RSK during bona fide RRV infection had little to no effect on pERK2 accumulation or virion production. The cytoplasmic pools of pERK showed no co-localization with either RSK or R45 but activation of pERK downstream targets in this compartment was evident throughout infection. Together, these observations suggest a model in which R45 interacts with pERK2 to promote its nuclear accumulation, thereby promoting lytic viral gene expression while also preserving persistent and robust activation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic ERK targets. PMID:24722398

  3. Herbal or Natural Medicines as Modulators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Related Nuclear Receptors for Therapy of Metabolic Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Hsun-Wei Huang; Bhavani Prasad Kota; Valentina Razmovski; Basil D. Roufogalis

    2005-01-01

    The use of herbal or natural medicines for the treatment of various disorders has a long and extensive history. Many of these herbal medicines are finding their way onto the world market as alternatives to prescribed drugs currently available to treat various disorders\\/ailments. In particular, hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary vascular disease, which can culminate in

  4. COLLEGE OF MEDICINE & VETERINARY MEDICINE MEDICAL ELECTIVES

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    COLLEGE OF MEDICINE & VETERINARY MEDICINE MEDICAL ELECTIVES 1. INITIAL APPLICATION All applications for elective attachments within for General Medicine, General Surgery, Paediatrics and Emergency Medicine should give 12­24 months

  5. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-18

    This report presents the results of work performed from October 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described. This includes: screening creep results, weight gain and post-exposure mechanical properties for materials thermally exposed at 750/sup 0/ and 850/sup 0/C (1382/sup 0/ and 1562/sup 0/F). In addition, the status of the data management system is described.

  6. Animal models in today's translational medicine world.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Abhishek; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Translational medicine drives progress of research along the continuum from basic biomedical research findings into clinical practice. Animal models play a central role in the above continuum. The recent explosion in molecular biology and generation of human physiological system in animals has led to an increasing use of in vivo animal models in today's translational medicine. PMID:23829107

  7. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1982. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Gee, G.W.; Hartley, J.N.; Mishima, J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Silker, W.B.; Serne, R.J.; Nelson, R.W.; Wogman, N.A.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1982-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has in progress several discrete investigations for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concerned with process wastes during the active life of uranium mills and during an extended period following their shutdown. The overall objective of this research is to provide NRC and their licensees with technical guidance on several issues related to management of wastes from uranium mills and in situ recovery operations. Principal issues addressed in these studies are designs and performance of radon-suppression covers, the incentives, and constraints in using rock covers (riprap) as well as their design for armoring tailings pile covers, shorter term stabilization options for controlling windblown particles, leachate movement in soil, tailings dewatering, disposal deliberately below the water table, neutralization incentives, contamination control and restoration in in situ uranium recovery and effluent and environmental measurements, instrumentation and protocols. It is expected that many results of these studies will be used in developing regulatory guides and better evaluation of environmental impacts during and following the active life of a uranium recovery facility. Progress on each of several separately identified areas is reported. The information reported is preliminary and conclusions should be regarded as tentative. About 20 topical reports are scheduled during the year to provide detailed description of phases of the work and conclusions therefrom.

  8. Medicines management.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-04-15

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the fifth essential skills cluster - medicines management. Nursing students should work to attain the knowledge and skills required for effective medicines management throughout their pre-registration education. The roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse in the area of medicines management are discussed in this the final article of the essential skills cluster series. PMID:25872850

  9. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2005--2006 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Nobutaka Hirokawa Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The University of Tokyo Graduate

  10. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE School of Medicine 127

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    SCHOOL OF MEDICINE #12;School of Medicine 127 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE School of Medicine http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medschool/ The Doctor of Medicine degree requires the satisfactory comple- tion of a four-year course of study composed Center and in nearby affiliated hospitals. PREPARING FOR THE STUDY OF MEDICINE When you apply

  11. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1980-March 31, 1981. [Bonner Nuclear Labs. , Rice Univ. , 4/1/80-3/31/81

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, G.C.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    During the contract year several results of prior LAMPF experiments were completed and prepared for publication. Progress was made in the data analysis of other experiments. Three LAMPF variable energy experiments were carried out with the polarized target PPT-VI: sigma/sub total, transverse/ (p(polarized)p(polarized)) and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) elastic scattering at 14 energies between 300 and 800 MeV, and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) ..-->.. d..pi../sup +/ at a few energies. Proposals were made for future experiments: two for continued nucleon-nucleon studies and one for a search for neutrino oscillations.

  12. Extracellular Matrix, Nuclear and Chromatin Structure and GeneExpression in Normal Tissues and Malignant Tumors: A Work inProgress

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Virginia A.; Xu, Ren; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-08-01

    Almost three decades ago, we presented a model where theextracellular matrix (ECM) was postulated to influence gene expressionand tissue-specificity through the action of ECM receptors and thecytoskeleton. This hypothesis implied that ECM molecules could signal tothe nucleus and that the unit of function in higher organisms was not thecell alone, but the cell plus its microenvironment. We now know that ECMinvokes changes in tissue and organ architecture and that tissue, cell,nuclear, and chromatin structure are changed profoundly as a result ofand during malignant progression. Whereas some evidence has beengenerated for a link between ECM-induced alterations in tissuearchitecture and changes in both nuclear and chromatin organization, themanner by which these changes actively induce or repress gene expressionin normal and malignant cells is a topic in need of further attention.Here, we will discuss some key findings that may provide insights intomechanisms through which ECM could influence gene transcription and howtumor cells acquire the ability to overcome these levels ofcontrol.

  13. Medicinal Herbman

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-07-21

    Broadcast Transcript: Japanese gardens are admired for their understated elegance, their meditation/movement fusion, their precise placement of essential elements such as water and stone. In this last way at least, Medicinal Herbman is typically...

  14. Personalized Medicines

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... our genes, our heredity, influences our responses to drugs. When different people take medications, they respond differently. ... the reasons people process medicines differently. Rochelle Long: Drugs act differently in people for a variety of ...

  15. Integrative Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Mosquera

    Presently the expansive growth of Integrative medicine has been fueled in part by a public discontent with conventional medicine\\u000a and increasing consumer demand for medical advice on the subjects of lifestyle, nutrition, exercise, and natural therapies.\\u000a Patients want more emphasis on health, healing and prevention of chronic illness rather than just diagnosis and treatment.\\u000a Numerous peer-reviewed, published studies in the

  16. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg. PMID:22741210

  17. [Special considerations for the regulation of biological medicinal products in individualised medicine. More than stratified medicine].

    PubMed

    Müller-Berghaus, J; Volkers, P; Scherer, J; Cichutek, K

    2013-11-01

    The term individualised medicine, also called personalised medicine, is commonly used as an equivalent to stratified medicine. However, this is erroneous since quite often it is forgotten that especially biological medicinal products have other aspects of individualization that go beyond mere stratification. The principles of stratified medicine have been applied for biological medicinal products for many years. A historical example is diphtheria antitoxin made from horse serum, while current examples are transfusion of red blood cells and the administration of factor VIII in haemophilia A. The stratifying aspects of these medicinal products are given by the following considerations: diphtheria antitoxin is only administered after a diagnosis of diphtheria and not in other forms of tonsillitis, red blood cells should only be transfused once blood group compatibility as been established and factor VIII replacement is only administered in haemophilia A as opposed to other acquired or hereditary disease of the coagulation system. The peculiarities of biological medicinal products, in particular the inherent variability of the drug, are especially important for autologous cellular medicinal products. In addition to the expected variability of the biological source material there is interindividual variability of patients as cell donors, which make definition of specifications and determination of criteria for pharmaceutical quality and potency tests difficult. Therapy with modified autologous cells, a common and important application of advanced therapy medicinal products, is exemplary for the special considerations that must be made when evaluating pharmaceutical quality, mode of action and toxicological properties of the biological medicine. The clinical investigation of advanced therapy medicinal products with the intent of demonstrating safety and efficacy is particularly challenging because of the complexity of therapy, which often involves invasive interventions. The development of biomarkers accelerates the process towards stratified or individualised therapies. Increased requirements for companion diagnostics are a possible consequence. Progress in analytical processes and in biotechnology make a higher degree of individualization likely, possibly to the degree that medicinal products will be individually manufactured for each patient. Current principles of medicinal product testing and market authorization may be applicable only with limitations, because the individual medicinal products are not uniform and are not repeatedly manufactured. The assessment of the process, performed on several different medicinal products manufactured by the same process could potentially serve as a basis for the assessment. For the evaluation of risk for the patient in clinical trials new concepts must be considered, which can be facilitated by interaction of regulatory authorities and developers. PMID:24170083

  18. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  19. A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: Comparison with other Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece) and Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Methods: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 32}P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 111}In, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. Results: GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 90}Y, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re generated in water, bone, and lung. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

  20. The Examined Life Writing and the Art of Medicine

    E-print Network

    The Examined Life Writing and the Art of Medicine Program April 24 25, 2007 University of Iowa Roy Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine 2 In his memoir-in-progress, The Resurrectionist Immersion Experience (PIE) Oral presentation At the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, medical

  1. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kausik Biswas; Ishita Chattopadhyay; Ranajit K. Banerjee; Uday Bandyopadhyay

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the neem com- pounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal appli - cations of neem.

  2. Osteopathic Medicine: About Osteopathic Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Easy: Video Series for OGME Directors Single Accreditation System Webinar Series Professional Development Continuing Medical Education DO Jobs Online AOA Board Certification Practice Management Quality and Research International Osteopathic Medicine test3 test4 DO ...

  3. Geology and geohydrology of the east Texas Basin. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1979)

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitler, C.W.; Agagu, O.K.; Basciano, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The program to investigate the suitability of salt domes in the east Texas Basin for long-term nuclear waste repositories addresses the stability of specific domes for potential repositories and evaluates generically the geologic and hydrogeologic stability of all the domes in the region. Analysis during the second year was highlighted by a historical characterization of East Texas Basin infilling, the development of a model to explain the growth history of the domes, the continued studies of the Quaternary in East Texas, and a better understanding of the near-dome and regional hydrology of the basin. Each advancement represents a part of the larger integrated program addressing the critical problems of geologic and hydrologic stabilities of salt domes in the East Texas Basin.

  4. Progress in development of silica aerogel for particle- and nuclear-physics experiments at J-PARC

    E-print Network

    Tabata, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the advancement in hydrophobic silica aerogel development for use as Cherenkov radiators and muonium production targets. These devices are scheduled for use in several particle- and nuclear-physics experiments that are planned in the near future at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Our conventional method to produce aerogel tiles with an intermediate index of refraction of approximately 1.05 is extended so that we can now produce aerogel tiles with lower indices of refraction (i.e., 1.03-1.04) and higher indices of refraction (i.e., 1.075-1.08); each with excellent transparency. A new production method, called pin drying, was optimized to produce larger area aerogels consistently with an ultrahigh index of refraction (>1.10). In addition, for use as a thermal-muonium-emitting material at room temperature, dedicated low-density aerogels were fabricated using the conventional method.

  5. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state. Progress report, August 15, 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1992-09-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the past year, the PI has been on leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and has worked on this research project full-time. A large fraction of the effort of the PI and graduate students has gone into preparing for experiments using the Time Projection Chamber at LBL`s Bevalac accelerator; in March 1992, this device successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and the first physics analysis is now under way. The PI has carried out simulations that help to define the physics performance and engineering specifications of the recently-approved STAR detector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and has identified a new capability of this device with the potential for being an important quark-gluon plasma signature. A Postdoctoral Fellow, jointly supported by this grant and Kent State University, has been recruited to augment these efforts. Since May 1991, 11 journal papers have been published or submitted for publication; 2 conference proceedings and 9 reports or abstracts have also been published during the past year. One paper in Phys. Rev. Left., one in Phys. Rev. C, and one conference proceedings are based on the thesis project of one of the PI`s Ph.D. students who is expected to graduate later this year. Partly in response to the impending closure of the Bevalac, the PI`s group has recently joined the NA49 experiment at CERN.

  6. Progress Toward Understanding Human Performance in Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Thomadsen; Barrett Caldwell; Judith Stitt

    1998-12-31

    This study consists of three parts that, together, complement each other to further our understanding of the process and significance of failures in High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB)--where a single, very high intensity radioactive source attached to a computer-driven cable passes through hollow needles inserted into cancers. These are analysis of misadministrations, development of process trees, and assessment of treatment accuracy. Through evaluating the misadministration events and the models used in the analysis, this study hopes to both further the understanding of human performance in medical settings and hone the tools for such analyses.

  7. Bioenergetic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss a specific therapeutic strategy we call ‘bioenergetic medicine’. Bioenergetic medicine refers to the manipulation of bioenergetic fluxes to positively affect health. Bioenergetic medicine approaches rely heavily on the law of mass action, and impact systems that monitor and respond to the manipulated flux. Since classically defined energy metabolism pathways intersect and intertwine, targeting one flux also tends to change other fluxes, which complicates treatment design. Such indirect effects, fortunately, are to some extent predictable, and from a therapeutic perspective may also be desirable. Bioenergetic medicine-based interventions already exist for some diseases, and because bioenergetic medicine interventions are presently feasible, new approaches to treat certain conditions, including some neurodegenerative conditions and cancers, are beginning to transition from the laboratory to the clinic. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24004341

  8. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  9. Nuclear moments and nuclear structure. Annual progress report, August 1, 1979-July 31, 1980. [Johns Hopkins Univ. , Baltimore, 8/1/79-7/31/80

    SciTech Connect

    Madansky, L.; Lee, Y.K.

    1980-01-01

    Activities of the period August 1, 1979 through July 31, 1980 are reviewed. The results from the relativistic heavy-ion central collisions from the Bevatron are updated, and now represent the most recent evaluation of an energy scan in a search for phase transitions in nuclear matter. The effective cross section for the pion production and additional information, incuding the multiplicity distributions and ..pi..-..pi.. correlations, are obtained. Preparation is underway for an approved experiment using heavier projectiles at the Bevalac, searching for the unusual production of high energy gamma-rays and lepton pairs as signatures for neutral mesons. The importance of such events as an evidence of the onset of phase transition is discussed. A brief summary is given for an alpha-alpha collision experiment at the CERN ISR in the search for unusual behavior in secondary hadron production. The measurement of the pionic x-rays using a bent crystal spectrometer is now analyzed to yield the new value for pionic mass, and upper limit for the muonic neutrino mass. Preparation is underway for the approved experiment at the TRIUMF for the study of the neutron and gamma ray correlation in ..pi.. capture. 18 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  10. Inhibition of tumor progression locus 2 protein kinase suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis through down-regulation of the c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 genes.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazuya; Taki, Hirofumi; Shinoda, Kouichiro; Hounoki, Hiroyuki; Miyahara, Tatsuro; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Hisashi; Sugiyama, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Whether tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2)/cancer Osaka thyroid (Cot) protein kinase participates in osteoclastogenesis from receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated monocytes/macrophages remains elusive. To clarify this, a selective and potent inhibitor of Tpl2, 1,7-naphtyridine-3-carbonitrile, was used. When RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with RANKL, Tpl2 was found to be activated. Under this condition, the Tpl2 inhibitor suppressed osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. This was due to the blockade of the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38, concomitant with the down-regulation of the c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)c1 genes. A long period of RANKL-stimulated cell exposure to the inhibitor suppressed osteoclastogenesis as assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and pit formation on dentin slices. Almost identical results were obtained with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL-stimulated bone marrow cells. These findings suggest the possibility that Tpl2 plays a pivotal role in osteoclastogenesis and thus that its inhibitor is useful for investigating the differentiation of monocytes/macrophages to osteoclasts after treatment with RANKL or other stimuli. PMID:20045951

  11. Research and development related to the Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfsberg, K.; Erdal, B.R.; Crowe, B.M. (comps.)

    1981-02-01

    Sorption of americium and plutonium was measured in a controlled, oxygen-free atmosphere and in air on a series of tuff samples. Sorption of plutonium was greater in the controlled atmosphere than in air. Sorption of both elements is higher on zeolitized tuff than devitrified tuff. Sorption of strontium, cesium, barium, cerium, and europium is being measured on tuff samples of mineralogies not previously studied, and samples from the USW-G1 drill hole have been selected for study. Work on the dependence of the sorption ratio on element concentration (barium and europium) and on solution-to-solid ratios is reported. Progress on controlling Eh and making Eh measurements is presented. Some tuff-water systems exhibit reduced or negative Eh values under oxygen-free conditions. Development of a method for encasing cores for flow studies is discussed. Field geologic mapping is being conducted in the Lunar Crater volcanic field of central Nevada. Mineralogy-petrology studies are being conducted on core samples from the USW-G1 exploration hole in Yucca Mountain. Zeolite heating tests of core samples from UE25a-1 show density, volume, and weight changes that correlate with alteration of mineral assemblages. Hydrogen-deuterium ratios in water evolved from a clinoptilolite specimen from Yucca Mountain have been measured. Jacket seals leaked during the first attempt at high temperature exposure in the hydrothermal soak tests. Revised seals using temperature-cured epoxy are being developed. Data from strength tests for various types of tuff conducted at ambient pressure and 400{sup 0}C for 16 h are presented. A densely welded specimen showed a 40% reduction in strength.

  12. school of medicine school of medicine

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    school of medicine #12;school of medicine Dr. Richard Hoppmann, Dean "The School of Medicine has, compassionate health care throughout the state and world." #12;the promise of medicine: to students, to society "Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also love of humanity." - Hippocrates It is a place where

  13. PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part I PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part I LSU HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE Dayton W. Daberkow II, M.D. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Section of Comprehensive Medicine #12;ACGME General CompetenciesACGME General Competencies 1. Patient Care - compassionate

  14. PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part II PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part II LSU HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE Dayton W. Daberkow II, M.D. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Section of Comprehensive Medicine #12;Challenges to the Elements of Professionalism Challenges to the Elements

  15. Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Annual progress report, May 1982-May 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is currently conducting research for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on uranium recovery process wastes for both active and inactive operations. NRC-sponsored uranium recovery research at PNL is focused on NRC regulatory responsibilities for uranium-recovery operations: license active milling and in situ extraction operations; concur on the acceptability of DOE remedial-action plans for inactive sites; and license DOE to maintain inactive sites following remedial actions. PNL's program consists of four coordinated projects comprised of a program management task and nine research tasks that address the critical technical and safety issues for uranium recovery. Specifically, the projects endeavor to find and evaluate methods to: prevent erosion of tailings piles and prevent radon release from tailings piles; evaluate the effectiveness of interim stabilization techniques to prevent wind erosion and transport of dry tailings from active piles; estimate the dewatering and consolidation behavior of slurried tailings to promote early cover placement; design a cover-protection system to prevent erosion of the cover by expected environmental stresses; reduce seepage into ground water and prevent ground-water degradation; control solution movement and reaction with ground water in in-situ extraction operations; evaluate natural and induced restoration of ground water in in-situ extraction operations; and monitor releases to the environment from uranium recovery facilities.

  16. Analytical methods for fissionable material determinations in the nuclear fuel cycle. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Waterbury, G.R. (comp.)

    1980-03-01

    Work continues on the development of dissolution techniques for difficult-to-dissolve nuclear materials, the development of methods and automated instruments for plutonium, uranium, and thorium determinations, and the preparation of plutonium materials for the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program and distribution by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) as standard reference materials (SRMs). We are measuring the loner plutonium isotope half-lives, evaluating the isotope correlation techniques and the chemistry involved in the mass-spectrometric ion-bead techniques, and analyzing the SALE uranium materials. Completed subtasks include evaluations of various Teflon materials to recommend those acceptable for the dissolution apparatus developed at LASL, investigations of laser-enhanced dissolution of refractory materials, determinations of diverse ion effects on the microgram-sensitive method for determining uranium, fabrication of the first automated controlled-potential coulometric analyzer for determining plutonium, preparation of a /sup 244/Pu material for distribution by NBS as a SRM, and determination of the half-life of /sup 239/Pu. Work has been started on a spectrophotometric method for determining microgram quantities of plutonium, a microcomplexometric titration method for determining uranium, the use of new reagents for separations of plutonium, the preparation and packaging of a new lot of high-purity plutonium metal for distribution by NBS as a plutonium chemical SRM, and determination of half-lives of other plutonium isotopes.

  17. 76 FR 77561 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; (Levy County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; (Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...application of Progress Energy Florida, Inc...United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission...of Florida and Nuclear Information and...2\\ Progress Energy Florida,...

  18. 77 FR 51832 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Levy County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...See Progress Energy Florida, Inc...the Levy County Nuclear Power Plant Units...Florida, Progress Energy Florida, Inc...the Staff of the Nuclear Regulatory...

  19. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K{sub 2}O: 56 SiO{sub 2} was prepared from reagent grade K{sub 2}CO3 and SiO{sub 2} powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10{sup 8} rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 \\305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  20. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)