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1

Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

NONE

2001-04-01

2

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

3

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-12-31

4

Nuclear Medicine  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine utilizes radioisotopes to diagnose and in some cases treat disease. Modern instruments can image their accumulation in an organ and provide quantitative data when indicated. The strength of these procedures is in the unique physiologic information they provide, rather than the presentation of precise anatomic detail. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21267203

Belzberg, Allan S.

1986-01-01

5

Nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1986-10-17

6

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

7

Technologists for Nuclear Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

Barnett, Huey D.

1974-01-01

8

What Is Nuclear Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... Normal Enzyme Level Smoker Reduced Enzyme Level 5 Nuclear medicine can detect the radiation coming from inside a patient’s body. All of ... from outside the body using machines that send radiation through the body. As a result, nuclear medicine determines the cause of a medical problem ...

9

Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

1989-01-01

10

Nuclear medicine annual  

SciTech Connect

This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

Freeman, L.M.

1988-01-01

11

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

SciTech Connect

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

1990-01-01

12

Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book documents the dramatic progress in the design, evaluation, and clinical use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Included are recent studies of the chemicals and physico-chemical properties of technetium, reports on the production of new technetium molecules suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals, and analyses of the biological properties of these molecules. Coverage is given to nuclear medicine clinical investigations employing technetium,

M. Nicolini; G. Bandoli; M. Uderico

1986-01-01

13

Trends in nuclear medicine in developing countries.  

PubMed

This article describes trends in nuclear medicine in the developing world as noted by nuclear medicine professionals at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The trends identified are based on data gathered from several sources, including information gathered through a database maintained by the IAEA; evaluation of country program frameworks of various IAEA Member States; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; official proceedings and meeting reports of the IAEA; participation in numerous national, regional, and international conferences; discussions with the leadership of major professional societies; and relevant literature. The information presented in this article relied on both objective and subjective observations. The aims of this article were to reflect on recent developments in the specialty of nuclear medicine and to envision the directions in which it is progressing. These issues are examined in terms of dimensions of practice, growth, and educational and training needs in the field of nuclear medicine. This article will enable readers to gain perspective on the status of nuclear medicine practice, with a specific focus on the developing world, and to examine needs and trends arising from the observations. PMID:22144549

Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas; Zaknun, John; Bastos, Fernando Mut; Pynda, Yaroslav

2011-12-01

14

Progress Report on Geriatric Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies by the Institute of Medicine, part of the National Academy of Sciences, and the Rand Corporation have suggested that most physicians in the United States are inadequately trained to cope with the care of the elderly, in spite of the fact that over 11% of the population is over age 65. At present, nearly 30% of all health care…

Dieffenbach, Ann

15

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This annual progress report describes new methods of incorporation of radioiodine into physiologically active compounds (amphetamines), and the use of organoboranes to labeled radiopharmaceuticals with Oxygen- 15, Nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18. Preclinical studies are also reported on evaluation of butyothiophenones as agents acting at dopaminergic or serotonic synapses.

Kabalka, G.W.

1992-09-01

16

Nuclear Medicine CT Angiography  

E-print Network

rotation is based at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center and gives the cardiology fellow experience. Understand the indications for exercise treadmill testing and specific nuclear cardiology tests, safe use patient and learn the importance of physical and pharmacologic stress in nuclear cardiology 3. Interpret

Ford, James

17

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

1983-03-11

18

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

Westerman, B.R.

1986-07-01

19

Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot  

SciTech Connect

Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

1987-04-01

20

Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

21

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine provides an examination of the latest developments in the field of nuclear medicine. This volume reviews advances made in imaging techniques and presents a detailed overview of many new imaging procedures and their clinical applications, e.g.,the oncological applications of immunoscintigraphy. This book also elucidates the various diagnostic capabilities of nuclear imaging in a wide range of disciplines, including cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, oncology, and hematology.

Schmidt, H.A.E.; Csernay, L

1988-01-01

22

Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

Wolf, A.P.

1988-01-01

23

Progress in Nuclear Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transformational and Applied Research Directorate (TAR) was established within the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to conduct, support, coordinate, and encourage near- and long-term Research and Development (R&D) programs for break-through technologies designed to dramatically improve capabilities to detect and report illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials. These programs cover a wide range of technologies and high-level technical challenges associated with the DNDO mission and the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA). They encompass a range of technology levels, ranging from feasibility and proof of concept studies to technology demonstrations of systems. Even though the focus is on high level challenges, the direction of some topic areas can change from year to year. This presentation will provide an overview of the TAR mission and discuss the current status of transformational R&D efforts in three major program areas: Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATD), Exploratory Research (ER) and Academic Research Initiative (ARI). )

Vojtech, Richard

2010-02-01

24

Progress on RNAi-based molecular medicines  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising strategy to suppress the expression of disease-relevant genes and induce post-transcriptional gene silencing. Their simplicity and stability endow RNAi with great advantages in molecular medicine. Several RNAi-based drugs are in various stages of clinical investigation. This review summarizes the ongoing research endeavors on RNAi in molecular medicine, delivery systems for RNAi-based drugs, and a compendium of RNAi drugs in different stages of clinical development. Of special interest are RNAi-based drug target discovery and validation, delivery systems for RNAi-based drugs, such as nanoparticles, rabies virus protein-based vehicles, and bacteriophages for RNA packaging. PMID:22915846

Chen, Jing; Xie, Jianping

2012-01-01

25

Nuclear Medicine Reporting System for Microcomputers  

PubMed Central

Description: In this paper we present a completely user-defined reporting system for nuclear medicine. It is inexpensive, highly flexible and can be adapted for general radiology. Equipment: Apple II with 2 disc drives and printer. Language: Microsoft basic with microcode subroutines Availability: Pending

Ochs, Daniel; Haberman, Seth

1982-01-01

26

Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1996-01-16

27

Sports medicine: a century of progress.  

PubMed

According to the international Olympic Committee, it is the responsibility of the sports medicine profession to care for the health and welfare of Olympic athletes, treat and prevent injuries, conduct medical examinations, evaluate performance capacity, provide nutritional advice, prescribe and supervise training programs, and to monitor substance use. Implicit in these functions is to assist Olympic athletes in achieving the objectives of the Olympic Motto (Citius, Altius, Fortius), which is to become faster, higher, and stronger. During the past Olympiads, athletic performance has increased, as indicated by times for the men's marathon (-28%) or by the distance covered in the women's javelin throw (+80%). However, the fulfillment of these responsibilities was a slow and protracted process, as demonstrated by the facts that medical examinations were not required until 1920, that 28 years elapsed before an official team physician was appointed, and that women had to wait until 1984 before sanction was given to compete in the marathon race. Doping was not defined until 1964, and monitoring of substance abuse did not materialize until after 1972. Although individuals have prepared for athletic competition since the ancient Olympics, the scientific foundations for various training prescriptions were not firmly established until the 1960s and 1970s. It was speculated that performance records will continue to improve in the next century because more scientific sports medicine information would be available and because such information would be better disseminated to athletes. PMID:9164256

Tipton, C M

1997-05-01

28

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

29

Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.  

PubMed

In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular postgraduate training for physicians working in NM. Educational programs are comprehensive, covering both diagnostics and current forms of radioisotope therapy. They are aimed not only at physicians specialized/specializing in NM, but also at other medical professionals employed in radionuclide departments as well as physicians of other specialties. PMID:25091218

Teresi?ska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bo?ena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miros?aw

2014-10-01

30

Nuclear Medicine and Diseases of the Chest  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine encompasses the diagnostic use of unsealed sources of radiation in patient care, and is largely a diagnostic specialty. A variety of methods exist to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with chest disease. Already the application of pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy makes a major contribution to the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in the face of the often unhelpful chest radiograph, or if pulmonary angiography is contraindicated or unavailable. The rationale, applications and limitations of appropriate radionuclide methodologies such as pulmonary perfusion and ventilation scintigraphy, angiography, bone and tumor scintigraphy and radioimmunoassay are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21308051

Jackson, F. I.; Lentle, B. C.

1976-01-01

31

Employment in nuclear medicine during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear medicine technologist can work throughout a pregnancy with high confidence that her occupational radiation exposure will not add any significant risk to her changes of having a normal pregnancy and child. All that is required is for the employer to provide an ALARA work place and for the technologist to observe carefully all radiation safety guidelines and to maintain her occupational exposure ALARA. Current guidance is that the total uterine dose during gestation be less than 0.5 rem (5 mSv). The vast majority of nuclear medicine technologists can achieve this dose level easily, with no modifications of duties or work practices. Technologists working with generators and radiopharmaceutical kits may wish to temporarily transfer to other duties within the clinic, not necessarily to reduce routine exposures but to minimize the changes of an accident having high-dose or high-contamination potential. All of the available human data show that there is small additional risk to the fetus or neonate due to occupational radiation exposure compared to naturally occurring risks so long as the dose is within recommended guidelines.

Benedetto, A.R.

1986-12-01

32

IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

2013-05-01

33

Theoretical nuclear structure. Progress report for 1997  

SciTech Connect

This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the interface between nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The authors report substantial progress in all these areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 25 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 25 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

1997-12-31

34

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-01-01

35

Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

2014-08-01

36

Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

1983-12-01

37

Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

Loudos, George K. [Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

2007-11-26

38

Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

Loudos, George K.

2007-11-01

39

Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney  

E-print Network

The 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney Department of Electrical Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Study of Nuclear Medicine Supply Chains is a combination! Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo

Nagurney, Anna

40

Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

41

Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

Atkins, H.L.

1984-01-01

42

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2012-10-01

43

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2011-10-01

44

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2013-10-01

45

Nuclear transfer: progress and quandaries.  

PubMed

Cloning mammals by nuclear transfer is a powerful technique that is quickly advancing the development of genetically defined animal models. However, the overall efficiency of nuclear transfer is still very low and several hurdles remain before the power of this technique will be fully harnessed. Among these hurdles include an incomplete understanding of biologic processes that control epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following nuclear transfer. Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is considered the major cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos and is frequently associated with the disregulation of specific genes. At present, little is known about the developmental mechanism of reconstructed embryos. Therefore, screening strategies to design nuclear transfer protocols that will mimic the epigenetic remodeling occurring in normal embryos and identifying molecular parameters that can assess the developmental potential of pre-implantation embryos are becoming increasingly important. A crucial need at present is to understand the molecular events required for efficient reprogramming of donor genomes after nuclear transfer. This knowledge will help to identify the molecular basis of developmental defects seen in cloned embryos and provide methods for circumventing such problems associated with cloning the future application of this technology. PMID:14613540

Li, Xuemei; Li, Ziyi; Jouneau, Alice; Zhou, Qi; Renard, Jean-Paul

2003-11-01

46

Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research).

Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1994-02-18

47

Evolution of nuclear medicine training: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Since the official inception of nuclear medicine in 1971, the practice of nuclear medicine and its training programs have undergone major revisions. Numerous procedures that were common in the 1970s are no longer available, and many new radiotracers and procedures have since been developed. Training programs have evolved from an unstructured experience before 1971 to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 2 clinical years, to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year and, most recently, to 3 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year. The most substantial content changes in the new 2007 training program requirements are an increased emphasis on 6 clinical competencies, an increased emphasis on Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements, and a new CT training requirement that was spawned by the advent of PET/CT. In addition to the new training program requirements, residents will need to become familiar with the concept of maintenance of certification, which will continue to be an important component of their professional careers. Nuclear medicine is gradually evolving into molecular imaging. Hence, it is inevitable that in the near future, training programs will be required to place greater emphasis on molecular imaging in both clinical and research applications. The incorporation of molecular imaging will represent a significant paradigm shift for the specialty but will ensure that nuclear medicine will be a major part of medical practice for the foreseeable future. PMID:17268024

Graham, Michael M; Metter, Darlene F

2007-02-01

48

Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R&D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1993-02-08

49

Nuclear medicine imaging in the evaluation of endocrine hypertension  

PubMed Central

Endocrine hypertension forms a small (< 5%) but curable subset of patients with hypertension. Common endocrine causes of hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. Nuclear medicine imaging plays an important role in evaluation of patients with endocrine hypertension. It has established role in patients of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, Cushing's syndrome, aldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. We present a brief overview of role of nuclear medicine imaging in endocrine hypertension. Development of newer radiotracers might further broaden the role of nuclear medicine in these patients. PMID:23087853

Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

50

The development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana; half a century of nuclear medicine in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background Nuclear medicine began to be developed in the USA after 1938 when radionuclides were introduced into medicine and in Europe after radionuclides began to be produced at the Harwell reactor (England, 1947). Slovenia began its first investigations in the 1950s. This article describes the development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana. The first nuclear medicine interventions were performed in Slovenia at the Internal Clinic in Ljubljana in the period 1954–1959. In 1954, Dr Jože Satler started using radioactive iodine for thyroid investigations. In the same year, Dr Bojan Varl, who is considered the pioneer of nuclear medicine in Slovenia, began systematically introducing nuclear medicine. The first radioisotope laboratories were established in January 1960 at the Institute of Oncology and at the Internal Clinic. Under the direction of Dr. Varl, the laboratory at the Internal Clinic developed gradually and in 1973 became the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine with departments for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics and for the treatment of inpatients and outpatients at the thyroid department. The Clinic for Nuclear Medicine became a teaching unit of the Medical Faculty and developed its own post-graduate programme – the first student enrolled in 1972. In the 1960s, radioisotope laboratories opened in the general hospitals of Slovenj Gradec and Celje, and in the 1970s also in Maribor, Izola and Šempeter pri Novi Gorici. Conclusions Nowadays, nuclear medicine units are modernly equipped and the staff is trained in morphological, functional and laboratory diagnostics in clinical medicine. They also work on the treatment of cancer, increased thyroid function and other diseases. PMID:22933984

Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic; Gaberscek, Simona; Slavec, Ksenija

2012-01-01

51

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-01-01

52

Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation Development: DOE Program, Study Group Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE Medical Application Program in general and the supporting nuclear medicine instrumentation development efforts in particular have been a major factor in producing the presently productive role of radionuclide applications to health care and biomed...

1979-01-01

53

Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

2014-01-01

54

Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

Not Available

1992-05-01

55

What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... imagegently.org What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... patients, parents and caregivers with some information about nuclear medicine and radiation exposure. It is hoped that the information provided ...

56

Graduates of 2004 Heidi Ambrose ---Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

Bauthier --- Exercise Science Stephanie Boone --- Speech Pathology Sharina Broughton --- Computer Science Medicine Dustin Earnhardt --- Chemistry and Biochemistry Rebecca Echipare --- Biology Assen Gueorguiev Laroia --- Biology Monica Lea --- Communication Rebecca Long --- Exercise Science Erin Mehalic

57

Nuclear morphometry, nucleomics and prostate cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) results from a multistep process. This process includes initiation, which occurs through various aging events and multiple insults (such as chronic infection, inflammation and genetic instability through reactive oxygen species causing DNA double-strand breaks), followed by a multistep process of progression. These steps include several genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as alterations to the chromatin structure, which occur in response to the carcinogenic stress-related events that sustain proliferative signaling. Events such as evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis are readily observed. In addition, in conjunction with these critical drivers of carcinogenesis, other factors related to the etiopathogenesis of PCa, involving energy metabolism and evasion of the immune surveillance system, appear to be involved. In addition, when cancer spread and metastasis occur, the ‘tumor microenvironment' in the bone of PCa patients may provide a way to sustain dormancy or senescence and eventually establish a ‘seed and soil' site where PCa proliferation and growth may occur over time. When PCa is initiated and progression ensues, significant alterations in nuclear size, shape and heterochromatin (DNA transcription) organization are found, and key nuclear transcriptional and structural proteins, as well as multiple nuclear bodies can lead to precancerous and malignant changes. These series of cellular and tissue-related malignancy-associated events can be quantified to assess disease progression and management. PMID:22504875

Veltri, Robert W; Christudass, Christhunesa S; Isharwal, Sumit

2012-01-01

58

Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

Olivier, Pierre

2004-07-01

59

The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered. PMID:11696487

McGlone, B; Balan, K

2001-01-01

60

Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.  

PubMed

Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

Grammaticos, Philip C

2004-01-01

61

Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.  

PubMed

In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline. PMID:24978339

Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

2014-08-01

62

Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The largest man-made contributor to the ionising radiation dose to the Australian population is from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. The last estimation of this dose was made in 2004 (1.3 mSv), this paper describes a recent re-evaluation of this dose to reflect the changes in imaging trends and technology. The estimation was calculated by summing the dose from five modalities, computed tomography (CT), general radiography/fluoroscopy, interventional procedures, mammography and nuclear medicine. Estimates were made using Australian frequency data and dose data from a range of Australian and international sources of average effective dose values. The ionising radiation dose to the Australian population in 2010 from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine is estimated to be 1.7 mSv (1.11 mSv CT, 0.30 mSv general radiography/fluoroscopy, 0.17 mSv interventional procedures, 0.03 mSv mammography and 0.10 mSv nuclear medicine). This exceeds the estimate of 1.5 mSv per person from natural background and cosmic radiation. PMID:23604741

Hayton, A; Wallace, A; Marks, P; Edmonds, K; Tingey, D; Johnston, P

2013-10-01

63

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

and Physiology II for Allied Health (3) or BSCI 20020 Biological Structure and Function (5) 5-6 Fulfills KentRoadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMRT] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1

Sheridan, Scott

64

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

and Physiology II for Allied Health (3) or BSCI 20020 Biological Structure and Function (5) 5-6 Fulfills KentRoadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMRT] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1

Sheridan, Scott

65

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMFR] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 to enroll in RIS courses RIS 44000 Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences 2 C Semester Eight: [14

Sheridan, Scott

66

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMFR] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1 RIS 44000 Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences 2 C Semester Eight: [15 Credit Hours] RIS

Sheridan, Scott

67

Replenishment prioritization of highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine  

E-print Network

Serving customers in a nuclear medicine supply chain requires frequent and responsive replenishments. Nuclear medicine is a special category of perishable goods that is subject to rapid, but predictable radioactive decay. ...

Yea, Young-bai Michael

2007-01-01

68

Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

Alberto, Roger

2012-06-01

69

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, April 1984-September 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; and supporting studies. 33 figures, 13 tables.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1984-12-01

70

Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1983-March 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; and supporting studies. 58 figures, 22 tables.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.

1984-06-01

71

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1985-06-01

72

Theoretical nuclear physics. 1998 progress report  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of progress made on the following topics are given: (1) nonresonant contributions to inelastic N{r_arrow}{Delta}(1232) parity violation; (2) neutron distribution effects in elastic nuclear parity violation; (3) Wilson RG for scalar-plus-fermion field theories at finite density; (4) Perturbation theory for spin ladders using angular momentum coupled bases; (5) mean-field theory for spin ladders using angular momentum density; (6) finite temperature renormalization group effective potentials for the linear Sigma model; (7) negative-parity baryon resonances from lattice QCD; (8) the N{r_arrow}{Delta} electromagnetic transition amplitudes from QCD sum rules; and (9) higher nucleon resonances in exclusive reactions ({gamma}, {pi}N) on nuclei.

NONE

1998-09-01

73

Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Medicine Patient Service Management in DEVS  

E-print Network

Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Medicine Patient Service Management in DEVS Eduardo P. In this paper, we present a discrete event system specification (DEVS) simulation model for nuclear medicine knowledge) DEVS simulation model for nuclear medicine patient service management. The model represents

Ntaimo, Lewis

74

[Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].  

PubMed

In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction. PMID:21657088

Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

2011-03-01

75

MEDICAL PROGRESS: ISOTOPES IN CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

This is Part II of an article in two parts. Part I appeared in the July issue of California Medicine, and with it were the list of references for the entire article and the Table 1 referred to in the following text. PMID:18731514

Dougherty, Ellsworth C.; Lawrence, John H.

1948-01-01

76

Hand exposure to ionising radiation of nuclear medicine workers.  

PubMed

The specific nature of work in nuclear medicine departments involves the use of isotopes and handling procedures, which contribute to the considerable value of an equivalent dose received, in particular, by the fingertips. Standard nuclear medicine department uses ring dosemeters placed usually at the base of the middle finger. The main aim of the study was to find out whether a relationship exists between the doses recorded by thermoluminescent detectors placed at various locations on the radiopharmacists' hands and the doses recorded by the ring detectors, and to determine the character of that relationship. The correction factor represents a correction value to be used to calculate the doses which might be received by locations on the hand from the dose recorded by the ring dosemeter. The dose recorded by the ring dosemeter is on the average five times lower than that received by the fingertips of thumb, index and middle fingers. PMID:18310609

Wrzesie?, M; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J

2008-01-01

77

PROGRESS IN TEACHING PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN MEDICAL SCHOOLS  

E-print Network

During recent years the teaching of preventive medicine has been discussed so widely in North America and in Great Britain that it now is possible to state certain general principles which are rather widely accepted in the English-speaking countries. On both sides of the Atlantic committees after considering the matter seriously have made their recommendations. In the fall of 1946 a five-day meeting attended by approximately a hundred persons was held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, for teachers of preventive medicine in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this meeting was to provide opportunity for full discussion of the objectives, course content, and methods of teaching the subject in the light of present-day thinking. During the day papers were presented and discussed and in the evenings committees met. Their reports, with slight modifications, were adopted by the Conference for inclusion in the Proceedings.1 There are many points in common among the ideas of all the different groups which have given mature consideration to the question. In October of 1944, Dr. Harry S. Mustard, chairman of a committee of the Association of American Medical Colleges,6 reported after a five-year study, making recommendations concerning the teaching of preventive medicine to medical undergraduates. Several reports have

Hugh R. Leavell

78

Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS {bar p} experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance.

Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

1992-07-15

79

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

2012-10-01

80

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

81

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

2011-10-01

82

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Final performance report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-12-31

83

American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

NONE

1991-12-31

84

An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,?) or (?,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity/gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented.

D'Auria, John M.; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E.; Ruth, Thomas J.; Schmor, Paul

2013-03-01

85

Compensation in Academic Medicine: Progress Toward Gender Equity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Studies have documented substantial salary disparities between women and men in academic medicine. While various strategies\\u000a have been proposed to increase equity, to our knowledge, no interventions have been evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  This paper aims to assess the effect of an identity-conscious intervention on salary equity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  This study shows comparison of adjusted annual salaries for women and men before and after an

Anne L. Wright; Kenneth Ryan; Patricia St. Germain; Leslie Schwindt; Rebecca Sager; Kathryn L. Reed

2007-01-01

86

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

87

Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging.  

PubMed

The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 - 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled "Photons Across Medicine", organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Vanbrocklin, Henry

2013-01-01

88

Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging  

PubMed Central

The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

2013-01-01

89

Progress in nuclear energy. Volume 14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics considered include engineering aspects of probabilistic risk assessment, stochastic aspects of two-dimensional vibration diagnostics, spent nuclear fuel storage pool thermal hydraulic analysis, Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport analysis on vector computers, and elements of nuclear fueling theory. This book describes methods for estimating costs of closing nuclear power plants and the distribution of these costs among consumers, stockholders,

M. M. R. Williams; N. J. Mc Cormick

1985-01-01

90

Progress towards a nuclear fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article starts by outlining the physical conditions under which nuclear fusion reactions are most likely to be sustained, pointing out the sharp difference between the plasma state of matter necessary for nuclear fusion reactions and the thermodynamically more relaxed conditions sufficient for nuclear fission reactions. The confinement of hot dense plasmas by magnetic fields is the principal scientific problem

J. B. Adams

1969-01-01

91

DOE NHI: Progress in Nuclear Connection Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is seeking to develop the technologies to enable the large-scale production of hydrogen from water using a nuclear powered heat source. A necessary component in any nuclear powered hydrogen production process is the energy transfer connection between the nuclear plant and the hydrogen plant. This article provides an overview of the research and development work that has been accomplished on the high-temperature heat transfer connection between the nuclear power plant and the hydrogen production plant by the NHI. A description of future work is also provided.

Steven R. Sherman

2007-06-01

92

A Network Model and Computational Approach Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

A Network Model and Computational Approach for the 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer and Anna Nagurney A Network Model and Computational Approach #12;Medical Nuclear Supply Chains Medical Model and Computational Approach #12;Nuclear Medicine To create an image for medical diagnostic purposes

Nagurney, Anna

93

Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation  

PubMed Central

The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

2013-01-01

94

Nuclear medicine technologists and unauthorized self-injections.  

PubMed

An Office of Investigation (OI) investigation by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) determined that, on three separate occasions over the past 10 years, technologists in one licensed nuclear medicine program were injected with radiopharmaceuticals without Authorized User knowledge or approval. The most recent instance, the one that precipitated the investigation, was discovered by the licensee and self-reported to the NRC; the other two instances were discovered during the OI investigation and came as a complete surprise to the licensee. In a mediated Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) involving the licensee, a professional, independent mediator and representatives of the NRC, an agreement was worked out whereby the licensee would admit to the violations and work with the NRC to inform other licensees that this is not an acceptable practice and that there are additional precautions that licensees can and should take to assure that such violations do not happen on their watch. PMID:16404185

Miller, K L; King, S H; Eggli, D F; Thompson, L K

2006-02-01

95

Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

Mark Smith

2007-01-11

96

Personalized medicine and pharmacogenetic biomarkers: progress in molecular oncology testing.  

PubMed

In the field of oncology, clinical molecular diagnostics and biomarker discoveries are constantly advancing as the intricate molecular mechanisms that transform a normal cell into an aberrant state in concert with the dysregulation of alternative complementary pathways are increasingly understood. Progress in biomarker technology, coupled with the companion clinical diagnostic laboratory tests, continue to advance this field, where individualized and customized treatment appropriate for each individual patient define the standard of care. Here, we discuss the current commonly used predictive pharmacogenetic biomarkers in clinical oncology molecular testing: BRAF V600E for vemurafenib in melanoma; EML4-ALK for crizotinib and EGFR for erlotinib and gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer; KRAS against the use of cetuximab and panitumumab in colorectal cancer; ERBB2 (HER2/neu) for trastuzumab in breast cancer; BCR-ABL for tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia; and PML/RAR? for all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia. PMID:22845480

Ong, Frank S; Das, Kingshuk; Wang, Jay; Vakil, Hana; Kuo, Jane Z; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B; Lim, Stephen W; Goodarzi, Mark O; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Rotter, Jerome I; Grody, Wayne W

2012-07-01

97

Modern problems of technical progress and methodological support in medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid development of modern computer technologies gave a powerful incentive to technical progress as a whole and to medical equipment in particular. A range of medical diagnostic computer-based systems has recently appeared. There are various fields these techniques are used in: roentgenology, ultrasound diagnostic, neurophysiology, angiology etc. The advantages of the use of computer interface are undoubted: it gives possibility to enhance the functioning of the system itself, speed up all technological processes, carry out a reliable and easy archivation and exchange the information obtained. But the most important advantage of using PC in diagnostic system lies in an unlimited freedom of use mathematical algorithms and flexible mathematical models for processing information obtained. On the other hand, the absence of clinical techniques for interpretation of the data obtained is an obstacle to the use of software at its full potential. As a result, a close connection of a scientific development of hardware with high-informative techniques for clinical interpretation of the instrumental data obtained has become topical as never before. We see an optimal solution in introducing the interpretation patterns in conjunction with purely numerical computations into mathematical simulations.

Novyc'kyy, Victor V.; Lushchyk, Ulyana B.

2001-06-01

98

Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine  

E-print Network

The transport of highly perishable goods, in particular nuclear medicine, is subject to stringent regulations. Carefully designed transport selection criteria considering available alternatives, product attributes, decay ...

Yang, Xiaowen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

99

[Research progress of Chinese medicine treatment of HAART-related toxic and side effect].  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have made great progress in rapid inhibition of HIV, reduce the morbidity and mortality, etc; while it exists many limits, such as viruses rebound after discontinuation of drug, side effects, drug-resistant. With the emergence of these problems, researchers explored therapies by traditional Chinese medicine, so as to achieve target of lower antiviral drug side effect, raising antiviral treatment adherence. Through a large number of clinical tests, we achieved encouraging effects in treating HAART related side effects by Chinese medicine. PMID:24228553

Liu, Ying; Dong, Ji-Peng; Zou, Wen; Gao, Guo-Jian; Wang, Jian

2013-08-01

100

Diagnosing atherosclerosis makes Nuclear Medicine a tissue imaging modality.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis can be identified by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) and is associated with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Inflammation and classification appear jointly in the formation of atherogenesis. Arterial calcification has been also determined by CT, by (18)F-FDG PET and also in the last few years by (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF) PET. Beheshti et al, have introduced a new concept for the detection of early molecular and cellular calcification in the atherosclerotic plaques of the heart and aorta, based upon the concept of global disease burden, which had been employed earlier using (18)F-FDG PET. Fluorine-18-NaF uptake in the heart and aorta increased significantly with advancing age. In a screening study involving 1,825 individuals, CT coronary artery calcification (CAC) was found to be common in healthy middle-aged individuals with a low Heart Score and, on the contrary, high-risk subjects very frequently did not have CAC. It is obvious that atherosclerosis appears early in life and also that the actual limits of atherosclerosis related to serious cardiovascular events should be determined by more research, since atherosclerosis is not the only cause of these episodes. It is possible that (18)F-NaF PET/CT may provide information about ongoing active molecular calcification in the plaque before calcification as a cause of cardiovascular episodes is detectable. Global molecular cardiovascular calcification, before becomes macroscopically visible, before it can be identified by CT, may be assessed by nuclear medicine procedures. (18)-NaF PET/CT is the first non-invasive imaging method to identify and localize high risk coronary plaque, a new frontier in nuclear cardiology. The above nuclear medicine diagnostic technique is a major and historical new application, for the diagnosis and the study of cardiovascular diseases, by which a certain tissue per se can be identified. PMID:24701591

Grammaticos, Philip C

2014-01-01

101

Trends and different educational pathways for training physicians in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The introduction of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT), single photon-emission CT/CT, and software packages for multimodality imaging has accelerated the need for nuclear medicine physicians to obtain more training in cross-sectional imaging, especially in CT. In recent years, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the American Board of Radiology, and the American Board of Nuclear Medicine have promulgated new rules and regulations. In addition, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, the American College of Radiology, and the American College of Cardiology Foundation have crafted new guidelines and training requirements. All these changes have consequences for the education of physicians in nuclear medicine. Self-referral and concerns about radiation exposure from nuclear medicine examinations and CT are also affecting the education of physicians practicing nuclear medicine. The authors examine the impact of these developments on training and certification in nuclear medicine and suggest another pathway to train some nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:19000877

Harolds, Jay A; Smith, Gary T; Baker, Stephen R

2008-12-01

102

Research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging countries. The currently used drugs including donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine are effective in managing the symptoms. However, they are hardly capable of preventing, halting, or reversing the disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, much experience has accumulated and is summarized in treatment of diseases that correspond to the concept of AD. In recent years, exploration of natural active ingredients from medicinal herbs for treatment of AD has attracted substantial attention. Some flavonoids have been revealed to have a variety of biological actions such as scavenging free radicals, inhibiting neuron apoptosis, and nurturing neuronal cells that constitute the basis for treatment of AD. In this article, we review recent research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine against AD and their underlying mechanisms.

Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Liu, Yang

2013-01-01

103

Research progress on natural products from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging societies. Although research on this disease is advancing rapidly, thus far few very effective drugs are available for AD patients. The currently widely used medicines such as donepezil and galantamine transiently improve the symptoms of patients with mild to moderate AD. They are hardly capable of preventing, halting or reversing the progression of this disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, many herbs have been discovered and employed to treat dementia diseases in clinics in China. In recent decades, a number of agents were isolated from these herbs and their efficacies against AD were tested. Some flavonoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, triterpenoid saponins, and polysaccharides were demonstrated to have potential efficacies against AD via targeting multiple pathological changes of this disease. In this article, we reviewed research progress on the efficacies and underlying mechanisms of these agents. PMID:23715502

Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Li, Xuan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tang, Wei

2013-04-01

104

Evaluation of routine telephone transmission of nuclear medicine studies  

SciTech Connect

Rapid and reliable transmission of nuclear medicine studies using conventional telephone lines and commercially available modems and computer systems has been accomplished through use of software developed within the authors' hospital. Original digital images of all-night and weekend studies, acquired on any of the acquisition computers from different manufacturers, are now routinely sent for remote reading at the physician's home. Data, software, and letters are routinely exchanged using modems and standard telephone lines with a sister institution in Haifa, Israel. The software has been designed to achieve no loss data compression and minimal turnaround time loss. Thus, an average lung perfusion image or gallbladder study requires about 1-3 minutes of transmission time. Full analysis and display software is available on the remote computer.

Orlin, J.A.; Tal, I.; Parker, J.A.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Kolodny, G.M. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-01-01

105

Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

2014-02-01

106

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Packer, Samuel (Great Neck, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Sound Beach, NY)

1996-12-10

107

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

1996-12-10

108

Dose and dose rate measurements for radiation exposure scenarios in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation exposure for the staff in nuclear medicine departments is inevitable. After application of radiopharmaceuticals the patient himself becomes a radioactive source. Consequently, we need detailed information on the extent of radiation exposure for each single person dealing with radioactive sources and patients in nuclear medicine.In this work, dose rates of a variety of radioactive sources – radiopharmaceuticals and patients

Ferdinand Sudbrock; Klara Uhrhan; Arndt Rimpler; Harald Schicha

2011-01-01

109

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-01-01

110

Progress in nuclear energy. Volume 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book consists of 15 articles written by specialists in the field of atomic energy. A significant portion of this volume is devoted to a special section reporting on the impact of the accident at Three Mile Island on the nuclear power industry. Changes in reactor instrumentation, operator training, and emergency preparedness are discussed in detail. A paper reporting on

M. M. R. Williams; N. J. McCormick

1983-01-01

111

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

112

Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The preparation and animal testing of a new radio-iodinated p-iodophenylamine-linked dihydropyridine system is described. The model agent, 1-methyl-3-(N-(..beta..-(4-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)ethyl)carbamoyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine, was prepared by coupling 4-(/sup 125/I)iodoaniline with the methiodide salt succinimidyl ester of nicotinic acid followed by dithionite reduction to the lipid soluble product. The dihydropyridine agent showed good brain uptake in rats (5 min, 1.14% injected dose/gm; 60 min, 1.12% dose/gm) and good brain to blood ratios (5 min 3.9:1, 60 min, 3.5:1). In contrast the quaternary ammonium compound, prior to reduction, showed only moderate brain uptake (5 min, 0.63; 60 min, 0.46) and low brain to blood ratios (5 min, 0.05; 60 min, 0.06). Also described is further investigation of the effects of fasting on the relative myocardial retention of straight-chain iodovinyl fatty acids. 18-(/sup 125/)Iodo-17-octadecenoic acid showed good retention in unfasted rats. Studies have now been reported for fasted rats where this agent showed rapid myocardial wash-out. In fasted rats, approx. 70% wash-out at 30 min, and in unfasted rats, approx. 15% wash-out at 30 min was observed. During this period several shipments were made to Medical Cooperative investigators including three samples of /sup 191/Os-potassium osmate (Children's Hospital, Boston, and the University of Liege, Belgium) and 15-(p-(/sup 131/I)iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (University of Massachusetts and Brookhaven National Laboratory).

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

1984-12-01

113

Nuclear Medicine Progress Report for Quarter Ending September 30, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the preparation of a new radioiodinated nucleoside as a potential tumor-localizing agent is described. The p-iodophenyl analogue of 5-amino-1- beta -D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide (AlCA) was prepared by a 5-step reaction sequence. T...

F. F. Knapp, J. F. Allred, K. R. Ambrose, A. P. Callahan, D. E. Rice

1988-01-01

114

Nuclear medicine technology. Progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The successful detection of experimentally produced myocardial infarctions in rats and dogs using /sup 123m/Te-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA) is described. Preferential localization of radioactivity in normal myocardial tissue of rats that had experimentally produced infarctions was also demonstrated by tissue distribution studies following injection of 9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA. The effects of chain length on the myocardial uptake of /sup 75/Se-labeled long-chain fatty acids was also studied further. Selenium-75-labeled 13-selenaheneicosonic acid (H/sub 3/C-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 7/-/sup 75/Se-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/-COOH, 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA) shows the highest heart uptake in rats of the agents studied. These results indicate that myocardial imaging may be possible with 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA and also suggest that potential positron emission tomography of the myocardium with the /sup 73/Se-labeled agent should be explored. The results of continuing studies with /sup 11/C and /sup 195m/Pt-labeled agents are also described. A variety of /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids were prepared and tested as pancreas and tumor localizing agents in a Medical Cooperative Program with the Oak Ridge Associated Universities. The microscale synthesis of /sup 195m/Pt-labeled cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-(isopropylamine)platinum(IV) (/sup 195m/Pt-CHIP) was developed further and preliminary tissue distribution studies with this important second-generation antitumor drug were completed in rats. Platinum-195m-labeled cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (/sup 195m/Pt-cis-DDP) was supplied for testing to a number of Medical Cooperative Programs. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Further investigation of this arsenic-induced cytotoxicity has demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship and a difference in the permanence of the growth inhibitory effect using different doses.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1980-10-01

115

Physics of Nuclear Medicine Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201  

E-print Network

Physics of Nuclear Medicine Yao Wang Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L are from the textbook. #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 2 Lecture Outline of decay · Radiotracers #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 3 What is Nuclear

Suel, Torsten

116

Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics. Progress report for 1996  

SciTech Connect

This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma ray spectroscopy, computational and nuclear astrophysics, and the interface between these disciplines. The authors report substantial progress in all those areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 43 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 15 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

Guidry, M.W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

1996-12-31

117

IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

2014-03-01

118

Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The most significant development this year has been the realization that EO transition strength is a fundamental manifestation of nuclear mean-square charge radius differences. Thus, EO transitions provide a fundamental signature for shape coexistence in nuclei. In this sense, EO transitions are second only to E2 transitions for signaling (quadrupole) shapes in nuclei and do so when shape differences occur. A major effort has been devoted to the review of EO transitions in nuclei. Experiments have been carried out or are scheduled at: ATLAS/FMA ({alpha} decay of very neutron-deficient Bi isotopes); MSU/NSCL ({beta} decay of {sup 56}Cu); and HRIBF/RMS (commissioning of tape collector, internal conversion/internal-pair spectrometer; {beta} decay of {sup 58}Cu). A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using HRIBF. Theoretical investigations have continued in collaboration with Prof. K. Heyde, Prof. D.J. Rowe, Prof. J.O. Rasmussen, and Prof. P.B. Semmes. These studies focus on shape coexistence and particle-core coupling.

Wood, J.L.

1996-12-31

119

Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (''thyroid'') uptake probe, g-camera, SPECT and SPECT\\/CT scan- ner, and PET and PET\\/CT scanner. It should be particularly use- ful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and

Pat Zanzonico

120

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, September 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems conducted for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 15 figs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1986-02-01

121

Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.  

PubMed Central

The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:16710545

Musungu, Sisule F.

2006-01-01

122

Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general.

McGrath, Deirdre Maria

123

Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies  

SciTech Connect

The experimental program in nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is led by Professors Carrol Bingham, Lee Riedinger, and Soren Sorenseni who respectively lead the studies of the exotic decay modes of nuclei far from stability, the program of high-spin research, and our effort in relativistic heavy-ion physics. Over the years, this broad program of research has been successful partially because of the shared University resources applied to this group effort. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has allowed us to build extremely strong programs of joint research, and in addition to play an important leadership role in the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research (JIHIR). Our experimental program is also very closely linked with those at other national laboratories: Argonne (collaborations involving the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) and {gamma}-ray arrays), Brookhaven (the RHIC and Phenix projects), and Berkeley (GAMMASPHERE). We have worked closely with a variety of university groups in the last three years, especially those in the UNISOR and now UNIRIB collaborations. And, in all aspects of our program, we have maintained close collaborations with theorists, both to inspire the most exciting experiments to perform and to extract the pertinent physics from the results. The specific areas discussed in this report are: properties of high-spin states; study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability; and high energy heavy-ion physics.

Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1996-01-16

124

Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The most significant development this year has been the realization of a method for estimating EO transition strength in nuclei and the prediction that the de-excitation (draining) of superdeformed bands must take place, at least in some cases, by strong EO transitions. A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge. A significant effort has been devoted to HRIBF target development. This is a critical component of the HRIBF project. Exhaustive literature searches have been made for a variety of target materials with emphasis on thermodynamic properties. Vapor pressure measurements have been carried out. Experimental data sets for radioactive decays in the very neutron-deficient Pr-Eu and Ir-Tl regions have been under analysis. These decay schemes constitute parts of student Ph.D. theses. These studies are aimed at elucidating the onset of deformation in the Pr-Sm region and the characteristics of shape coexistence in the Ir-Bi region. Further experiments on shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Ir-Bi region are planned using {alpha} decay studies at the FMA at ATLAS. The first experiment is scheduled for later this year.

Wood, J.L.

1995-07-31

125

New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.  

PubMed

In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

2013-12-01

126

Motion estimation for nuclear medicine: a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, Respiratory Motion Modelling of the abdominal-thoracic organs serves as a pre-requisite for motion correction of Nuclear Medicine (NM) Images. Many respiratory motion models to date build a static correspondence between a parametrized external surrogate signal and internal motion. Mean drifts in respiratory motion, changes in respiratory style and noise conditions of the external surrogate signal motivates a more adaptive approach to capture non-stationary behavior. To this effect we utilize the application of our novel Kalman model with an incorporated expectation maximization step to allow adaptive learning of model parameters with changing respiratory observations. A comparison is made with a popular total least squares (PCA) based approach. It is demonstrated that in the presence of noisy observations the Kalman framework outperforms the static PCA model, however, both methods correct for respiratory motion in the computational anthropomorphic phantom to < 2mm. Motion correction performed on 3 dynamic MRI patient datasets using the Kalman model results in correction of respiratory motion to ? 3mm.

Smith, Rhodri; Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Jones, John; Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin

2014-03-01

127

Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

2005-08-01

128

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.  

PubMed

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-10-01

129

Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

2011-09-01

130

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects  

PubMed Central

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-01-01

131

Simulation and Optimization Models for Scheduling Multi-step Sequential Procedures in Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

for coupling components, hierarchical and modular model construction, and an object-oriented substrate supporting repository reuse. Secondly, we derive algorithms for scheduling nuclear medicine patients and resources and validate our algorithms using...

Perez Roman, Eduardo

2011-08-08

132

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

2011-10-04

133

Summary results of an assessment of research projects in the Nuclear Medicine Research program  

SciTech Connect

In May 1987, OHER management requested the Office of Program Analysis (OPA) to conduct a peer review of the projects of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Research program. This was done using procedures and a quantitative methodology OPA developed for assessing DOE research programs. Sixty-three individual nuclear medicine projects were reviewed by seven panels; one panel on isotopes and radioisotopes, three on radiopharmacology, two on clinical feasibility, and one on instrumentation. Each panel consisted of five to ten knowledgeable reviewers. 5 figs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

134

Nuclear medicine studies of the prostate, testes, and bladder.  

PubMed

During the last decade, there has been a significant advancement in imaging of urologic diseases. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET) are still experiencing new developments in urology. Despite these many technological advances, the initial diagnostic procedure for a patient with suspected prostate cancer (PC) is multiple site blind prostate biopsies. There is a need for a noninvasive metabolic imaging modality to direct the site of biopsy to decrease the sampling error. MRS seems promising but as it is a costly and more time-consuming test, further studies are needed to evaluate its clinical utility. Currently, PET does not play any role to direct biopsy. Acetate and choline appear to be better tracers than FDG for the detection of a prostate lesion, however, further well-organized studies are needed before any of these agents can be used clinically. Incidental detection of intense focal uptake in the prostate during whole body PET scanning should be evaluated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and TRUS-guided biopsy. Although FDG is inferior to other tracers for primary staging, it may be useful in selected patients with suspected high-grade cancer. The role of ProstaScint scan is still controversial for detection of recurrent PC. This study may be helpful for evaluating nodal metastases when PSA is elevated and bone scan is negative. Bone scan remains the study of choice when bone metastases are suspected (PSA>15-20 ng/mL+/-bone pain). Acetate and choline provide better accuracy than FDG in the detection of local soft tissue disease, nodal involvement, and distant metastases. High FDG uptake may be indicative of more aggressive and possibly androgen-independent disease. PET/CT with any of the above PET tracers will most likely be preferred to the PET scan alone due to better localization of a hot lesion in PET/CT. Nuclear medicine studies also have been used to evaluate acute scrotum and testicular neoplasms. Scrotal scintigraphy has lost its popularity to Doppler ultrasound in the evaluation of the acute scrotum. In testicular tumors, FDG-PET appears to be superior to conventional imaging modalities in initial staging, detection of residual/recurrence, and monitoring treatment response. Tumor markers after treatment occasionally are elevated and cannot locate the site of recurrence, FDG-PET can play a very important role in this regard. Nuclear medicine studies also have been used to evaluate diseases of the urinary bladder. Radionuclide cystography is more sensitive and has less than 1/20 the radiation exposure of the conventional contrast enhanced micturating cystourethrogram (MCU). However, the utility of FDG-PET in the evaluation of bladder cancer seems to be limited to the evaluation of distant metastases. 11C-Methionine and choline may be a better option for local and nodal disease due to their negligible excretion in the urine. PMID:16356796

Jana, Suman; Blaufox, M Donald

2006-01-01

135

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Progress and activities are reported on the following: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization programs, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, monitoring of unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions technology, spent fuel and fuel pool integrity program, and engineered barriers. (DLC)

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-04-01

136

Author's personal copy Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 62 (2009) 468472  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 62 (2009) 468­472 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics journal homepage: www.ppnp.2008.12.035 #12;Author's personal copy T. Strother, W. Bauer / Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics

Bauer, Wolfgang

137

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: the incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15–19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field.

Alberto Cuocolo; Wanda Acampa; Andrea Varrone; Marco Salvatore

2006-01-01

138

Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

2004-01-01

139

Establishing a threshold for 131I bioassay in nuclear medicine personnel.  

PubMed

Since the late 1970's, manufacturers in nuclear medicine have reformulated the I solution to reduce the volatility of the iodine. There has also been an increase in use of the iodide in encapsulated form. Per the requirement of the current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) regulation, with the available results on the volatility of the reformulated radioiodine, we review the I bioassay program for nuclear medicine workers. Our analysis shows the threshold quantity for bioassay monitoring for the routine use of I in nuclear medicine is much higher than the criteria set in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.20. The latter is a broad bioassay guideline for the general usage of radioactive iodine. For treatment of thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism, a single therapeutic I dose large enough to yield a detectable thyroid burden is very unlikely to occur in a nuclear medicine clinic. Accidental ingestion or inhalation would be an exception to our conclusion. Based on this analysis, we propose a new bioassay policy for the routine use of I in nuclear medicine clinics. PMID:18849711

Liang, Yongguang; Chu, Robert Y; Galbraith, Wendy K; Macdurmon, George W; Sonnad, Jagadeesh R

2008-11-01

140

Induced pluripotent stem cells and personalized medicine: current progress and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. iPSCs can self-renew and can differentiate into many cell types, offering a potentially unlimited source of cells for targeted differentiation into somatic effector cells. Hence, iPSCs are likely to be invaluable for therapeutic applications and disease-related research. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of iPSC generation that has been made with an emphasis on both basic and clinical applications including disease modeling, drug toxicity screening/drug discovery and cell replacement therapy. PMID:22254153

Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

2011-01-01

141

Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform  

PubMed Central

Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs. PMID:20019312

2010-01-01

142

Hospital-wide distribution of nuclear medicine studies through a broadband digital network.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine provides a good environment for the evaluation of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) because of the relatively small quantity of digital data that are generated, leading to reduced requirements for storage, display, and transmission compared with those found in radiology. The PACS in nuclear medicine is characterized by use of a single computer as a central storage, display, and analysis node. Images are acquired with use of small, low-cost computers attached to each camera. This network configuration offers advantages of convenience, but with great reliance on a single computer. A campus-wide picture network is under development at Washington University employing broadband cable television technology supplemented by baseband Ethernet (Digital Equipment Corp, Maynard, MA) components. All areas of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are connected via a PACS testbed project. A radiology information system, supporting over 250 terminals, provides digital tracking of patients and report generation and retrieval. A new image workstation is under development in conjunction with Digital Equipment Corp. This system will permit display in multiple windows of report information and images from various modalities. A lung scan demonstration project is now beginning that is designed to test the value of a PACS in nuclear medicine. Digitally acquired chest radiographs will be displayed on an image workstation in nuclear medicine along with digital ventilation and perfusion lung scans. It is hoped that time-consuming logistic bottlenecks now encountered in lung scan interpretation will be reduced. PMID:2367872

Miller, T R; Jost, R G; Sampathkumaran, K S; Blaine, G J

1990-07-01

143

Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

144

Imaging of EGFR and EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Overexpression in Tumors by Nuclear Medicine Modalities  

PubMed Central

Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play a pivotal role in signal transduction pathways and in the development and maintenance of various cancers. They are involved in multiple processes such as transcription, cell cycle progression, proliferation, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. Among the PTKs, the EGFR is one of the most widely studied and has emerged as a promising key target for the treatment of cancer. Indeed, several drugs directed at this receptor are FDA-approved and many others are at various stages of development. However, thus far, the therapeutic outcome of EGFR-targeted therapy is suboptimal and needs to be refined. Quantitative PET molecular imaging coupled with selective labelled biomarkers may facilitate in vivo EGFR-targeted drug efficacy by noninvasively assessing the expression of EGFR in tumor, guiding dose and regime by measuring target drug binding and receptor occupancy as well as potentially detecting the existence of a primary or secondary mutation leading to either drug interaction or failure of EGFR recognition by the drug. This review describes the attempts to develop labelled EGFR molecular imaging agents that are based either on low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to the extracellular binding domain of the receptor to be used in nuclear medicine modalities. PMID:18991714

Mishani, Eyal; Abourbeh, Galith; Eiblmaier, Martin; Anderson, Carolyn J

2008-01-01

145

Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

2014-11-01

146

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

SciTech Connect

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

Kieffer, C.T. (Children's Hospital of Buffalo, NY); Suto, P.A.

1983-03-01

147

Integrated residency training leading to radiology and nuclear medicine board certification: the Arkansas experience.  

PubMed

The pool of qualified nuclear medicine (NM) physicians is declining as fewer choose to enter the specialty. In June 2012, we began developing an integrated categorical residency training position satisfying the requirements of both the American Board of Radiology (ABR) and the American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM). Termed "NuRad," this was listed and filled in the 2013 NRMP match. We found it to be more attractive to qualified applicants than our traditional, three year NM residency. This approach may play a significant role in the future in ensuring the training of physicians expert in NM and molecular imaging. PMID:25174156

McDonald, James E; Deloney, Linda A; Jambhekar, Kedar

2014-08-01

148

Nuclear medicine in oral and maxillofacial diagnosis: a review for the practicing dental professional.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine studies often play a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of oral and maxillofacial diseases. While not commonly used in everyday dental practice, the dental provider should have a conversational knowledge of these imaging modalities and understand the indications and limitations of these studies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the nuclear medicine studies that have applications in the head and neck region as well as their indications, limitations, and diagnostic conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. PMID:14973563

Baur, Dale A; Heston, Thomas F; Helman, Joseph I

2004-02-15

149

Radioisotopes: Problems of Responsibility Arising from Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a ...

M. Dupon

1978-01-01

150

The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

2013-05-01

151

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1981-03-01

152

Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields  

PubMed Central

Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

2014-01-01

153

Applying Image Gently SM and Image Wisely SM in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Although computed tomography (CT) scan radiation dose has drawn much attention, radiation dose from nuclear medicine procedures should not be overlooked. An estimated 19.7 million nuclear medicine procedures are done annually in the United States, with patient radiation dose comparable to that from CT scans. Nuclear medicine departments should implement Image Gently SM and Image Wisely SM recommendations to reduce nuclear medicine patient radiation dose. Pediatric administered radiopharmaceutical doses should be compared with the North American Consensus Guidelines for Administered Radiopharmaceutical Activities in Children and Adolescents, and adult doses should be compared with national and international standards. In a 2011 patient quality and safety initiative at Gundersen Lutheran Health System, 24 pediatric protocols and 52 adult protocols were compared with standards. Doses not comparable to the recommended values were adjusted accordingly and the resultant image quality evaluated. Additional steps to reduce patient radiation dose include decision support to reduce inappropriate ordering, technique optimization for the CT portion of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, use of vendor's dose reduction camera and software technology, use of shorter lived radiopharmaceuticals, and "right sizing" patient doses by weight. PMID:23287517

Jafari, Mary Ellen; Daus, Alan M

2013-02-01

154

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMHO] Regional College Catalog Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

155

Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5.

J. G. Kereiakes; E. L. Saenger; S. R. Thomas

1986-01-01

156

Radioactivity appearing at landfills in household trash of nuclear medicine patients: much ado about nothing?  

PubMed

The U.S. NRC in 1997 removed its arbitrary 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule, which had been in existence for almost 50 y, and now many more patients receiving radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine can be treated as outpatients. However, another problem has the potential to limit the short-lived reality of outpatient treatment unless nuclear medicine practitioners and the health physics community gets involved. Radioactive articles in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients are appearing at solid waste landfills that have installed radiation monitors to prevent the entry of any detectable radioactivity, and alarms are going off around the country. These monitors are set to alarm at extremely low activity levels. Some states may actually hold licensees responsible if a patient's radioactive household trash is discovered in a solid waste stream; this is another major reason [along with continued use of the 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule] why many licensees are still not releasing their radionuclide therapy patients. This is in spite of the fact that the radioactivity contained in released nuclear medicine therapy patients, let alone the much lower activity level contained in their potentially radioactive household wastes, poses a minimal hazard to the public health and safety or to the environment. Currently, there are no regulations governing the disposal of low-activity, rapidly-decaying radioactive materials found in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients, the performance of landfill radiation monitors, or the necessity of spectrometry equipment. Resources are, therefore, being unnecessarily expended by regulators and licensees in responding to radiation monitor alarms that are caused by these unregulated short-lived materials that may be mixed with municipal trash. Recommendations are presented that would have the effect of modifying the existing landfill regulations and practices so as to allow the immediate disposal of such wastes. PMID:11845839

Siegel, Jeffry A; Sparks, Richard B

2002-03-01

157

The Physician and His Practice—1980 to 2000 Sixth Progress Report of the Committee on Role of Medicine in Society  

PubMed Central

Members of the Committee on the Role of Medicine in Society, together with medical student representatives of the medical schools in California worked for a period of close to two years preparing this Sixth Progress Report. Names of the committee members, ex-officio members, consultants and medical student members who served during the discussions and the drafting of the report are listed on the final page. PMID:5019110

1972-01-01

158

``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

2004-07-01

159

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 73 (2013) 134 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 73 (2013) 1�34 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ppnp Review Geo field between Geology and Physics: the study of the Earth's geo-neutrino flux. We describe competing

Mcdonough, William F.

160

Progress in Nuclear Energy 53 (2011) 618 625 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Progress in Nuclear Energy 53 (2011) 618 625 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Progress in Nuclear Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/pnucene Comparison of thorium-based fuels Fhager a , Christophe Demazière b a Thor Energy, Sommerrogaten 13 15, NO-0255 Oslo, Norway b Chalmers

Demazière, Christophe

161

Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

1991-06-01

162

Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

Not Available

1992-07-01

163

Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

Not Available

1992-01-01

164

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)  

SciTech Connect

This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

1990-09-01

165

Advances in radiation biology: effect on nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Over the past 15 years and more, extensive research has been conducted on the responses of biological systems to radiation delivered at a low dose or low dose rate. This research has demonstrated that the molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level responses are different following low doses than those observed after a single short-term high-dose radiation exposure. Following low-dose exposure, 3 unique responses were observed, these included bystander effects, adaptive protective responses, and genomic instability. Research on the mechanisms of action for each of these observations demonstrates that the molecular and cellular processes activated by low doses of radiation are often related to protective responses, whereas high-dose responses are often associated with extensive damage such as cell killing, tissue disruption, and inflammatory diseases. Thus, the mechanisms of action are unique for low-dose radiation exposure. When the dose is delivered at a low dose rate, the responses typically differ at all levels of biological organization. These data suggest that there must be a dose rate effectiveness factor that is greater than 1 and that the risk following low-dose rate exposure is likely less than that for single short-term exposures. All these observations indicate that using the linear no-threshold model for radiation protection purposes is conservative. Low-dose research therefore supports the current standards and practices. When a nuclear medical procedure is justified, it should be carried out with optimization (lowest radiation dose commensurate with diagnostic or therapeutic outcome). PMID:24832582

Brooks, Antone L; Dauer, Lawrence T

2014-05-01

166

Applied nuclear data research and development. Semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the activities of the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Group for April 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983. Topics covered include theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections; nuclear cross-section processing and testing; neutron activation; fission products, and actinides; and core neutronics code development in support of LMFBR carbide core assessment. (GHT)

Arthur, E.D. (comp.)

1984-06-01

167

Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics  

E-print Network

Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics. The experimental work described here is part of the electromagnetic nuclear physics program in Hall B at the Thomas, and Mark Moog) and one high school student (Keegan Sherman) worked in Gilfoyle's nuclear physics lab

Gilfoyle, Jerry

168

Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics  

E-print Network

Continuation Progress Report Submitted to the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Physics's nuclear physics lab at the University of Richmond. One of these students presented his work at the Fall of the Nuclear Physics Working Group and as a member of the CLAS Coordinating Committee (the main governing body

Gilfoyle, Jerry

169

Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Annual report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The application of CdTe gamma detectors in nuclear medicine is reported on. An internal probe was developed which can be inserted into the heart to measure the efficiency of various radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of heart attacks. A second application is an array of detectors which is light enough to be worn by ambulatory patients and can measure the change in cardiac output over an eight hour period during heart attack treatment. The instrument includes an on board tape recorder. (ACR)

Entine, G

1980-01-01

170

Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

1995-02-01

171

Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in México (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system.

Gaytán-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G.

2006-09-01

172

A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food  

PubMed Central

Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine. PMID:24319488

2013-01-01

173

Precision medicines for B-cell leukaemias and lymphomas; progress and potential pitfalls.  

PubMed

There is now a plethora of new precision medicines for B-cell malignancy including 'classical' kinase inhibitors, rationally designed inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins and antibody or antibody drug/toxin conjugates with functional properties. Some are showing spectacular single agent activity in early phase clinical studies and may reduce or, in combination, even obviate the need for chemotherapy. Nevertheless, significant problems remain if these medicines are to be introduced into routine clinical practice in a rational and affordable manner. Firstly, precision medicines must be carefully matched in a mechanistic fashion with specific subtypes of disease. Whilst sensitivity may be predicted by the detection of key mutations or by expression of target molecules, for therapies that depend on intact intracellular signalling pathways, functional assessment on viable primary malignant cells will be necessary using assays that faithfully mimic in vivo conditions. A second, but no less important challenge is to define mechanism-based synergistic combinations associated with minimal toxicities rather than simply adding new precision medicines to existing chemotherapeutic regimens. Finally, a closer, open, two-way interaction between academic medicine and the pharmaceutical industry will be necessary to achieve these aims. Implementing such changes would change radically how and where patients with B-cell malignancies are managed. PMID:23346939

Dyer, Martin J S; Vogler, Meike; Samuel, Jesvin; Jayne, Sandrine; Wagner, Simon; Pritchard, Catrin; Macip, Salvador

2013-03-01

174

Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

2005-12-01

175

Progress in the studies on effective components of Chinese medicine in the treatment of hyperlipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperlipidemia (Hyperlipemia, HP) mainly refers to the level of total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) level is too high and (or) the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is too low and in the status of dyslipidemia. In modern medicine, hyperlipidemia is considered to be one of ten invisible killers which is hazardous to health. Hyperlipidemia can directly lead

Qi Guo; Xianghui Qi

2011-01-01

176

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): NCCAM Timeline—A Decade of Progress  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section CAM NCCAM Timeline—A Decade of Progress Past Issues / ... 2008 - NCCAM releases new statistics on use of CAM among American adults and children from CDC's 2007 ...

177

Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

Kwan, Joe W.

2002-05-31

178

Nuclear Waste Programs semiannual progress report, April--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Programs of the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1992. In these programs, studies are underway on the performance of waste glass and spent fuel in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C. [and others

1994-05-01

179

Progress toward regulatory acceptance of risk-informed inspection programs for nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe work within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers committee responsible for rules for inservice inspection of nuclear power plants. Work is progressing with the objective of producing proposals for risk-informed inspection programs that will be incorporated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission into the Federal Regulations Governing the construction and inservice inspection of al domestic commercial

Owen F. Hedden; C. David Cowfer

1996-01-01

180

Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This progress report studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions discusses the following topics: quantal effects on growth of instabilities in nuclear matter; collisional damping of giant resonances in a non-Markovian approach; and medium-modified interaction induced by fluctuations.

Ayik, S.

1996-03-01

181

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center] [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch] [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)] [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1992-05-01

182

Recent Progress in Voice-Based Sasang Constitutional Medicine: Improving Stability of Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Sasang constitutional medicine is a unique form of tailored medicine in traditional Korean medicine. Voice features have been regarded as an important cue to diagnose Sasang constitution types. Many studies tried to extract quantitative voice features and standardize diagnosis methods; however, they had flaws, such as unstable voice features which vary a lot for the same individual, limited data collected from only few sites, and low diagnosis accuracy. In this paper, we propose a stable diagnosis model that has a good repeatability for the same individual. None of the past studies evaluated the repeatability of their diagnosis models. Although many previous studies used voice features calculated by averaging feature values from all valid frames in monotonic utterance like vowels, we analyse every single feature value from each frame of a sentence voice signal. Gaussian mixture model is employed to deal with a lot of voice features from each frame. Total 15 Gaussian models are used to represent voice characteristics for each constitution. To evaluate repeatability of the proposed diagnosis model, we introduce a test dataset consisting of 10 individuals' voice recordings with 50 recordings per each individual. Our result shows that the proposed method has better repeatability than the previous study which used averaged features from vowels and the sentence. PMID:24062794

Kim, Young-Su; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol

2013-01-01

183

The Hotelling Trace Criterion Used for System Optimization and Feature Enhancement in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hotelling trace criterion (HTC) is a measure of class separability used in pattern recognition to find a set of linear features that optimally separate two classes of objects. In this dissertation we use the HTC not as a figure of merit for features, but as a figure of merit for characterizing imaging systems and designing filters for feature enhancement in nuclear medicine. If the HTC is to be used to optimize systems, then it must correlate with human observer performance. In our first study, a set of images, created by overlapping ellipses, was used to simulate images of livers. Two classes were created, livers with and without tumors, with noise and blur added to each image to simulate nine different imaging systems. Using the ROC parameter d_ {rm a} as our measure, we found that the HTC has a correlation of 0.988 with the ability of humans to separate these two classes of objects. A second study was performed to demonstrate the use of the HTC for system optimization in a realistic task. For this study we used a mathematical model of normal and diseased livers and of the imaging system to generate a realistic set of liver images from nuclear medicine. A method of adaptive, nonlinear filtering which enhances the features that separate two sets of images has also been developed. The method uses the HTC to find the optimal linear feature operator for the Fourier moduli of the images, and uses this operator as a filter so that the features that separate the two classes of objects are enhanced. We demonstrate the use of this filtering method to enhance texture features in simulated liver images from nuclear medicine, after using a training set of images to obtain the filter. We also demonstrate how this method of filtering can be used to reconstruct an object from a single photon-starved image of it, when the object contains a repetitive feature. When power spectrums for real liver scans from nuclear medicine are calculated, we find that the three classifications that a physician uses, normal, patchy, and focal, can be described by the fractal dimension of the texture in the liver. This fractal dimension can be calculated even for images that suffer from much noise and blur. Given a simulated image of a liver that has been blurred and imaged with only 5000 photons, a texture with the same fractal dimension as the liver can be reconstructed.

Fiete, Robert Dean

184

Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals  

PubMed Central

Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

2014-01-01

185

Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

2008-03-01

186

Investigation of Recoil Collection Method for Production of High Specific Activity Nuclear Medicine Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of high specific activity, reactor -produced isotopes will be important for the new generation of nuclear medicine anti-cancer radiopharmaceuticals, When the radiopharmaceuticals are prepared for applications in nuclear medicine or in-vivo trials, the product should be very high quality and normally of very high specific activity to avoid the risk of a contamination with impurities such as stable nuclides, i.e. the resultant solution needs to be in most cases as "carrier free" as possible, as well as free of extraneous nuclides. Unfortunately, many useful isotopes made by (n, gamma) reactions such as Au-198, Re -186 and Re-188 are not carrier-free. The aim of this research is to evaluate the production of high specific activity isotopes by (n, gamma) reactions using a hot atom recoil collection method. The apparatus designed for gold and rhenium recoil experiments has been constructed and operated in the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) to collect the recoil Au-198 and Re-188 atoms. The degree of isotopic enrichment of the product will then be ascertained. The results from the recoil experiments are discussed, and plans for modifications to improve the desired yield are discussed.

Cheng, Kai-Yuan

187

Nuclear medicine computing. Where we have been, where we are and where we are going.  

PubMed

Demand for the newest and most elaborate Nuclear Medicine equipment is at an all time high. Never has there been more to offer than now with such improvements as large field of view, high resolution, whole-body capability and so on. The dedicated minicomputer systems that are available to go with these latest imaging devices are equally impressive. Still, the headaches associated with putting together a full capability camera/computer system are numerous. Things just do not seem to go together the way they ought to. If we are to truly get the most value out of our new equipment, we must put tremendous work loads on our clinical staff by expecting them to use very awkward and poorly configured systems in which several complicated steps are required to to produce the finished product ready for the reading room. The relatively low usage factor which most clinical Nuclear Medicine computer systems experience is not surprising when we consider the ridiculous way in which these systems are configured. It is time for a little human engineering to be introduced into the design process. Unfortunately, this proliferation of equipment is wasteful of money as well as the operator's time. It would make more sense to consolidate the multitude of displays and controlling elements into a single console which would allow a single operator to perform all necessary data processing operations quickly and interactively. PMID:1030828

Kirch, D L

1976-01-01

188

Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals.  

PubMed

Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

Bomanji, Jamshed B; Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

2014-10-01

189

Progress in Nuclear Energy 60 (2012) 73 88 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Progress in Nuclear Energy 60 (2012) 73 88 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Progress in Nuclear Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/pnucene Comments on local power , Christophe Demazière b a Department of Hydrogen and Nuclear Energy, Institute of Power Engineering, Faculty

Demazière, Christophe

190

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

Coulot, J.

2003-08-01

191

Nuclear power for energy and for scientific progress  

E-print Network

The Introduction in this paper underlines the present general situation for energy and the environment using the words of the US Secretary of Energy. A short presentation is made of some major nuclear power plants used to study one fundamental parameter for neutrino oscillations. The nuclear power status in some Far East Nations is summarized. The 4th generation of nuclear power stations, with emphasis on Fast Neutron Reactors, is recollected. The world consumptions of all forms of energies is recalled, fuel reserves are considered and the opportunities for a sustainable energy future is discussed. These considerations are applied to the italian situation, which is rather peculiar, also due to the many consequencies of the strong Nimby effects in Italy.

Giacomelli, G

2012-01-01

192

Radiation doses of employees of a Nuclear Medicine Department after implementation of more rigorous radiation protection methods.  

PubMed

The appropriate radiation protection measures applied in departments of nuclear medicine should lead to a reduction in doses received by the employees. During 1991-2007, at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Pomeranian Medical University (Szczecin, Poland), nurses received on average two-times higher (4.6 mSv) annual doses to the whole body than those received by radiopharmacy technicians. The purpose of this work was to examine whether implementation of changes in the radiation protection protocol will considerably influence the reduction in whole-body doses received by the staff that are the most exposed. A reduction in nurses' exposure by ~63 % took place in 2008-11, whereas the exposure of radiopharmacy technicians grew by no more than 22 % in comparison with that in the period 1991-2007. Proper reorganisation of the work in departments of nuclear medicine can considerably affect dose reduction and bring about equal distribution of the exposure. PMID:23615359

Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Supinska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H; Zorga, Piotr; Birkenfeld, Bozena

2013-11-01

193

Effective progression of nuclear magnetic resonance-detected fragment hits.  

PubMed

Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become increasingly popular over the last decade as an alternate lead generation tool to HTS approaches. Several compounds have now progressed into the clinic which originated from a fragment-based approach, demonstrating the utility of this emerging field. While fragment hit identification has become much more routine and may involve different screening approaches, the efficient progression of fragment hits into quality lead series may still present a major bottleneck for the broadly successful application of FBDD. In our laboratory, we have extensive experience in fragment-based NMR screening (SbN) and the subsequent iterative progression of fragment hits using structure-assisted chemistry. To maximize impact, we have applied this approach strategically to early- and high-priority targets, and those struggling for leads. Its application has yielded a clinical candidate for BACE1 and lead series in about one third of the SbN/FBDD projects. In this chapter, we will give an overview of our strategy and focus our discussion on NMR-based FBDD approaches. PMID:21371601

Eaton, Hugh L; Wyss, Daniel F

2011-01-01

194

Space Nuclear Space Program. Progress report, December 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results from safety-verification tests including impact tests are presented.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-06-01

195

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, January 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-07-01

196

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. 36 figs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-11-01

197

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, March 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos Laboratory. They are divided into: general-purpose heat source, lightweight radioisotope heater unit, and safety technology program. 43 figs., 2 tabs.

Zocher, R.W.; George, T.G. (comps.)

1985-08-01

198

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-03-01

199

Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression  

EPA Science Inventory

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARa,...

200

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-06-01

201

Space nuclear-safety program, November 1982. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-05-01

202

[Research progress of antitumor components from original animals of traditional Chinese medicine powder of Notarchus].  

PubMed

Powder of Notarchus is a traditional Chinese medicine originated from the eggs of various sea hares species of family Aplysiidae Lamarck, especially Notarchus. leachii cirrosus, Aplysia kurodai and A. pulmonica. It has been used for clinical treatment of cancer and cancer-like diseases in China since the Ming dynasty. Isolation and identification of numerous cytotoxic ingredients from sea hares organisms were reported. Bioactive components of sea hares in China sea including 23 species from six genera of the Aplysiidae were reviewed in this paper. Approximately 300 molecules were identified in 11 species. More than 85 compounds extracted from 7 species were confirmed to have antitumor activity, which indicated that powder of Notarchus would have potential in developing new antineoplastic agents. PMID:22308698

Yang, Xinyu; Zhu, He; Yang, Wenyu

2011-11-01

203

"Nuclear" medicine physicians as communicators: their point of view on the aftermath of "nuclear" disaster.  

PubMed

On March 11th, 2011 earthquakes and a subsequent tsunami devastated northern Japan. The consecutive technical catastrophe in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only an additional local tragedy, it also turned out to be a global disaster. In this review we intend to discuss emerging problems and enlighten a way to communicate in such events, tell people how to react in such scenarios and prevent panic by providing rational information. PMID:22476594

Staudenherz, Anton; Sinzinger, Helmut

2012-02-01

204

Activation of executioner caspases is a predictor of progression-free survival in glioblastoma patients: a systems medicine approach  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. GBM cells are highly resistant to apoptosis induced by antitumor drugs and radiotherapy resulting in cancer progression. We assessed whether a systems medicine approach, analysing the ability of tumor cells to execute apoptosis could be utilized to predict the response of GBM patients to treatment. Concentrations of the key proapoptotic proteins procaspase-3, procaspase-9, Smac and Apaf-1 and the antiapopotic protein XIAP were determined in a panel of GBM cell lines and GBM patient tumor resections. These values were used as input for APOPTO-CELL, a systems biological based mathematical model built to predict cellular susceptibility to undergo caspase activation. The modeling was capable of accurately distinguishing between GBM cells that die or survive in response to treatment with temozolomide in 10 of the 11 lines analysed. Importantly the results obtained using GBM patient samples show that APOPTO-CELL was capable of stratifying patients according to their progression-free survival times and predicted the ability of tumor cells to support caspase activation in 16 of the 21 GBM patients analysed. Calculating the susceptibility to apoptosis execution may be a potent tool in predicting GBM patient therapy responsiveness and may allow for the use of APOPTO-CELL in a clinical setting. PMID:23681224

Murphy, A C; Weyhenmeyer, B; Schmid, J; Kilbride, S M; Rehm, M; Huber, H J; Senft, C; Weissenberger, J; Seifert, V; Dunst, M; Mittelbronn, M; Kogel, D; Prehn, J H M; Murphy, B M

2013-01-01

205

[Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

Not Available

1992-09-01

206

Nuclear technology programs. Semiannual progress report, April--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April through September 1991. These programs involve R & D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

Not Available

1993-07-01

207

Progress on Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Parameters Library And Nuclear Reaction Model Computation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research projects on construction of a Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Parameter Library (CENPL) and development of a Nuclear Reaction Model Computation System (NRMCS) for nuclear model calculations were proposed and commenced. At present, the CENPL includes the atomic masses, discrete level schemes, average neutron resonance parameters, nuclear level densities, giant dipole resonance parameters, fission barrier parameters, and optical model parameters

Su Zongdi; Huang Zhongfu; Liu Jianfeng; Zuo Yixin; Yu Ziqiang; Ma Gonggui; Zhang Xiaocheng; Simon C. Lin; G. C. Kiang

208

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements. PMID:25071885

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-07-28

209

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements. PMID:25071885

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-01-01

210

Progress on understanding the anticancer mechanisms of medicinal mushroom: inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer. PMID:23679238

Song, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiang-Shi; Chang, Wei; Song, Ge

2013-01-01

211

[The significance of activities in the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society for progression of medicine in the Middle East (to the 130th anniversary of foundation)].  

PubMed

The article deals with the history of foundation of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in Jerusalem and its input into progression of medicine in the Middle east. The medical activity of Russian physicians in medical institutions of the Society is reflected too. PMID:23634615

Gorelova, L Ye; Afanasiyeva, Ye A

2012-01-01

212

Review of progress in the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is reviewed, illustrating the progress that has been made in assessing the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. Research is being conducted into used fuel storage and transportation, fuel waste immobilization, site characterization and selection methods, and performance assessment modelling. Details of achievements in these areas are outlined, and results of the most recent interim assessment are discussed.

Lyon, R.B.; Johnson, L.H.

1986-01-01

213

Progress in Understanding the Nuclear Equation of State at the Quark Level  

E-print Network

At the present time there is a lively debate within the nuclear community concerning the relevance of quark degrees of freedom in understanding nuclear structure. We outline the key issues and review the impressive progress made recently within the framework of the quark-meson coupling model. In particular, we explain in quite general terms how the modification of the internal structure of hadrons in-medium leads naturally to three- and four-body forces, or equivalently, to density dependent effective interactions.

AW Thomas; PAM Guichon

2007-01-31

214

Recent progress in the preparation of nuclear targets at IAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and study of the preparation of nuclear targets at IAE since 1979 are described. Targets of several elements and enriched isotopes have been made by reduction distillation in vacuum or by electroplating. Furthermore, methods such as rolling, centrifugal precipitation, electrospraying, and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering have been set up. An ?-particle thickness gauge and a high sensitive quartz thickness gauge have been installed. Rutherford backscattering has been applied successfully to the determination of the thickness and the impurity content of target layers.

Sun, Shuhua; Guan, Shouren; Xu, Guoji; Wang, Jianshe

1985-06-01

215

Annual progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research progress is reported for the year 1979-1980. The report is divided into sections dealing individually with the divisions of Biomolecular and Cellular Science, Environmental Biology, and Nuclear Medicine. The sections have been individually entered into EDB. (ACR)

Not Available

1980-01-01

216

[Leprosy and medicine II--progress and establishment of an absolute isolation policy].  

PubMed

The leprosy policy of Japan began from when the government enacted "law No. 11 (The leprosy prevention act)" in 1907 (Meiji 40) and several leprosy sanatoriums were built to receive previously homeless patients. Then, with the rise of totalitarianism, the isolation policy of Japan gained national support under the slogan "Patient Relief", which would become a major factor behind the enactment of "Leprosy Prevention Law" in 1931 (Showa 6) by which the leprosy policy was changed to one of absolute isolation aimed at the internment of all leprosy patients. From recent research on the leprosy policy of Japan, the internment of all leprosy patients, isolation for life, social defense, and neglect of patients' human-rights had tragic results in many cases. However, there is little research which can reply clearly to the question of whether the leprosy policy of Japan was really original and what factors led to the formation of the absolute isolation policy. This paper focuses on the relation between leprosy policy and treatment, and from this, I make clear the similarities, or peculiarities, of the isolation policy between Japan and the rest of the world, while clarifying the factors associated with the progress of the absolute isolation policy. The processes involved were historical and medical historical in that the relation between the formation of a national health system and the progress of the isolation policy of Meiji Era, the proposal of the isolation policy by Dr. Keizo Dohi, Dr. Shibasaburo Kitasato, and Dr. Masatsugu Yamane; the practical application of this policy by Dr. Kensuke Mitsuda, and the decision to enact this policy and its support by the Health and Medical Bureau and the Department of the Interior, as well as many other factors, all contributed to the final implementation of the absolute isolation policy. PMID:17315749

Mori, Shuichi; Ishii, Norihisa

2007-02-01

217

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

Wahner, H.W.

1985-12-01

218

[Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. PMID:24560040

Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

2014-09-01

219

Global threat reduction initiative Russian nuclear material removal progress  

SciTech Connect

In December 1999 representatives from the United States, the Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started discussing a program to return to Russia Soviet- or Russian-supplied highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel stored at the Russian-designed research reactors outside Russia. Trilateral discussions among the United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries that have Soviet- or Russian-supplied HEU fuel. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program is an important aspect of the U.S. Government's commitment to cooperate with the other nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-usable proliferation-attractive nuclear materials. To date, 496 kilograms of Russian-origin HEU have been shipped to Russia from Serbia, Latvia, Libya, Uzbekistan, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. The pilot spent fuel shipment from Uzbekistan to Russia was completed in April 2006. (author)

Cummins, Kelly [DOE/NNSA (United States); Bolshinsky, Igor [INL/NNSA (United States)

2008-07-15

220

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

1981-09-01

221

Research in nuclear chemistry. Progress report. [Bio Rex-70  

SciTech Connect

The research is concerned primarily with complexes in aqueous solution of actinide elements. Actinides in the trivalent oxidation state have been studied more than species in other valence states. Similar systems have also been investigated for the trivalent lanthanides. Since 15 lanthanides can be studied using a wider variety of techniques than feasible with the actinides (e.g., NMR), comparison of these closely related families of elements using the greater amount and variety of lanthanide data provides better understanding of actinide behavior. The studies have included measurements of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation for both inorganic and organic ligands, of the kinetics of complexation, of the spectroscopic properties of complex species using f reverse arrow f electronic transitions, of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the complexed ligands and of binding to natural polyelectrolytes such as humic acid.

Choppin, Gregory R.

1980-01-01

222

Nuclear structure studies. Progress report, [1988--1994  

SciTech Connect

In this report, newly initiated work at the FMA is described where the use of double-sided strip detectors for charged particle spectroscopy on nuclides near the proton drip line has been investigated. Half lives for proton emitting nuclides have been determined with improved uncertainties. Several sections report on the results of studies of model parameters in the Z = 50 region for even-even nuclides, for odd-mass nuclides and for odd-odd nuclides. Other studies are reported for nuclear orientation in Br and for structure of Pr-147 which lies in a transition zone between reflection-asymmetric, spherical, and prolate nuclides. And there is a section in which the positions of the single Particle levels in the A = 100 region are discussed.

Walters, W.B.

1993-07-31

223

UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report  

SciTech Connect

The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

1993-09-01

224

Recent experimental progress in nuclear halo structure studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments (since the last review in J. of Physics G by I. Tanihata in 1996 [1]) at RIB facilities opened possibilities of detailed studies of halo nuclei. New facilities have been constructed to provide higher intensity beams of radioactive nuclei in a wide range of energies. At the time of the last review, only secondary beams by projectile fragmentation were the production source of halo nuclei for use in reaction studies. Since then, re-acceleration facilities have been developed and thus high-quality low-energy beams become available for the reaction studies. The wide variety of new data are thus available on halo nuclei and nuclei on and outside of proton and neutron drip lines. Low energy beams provided a means to determine the masses and charge radii of halo nuclei (6,8He, 11Li). Also transfer reactions have been measured in many nuclei far from the stability line. In fragmentation facilities, new experimental methods such as gamma ray detection in coincidence with breakup fragments of halo nuclei have been developed. Also the reaction cross sections have been measured in a wide range of beam energies. In addition, proton elastic scattering of halo nuclei has been measured at high energies. All together, studies of density distribution, identification of shell orbitals and spectroscopic factors of halo wave function became possible. Such studies reveal many new important information such as the change of magic numbers in nuclei far from the stability line. In this article, we would like to review the experimental developments on halo nuclei and other related drip line nuclei. Also the new view of the nuclear structure learned from such studies will be discussed. Development of selected theories on related nuclear structure problems will be mentioned briefly.

Tanihata, Isao; Savajols, Herve; Kanungo, Rituparna

2013-01-01

225

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for

F. Botta; M. Cremonesi; A. Di Dia; G. Pedroli; A. Mairani; G. Battistoni; A. Fassò; A. Ferrari; M. Ferrari; G. Paganelli; M. Valente

2011-01-01

226

Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported for Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1996. Development and production activities in Plutonium Recovery and Processing, Plutonium Packaging, and Uranium Recovery and Processing are covered. Packaging quality assurance activities are reported.

Chidester, K.M. [comp.

1996-05-01

227

Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1994--31 August 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers the second year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas of nuclear physics: parity violation in neutron and charged-particle resonances--the mass and energy dependence of the weak interaction spreading width; chaotic behavior in {sup 30}P from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; studies of few-body systems; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear data evaluation for A = 3--20, for which TUNL is now the international center; high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation in nuclei, involving collaborations at Argonne National Laboratory. Developments in technology and instrumentation have been vital to the research and training program. In this progress report the author describes: a proposed polarized {gamma}-beam facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory; cryogenic systems and microcalorimeter development; continuing development of the Low Energy Beam Facility. The research summaries presented in this progress report are preliminary.

Ludwig, E.J.

1995-09-01

228

Work in progress: nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the gallbladder  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary study of the relation between food intake and intensity of gallbladder bile on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images was made. Twelve subjects (seven volunteers, five patients) were imaged following a minimum of 14 hours of fasting. Six of seven volunteers were reimaged one hour after stimulation by either a fatty meal or an alcoholic beverage. An additional seven patients were imaged two hours after a hospital breakfast. It was found that concentrated bile emits a high-intensity spin echo signal (SE), while hepatic bile in the gallbladder produces a low-intensity SE signal. Following ingestion of cholecystogogue, dilute hepatic bile settles on top of the concentrated bile, each emitting SE signals of different intensity. The average T1 value of concentrated bile was 594 msec, while the T1 vaue of dilute hepatic bile was 2,646 msec. The average T2 values were 104 msec for concentrated bile and 126 msec for dilute bile. The most likely cause for the different SE intensities of bile is the higher water content, and therefore longer T1 or T2 relaxation times, of hepatic bile. It is suggested that NMR imaging has the ability to provide physiological information about the gallbladder and that it may prove to be a simple and safe clinical test of gallbladder function.

Hricak, H.; Filly, R.A.; Margulis, A.R.; Moon, K.L.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

1983-05-01

229

Exposing Exposure: Enhancing Patient Safety through Automated Data Mining of Nuclear Medicine Reports for Quality Assurance and Organ Dose Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. Materials and Methods: This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Results: Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient’s dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Conclusion: Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22627599

Ikuta, Ichiro; Wasser, Elliot J.; Warden, Graham I.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Khorasani, Ramin

2012-01-01

230

Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

1993-07-01

231

Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue. PMID:24594901

Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Eberlein, U; Lassmann, M

2014-03-21

232

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last year, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1991 Renewal Proposal and Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including the acquisition of our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our new Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1992-12-31

233

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last year, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period, The structure of this report follows that of our 1991 Renewal Proposal and Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including the acquisition of our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our new Virginia campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1998-06-01

234

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

235

The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

Not Available

1992-02-01

236

Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from Ge-68/Ga-68 generator  

PubMed Central

Objective: To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of Ga-68 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N?,N?,N??-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Materials and Methods: Synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Results: Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ± 0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ± 1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65± 0.82 mSv. Conclusion: Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. PMID:22174513

Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Pant, Gauri Shankar

2011-01-01

237

Rationale for the combination of nuclear medicine with magnetic resonance for pre-clinical imaging.  

PubMed

Multi-modality combinations of SPECT/CT and PET/CT have proven to be highly successful in the clinic and small animal SPECT/CT and PET/CT are becoming the norm in the research and drug development setting. However, the use of ionizing radiation from a high-resolution CT scanner is undesirable in any setting and particularly in small animal imaging (SAI), in laboratory experiments where it can result in radiation doses of sufficient magnitude that the experimental results can be influenced by the organism's response to radiation. The alternative use of magnetic resonance (MR) would offer a high-resolution, non-ionizing method for anatomical imaging of laboratory animals. MR brings considerably more than its 3D anatomical capability, especially regarding the imaging of laboratory animals. Dynamic MR imaging techniques can facilitate studies of perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion amongst others. Further, MR spectroscopy can provide images that can be related to the concentration of endogenous molecules in vivo. MR imaging of injected contrast agents extends MR into the domain of molecular imaging. In combination with nuclear medicine (NM) SPECT and PET modalities in small animal imaging, MR would facilitate studies of dynamic processes such as biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. However, the detectors for nearly all PET and SPECT systems are still based on vacuum tube technology, namely: photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) in which the signal is generated by transporting electrons over a substantial distance within an evacuated glass tube, making them inoperable in even small magnetic fields. Thus the combination of SPECT or PET with MR has not been practical until the recent availability of semiconductor detectors such as silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD's) for PET and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for SPECT coupled with the availability of high-density low noise ASIC electronics to read out the semiconductor detectors. The strong advantage of these technologies over PMT's is their insensitivity to magnetic fields which makes their use in co-axial multi-modality nuclear medicine/magnetic resonance instrumentation possible. PMID:16866565

Wagenaar, Douglas J; Kapusta, Maciej; Li, Junqiang; Patt, Bradley E

2006-08-01

238

Emerging roles of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) in cancer progression.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a nucleic acid-binding protein that serves as a docking platform integrating transduction pathways to nucleic acid -directed processes. Recently, this protein has emerged as an important player in carcinogenesis process. HnRNP K is overexpressed in several human cancers and its aberrant cytoplasmic localization has been associated with a worse prognosis for patients, suggesting that it has a role in cancer progression. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the multifunctional roles of hnRNP K and discuss clinical studies that have demonstrated its involvement in cancer development and progression. PMID:25016060

Barboro, Paola; Ferrari, Nicoletta; Balbi, Cecilia

2014-10-01

239

College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped and advanced topics in nuclear medicine imaging physics, including positron emission tomographic procedures IN RADIATION MEDICINE. (1-6) Applied field work at the graduate level in the sciences relating to radiation

MacAdam, Keith

240

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2012-10-01

241

Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics. Progress report for 1993--1995  

SciTech Connect

This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the developing fields of radioactive ion beam (RIB) physics, computational and nuclear astrophysics, and the interface between these disciplines. The authors are concerned both with the application of existing technologies and concepts to guide the initial RIB program, and the development of new ideas and new technologies to influence the longer-term future of nuclear structure physics and astrophysics. The authors report substantial progress in both areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 70 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 46 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

Guidry, M.W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

1995-12-31

242

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

1991-01-01

243

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed.

Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Callahan, A. P.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M.

244

Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants. Second annual technical progress report, September 1990September 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the

E. H. Klevans; R. M. Edwards; A. Ray; K. Y. Lee; J. A. Turso; A. BenAbdennour

1991-01-01

245

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

We have exploring the possibility of measuring urinary radioactivity as an index of pancreatic lipase activity after oral administration of a new triglyceride containing a radioactive iodine-1 25-labeled fatty acid moiety. The new agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3[15-(p-iodophenyl)pentandecan-l-oyl]-racglycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA), was prepared by the thallation-iodide displacement method. Following oral gavage of the radioiodinated triglyceride to rats, about 30% of the administered activity was excreted in 24 hours in the urine. In normal human controls an higher urinary excretion (of about 75% was observed. In this report, we describe an evaluation of the metabolites excreted in the urine and the chemical species stored in adipose from rats. The urine activity co-chromatographed with hippuric acid by TLC indicating conjugation of the IPPA metabolites. Release of the acidic components from the conjugated excretory products by acid hydrolysis of the urine provided the radioactive acidic IPPA metabolites. Analysis of the Folch extracts of fat samples from rats demonstrated that the radioactive components co-chromatographed In the triglyceride region. Recent studies in patients with compromised pancreatic exocrine function have demonstrated significantly decreased 24 hr. urinary excretion of about 25%, following oral administration of [1 -1 31]-1,2-Pal-3-IPPA. Thus, urine analysis after oral administration of [I -1 31]-1,2-Pal-3-IPPA may be a simple, non-invasive tool for the clinical evaluation of various diseases involving dietary fat digestion.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-04-01

246

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 (W-188/Re-188) generator system has continued. Our goal is to develop a prototype system which will provide sufficient levels of Re-188 for radiolabeling of tumor-specific antibodies for radioimmunotherapy. During this review period several samples were supplied for collaborative studies. Samples of rhenium-188 from the ORNL W-188/Re-188 generators were supplied to the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a calibration standard. Iodine-125-labeled IMP protein labeling agent was supplied to the University of Michigan for antibody radiolabeling studies (D. Buchsbaum, Ph.D.). The iodine-123-labeled BMIPP fatty acid analogue developed at ORNL was also supplied to collaborators at BNL for SPECT imaging studies of the effects of cocaine intoxication on myocardial fatty acid uptake in a canine model. Iodine-125-BMIPP was also supplied to the University of Bonn, Germany for continuing metabolic studies in an isolated heart model. In this report the resumption of radioisotope production in the HFIR following the restart of this important facility in July 1990 and the preparation and review and evaluation of issues for the DOE Tiger Team visit to ORNL on November 1--December 7 are also discussed. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1991-02-01

247

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe the first resolution of the 3R-(+)-and 3S- ({minus})-methyl BMIPP methyl-branched fatty acid stereoisomers and biodistribution of the radioiodinated isomers in rats to investigate the effects of the configuration of the 3({beta})-methyl group on the organ distribution and myocardial uptake and release kinetics. Synthesesis of 3R-(+)BMIPP was accompanied by initial acylation of the thiophene template with the acid chloride of ethyl 3R- methylglutarate. The amide of the synthetic 3R-BMIPP isomer prepared S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine exhibited identical spectral and chromatographic properties with the chromatographically more polar isomer (TLC and HPLC) which was separated from the mixture of amides prepared from reaction of the acid chloride of racemic BMIPP with the S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The second less chromatographically polar amide isomer was assigned the 3S-(-)-methyl configuration. The free acids were obtained by acid hydrolysis of the amides and converted to the radioiodinated analogues. While biodistribution studies in separate groups of rats demonstrated greater myocardial uptake of 3R-BMIPP compared with the 3S-isomer values for most other tissues evaluated (blood, lungs, kidneys and thyroid) were similar, whereas the 3S-BMIPP isomer consistently showed higher liver uptake. These results were confirmed in a [l-131]-3S-BMIPP/[l-125]-3R-BMIPP dual label study and both isomers had similar myocardial wash-out curves (5-180 min). These studies suggest that [l-123]-3R-BMIPP is a candidate for clinical evaluation and may show greater myocardial uptake than the 3S-isomer and thus may require a reduced injected dose compared to racemic BMIPP.

Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F

1995-12-31

248

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information on (1) a new improved synthesis of carrier-free rhenium-188-labeled Re(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) complex as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of thyroid medullary carcinoma; and (2) the synthesis and evaluation of a series of iodine-125-labeled analogues of altanserine for imaging of serotonin receptors.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-04-01

249

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 (W-188/Re-188) generator system has continued. Our goal is to develop a prototype system which will provide sufficient levels of Re-188 for radiolabeling of t...

F. F. Knapp, K. R. Ambrose, A. P. Callahan, D. W. McPherson, S. Mirzadeh

1991-01-01

250

Nuclear medicine technology progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Platinum-195m-labeled cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-(isopropylamine)-platinum(IV) (CHIP) was prepared for the first time. This second-generation platinum antitumor agent appears superior to the widely used cis-dichloro-diammineplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) since the dose-limiting nephrotoxicity associated with cis-DDP therapy is not encountered. Platinum-195m-labeled CHIP is being used to determine the tissue-distribution, excretion, and other pharmacological properties of this new drug. Studies of the heart uptake in rats of /sup 75/Se and /sup 123m/Te-labeled long-chain fatty acids have continued. The greater heart uptake of /sup 123m/Te-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid compared with the selenium analog, /sup 75/Se-9-selenaheptadecanoic acid, was confirmed. Radiation dose estimates for a new adrenal imaging agent, /sup 117m/Sn-23-(trimethylstanna)-24-nor-5..cap alpha..-cholan-3..beta..-ol (23-TSC) have been completed. Tissue distribution and excretion data for /sup 117m/Sn-23-TSC were used to extrapolate the radiation dose values to humans. The calculated radiation dose values for /sup 117m/Sn-23-TSC are: adrenals, 83 rads/mCi; total body, 0.77 rad/mCi/; and ovaries, 4.4 rads/mCi. These values are considerably lower than similar estimates for a variety of other radiolabeled steroids and suggest that /sup 117m/Sn-23-TSC may be an attractive new agent for adrenal visualization in humans. The diffusion chamber assay system has been further assessed as a technique to determine the toxicity of As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ administration on the proliferation of cells within chambers implanted in the peritoneal cavities of rats and hamsters. Both human embryonic lung cells and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were used in the studies.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1980-04-01

251

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

In this report the first fabrication and evaluation of an activated carbon-based osmium-194/iridium-194 generator system is described. Iridium-194 (t{sub {1/2}} = 19.2 h) decays by {Beta}{sup {minus}} emission (E{sub max} = 2.24 MeV) and is a potential candidate for radioimmunotherapy. An important characteristic is availability of {sup 194}Ir from decay of reactor-produced {sup 194}Os (t{sub {1/2}} = 6 y). A novel gas thermochromatographic method was developed for the one step conversion of metallic Os to OsO{sub 4} and subsequent separation and purification of OsO{sub 4}, which was then converted to the K{sub 2}OsCl{sub 6} for generator loading. The yield and the elution profile of carrier-free {sup 194}Ir, and {sup 194}Os breakthrough were determined for a prototype generator which was evaluated over a 10 month-period.l During this period several agents were also supplied to Medical Cooperative investigators, including iodine-123-labelled and iodine-125-labelled fatty acid analogues for studies at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. In addition, gold-198 and tungsten-188/-rhenium-188 generators were shipped to various investigators for therapeutic studies involving tumor-specific antibodies. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1991-08-01

252

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Biodistribution studies with the radioiodinated 3(R)- and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers in rats have shown that 3(R)-BMIPP has 20-25% higher heart uptake (15-180 min) than 3(S)-BMIPP, while uptake in other tissues examined is similar. To evaluate the possible differences in metabolic fate of the two isomers, a mixture of [I-125]-3(R)/[I-131]- 3(S)-BMIPP was administered to fasted female Fisher rats. Groups (n=3 rats per group) were sacrificed after 15, 60 and 180 min, and urine and feces collected from another group. Samples of blood, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and urine were Folch-extracted. The distribution of I-125 and I-131 in the organic, aqueous, and pellet samples were determined. Organic samples were then analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The relative distribution of I-125/I-131 in the lipid, aqueous, and pellet samples was similar for both isomers. Distribution of I-125/I-131 in the various components of the lipid extracts observed by TLC was similar, with principal incorporation into the free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) pools. HPLC analyses (Cl8) of the FFA fraction showed similar I-125/I-131 profiles, corresponding to BMIPP, and the {alpha}-methyl-C,4 (PIPA) and C12, Cl0 and C6 carbon chain-length catabolites. By TLC, urine I-125/I-131 chromatographed with hippuric acid. HPLC analyses (Cl 8) of acid-hydrolyzed urine gave a single I-125/I-131 component with the same RRT as 2-({beta}-iodophenyl)acetic acid, the final {alpha}/{beta}-oxidative BMIPP catabolite. Unexpectedly, HPLC of lipids from base hydrolyzed TG from the heart tissue, showed I-125/I-125 co-chromatographing with short-chain fatty acids, with only levels in BMIPP. These unexpected results demonstrate that the 3(R)-BMIPP and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers are metabolized similarly in rat tissues, and that the higher myocardial extraction observed for the 3(R)-BMIPP may reflect differences in the relative membrane transport of the two isomers.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Guhlke, S.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F.

1996-10-01

253

Nuclear medicine technology progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Results of experiments demonstrated that the alkyl portion of 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-THDA) is retained in the myocardial tissue of rats to the same extent as radioactivity from /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. Tissue distribution experiments in rats one hr after injection of 10-(/sup 14/C)-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid were compared with the results of a parallel study using /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. The results indicate that the alkyl region of 9-THDA is retained in the myocardium and that labeling of this portion of the 9-THDA molecule with radiohalogens such as /sup 123/I may be an attractive approach for evaluation of myocardial function. Results of preliminary studies for the development of radiolabeled barbiturates as a new class of agents for the measurement of regional blood perfusion in the brain are also described. Several new barbiturates substituted at the C-5 position were prepared and characterized. These compounds will be labeled with /sup 117m/Sn, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 123m/Te and brain uptake studies performed in rats. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Studies employing /sup 74/As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ have demonstrated that uptake of radioactivity from test substances administered to rats can be detected in cells taken from the intraperitoneally-implanted diffusion chambers. Preliminary synthetic studies of gold-based antirheumatoid complexes are also reported. Several /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids have been prepared for clinical testing. Platinum-195m-labeled-cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum(II) was supplied to collaborators for further testing and /sup 75/Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled long-chain fatty acids were supplied to several medical investigators for the evaluation of myocardial function in experimental animals. (ERB)

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1981-01-01

254

[Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine]. Comprehensive progress report, [1986--1989  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-12-31

255

A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1995-10-01

256

The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

257

TECHNICAL NOTE: A simple screen for minimising radiation doses to nursing staff involved in nuclear medicine procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shield has been designed and constructed for use by nurses during nuclear medicine procedures. The shape gives effective shielding and permits only 0.1% of 140 keV gamma-rays to be transmitted through it. The screen consists of 3 mm lead sheet sandwiched between two aluminium sheets each 2 mm thick to prevent the lead creeping. The large base with large

A. Ghosh; L. D. Brown

1979-01-01

258

Reduction of 68 Ge activity containing liquid waste from 68 Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

PET with 68Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based 68Ge\\/68Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity (68Ge vs. 68Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of 68Ge activity is produced by eluting the 68Ge\\/68Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry.

Erik de Blois; Ho Sze Chan; Kamalika Roy; Eric P. Krenning; Wouter A. P. Breeman

2011-01-01

259

Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

1989-05-01

260

Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office final progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) was formally established by Executive Policy in 1983 following passage of the federal Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act). That Act provides for the systematic siting, construction, operation, and closure of high-level radioactive defense and research by-products and other forms of high-level radioactive waste from around the country which will be stored at such repositories. In 1985 the Nevada legislature formally established the NWPO as a distinct and statutorily authorized agency to provide support to the Governor and State Legislature on matters concerning the high-level nuclear waste programs. The NWPO utilized a small, central staff supplemented by contractual services for needed technical and specialized expertise in order to provide high quality oversight and monitoring of federal activities, to conduct necessary independent studies, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing program to ensure that risks to the environment and to human safety are minimized. It includes findings in the areas of hydrogeology, geology, quality assurance activities, repository engineering, legislature participation, socioeconomic affects, risk assessments, monitoring programs, public information dissemination, and transportation activities. The bulk of the reporting deals with the Yucca Mountain facility.

NONE

1992-12-31

261

Use of volume-rendered images in registration of nuclear medicine studies  

SciTech Connect

A simple operator-guided alignment technique based on volume-rendered images was developed to register tomographic nuclear medicine studies. For each of 2 three-dimensional data sets to be registered, volume-rendered images were generated in 3 orthogonal projections (x,y,z) using the method of maximum-activity projection. Registration was achieved as follows: (a) One of the rendering orientations (e.g. x) was chosen for manipulation; (b) The two dimensional rendering was translated and rotated under operator control to achieve the best alignment as determined by visual assessment; (c) This rotation and translation was then applied to the underlying three-dimensional data set, with updating of the rendered images in each of the orthogonal projections; (d) Another orientation was chosen, and the process repeated. Since manipulation was performed on the small two-dimensional rendered image, feedback was instantaneous. To aid in the visual alignment, difference images and flicker images (toggling between the two data sets) were displayed. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of separate clinical data sets acquired without patient movement. After arbitrary rotation and translation of one of the two data sets, the 2 data sets were registered. Mean registration error was 0.36 pixels, corresponding to a 2.44 mm registration error. Thus, accurate registration can be achieved in under 10 minutes using this simple technique. The accuracy of registration was assessed with use of duplicate SPECT studies originating from separate reconstructions of the data from each of the detectors of a triple-head gamma camera.

Wallis, J.W.; Miller, T.R.; Hsu, S.S. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology] [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology

1995-08-01

262

Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

2014-01-01

263

A Compton camera for nuclear medicine applications using 113mIn 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical studies show our prototype Compton camera, C-SPRINT, matches the 99mTc performance of clinically available mechanically collimated systems if an advantage in sensitivity of ˜45 can be achieved. Imaging at higher energies substantially reduces the required sensitivity advantage. At ˜400 keV, our Compton camera system needs only five times the raw count rate of a mechanically collimated system imaging at 99mTc energy to reach the performance "break even" point. We analyze our C-SPRINT system performance for the isotope 113mIn (391.7 keV), and compare it to a collimated system imaging 99mTc. 113mIn has been used in nuclear medicine applications in the past, and can potentially be used to label many of the same radiopharmaceuticals as 99mTc. In order to fully compare the two systems, their relative sensitivities are combined with the relative amount of useful gamma rays that escape the object being imaged (the patient) for the same patient radiation dose. Results for uniformly distributed sources show that for equal lifetime radiation dose, the ratio of useful 99mTc to 113mIn gamma rays is 1.59. For a point source of activity centered inside the ellipsoid, the useful ratio decreases to 1.33. These fractions scale up the required raw sensitivity advantage to yield a required sensitivity advantage of 5 - 8. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that a raw sensitivity advantage of 25 can be achieved by improving C-SPRINT geometry and using a larger volume of silicon detectors. We conclude that gains of 3-5 in noise equivalent sensitivity are achievable when imaging 113mIn with our Compton camera relative to a collimated system imaging 99mTc.

LeBlanc, J. W.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Hua, C.; Rogers, W. L.; Wehe, D. K.; Wilderman, S. J.

1999-02-01

264

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

Weiss, A.J. (comp.)

1989-08-01

265

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are ``Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}n) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),`` NIKHEF Proposal 93-09, ``Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and ``Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this past year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year. In addition, we have continued to make progress on data analysis and publication of results of previous measurements at Bates, LAMPF, and NIKHEF.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1993-08-01

266

Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics. Technical progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs.

Vary, J.P.

1992-12-31

267

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute San Fernando Avenue No.22, Col. Section XVI (Mexico)

2012-10-23

268

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 ± 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 ± 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 ± 1.53 and 4.18 ± 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

2012-10-01

269

Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point source and S values of ORNL phantom are 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, SimDOSE is an efficient and accurate toolkit to generate patient-specific dose distribution in clinical PET application.

Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

2014-11-01

270

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

SciTech Connect

A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

2010-12-07

271

[Bibliographic consideration of proper management of radioactive waste on short-lived period nuclides that are used in nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

A rational clearance system for medical radioactive waste has not yet been established in Japan. As Europe and USA's ways, the establishment of DIS that medical radioactive waste what are kept in storage room for more than decided period each nuclide except from regulation of radiation's control. The purpose of this report is to clarify the problems with the establishment of DIS in Japan through a literature review of the experience in Europe and the USA and previous research that has been reported in Japan. To establish the DIS system, the radiation control system in nuclear medicine should be rebuilt and put into effect. PMID:19498253

Kida, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayakawa, Toshio

2009-05-20

272

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

Maraman, W.J.

1980-02-01

273

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are {open_quotes}Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),{close_quotes} NIKHEF Proposal 93-09 {open_quotes}Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and {open_quotes}Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,{close_quotes} CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP) for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this part year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1998-06-01

274

Progress toward regulatory acceptance of risk-informed inspection programs for nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe work within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers committee responsible for rules for inservice inspection of nuclear power plants. Work is progressing with the objective of producing proposals for risk-informed inspection programs that will be incorporated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission into the Federal Regulations Governing the construction and inservice inspection of al domestic commercial power plants. The paper will describe in detail the two primary proposals now under development and review. Both are directed toward enhancing safety while reducing the expense of periodic examination of piping welds. The first proposal provides a sound technical basis for reducing the number of Class 1 piping weld examinations as much as 60 percent while improving or maintaining equivalent safety. This is accomplished by using risk-informed techniques to re-establish the most important areas to examine. The second is a broader approach addressing all piping systems considered to be important under risk-informed assessment techniques. Both proposals are based on recent insights into risk analysis techniques developed within the pressure vessel industry, and both require evaluation of theoretical analysis and inputs of practical experience related to a wide variety of detrimental conditions. These proposals are being supported by pilot programs in a number of operating nuclear power plants. The authors will also attempt to explain the institutional constraints inherent in the process of obtaining regulatory recognition of proposals developed cooperatively by industry and the regulatory agency.

Hedden, Owen F.; Cowfer, C. David

1996-11-01

275

Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

1995-12-31

276

Forensic Medicine in South Africa: Associations between Medical Practice and Legal Case Progression and Outcomes in Female Murders  

PubMed Central

Background Forensic medicine has been largely by-passed by the tide of health systems research and evidence based medicine. Murder victims form a central part of forensic medical examiners' case load, and women murdered by intimate partners are an important subgroup, representing the most severe form and consequence of intimate partner violence. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of female murder in South Africa (by intimate and non-intimate partners); and to describe and compare autopsy findings, forensic medical management of cases and the contribution of these to legal outcomes. Methods We did a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 medico-legal laboratories to identify all homicides in 1999 of women aged 14 years and over. Data were abstracted from the mortuary file and autopsy report, and collected from a police interview. Findings In 21.5% of cases the perpetrator was convicted. Factors associated with a conviction for the female murders included having a history of intimate partner violence 1.18 (95%CI: 0.16–2.20), weapon recovered 1.36 (95% CI:0.58–2.15) and a detective visiting the crime scene 1.57 (95% CI:0.14–3.00). None of the forensic medical activities increased the likelihood of a conviction. Conclusion The findings raise important questions about the role of forensic medicine in these cases. PMID:22194868

Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J.; Mathews, Shanaaz

2011-01-01

277

Recent progress on the accurate determination of the equation of state of neutron and nuclear matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of accurately determining the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter at density near and beyond saturation is still an open challenge. In this paper we will review the most recent progress made by means of Quantum Monte Carlo calculations, which are at present the only ab-initio method capable to treat a sufficiently large number of particles to give meaningful estimates depending only on the choice of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we will discuss the introduction of density-dependent interactions, the study of the temperature dependence of the equation of state, and the possibility of accurately studying the effect of the onset of hyperons by developing an accurate hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon-nucleon interaction.

Armani, Paolo; Illarionov, Alexey Yu; Lonardoni, Diego; Pederiva, Francesco; Gandolfi, Stefano; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Fantoni, Stefano

2011-12-01

278

Greatwall kinase: a nuclear protein required for proper chromosome condensation and mitotic progression in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Mutations in the Drosophila gene greatwall cause improper chromosome condensation and delay cell cycle progression in larval neuroblasts. Chromosomes are highly undercondensed, particularly in the euchromatin, but nevertheless contain phosphorylated histone H3, condensin, and topoisomerase II. Cells take much longer to transit the period of chromosome condensation from late G2 through nuclear envelope breakdown. Mutant cells are also subsequently delayed at metaphase, due to spindle checkpoint activity. These mutant phenotypes are not caused by spindle aberrations, by global defects in chromosome replication, or by activation of a caffeine-sensitive checkpoint. The Greatwall proteins in insects and vertebrates are located in the nucleus and belong to the AGC family of serine/threonine protein kinases; the kinase domain of Greatwall is interrupted by a long stretch of unrelated amino acids. PMID:14970188

Yu, Jiangtao; Fleming, Shawna L; Williams, Byron; Williams, Erika V; Li, ZeXiao; Somma, Patrizia; Rieder, Conly L; Goldberg, Michael L

2004-02-16

279

Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S. L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S. M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W. W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J. B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M. R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, N.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matejicek, J.; Mishra, T. P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, T.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosi?ski, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, A.; van der Laan, J. G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M. A.; You, J. H.; Zivelonghi, A.

2013-01-01

280

Progress toward mutual reciprocal inspections of fissile materials from dismantled nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

In March 1994, the United States and the Russian Federation announced their intention to conduct mutual reciprocal inspections (MRI) to confirm inventories of fissile materials from dismantled nuclear weapons. Subsequent interactions between the two countries have established the basis for an MRI regime, covering instrumentation, candidate sites for MRI, and protection of information deemed sensitive by the countries. This paper discusses progress made toward MRI, stressing measurement technologies and observables, as well as prospects for MRI implementation. An analysis is presented of observables that might be exploited to provide assurance that the material being measured could have come from a dismantled weapon rather than other sources. Instrumentation to exploit these observables will also be discussed, as will joint US/Russian efforts to demonstrate such instrumentation. Progress toward a so-called ``program of cooperation`` between the two countries in protecting each other`s sensitive information will be reviewed. All of these steps are essential components of an eventual comprehensive regime for controlling fissile materials from weapons.

Johnson, M.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gosnell, T.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-08-01

281

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Sh?n N?ng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

282

Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5` UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

Kuchka, M.R.

1992-08-01

283

On-line nuclear orientation. Progress report, April 1, 1992--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress made during the extended final year (April 1, 1992 to December 31, 1993) and summarizes the accomplishments of the entire three-year period (April 1, 1990 through December 31, 1993) of the current US Department of Energy grant DE-FG06-87ER40345. This work is carried out primarily at the UNISOR (University Isotope Separator at Oak Ridge) facility of the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The primary mission of this work is the study of the structure and properties of nuclei far from stability through on-line nuclear orientation using the UNISOR Nuclear Orientation Facility, a helium dilution refrigerator coupled on-line to the UNISOR mass separator. The author`s group was one of the original proposers of this facility and played a central role in its design, construction, and development. The structure of nuclei far from stability is in general poorly known. Knowledge from heavy-ion reactions is generally limited to states on or near the yrast line, and thus a great deal of the low-energy structure, especially that at low spin, is often missed in such studies. The large beta-decay energies, on the other hand, result in the population of a multitude of states which often give a reasonably complete picture of the complex structure of these nuclei. The goal of this work is to use the nuclear orientation facility in conjunction with other UNISOR capabilities to examine and to understand the structure of these nuclei.

Krane, K.S.

1993-12-31

284

Nuclear Medicine Practices in the 1950s through the Mid-1970s and Occupational Radiation Doses to Technologists from Diagnostic Radioisotope Procedures.  

PubMed

Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

2014-10-01

285

Research and development related to the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the contribution of the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations for the fourth quarter of FY-81. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: waste package development; nuclide migration experiments in G tunnel-laboratory studies; geochemistry of tuff; mineralogy-petrology of tuff; volcanism studies; rock physics studies; exploratory shaft; and quality assurance.

Daniels, W R; Wolfsberg, K; Vaniman, D T; Erdal, B R [comps.] [comps.

1982-01-01

286

Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

2010-01-01

287

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90}, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution. Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M. [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (I.N.F.N.), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Nuclear Medicine Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 2014 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina C.P. 5000 (Argentina)

2011-07-15

288

Study of the cost-savings potential of the Military - Civilian Health Services Partnership Program in the nuclear medicine and radioimmunoassay services at Ireland Army Community Hospital, Fort Knox, Kentucky. Master's thesis, July 1987July 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using workload data for Calendar Year 1987, a cost savings analysis was performed on the following three options (involving the Nuclear Medicine Department at Ireland Army Community Hospital); (1) Elimination of Radioimmunoassay Internal Service, (2) Civilian Military Health Service Partnership Program and (3) Fixed price contract for Nuclear Medicine Services. This study revealed the Civilian-Military Health Services Partnership Program would

Amon

1989-01-01

289

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT  

SciTech Connect

This annual progress report describes new methods of incorporation of radioiodine into physiologically active compounds (amphetamines), and the use of organoboranes to labeled radiopharmaceuticals with Oxygen- 15, Nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18. Preclinical studies are also reported on evaluation of butyothiophenones as agents acting at dopaminergic or serotonic synapses.

Kabalka, G.W.

1992-09-01

290

[Introduction of a quality management system compliant with DIN EN 9001:2000 in a university department of nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

In 1995, the management of the University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf proposed to establish a total quality assurance (QA) system. A revised QA-system has been introduced stepwise in the department of nuclear medicine since 1997, and certification was achieved in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 on February 14, 2001. The QA-handbook is divided into two parts. The first part contains operational (diagnostic and therapeutic) procedures in so-called standard operating procedures (SOP). They describe the indication of procedures as well as the competences and time necessary in a standardized manner. Up to now, more than 70 SOPs have been written as a collaborative approach between technicians and physicians during daily clinical routine after analysing and discussing the procedures. Thus, the results were more clearly defined processes and more satisfied employees. The second part consists of general rules and directions concerning the security of work and equipment as well as radiation protection tasks, hygiene etc. as it is required by the law. This part was written predominantly by the management of the department of nuclear-medicine and the QA-coordinator. Detailed information for the patients, documentation of the work-flows as well as the medical report was adopted to the QM-system. Although in the introduction phase of a QA-system a vast amount of time is necessary, some months later a surplus for the clinical workday will become available. The well defined relations of competences and procedures will result in a gain of time, a reduction of costs and a help to ensure the legal demands. Last but not least, the QA-system simply helps to build up confidence and acceptance both by the patients and the referring physicians. PMID:11797512

Jansen-Schmidt, V; Paschen, U; Kröger, S; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

2001-12-01

291

Adjusting to progress: interactions between the National Library of Medicine and health sciences librarians, 1961-2001*  

PubMed Central

Most health sciences librarians would agree that the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) leadership and its services have been highly beneficial to the field, but this does not prevent specific NLM actions—or lack of action—from being perceived as annoying or infuriating. Over the past forty years, NLM's interactions with health sciences librarians have been affected by significant additions to NLM's mission and services, the expansion of NLM's direct user groups, and the growing range of possible relationships between health sciences librarians and NLM. The greatest friction between NLM and health services librarians occurs when there is a fundamental change in the way NLM carries out its mission—a change that adds to the web of relationships that link librarians and NLM and prompts corresponding changes in the way other libraries do business. Between 1961 and 2001, there were two such fundamental changes: the implementation of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine and the development and promotion of services targeted toward individual health professionals. On a lesser scale, each new service that connects NLM and health sciences librarians is another potential source of irritation, ready to flare up when the service is interrupted, changed, or eliminated. Other factors—including strong personalities, mistakes, and poor communication—add to, but do not cause, the intermittent problems between NLM and its most longstanding and engaged user group. These problems are in essence the price we pay for the leadership and vision of NLM's directors and for NLM's success in developing excellent services and in enhancing them based on advice from librarians and other users. PMID:11838459

Humphreys, Betsy L.

2002-01-01

292

European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Vol. 30, No. 7, July 2003 Abstract. The purpose of this study was to assess the  

E-print Network

European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Vol. 30, No. 7, July 2003 Abstract. A completely automated method based on computerised image processing and artificial neural net- works was used- tures from each set of (joint) ventilation and perfusion studies in six projections. A third network

Lunds Universitet

293

Compartmental analysis of renal physiology using nuclear medicine data and statistical optimization  

E-print Network

This paper describes a general approach to the compartmental modeling of nuclear data based on spectral analysis and statistical optimization. We utilize the renal physiology as test case and validate the method against both synthetic data and real measurements acquired during two micro-PET experiments with murine models.

Garbarino, Sara; Brignone, Massimo; Massollo, Michela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Piana, Michele

2012-01-01

294

Progress on an integrated multi-physics simulation predictive capability for plasma chamber nuclear components  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the behavior of a plasma chamber component in the fusion environment requires a simulation technique that is capable of integrating multi-disciplinary computational codes while appropriately treating geometric heterogeneity and complexity. Such a tool should be able to interpret phenomena from mutually dependent scientific disciplines and predict performance with sufficient accuracy and consistency. Integrated multi-physics simulation predictive capability (ISPC) relies upon advanced numerical simulation techniques and is being applied to ITER first wall/shield and Test Blanket Module (TBM) designs. In this paper, progress in ISPC development is described through the presentation of a number of integrated simulations. The simulations cover key physical phenomena encountered in a fusion plasma chamber system, including tritium permeation, fluid dynamics, and structure mechanics. Interface engines were developed in order to pass field data, such as surface deformation or nuclear heating rate, from the structural analysis to the thermo-fluid MHD analysis code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) velocity profile assessments, or from the neutronics analysis to the thermo-fluid analysis for temperature calculations, respectively. Near-term effort toward further ISPC development is discussed.

A. Ying; M. Abdou; H. Zhang; R. Munipalli; M. Ulrickson; M. Sawan; B. Merrill

2010-12-01

295

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is associated with tumor growth and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

bHLH/PAS proteins play important roles in tumor progression. Lost or reduced expression of single-minded homolog 2 (SIM) as well as aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) has been observed in cancerous human tissues. Here, we investigated the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), another bHLH/PAS protein, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry, we found that intratumoral ARNT was inversely correlated with time to recurrence and overall survival of HCC patients after resection. Knockdown of ARNT in HepG2, HCCLM3 and HCCLM6 cells significantly shortened cell doubling time, increased S-phase cell populations and accelerated in vivo HCCLM6 growth and metastasis. After ARNT expression was rescued, prolonged cell doubling time and decreased S-phase cell populations were observed in HepG2, HCCLM3 and HCCLM6 cells. And, HCCLM6 growth and metastasis in vivo were remarkably inhibited. Screening by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and PCR arrays revealed that cyclin E1, CDK2, Fos and Jun were negatively regulated by ARNT, whereas CDKN1C, CNKN2A, CDKN2B, MAPK11 and MAPK14 were positively regulated in HCC. According to the results of immunoprecipitation assay, both ARNT/ARNT and ARNT/AHRR complexes were clearly formed in HCCLM6 xenograft with increased ARNT expression. In summary, ARNT is an important regulator of HCC growth and metastasis and could be a promising prognostic candidate in HCC patients. PMID:21544813

Liang, Ying; Li, Wei-Wei; Yang, Bi-Wei; Tao, Zhong-Hua; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Xia, Jing-Lin; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Tang, Zhao-You; Fan, Jia; Wu, Wei-Zhong

2012-04-15

296

Cyclotron-based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research at the cyclotron institute is summarized. These major areas are covered: nuclear structure; nuclear reactions and scattering; polarization studies; interdisciplinary nuclear science; instrumentation and systems development; and publications. (GHT)

Not Available

1980-06-01

297

Nuclear EGFR signalling network in cancers: linking EGFR pathway to cell cycle progression, nitric oxide pathway and patient survival  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidences suggest the existence of a new mode of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway in which activated EGFR undergoes nuclear translocalization and subsequently regulates gene expression and potentially mediates other cellular processes. This signalling route is distinct from the better-characterized, traditional EGFR pathway that involves transduction of mitogenic signals through activation of multiple signalling cascades. Transcriptional activity of nuclear EGFR appears to depend on its C-terminal transactivation domain and its physical and functional interaction with other transcription factors that contain DNA-binding activity. Likely via its ability to upregulate gene expression, nuclear EGFR pathway is associated with major characteristics of more aggressive tumours: increased proliferative potential, nitric oxide synthesis, and accelerated G1/S cell cycle progression. A role of nuclear EGFR in prognostic prediction is further suggested in patients with breast carcinomas and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. It is noted that significant advances were made towards the knowledge of the nuclear EGFR pathway; however, many aspects of this new pathway remain unresolved and will be discussed in this review. As a number of other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and cytokine receptors also undergo similar nuclear translocalization, a better understanding of the physiological and malignant nature of the nuclear EGFR pathway will likely shed light into the biology of cancer with nuclear RTKs. PMID:16434982

Lo, H-W; Hung, M-C

2006-01-01

298

Lincoln County nuclear waste project. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document included the following three progress reports to the Yucca Mountain Project Office on radioactive waste storage in Lincoln County, Nevada: financial status report; federal cash transactions report; and technical progress report.

NONE

1996-03-01

299

The revision of RP 91 on criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations.  

PubMed

In 1997 the European Commission published Radiation Protection 91: 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations'. This document specified the minimum criteria for acceptability. It has been used to this effect in legislation, codes of practice and by individual professionals. In a single document, it defined a level of performance at which remedial action was required. The document specified a series of parameters which characterised equipment performance and acceptable levels of performance. In its time it proved to be a useful document which was applied in member states to various degrees. Since the publication of Report 91 in 1997, a series of weaknesses emerged over time. Development of new radiological systems and technologies, as well as improvements in traditional technologies, has created circumstances where the acceptability criteria were in need of review. These weaknesses were recognised by the European Commission and a tender for its revision was issued. The criteria were developed by a team drawn from a broad range of backgrounds including hospitals, industry, government bodies, regulators and standardisation organisations. Representatives were mainly from Europe, but individuals from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and International Atomic Energy Agency were included in the drafting process. This study describes the process employed in developing the revised document and the consultation process involved. One of the major difficulties the revision team encountered was related to an understanding of the actual meaning of the EC Directive. The view taken by the revision team was that Article 8, paragraph 3 places responsibilities on both the holders of radiological equipment and competent authorities. The acceptability criteria have been produced consistent with the European Commission's Medical Exposures Directive, which requires that patient exposures are optimised and justified. PMID:23169813

Faulkner, K; Malone, J F; Christofides, S; Lillicrap, S; Horton, P

2013-02-01

300

A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR  

PubMed Central

Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

2004-01-01

301

Decreased Expression of Nuclear p300 Is Associated with Disease Progression and Worse Prognosis of Melanoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic instability due to UV radiation is one of the leading causes for melanoma. Histone acetyltransferase p300 plays an indispensible role in DNA repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. The present study was performed to analyze the correlation between p300 expression, melanoma progression and patient survival. Methods Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis was employed to study the expression of p300 in melanoma patients. A total of 358 melanoma patients (250 primary melanoma and 108 metastatic melanoma) were used for the study. Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, and receiver-operating characteristic curves, were used to elucidate the prognostic significance of p300 expression. Results Our results demonstrate that p300 is expressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm but the nuclear expression of p300 is predominant. The progression of disease from dysplastic nevi to primary melanoma and to metastatic melanoma was associated with decreased nuclear and increased cytoplasmic p300 expression. Especially, the loss of nuclear and gain in cytoplasmic p300 was correlated with the progression of melanoma from AJCC stage II to stage III, which requires the migration and metastasis of cancer cells from primary sites to lymph nodes. Similarly, decrease in nuclear, and increase in cytoplasmic p300 expression correlated with worse survival of melanoma patients. Nuclear p300 but not cytoplasmic p300 could predict the patient survival independent of AJCC stage, age and gender. Conclusion Loss of nuclear p300 expression is an indicator of worse patient survival and is an independent prognostic marker for melanoma. PMID:24098694

Rotte, Anand; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Cheng, Yabin; Sjoestroem, Cecilia; Martinka, Magdalena; Li, Gang

2013-01-01

302

PROGRESS REPORT. CORROSION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL: THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The successful disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the most serious challenges to the success of the nuclear fuel cycle and the future of nuclear power generation. Spent nuclear fuel is essentially UO2 with approximately 4-5 atomic percent actinides and fission product...

303

Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.  

PubMed

Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

Jin, Yutaka

2008-01-01

304

Experimental development of nuclear pumped laser candidate for inertial confinement fusion driver. Technical progress report, Phase 2, 1989--1990  

SciTech Connect

A report is given on progress made during the second year of a three year contract studying the feasibility of nuclear pumping the atomic iodine laser. Experimental results are presented showing efficiencies of 25--38% at converting neutron-induced nuclear reaction energy in the excimer XeBr into UV photons which can be used to pump the laser. Parametric studies were done utilizing the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, with three bromine donor chemicals, over a range of pressures and mix ratios, to optimize the fluorescence efficiency.

Miley, G.H.

1990-06-06

305

High resolution positron Q-value measurements and nuclear structure studies far from the stability line. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research progress in briefly described, and details are presented in the attached preprints and reprints: (1) precision mass differences in light rubidium and krypton isotopes utilizing beta endpoint measurements; (2) precision mass measurements utilizing beta endpoints; (3) Monte Carlo calculations predicting the response of intrinsic GE detectors to electrons and positrons; and (4) reactor antineutrino spectra and nuclear spectroscopy of isotopes far from beta stability. (WHK)

Avignone, F.T. III

1982-02-28

306

Clinical problems in renovascular disease and the role of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Although renovascular disease remains defined as a stenosis of the main renal artery or its proximal branches (renal artery stenosis [RAS]), its clinical overview has changed dramatically over the last 15-20 years and its management is more controversial than ever before. The clinical problems, not only diagnosis and treatment but also the relative contribution of different pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the progression of kidney disease, have shifted dramatically. This presentation aims to emphasize the paradigm change revisiting the (recent) past focused on renovascular hypertension (RVH) to the current context of preservation or recovery of threatened renal function in patients with progressive atherosclerotic renovascular disease until its last stage of irreversible "ischemic nephropathy." In the past, the foreground was occupied by RVH, a very rare disease, where the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) was supposed to play the major, if not only, role in RVH issues. The retrospective RVH diagnosis was established either on the improvement or, more rarely, on the cure of hypertension after revascularization by, most often, a percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with or without a stent placement. At this time, captoptril radionuclide renography was an efficient diagnostic tool, because it was a functional (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition), noninvasive test aiming to evidence both the RAAS activation and the lateralization (or asymmetry) of renin secretion by the kidney affected by a "hemodynamically significant" RAS. At present, even if captoptril radionuclide renography could be looked upon as the most efficient (and cost effective in selected high-risk patients) noninvasive, functional test to predict the improvement of hypertension after RAS correction, its clinical usefulness is questioned as the randomized, prospective trials failed to demonstrate any significant benefits (either on blood pressure control or on renal function protection) of the revascularization over current antihypertensive therapy. Today many patients with RVH remain undetected for years because they are treated successfully and at low expense with these new blockers of RAAS. In addition to its well-known role in hemodynamics, angiotensin II promotes activations of profibrogenic and inflammatory factors and cells and stimulates reactive oxygen species generation. The "atherosclerotic milieu" itself plays a role in the loss of renal microvessels and defective angiogenesis. After an "adaptative" phase, ischemia eventually develops and induces hypoxia, the substratum of ischemic nephropathy. Because blood oxygen level-dependent MRI may provide an index of oxygen content in vivo, it may be useful to predict renal function outcome after percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. New PET tracers, dedicated to assess RAAS receptors, inflammatory cell infiltrates, angiogenesis, and apoptose, would be tested in this context of atherosclerotic renovascular disease. PMID:24484748

Prigent, Alain; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe

2014-03-01

307

Variable-Pitch Rectangular Cross-section Radiofrequency Coils for the Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Investigation of Sealed Medicines Packets  

PubMed Central

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from 14N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

2012-01-01

308

Variable-pitch rectangular cross-section radiofrequency coils for the nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance investigation of sealed medicines packets.  

PubMed

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from (14)N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

Barras, Jamie; Katsura, Shota; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar A; Smith, John A S

2012-11-01

309

Usefulness of specific calibration coefficients for gamma-emitting sources measured by radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In nuclear medicine, the activity of a radionuclide is measured with a radionuclide calibrator that often has a calibration coefficient independent of the container type and filling. Methods: To determine the effect of the container on the accuracy of measuring the activity injected into a patient, The authors simulated a commercial radionuclide calibrator and 18 container types most typically used in clinical practice. The instrument sensitivity was computed for various container thicknesses and filling levels. Monoenergetic photons and electrons as well as seven common radionuclides were considered. Results: The quality of the simulation with gamma-emitting sources was validated by an agreement with measurements better than 4% in five selected radionuclides. The results show that the measured activity can vary by more than a factor of 2 depending on the type of container. The filling level and the thickness of the container wall only have a marginal effect for radionuclides of high energy but could induce differences up to 4%. Conclusions: The authors conclude that radionuclide calibrators should be tailored to the uncertainty required by clinical applications. For most clinical cases, and at least for the low-energy gamma and x-ray emitters, measurements should be performed with calibration coefficients specific to the container type.

Bochud, Francois O.; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sebastien; Kosinski, Marek; Bailat, Claude J. [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-07-15

310

Initially awarded for 1 year and renewed for a second year with satisfactory progress The NIHfunded TRANSFORM TL1 Personalized Medicine Training Program  

E-print Network

The NIHfunded TRANSFORM TL1 Personalized Medicine Training Program Columbia University INFORMATION, who want to gain some exposure to the Personalized Medicine field. The TRANSFORM TL1 Personalized to the important field of Personalized Medicine. This two year training opportunity1 which will run

Grishok, Alla

311

Preventive Medicine Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

Moore, George

1981-01-01

312

Modeling the nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of lung: from electrical engineering to critical care medicine.  

PubMed

The present article reviews the basic principles of a new approach to the characterization of pulmonary disease. This approach is based on the unique nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of the lung and combines experimental measurements (using specially developed NMR techniques) with theoretical simulations. The NMR signal from inflated lungs decays very rapidly compared with the signal from completely collapsed (airless) lungs. This phenomenon is due to the presence of internal magnetic field inhomogeneity produced by the alveolar air-tissue interface (because air and water have different magnetic susceptibilities). The air-tissue interface effects can be detected and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques using temporally symmetric and asymmetric spin-echo sequences. Theoretical models developed to explain the internal (tissue-induced) magnetic field inhomogeneity in aerated lungs predict the NMR lung behavior as a function of various technical and physiological factors (e.g., the level of lung inflation) and simulate the effects of various lung disorders (in particular, pulmonary edema) on this behavior. Good agreement has been observed between the predictions obtained from the mathematical models and the results of experimental NMR measurements in normal and diseased lungs. Our theoretical and experimental data have important pathophysiological and clinical implications, especially with respect to the characterization of acute lung disease (e.g., pulmonary edema) and the management of critically ill patients. PMID:10334720

Cutillo, A G; Ailion, D C

1999-01-01

313

People's Republic of China: problems and progress in the civilian nuclear program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of the nuclear program in the People's Republic of China is presented with discussion of plans for design and construction of nuclear power plants, clashing regulation authorities, status and description of the Qishan reactor, and reactor component fabrication. Other observations of the American Nuclear Society members who visited China are noted in the report: the Chinese consideration

Du Temple

1985-01-01

314

Study of nuclear cataract progression using the National Eye Institute Scheimpflug system  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--A study was conducted to determine the capability of the recently developed National Eye Institute (NEI) Scheimpflug cataract imaging system in detecting changes in the nuclear region of the lens over a 1 year period. METHODS--Twenty five eyes with pure nuclear cataracts with mean nuclear densities < or = 0.30 optical density units (ODU) as well as 30 normal control

M B Datiles; B V Magno; V Freidlin

1995-01-01

315

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

2006-09-01

316

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

SciTech Connect

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, 14080, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 D.F. (Mexico)

2006-09-08

317

MACPISA-CANDU: Multi-step Approach to Code-coupling for Progression Induced Severe Accidents in CANDU Nuclear Power Plants.  

E-print Network

?? A methodology called the Multi-step Approach to Code-coupling for Progression Induced Severe Accidents in CANDU nuclear power plants (MACPISA-CANDU) was developed and applied. MACPISA-CANDU… (more)

Pohl, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

318

The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France, pp. PM1-4, 2003 1 Abstract--Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of deaths  

E-print Network

The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (phone: 631- 444-7837; fax: 631, WI 53201, USA. Wang is with the Department of Radiology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa

319

Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1991--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The following is a review of research accomplished in the first two years of funding for the above mentioned project. The work performed is a molecular characterization of nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which are deficient in different stages in the post-transcriptional expression of a single chloroplast encoded polypeptide, the D2 protein of Photosystem II. Our long-term goals are to understand the molecular mechanisms by which nuclear gene products affect the expression of chloroplast genes. Specifically, we which to understand how specific nuclear gene products affect the turnover rate of the D2 encoding mRNA (psbD), how other nuclear encoded factors work to promote the translation of psbD mRNA and/or stabilize the D2 protein, and what the role of the D2 protein itself is in Photosystem II assembly and in the control of expression of other chloroplast genes. This progress report will be organized into four major sections concerning (I) The characterization of nuclear mutants affected in D2 translation/turnover, (II) The study of trans-acting factors which associate with the 5{prime} end of the psbD mRNA, (III) In vitro mutagenesis of the psbD gene, and (IV) Additional studies.

Kuchka, M.R.

1992-05-01

320

Study of the cost-savings potential of the Military - Civilian Health Services Partnership Program in the nuclear medicine and radioimmunoassay services at Ireland Army Community Hospital, Fort Knox, Kentucky. Master's thesis, July 1987-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

Using workload data for Calendar Year 1987, a cost savings analysis was performed on the following three options (involving the Nuclear Medicine Department at Ireland Army Community Hospital); (1) Elimination of Radioimmunoassay Internal Service, (2) Civilian Military Health Service Partnership Program and (3) Fixed price contract for Nuclear Medicine Services. This study revealed the Civilian-Military Health Services Partnership Program would potentially generate the greatest cost savings and recommended that it be implemented in other areas throughout the Army Medical Department.

Amon, T.M.

1989-01-01

321

Study of a New Design of P-N Semiconductor Detector Array for Nuclear Medicine Imaging by Monte Carlo Simulation Codes  

PubMed Central

Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc99_m activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

Hajizadeh-Safar, M.; Ghorbani, M.; Khoshkharam, S.; Ashrafi, Z.

2014-01-01

322

Study of a new design of p-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging by monte carlo simulation codes.  

PubMed

Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc(99_m) activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

Hajizadeh-Safar, M; Ghorbani, M; Khoshkharam, S; Ashrafi, Z

2014-07-01

323

Radioiodine source and other radionuclide effluent measurements at nuclear power plants. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive measurements are being performed within nuclear power plants (three Boiling Water Reactors, BWRs, and four Pressurized Water Reactors, PWRs) to collect radioiodine and other radionuclide data as part of a research project to develop information and test models on emission sources and transport mechanisms to permit greater accuracy in predicting the fate of radioiodine materials within nuclear power plants.

C. Pelletier; E. Barefoot; J. Cline; W. Emel

1976-01-01

324

Physical protection of nuclear facilities. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facility characterization activities during this quarter concentrated on efforts to: (1) increase the level of effort provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRC\\/NRR) in conjunction with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the application of vital area analysis techniques to operating reactor facilities; and (2) to develop and apply various fault tree analysis procedures. A

1979-01-01

325

Experimental development of nuclear pumped laser candidate inertial confinement fusion driver. Technical progress report, Phase 1, 1988--1989  

SciTech Connect

This progress report is submitted at the end of the first year of a 3-year project grant studying development of a nuclear pumped atomic iodine laser. The first section of the report will provide background on the study and briefly describe the original plans for the 3-year project. The second section will detail the work done to date. Included will be a description of the preparations made for experimentation, as well as some preliminary results recently obtained. Plans for the upcoming budget year are covered in the accompanying proposal, ``Project Plans for 1989--1990.``

Miley, G.H.

1989-05-31

326

Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Included are the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described, including screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C.

Not Available

1980-06-25

327

Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1979-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The results of work performed from July 1, 1979 through September 30, 1979 on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The status of the data management system is presented. In addition, the progress in the screening test program is described.

Not Available

1980-03-07

328

A Boolean Network Model of Nuclear Receptor Mediated Cell Cycle Progression (S)  

EPA Science Inventory

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a broad range of cellular processes. Hormones, lipids and xenobiotics have been shown to activate NRs with a range of consequences on development, metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prolif...

329

A Boolean Network Model of Nuclear Receptor Mediated Cell Cycle Progression  

EPA Science Inventory

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a broad range of cellular processes. Hormones, lipids and xenobiotics have been shown to activate NRs with a range of consequences on development, metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prolif...

330

COMPREHENSIVE PROGRESS REPORT FOR FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR (NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE) OF METALS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Interactions of the metals cadmium and selenium with various biologically important substrates were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cadmium-113 NMR was used for a critical examination of three metalloproteins: concanavalin A, bovine superoxide dismutase ...

331

Nuclear physics at extreme energy density. Progress report, May 1991--April 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses topics in the following areas: QCD transport theory; minijets in hadronic and nuclear collisions; lattice gauge theory; hadronic matter and other studies; and strong electromagnetic fields. (LSP)

Mueller, B.

1992-05-15

332

Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, May 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: Memory effect in Boltzmann-Langevin model; effect of memory time on agitation of unstable modes in nuclear matter; and non-markovian approach to damping of giant monopole resonances in nuclei.

Ayik, S.

1995-02-01

333

Cardiac nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The book begins with a review of the radionuclide methods available for evaluating cardiac perfusion and function. The authors discuss planar and tomographic thallium myocardial imaging, first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide angiography, and imaging with infarct-avid tracers. Several common but more specialized procedures are then reviewed: nonogemetric measurement of left ventricular volume, phase (Fourier) analysis, stroke volume ratio, right ventricular function, and diastolic function. A separate chapter is devoted to drug interventions and in particular the use of radionuclide ventriculography to monitor doxorubicin toxicity and therapy of congestive heart failure. The subsequent chapters provide a comprehensive guide to test selection, accuracy, and results in acute myocardial infarction, in postmyocardial infarction, in chronic coronary artery disease, before and after medical or surgical revascularization, in valvular heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, and in cardiac trauma.

Gerson, M.C.

1987-01-01

334

Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project on {open_quotes}Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance{close_quotes} has been undertaken in order to address the important problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Most of the creativity in formulating such concepts has focused upon improving the mechanical reliability of

Golay

1995-01-01

335

Research in theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the accomplishments in basic research in nuclear physics carried out by the theoretical nuclear physics group in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, during the period of November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993. The work done covers three separate areas, low-energy nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, and nuclear structure studies. Although the subjects are thus spread among different areas, they are based on two techniques developed in previous years. These techniques are a powerful method for continuum-random-phase-approximation (CRPA) calculations of nuclear response and the breakup-fusion (BF) approach to incomplete fusion reactions, which calculation on a single footing of various incomplete fusion reaction cross sections within the framework of direct reaction theories. The approach was developed as a part of a more general program for establishing an approach to describing all different types of nuclear reactions, i.e., complete fusion, incomplete fusion and direct reactions, in a systematic way based on single theoretical framework.

Udagawa, T.

1993-11-01

336

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This renewal proposal requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past three years we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons at CEBAF. We are part of the Hall-B Collaboration at CEBAF. We are co-spokespersons on two approved CEBAF experiments, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei, and we are preparing another, Nondiffractive Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson with Linearly Polarized Photons, for presentation to the next CEBAF PAC. We are part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger and a high-energy tagged polarized-photon beam for Hall B; some of the instrumentation for these projects is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Our recent measurements of pion scattering from {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He at LAMPF and of cluster knockout from few-body nuclei at NIKHEF have yielded very provocative results, showing the importance of the very light nuclei as a laboratory for quantifying important aspects of the nuclear many-body force. We look forward to expanding our studies of short-range forces in nuclei, particularly the very fight nuclei using electromagnetic probes and employing the extraordinary power of CEBAF and the CLAS.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1994-08-01

337

Studies of nuclear processes; Progress report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993  

SciTech Connect

Results for the period 1 Sep 92 through 31 Aug 93 are presented in nearly a hundred brief papers, some of which present new but preliminary data. Activities reported may be grouped as follows: Fundamental symmetries in the nucleus (parity-mixing measurements, time reversal invariance measurements, signatures of quantum chaos in nuclei), Internucleon reactions (neutron -- proton interactions, the neutron -- neutron scattering length, reactions between deuterons and very light nuclei), Dynamics of very light nuclei (measurements of D states of very light nuclei by transfer reactions, nuclear reactions between very light nuclei, radiative capture reactions with polarized sources), The many-nucleon problem (nuclear astrophysics, high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation, the nuclear mean field: Dispersive relations and nucleon scattering, configuration mixing in {sup 56}Co and {sup 46}Sc using (d,{alpha}) reactions, radiative capture studies, high energy resolution resonance studies at 100--400 keV, nuclear data evaluation for A=3--20), Nuclear instruments and methods (FN tandem accelerator operation, KN accelerator operation and maintenance, atomic beam polarized ion source, development of techniques for determining the concentration of SF{sub 6} in the accelerator insulating gas mixture, production of beams and targets, detector systems, updating of TeX, Psprint, and associated programs on the VAX cluster), and Educational Activities.

Ludwig, E.J.

1993-09-01

338

Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report for the period September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This is a progress report on activities of the Washington University group in nuclear reaction studies for the period Sept 1, 1992 to Aug 31, 1993. This group has a research program which touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin; studies at the interface between structure and reactions; production and study of hot nuclei; reaction mechanism studies; development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in the above areas of research. Specific activities of the group include in part: superdeformation in {sup 82}Sr; structure of and identical bands in {sup 182}Hg and {sup 178}Pt; a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm; particle decay of the {sup 164}Yb compound nucleus; fusion reactions; proton evaporation; two-proton decay of {sup 12}O; modeling and theoretical studies; excited {sup 16}O disassembly into four alpha particles; {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at 28.2 MeV/amu; and development work on 4{pi} solid angle gamma detectors, and x-ray detectors.

Sarantites, D.G.

1993-09-06

339

RadNuc: A graphical user interface to deliver dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine with a 137Cs irradiator  

PubMed Central

The temporal variations in absorbed dose rates to organs and tissues in the body are very large in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The response of biological endpoints of relevance to radiation safety and therapeutic efficacy are generally modulated by dose rate. Therefore, it is important to understand how the complex dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine impact relevant biological responses. Accordingly, a graphical user interface (GUI) was created to control a cesium-137 irradiator to deliver such dose rate patterns. Methods Visual Basic 6.0 was used to create a user-friendly GUI to control the dose rate by varying the thickness of a mercury attenuator. The GUI facilitates the delivery of a number of dose rate patterns including constant, exponential increase or decrease, and multi-component exponential. Extensive visual feedback is provided by the GUI during both the planning and delivery stages. Results The GUI controlled irradiator can achieve a maximum dose rate of 40 cGy/hr and a minimum dose rate of 0.01 cGy/hr. Addition of machined lead blocks can be used to further reduce the minimum dose rate to 0.0001 cGy/hr. Measured dose rate patterns differed from programmed dose rate patterns in total dose by 3.2% to 8.4%. Conclusion The GUI controlled irradiator is able to accurately create dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine and other related fields. This makes it an invaluable tool for studying the effects of chronic constant and variable low dose rates on biological tissues in the contexts of both radiation protection and clinical administration of internal radionuclides. PMID:23265668

Pasternack, Jordan B.; Howell, Roger W.

2012-01-01

340

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980  

SciTech Connect

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-05-01

341

Oregon State University nuclear chemistry progress report, August 1, 1992--July 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics related to nuclear chemistry: Element 110; synthesis of heavy nuclei with complete fusion reactions involving radioactive nuclear beams; the interaction of 21--44 MeV/nucleon Xe with Au; MeV/nucleon {sup 86}Kr with {sup 197}Au; intermediate energy Ar-Th collisions; target-like fragments from the interaction of 29 MeV/nucleon {sup 208}Pb with {sup 197}Au; the intermediate of 22 and 32 MeV/nucleon {sup 16}O with {sup 197}Au; Au projectile fragmentation at 20 MeV/nucleon; relativistic heavy ion research; and pulse height defect measurements for very heavy ions.

Loveland, W.

1993-07-01

342

Progress towards Determining the Density Dependence of the Nuclear Symmetry Energy Using Heavy-Ion Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest development in determining the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy using heavy-ion collisions is reviewed. Within the IBUU04 version of an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model using a modified Gogny effective interaction, recent experimental data from NSCL/MSU on isospin diffusion are found to be consistent with a nuclear symmetry energy of $E_{sym}(\\rho)\\approx 31.6(\\rho /\\rho_{0})^{1.05}$ at subnormal densities. Predictions on several observables sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at supranormal densities accessible at GSI and the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) are also made.

Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zuo, Wei

2006-04-01

343

Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

1999-05-13

344

Progress report on research in nuclear physics, August 1, 1994--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The progress on Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40314 from August 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995, is summarized in this report. The activities for the past year were focused on the rare electron capture studies, using experimental facilities at Tennessee Technological University and Montana State University. Also discussed are the PC-based multiparameter data acquisition systems and the two-dimensional position-sensitive microchannel plate detector.

Kozub, R.L.; Hindi, M.M.

1995-07-01

345

AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROJECT QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR PERIOD ENDING DECEMBER 10, 1952  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>The most significant ARE modification was the completion of the off-; gas system design. Progress is repeated on valves, pumps, instrumentation, and ; other compcnents of the fluoride-fuel and reflector-coolant circuits. A ; rotameter-type flowmeter and the modified Moore Nullmatic pressure transmitter ; were tested. The heattransfer coefficient of a sodium-to-air radiator was ; increased by 20%. General design studies

W. B. ed

1960-01-01

346

Modeling, analysis and experiments for fusion nuclear technology: FNT progress report: Modeling and FINESSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a progress report on two technical studies carried out during 1986, both of which relate to the implementation phase of FNT. The first, which is a follow-up to FINESSE, focuses on specific key questions for: (1) very near-term (0 to 3 years) non-fusion experiments and facilities, and (2) FNT testing in a fusion facility. The second is

M. A. Abdou; M. S. Tillack; A. R. Raffray; A. H. Hadid; J. R. Bartlit; C. E. C. Bell; P. J. Gierszewski; J. D. Gordon; T. Iizuka; C. N. Kim

1987-01-01

347

PROGRESS IN REDUCING THE NUCLEAR THREAT: UNITED STATES PLUTONIUM CONSOLIDATION AND DISPOSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the end of the Cold War, the United States identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and larger quantities of enriched uranium that are permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs. The Department of Energy (DOE) also began shutting down, stabilizing, and removing inventories from production facilities that were no longer needed to support weapons programs and non-weapons

Jeffrey S. Allender; Richard E. Koenig; Scott H. Davies

2009-01-01

348

ACCURATE NUCLEAR FUEL BURNUP ANALYSES. Quarterly Progress Report No. 6, March-May 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work has continued on the development of accurate methods for ; determining nuclear fuel burnup. Thermal flux capsule GEV-1, has completed its ; irradiation in MTR and its cooling period. Hardened flux capsule GEV-2 is ; presently in the VBWR and has received about 2 x 10¹⁹ nvt. A fast fission ; capsule GEV-3, containing uranium-238 and thorium232 under cadmium,

B. F. Rider; C. P. Ruiz; J. P. Jr. Peterson; P. S. Jr. Luke

1963-01-01

349

Recent Progress of Nuclear Density Functional Calculations -- Toward to Next-Generation Supercomputer --  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently some approaches to photonuclear reaction, based on the density functional theory, have been developed. We show some results of photoabsorption cross sections for spherical and deformed nuclei. We are now ready for a systematic calculation of excited states for whole nuclear chart, using the next-generation supercomputer.

Inakura, T.

2013-09-01

350

Nuclear Structure Studies Via Neutron Interactions. Progress Report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research performed during the reporting period consisted of (1) the publication of nuclear structure studies of exp 31 Si, exp 34 S, exp 250 Bk, and exp 250 Cf, (2) completion of the analysis of total neutron cross section measurements on the osmium i...

R. F. Carlton

1984-01-01

351

[Electroweak and other interactions in medium-energy nuclear physics]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: spectrum generating algebra; vibrational spectra in the heavy quarkonia; chiral soliton model; pion neutral photoproduction from proton with polarized photons in the delta-1232 region; compton scattering in the delta- 1232 region; nucleon magnetic polarizability and the role of the delta resonance; eta photo- and electroproduction; perturbative QCD; and nuclear muon capture.

Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

1993-12-01

352

Research in heavy-ion nuclear physics. Annual progress report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: Fusion-fission in light nuclear systems; High-resolution Q-value measurement for the {sup 24}Mg+{sup 24}Mg reaction; Heavy-ion reactions and limits to fusion; and Hybrid MWPC-Bragg curve detector development.

Sanders, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.

1992-01-01

353

Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one such disease. Targeted ablation

Ziyi Li; John F Engelhardt

2003-01-01

354

Paralympic medicine.  

PubMed

Paralympic medicine describes the health-care issues of those 4500 or so athletes who gather every 4 years to compete in 20 sports at the Summer Paralympic Games and in five sports at the Winter Paralympic Games. Paralympic athletes compete within six impairment groups: amputation or limb deficiencies, cerebral palsy, spinal cord-related disability, visual impairment, intellectual impairment, or a range of physically impairing disorders that do not fall into the other classification categories, known as les autres. The variety of impairments, many of which are severe, fluctuating, or progressive disorders (and are sometimes rare), makes maintenance of health in thousands of Paralympians while they undertake elite competition an unusual demand on health-care resources. The increased physical fitness of athletes with disabilities has important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction in a population for whom the prevalence of risk factors can be high. PMID:22770458

Webborn, Nick; Van de Vliet, Peter

2012-07-01

355

Taking Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Taking Medicines Drugs in the Body Medicines can enter the body in many different ways, ... many steps happen along the way. Understanding how medicines work in your body can help you learn ...

356

Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew

2011-10-01

357

Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

2008-10-01

358

Atomic mass measurements and nuclear spectroscopy at TRISTAN. Progress report, July 1, 1980-January 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This research program is concerned with measuring atomic masses and decay schemes of short-lived, neutron-rich fission products with the TRISTAN on-line mass separator located at the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), Brookhaven National Laboratory. The determination of accurate masses for neutron-rich nuclei is useful in refining mass equations wich, in turn, are important for calculations related to astrophysical processes and to control and safety of nuclear reactors. During the period covered by this report, efforts have been to aid Brookhaven personnel in the installation and testing of TRISTAN and the associated computer systems, and to begin a program of measurements of ..beta..-ray end-point energies and nuclear decay schemes following successful demonstration of the facility. 2 figures.

Brenner, D.S.

1981-02-01

359

Research in heavy-ion nuclear physics. Annual progress report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Attention was focused on the fission process in light nuclear systems. A model calculation based on the transition-state model of nuclear fission was applied to {sup 47}V fission as populated through multiple entrance channels and to fusion-fission cross sections for production of {sup 28}Al through three different entrance channels. Angular distributions are shown for different mass channels of the {sup 29}Si+{sup 27}Al reaction at E{sub lab} = 125 MeV. Pronounced structure is seen in the symmetric and near-symmetric fission channels from the {sup 24}Mg+{sup 24}Mg reaction; cross sections for binary fragment emission are shown for E{sub lab} = 90 MeV. A large Bragg-curve detector was used in this experiment. Ways to optimize detector response were studied; in addition, the Bragg detector was instrumented with an internal position-sensitive multiwire proportional counter.

Sanders, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.

1992-01-01

360

[Cyclotron based nuclear science]. Progress in research, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the {mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal {mu} decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Z{sub projectile} -- Z{sub target} combinations. Studies of the ({alpha},2{alpha}) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references.

Not Available

1993-07-01

361

Protein-Bound Kynurenine Decreases with the Progression of Age-Related Nuclear Cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Posttranslational modification by UV filters is a key event in human lenses that appears to be largely responsible for normal age-dependent yellowing. It has been proposed that subsequent reactions of these covalently bound UV filters may also be involved in the genesis of age-related nuclear cataract. To examine this hypothesis, the levels of kynurenine-lysine and kynurenine-histidine were measured in

Santiago Vazquez; Nicole R. Parker; Margaret Sheil; Roger J. W. Truscott

2004-01-01

362

Nuclear Power Engineering Education Program, University of Illinois. Progress report, May 15, 1992--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The DOE/CECo Nuclear Power Engineering Education Program at the University of Illinois in its first year has significantly impacted the quality of the power education which our students receive. It has contributed to: the recently completed upgrade of the console of our Advanced TRIGA reactor which increases the reactor`s utility for training, the procurement of new equipment to upgrade and refurbish several of the undergraduate laboratory set-ups, and the procurement of computational workstations in support of the instructional computing laboratory. In addition, smaller amounts of funds were used for the recruitment and retention of top quality graduate students, the support of faculty to visit other institutions to attract top students into the discipline, and to provide funds for faculty to participate in short courses to improve their skills and background in the power area. These items and activities have helped elevate in the student`s perspective the role of nuclear power in the discipline. We feel this is having a favorable impact on student career selection and on ensuring the continued supply of well educated nuclear engineering graduates.

Jones, B.G.

1993-05-01

363

Development of inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'In this research program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Texas A and M University in the development of highly selective inorganic ion exchangers for the removal of cesium and strontium from nuclear tank-waste and from groundwater. Inorganic ion exchangers are developed and characterized at Texas A and M University; ORNL is involved in preparing the powders in engineered forms and testing the performance of the sorbents in actual nuclear waste solutions. The Texas A and M studies are divided into two main categories: (1) exchangers for tank wastes and (2) exchangers for groundwater remediation. These are subdivided into exchangers for use in acid and alkaline solutions for tank wastes and those that can be recycled for use in groundwater remediation. The exchangers will also be considered for in situ immobilization of radionuclides. The approach will involve a combination of exchanger synthesis, structural characterization, and ion exchange behavior. ORNL has developed a technique for preparing inorganic ion exchangers in the form of spherules by a gel-sphere internal gelation process. This technology, which was developed and used for making nuclear fuels, has the potential of greatly enhancing the usability of many other special inorganic materials because of the improved flow dynamics of the spherules. Also, pure inorganic spherules can be made without the use of binders. ORNL also has access to actual nuclear waste in the form of waste tank supernatant solutions for testing the capabilities of the sorbents for removing the cesium and strontium radionuclides from actual waste solutions. The ORNL collaboration will involve the preparation of the powdered ion exchangers, developed and synthesized at Texas A and M, in the form of spherules, and evaluating the performance of the exchangers in real nuclear waste solutions. Selected sorbents will be provided by Texas A and M for potential incorporation into microspheres, and the performance of the sorbents and microspheres will be examined using actual waste supernatant solutions. This collaborative program could potentially take an exchanger from concept, synthesis, structure determination, and elucidation of exchange mechanism, to engineered product and testing on real waste streams.'

Egan, B.Z.; Clearfield, A.; Collins, J.L.

1997-09-01

364

Theoretical and computational studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The research includes applications of many-body scattering theory to nuclear systems and studies of few-body systems described by effective hadronic field theories. Progress was made in bringing all first-order effects into the nonrelativistic elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering in a consistent fashion. This work is directed towards completely and reliably calculating the first-order term in a Watson expansion including a modification through the nulear medium. The research effort in few-body physics was concentrated on nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering below pion production threshold, where recent measurements indicated that the backward-angle neutron-proton (np) differential cross section may show sensitivity to the size of the pion-nucleon coupling constant.

Elster, C.

1993-08-01

365

Individualized pain medicine  

PubMed Central

Since the first draft of the human genome was published 10 years ago, scientists have tried to develop new treatment strategies for various types of diseases based on individual genomes. It is called personalized (or individualized) medicine and is expected to increase efficacy and reduce adverse reactions of drugs. Much progress has been made with newly developed technologies, though individualized pain medicine is still far from realization. Efforts on the integrative genomic analyses along with understandings of interactions between other related factors such as environment will eventually translate complex genomic information into individualized pain medicine. PMID:21399745

Kim, Hyungsuk; Dionne, Raymond A.

2010-01-01

366

Nuclear medicine in the rehabilitative treatment evaluation in stroke recovery. Role of diaschisis resolution and cerebral reorganization.  

PubMed

There has recently been a tremendous increase in imaging technology and imaging methodology enabling noninvasive exploration of brain function to such an intricate degree as to enable measurements of very small spatial and short temporal cerebral operations responsible for neurological and functional recovery after stroke. This has allowed conceptualization of rehabilitation strategies designed to maximally enhance rehabilitation protocols tailored to the individual patient's deficits. Rehabilitation strategies may now be designed and optimized by employing methods to synchronize functional training of brain regions ascribed to those areas innately undergoing neuronal plasticity change responsible for stroke recovery. In order to effectively apply these noninvasive imaging methods, one must have a clear understanding of the physics and technique of the imaging methodologies and how these are best applied to understand brain physiology during the stroke recovery process to provide a solid rationale for development of rehabilitation protocols. Nuclear medicine imaging is first presented as a diagnostic method to assess the stroke process. The initial brain damage and resulting neurological disability can be primarily assessed in terms of changes in the vascular and hemodynamic status of the cerebral circulation in addition to alterations in the metabolic status around the infarction region. Techniques for assessing perfusion and metabolism include regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and F-18 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, hemodynamic vascular insufficiency can be assessed using O-15 O2 oxygen extraction PET and rest and Diamox rCBF SPECT. The status of the peri-infarction region can be characterized in terms of components of diaschisis and ischemia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging ((1)H MRSI) and rest/stress rCBF assessment of cerebral vascular reserve. As the brain recovers from cerebral infarction, areas of reorganization and energy utilization by the brain can be measured using oxygen extraction methods with PET, F-18 FDG glucose utilization by PET, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures using the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) technique. In addition, high field MRI imaging of the brain is now able to provide detailed fractional anisotropy (FA) maps to characterize changes in white matter by fiber tracking mapping using diffusion tensor imaging. Imaging of the stroke recovery process focuses on the physiologic model of stroke characterized by rCBF, metabolism, 1H spectroscopic measures of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Ch) and creatine (Cr) in the peri-infarction zone as well as in the extended stroke penumbra including areas of distant ''pure'' diaschisis unencumbered with the confound of cerebral ischemia. Data is presented describing the results of application of imaging methodologies as the patient undergoes rehabilitation that demonstrates the importance of blood flow and metabolic changes in the contralesional frontal lobe both during the resting state and during motor and speech activation paradigms. The results of advanced imaging technologies on cerebral damage and cerebral reorganization during rehabilitation are presented in the context of furthering designs of rehabilitation strategies. Success can be monitored to assess the optimization of rehabilitation strategy design to maximize neurological recovery from stroke by employing facilitatory methods to maximally synchronize rehabilitation techniques with recovery of functionally counterpart areas of viable brain. PMID:17268387

Mountz, J M

2007-06-01

367

Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts inhibiting molecular interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA sequences mimicking NF-kappaB binding sites.  

PubMed

Several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of extracts derived from different medicinal plants of Bangladesh in interfering with specific DNA-protein interactions. The rationale for this study is based on the observation that alteration of gene transcription represents a very promising approach to control the expression of selected genes and could be obtained using different molecules acting on the interactions between DNA and transcription factors (TFs). We have analysed the antiproliferative activity of extracts from the medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Aphanamixis polystachya, Moringa oleifera, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata and Ocimum sanctum. Antiproliferative activity was assayed on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat and erythroleukemia HEL cell lines. We employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) as a suitable technique for the identification of plant extracts altering the binding between transcription factors and the specific DNA elements. We found that low concentrations of Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Moringa oleifera and Lagerstroemia speciosa, and very low concentrations of Aphanamixis polystachya extracts inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). On the contrary, high amount of extracts from Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata or Ocimum sanctum were unable to inhibit NF-kappaB/DNA interactions. Extracts inhibiting both NF-kappaB binding activity and tumor cell growth might be a source for anti-tumor compounds, while extracts inhibiting NF-kappaB/DNA interactions with lower effects on cell growth, could be of interest in the search of compounds active in inflammatory diseases, for which inhibition of NF-kappaB binding activity without toxic effects should be obtained. PMID:16789890

Lampronti, I; Khan, M T H; Bianchi, N; Ather, A; Borgatti, M; Vizziello, L; Fabbri, E; Gambari, R

2005-07-01

368

Development of improved thermoelectric materials for space nuclear power systems. Sixth technical progress report, March 1985  

SciTech Connect

The program consists of two main tasks encompassing (1) the development of an improved SiGe alloy and (2) the development of an as yet unspecified advanced material intended to have superior performance characteristics when compared to SiGe alloys. Significant progress was made toward the goal of producing a SiGe based material with an improved figure-of-merit during this reporting period. In these studies, a quantitative evaluation of the characteristics which produce the low thermal conductivities observed in SiGe alloys is being developed. Specific areas of emphasis include the effects of grain size, charge carrier and GaP concentrations. An alternate method for alloying with GaP was evaluated in which the GaP was added to SiGe during the melting operation.

Not Available

1985-01-01

369

PROGRESS IN REDUCING THE NUCLEAR THREAT: UNITED STATES PLUTONIUM CONSOLIDATION AND DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Following the end of the Cold War, the United States identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and larger quantities of enriched uranium that are permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs. The Department of Energy (DOE) also began shutting down, stabilizing, and removing inventories from production facilities that were no longer needed to support weapons programs and non-weapons activities. The storage of 'Category I' nuclear materials at Rocky Flats, Sandia National Laboratories, and several smaller sites has been terminated to reduce costs and safeguards risks. De-inventory continues at the Hanford site and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Consolidation of inventories works in concert with the permanent disposition of excess inventories, including several tonnes of plutonium that have already been disposed to waste repositories and the preparation for transfers to the planned Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (for the bulk of the excess plutonium) and alternative disposition methods for material that cannot be used readily in the MOX fuel cycle. This report describes status of plutonium consolidation and disposition activities and their impacts on continuing operations, particularly at the Savannah River Site.

Allender, J.; Koenig, R.; Davies, S.

2009-06-01

370

[Research in theoretical nuclear physics]. [Annual progress report, July 1992--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The main subject of research was the physics of matter at energy densities greater than 0.15 GeV/fm{sup 3}. Theory encompasses the relativistic many-body/quantum field theory aspects of QCD and the electroweak interactions at these high energy densities, both in and out of thermal equilibrium. Applications range from neutron stars/pulsars to QCD and electroweak phase transitions in the early universe, from baryon number violation in cosmology to the description of nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN and at Brookhaven. Recent activity to understand the properties of matter at energy densities where the electroweak W and Z boson degrees of freedom are important is reported. This problem has applications to cosmology and has the potential to explain the baryon asymmetry produced in the big bang at energies where the particle degrees of freedom will soon be experimentally, probed. This problem is interesting for nuclear physics because of the techniques used in many-body, physics of nuclei and the quark-gluon plasma may be extended to this new problem. The was also interested in problems related to multiparticle production. This includes work on production of particles in heavy-ion collisions, the small x part, of the nuclear and hadron wave function, and multiparticle production induced by instantons in weakly coupled theories. These problems have applications in the heavy ion program at RHIC and the deep inelastic scattering experiments at HERA.

Kapusta, J.I.

1993-12-31

371

Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression  

PubMed Central

Cell division requires the coordination of critical protein kinases and phosphatases. Greatwall (Gwl) kinase activity inactivates PP2A-B55 at mitotic entry to promote the phosphorylation of cyclin B–Cdk1 substrates, but how Gwl is regulated is poorly understood. We found that the subcellular localization of Gwl changed dramatically during the cell cycle in Drosophila. Gwl translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in prophase. We identified two critical nuclear localization signals in the central, poorly characterized region of Gwl, which are required for its function. The Polo kinase associated with and phosphorylated Gwl in this region, promoting its binding to 14-3-3? and its localization to the cytoplasm in prophase. Our results suggest that cyclin B–Cdk1 phosphorylation of Gwl is also required for its nuclear exclusion by a distinct mechanism. We show that the nucleo-cytoplasmic regulation of Gwl is essential for its functions in vivo and propose that the spatial regulation of Gwl at mitotic entry contributes to the mitotic switch. PMID:23857770

Wang, Peng; Galan, Jacob A.; Normandin, Karine; Bonneil, Éric; Hickson, Gilles R.; Roux, Philippe P.; Thibault, Pierre

2013-01-01

372

Cell cycle regulation of Greatwall kinase nuclear localization facilitates mitotic progression.  

PubMed

Cell division requires the coordination of critical protein kinases and phosphatases. Greatwall (Gwl) kinase activity inactivates PP2A-B55 at mitotic entry to promote the phosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdk1 substrates, but how Gwl is regulated is poorly understood. We found that the subcellular localization of Gwl changed dramatically during the cell cycle in Drosophila. Gwl translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in prophase. We identified two critical nuclear localization signals in the central, poorly characterized region of Gwl, which are required for its function. The Polo kinase associated with and phosphorylated Gwl in this region, promoting its binding to 14-3-3? and its localization to the cytoplasm in prophase. Our results suggest that cyclin B-Cdk1 phosphorylation of Gwl is also required for its nuclear exclusion by a distinct mechanism. We show that the nucleo-cytoplasmic regulation of Gwl is essential for its functions in vivo and propose that the spatial regulation of Gwl at mitotic entry contributes to the mitotic switch. PMID:23857770

Wang, Peng; Galan, Jacob A; Normandin, Karine; Bonneil, Éric; Hickson, Gilles R; Roux, Philippe P; Thibault, Pierre; Archambault, Vincent

2013-07-22

373

Theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, October 1, 1991--August 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in the {triangle}-resonance region; hadronic matter in a nontopological soliton model; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda} {Lambda}} reaction; 0+ and 2+ strengths in pion double-charge exchange to double giant-dipole resonances; and nucleons in a hybrid sigma model including a quantized pion field.

Rost, E.; Shephard, J.R.

1992-08-01

374

Contaminant transport during atmospheric pumping of a nuclear chimney: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Cyclical variations in barometric pressure cause an oscillatory up-and-down motion of gases within the chimney produced by an underground nuclear test. Analytical and experimental modeling of this atmospheric pumping mechanism has been undertaken to better understand and to quantify the associated rates of cavity gas migration toward the earth's surface and the probable rate of release to the atmosphere. Three different types of models are being investigated: (1) homogeneous porous medium; (2) fractured medium with impermeable matrix blocks; and (3) double-porosity media consisting of fracture networks among porous matrix blocks. A primary purpose is to understand how the oscillatory character of the atmospheric pumping process might significantly enhance the contaminant transport in any or all of the three classes of media. This preliminary report describes some of the analytical, numerical, and experimental work which have been completed.

Nilson, R.H.; Peterson, E.W.

1986-09-01

375

Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of various aspects of heavy-ion collisions were carried out in the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin Model (BLM). In a previous work, by projection the BLM onto a collective space, a memory-dependent collective transport model was reduced. This model was applied to thermal fission to investigate the influence of the memory effects on the fission dynamics. Some results of the calculations are presented. In addition a reduction of the relativistic BLM to a two-fluid model was carried out, and transport coefficients associated with fluid dynamical variables was carried out. Then this model was applied to investigate equilabration and fluctuation properties in a counter-streaming nuclear fluid.

Ayik, S.

1993-02-01

376

Nepheline Crystallization in Nuclear Waste Glasses: Progress toward acceptance of high-alumina formulations  

SciTech Connect

We have critically compiled and analyzed historical data for investigating the quantity of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) precipitation as a function of composition in simulated nuclear waste glasses. To understand composition we used two primary methods: 1) investigating the Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O ternary with filtering for different B2O3 levels and 2) creating a quadrant system consisting of compositions reduced to two metric numbers. These metrics are 1) the nepheline discriminator (ND) which depends only on the SiO2 content by weight normalized to the total weight of the Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O sub-mixture and 2) the optical basicity (OB) which contains contributions from all constituents in the glass. Nepheline precipitation is expected to be suppressed at high SiO2 levels (ND >0.62) or at low basicities (OB <0.55 to 0.57). Changes in sodium aluminosilicate glass OB due to additions of CaO and B2O3 correlate with observed effects on nepheline formation. We propose that additional composition space is available for formulating high-waste-loading, high-Al¬2O3 nuclear waste glasses when Na2O levels are less than ~0.125 (normalized by weight on the Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O sub-mixture). However, this compositional space is considerably extended to higher Na2O levels when adding >5 wt% B2O3. The OB concept can help further refine regions of nepheline-free glass formation.

McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Vienna, John D.

2011-09-01

377

Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1982. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has in progress several discrete investigations for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concerned with process wastes during the active life of uranium mills and during an extended period following their shutdown. The overall objective of this research is to provide NRC and their licensees with technical guidance on several issues related to management of wastes

L. C. Schwendiman; G. W. Gee; J. N. Hartley; J. Mishima; D. R. Sherwood; W. B. Silker; R. J. Serne; R. W. Nelson; N. A. Wogman; W. J. Deutsch

1982-01-01

378

Sensor controlled robotic welding for nuclear power plant operations: Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed research is to apply real time monitoring, artificial intelligence and on-line correction to dynamically control the depth of weld penetration and weld integrity during the welding process. Welding is a major technique used in the fabrication, construction and maintenance of power generating and energy conversion systems. In the welding process, fluctuations in process variables lead to weld defects such as lack of penetration, cracks, porosity and undesirable metallurgical structures. This research will apply advanced infrared sensing techniques which have been successfully used in seam tracking to the equally complex problem of weld defect and weld puddle penetration control. Thermal temperature distributions of plates being welded will be dynamically measured during welding using infrared techniques. These temperature distributions will be used to interpret changes in the size and shape of the molten metal pool and the presence of conditions that may lead to defects in the solidified weld. The ultimate result of this research will be the development of machines which are capable of sensing and altering process variables to eliminate defective welds and increase the productivity of the welding process. Successful completion of this proposed research will lead to potential major improvements in the fabrication, construction and maintenance of advanced nuclear reactors and promote increased safety and reliability while decreasing construction costs. 47 refs., 50 figs.

Chin, B.A.

1989-06-08

379

Natural language processing: state of the art and prospects for significant progress, a workshop sponsored by the National Library of Medicine.  

PubMed

Natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for advancing healthcare because it is needed to transform relevant information locked in text into structured data that can be used by computer processes aimed at improving patient care and advancing medicine. In light of the importance of NLP to health, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently sponsored a workshop to review the state of the art in NLP focusing on text in English, both in biomedicine and in the general language domain. Specific goals of the NLM-sponsored workshop were to identify the current state of the art, grand challenges and specific roadblocks, and to identify effective use and best practices. This paper reports on the main outcomes of the workshop, including an overview of the state of the art, strategies for advancing the field, and obstacles that need to be addressed, resulting in recommendations for a research agenda intended to advance the field. PMID:23810857

Friedman, Carol; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Corn, Milton

2013-10-01

380

Medium energy nuclear physics research. Progress report, July 1, 1987--September 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T{sub 20} experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180{degrees} elastic magnetic scattering on {sup 117}Sn and {sup 41}Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e{prime}) measurements were made in November of 1987 on {sup 10}B in order to better determine the p{sub 3/2} wave function from the transition from the J{sup pi} = 3{sup +} ground state to the O{sup +} excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e{prime}p) coincidence measurements on {sup 10}B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p{sub 3/2} wave function by another means.

Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

1988-09-01

381

Simulation of Thermal Responses of 125TeO2 Solid Target to Energetic Proton Bombardment from Cyclotron When Fabricating 124I Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With nuclear medicine receiving greater attention due to its unique characteristics in both diagnostics and therapeutics during recent decades, finding a highly controllable fabrication method becomes more urgent. The radioisotope 124I (T1/2=4.18d E?+=2.13MeV I?+=25%) has gained plentiful interests in the medical usages such as functioning imaging of cell proliferation in brain tumors using [124I]iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), imaging of immunoreactions in tumors using 124I-labelled monoclonal antibodies, the in-vivo imaging of 124I-labelled tyrosine derivatives, and the classical imaging of thyroid diseases with 124I, among others. Furthermore, it is because that thermal response of target during the fabrication process may affect the production of 124I to some extent and needs thorough investigations. Hence, the compact cyclotron located in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was employed in this study to generate 20MeV protons to irradiate TeO2 solid targets in which the radioisotopes 124I were produced through the 125Te(p, 2n)124I nuclear reaction. In addition, the widely-used ANSYS computer code was adopted to theoretically analyze thermal responses of TeO2 to irradiation cases with variations in ion beam current and its thermal conductivity. The results indicate that TeO2 temperature is strongly dependent on its thermal conductivity and ion beam current. In particular, TeO2 surface temperature is extremely sensitive to the air-gap size between TeO2 and target holder. Thus the target holder is suggested to be re-designed in order to prevent TeO2 from melting and a high efficiency production of radioisotopes 124I for nuclear medical diagnostics can be successfully achieved.

Peir, Jinn-Jer; Liang, Jenq-Horng; Duh, Ting-Shieh

382

Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of technetium(V)-oxo complexes useful in nuclear medicine. 1. Complexes of mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG{sub 3}) and its methyl ester derivative (MAG{sub 3}OMe)  

SciTech Connect

Mercptoacetylpeptide complexes of {sup 99g}Tc are useful compounds for nuclear medicine. This work describes the synthesis and structural characterization of a mercaptoacetylglyclglycylglycine complex and its esterified analog. Structural characterization is accomplished through NMR, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography.

Grummon, G.; Rajagopalan, R.; Palenik, G.J. [Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-03-29

383

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau, Germany, July 9-13, 2007 Abstract--Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)  

E-print Network

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau is with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (e-mail: jingwang@mil.sunysb.edu). H. Lu was with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA

384

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utah, USA, July 9-13, 2005 Abstract--This work investigated a Karhunen-Loeve (K-L)  

E-print Network

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utah, USA51466. Lu was with the Department of Radiology, State Univ of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA of Radiology, Computer Science and Physics, State Univ of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (phone: 631

385

Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, 950 and 1050/sup 0/C. Initiation of controlled purity helium creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the results of 1000-hour exposures at 750 and 850/sup 0/C on several experimental alloys are discussed.

Not Available

1980-12-12

386

Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described; this includes: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850 and 950/sup 0/C. The initiation of air creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the status of the data management system is described.

Not Available

1980-11-14

387

Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

388

Nuclear Regulatory Commission should report on progress in implementing lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission prepared an Action Plan consisting of 176 items that it believed were necessary to improve utilities' operations and NRC's regulation of nuclear plants. Responsibility for implementing the Plan was divided among utilities building and operating nuclear plants, the NRC staff, and the NRC

Bowsher

1985-01-01

389

What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?  

PubMed

Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients. PMID:20211453

Beran, Roy G

2010-04-01

390

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Nuclear physics, lasers, and medicine(Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 14 December 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 14 December 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Kotov Yu D (National Research Nuclear University 'Moscow Engineering Physics Institute' (MEPhI), Institute of Astrophysics, Moscow) "High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS"; (2) Pakhlov P N (Russian Federation State Scientific Center 'Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,' Moscow) "Exotic charmonium"; (3) Shcherbakov I A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser and plasma technologies in medicine"; (4) Balakin V E (Center for Physics and Technology, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Protvino, Moscow region) "New-generation equipment and technologies for the ray therapy of oncological diseases using a proton beam"; (5) Kravchuk L V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS." Papers based on reports 1, 3, and 5 are published below. The expanded content of the report by Pakhlov is presented in review form in Physics-Uspekhi 53 219 (2010). • High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS, Yu D Kotov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 619-631 • Laser physics in medicine, I A Shcherbakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 631-635 • Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, L V Kravchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 635-639

2010-09-01

391

MACPISA-CANDU: Multi-step Approach to Code-coupling for Progression Induced Severe Accidents in CANDU Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology called the Multi-step Approach to Code-coupling for Progression Induced Severe Accidents in CANDU nuclear power plants (MACPISA-CANDU) was developed and applied. MACPISA-CANDU was used to couple a MATLAB single fuel channel model with a primary heat transport system model developed in MELCOR (MELCOR 1.8.5) to model a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) in conjunction with a

Daniel J. Pohl

2009-01-01

392

The roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in S-Type male-sterile maize. Progress report, April 1, 1985--March 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

This is a progress report/renewal request for work of the roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in s-type male sterile maize. Information is included for the following major catagories of research on this project: molecular basis for nuclear reversion; molecular characterization of cytoplasmic revertants; nuclear control over cytoplasmic reversion and over replication of S1 and S2; developmental studies; transposition of nuclear restorer elements.

Laughnan, J.R.

1995-03-01

393

Damage dosimetry and embrittlement monitoring of nuclear pressure vessels in real time by magnetic properties measurement. Technical progress report for year 2, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technique for real-time monitoring of neutron dose and of the onset and progression of embrittlement in operating nuclear pressure vessels. The technique relies on the measurement of magnetic properties of steel and other magnetic materials which are extremely sensitive to radiation-induced properties changes. The approach being developed here is innovative and unique. It promises to be readily applicable to all existing and planned reactor structures. The significance of this program is that it addresses a major concern in the operation of existing nuclear pressure vessels. The development of microscopic defect clusters during irradiation in the nuclear pressure vessel beltline region leads to an increase in material yield strength and a concomitant decrease in ductility, or ability to absorb energy in fracture (i.e. fracture toughness). This decrease in fracture toughness is alarming since it may impair the ability of the pressure vessel to resist fracture during unusual loading situations.

Stubbins, J.F.; Ougouag, A.M.; Williams, J.G.

1992-07-01

394

[Expedition medicine].  

PubMed

Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism. PMID:23120871

Donlagi?, Lana

2009-01-01

395

Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

2007--2008 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Takao Shimizu Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The Faculty of Medicine

Miyashita, Yasushi

396

[Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].  

PubMed

In the year 1402 one of the first German universities was founded by bishop Johann von Egloffstein, but it had last in its full composition for only a few decades. Nevertheless, the 600th anniversary has a great importance, because in the 16th century, during the second foundation, there was an adequate tradition of university in Würzburg to lean on and go back to.Although, in a medical-history view, in 1402 this university had been without a greater importance, the medicine in Würzburg in the Middle Ages and the Early modern Times had been on a high level, what is shown by representatives like Ortolf von Baierland (13th century) and Berthold Blumentrost (14th century) or by documents like the 'Würzburger Wundarznei' at the end of the 15th century and the 'Nüttzlicher Bericht' by Walther Hermann Ryff, printed 1548 in Würzburg, as one of the first dental mongraphies.A lasting success was finally the university opened in the year 1582. In 1575/6 bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn had reached, using the traditions of the university of 1402, a new privilege by the pope and the emperor. The medical faculty which was functional deeply connected with the Juliusspital as a kind of hospital right from the beginning, was determined by Wilhelm Schefferlein, Gottfriedt van der Steighe and Adriaen van Roomen. In the beginning of the 17th century the medical faculty turned pale, but two representatives of the philosophic faculty, Athanasius Kircher and Caspar Schott, accomplished remarkable outcomes in medical fields. Heavily stricken by the Thirty Years' War the medicine at the University of Würzburg was changed by the prince-bishops to the model of the University of Leiden, in order to improve the feeble position of the medical faculty. After not being successful in the beginning, the foundation of the blossom and of its worldwide importance had been laid in the last third of the 18th century. Karl Kaspar Siebold had, with the help of some of his fellows, students, and his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt. PMID:15635774

Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

2003-01-01

397

Cough Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report in the journal Pediatrics questioned the effectiveness of over-the-counter children's cough medicines. In this Science Update, you'll hear more about the study, and why some medicines may have escaped this sort of rigorous testing.

Science Update;

2004-08-16

398

Vulnerable Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

Bochner, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

399

Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

that integrated health sciences, preventive medicine, environmental medicine, and nursing will become increasingly; strengthening preventive medicine; improving hospital management and medical services delivery

Miyashita, Yasushi

400

SPACE-R Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System: Design and Technology Demonstration Program. Semiannual technical progress report for period ending March 1993  

SciTech Connect

This Semiannual Technical Progress Report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments for the Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System (TI-SNPS) Design and Technology Demonstration Program of the Prime Contractor, Space Power Incorporated (SPI), its subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories during the first half of the Government Fiscal Year (GFY) 1993. SPI`s subcontractors and supporting National Laboratories include: Babcock & Wilcox for the reactor core and externals; Space Systems/Loral for the spacecraft integration; Thermocore for the radiator heat pipes and the heat exchanger; INERTEK of CIS for the TFE, core elements and nuclear tests; Argonne National Laboratories for nuclear safety, physics and control verification; and Oak Ridge National laboratories for materials testing. Parametric trade studies are near completion. However, technical input from INERTEK has yet to be provided to determine some of the baseline design configurations. The INERTEK subcontract is expected to be initiated soon. The Point Design task has been initiated. The thermionic fuel element (TFE) is undergoing several design iterations. The reactor core vessel analysis and design has also been started.

Not Available

1993-05-01

401

Molecular imaging with optics: primer and case for near-infrared fluorescence techniques in personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

We compare and contrast the development of optical molecular imaging techniques with nuclear medicine with a didactic emphasis for initiating readers into the field of molecular imaging. The nuclear imaging techniques of gamma scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography are first briefly reviewed. The molecular optical imaging techniques of bioluminescence and fluorescence using gene reporter/probes and gene reporters are described prior to introducing the governing factors of autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. The use of dual-labeled, near-infrared excitable and radio-labeled agents are described with comparative measurements between planar fluorescence and nuclear molecular imaging. The concept of time-independent and -dependent measurements is described with emphasis on integrating time-dependent measurements made in the frequency domain for 3-D tomography. Finally, we comment on the challenges and progress for translating near-infrared (NIR) molecular imaging agents for personalized medicine. PMID:19021311

Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Rasmussen, John C.

2010-01-01

402

Wilderness medicine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Human activity in wilderness areas has increased globally in recent decades, leading to increased risk of injury and illness. Wilderness medicine has developed in response to both need and interest. METHODS: The field of wilderness medicine encompasses many areas of interest. Some focus on special circumstances (such as avalanches) while others have a broader scope (such as trauma care). Several core areas of key interest within wilderness medicine are discussed in this study. RESULTS: Wilderness medicine is characterized by remote and improvised care of patients with routine or exotic illnesses or trauma, limited resources and manpower, and delayed evacuation to definitive care. Wilderness medicine is developing rapidly and draws from the breadth of medical and surgical subspecialties as well as the technical fields of mountaineering, climbing, and diving. Research, epidemiology, and evidence-based guidelines are evolving. A hallmark of this field is injury prevention and risk mitigation. The range of topics encompasses high-altitude cerebral edema, decompression sickness, snake envenomation, lightning injury, extremity trauma, and gastroenteritis. Several professional societies, academic fellowships, and training organizations offer education and resources for laypeople and health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The future of wilderness medicine is unfolding on multiple fronts: education, research, training, technology, communications, and environment. Although wilderness medicine research is technically difficult to perform, it is essential to deepening our understanding of the contribution of specific techniques in achieving improvements in clinical outcomes.

Sward, Douglas G.; Bennett, Brad L.

2014-01-01

403

Complementary medicine.  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care. PMID:9584661

Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

1998-01-01

404

Nuclear EGFR signalling network in cancers: linking EGFR pathway to cell cycle progression, nitric oxide pathway and patient survival  

E-print Network

Minireview Nuclear EGFR signalling network in cancers: linking EGFR pathway to cell cycle, USA Emerging evidences suggest the existence of a new mode of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway in which activated EGFR undergoes nuclear translocalization and subsequently regulates

Cai, Long

405

Accumulation of mutant lamin A causes progressive changes in nuclear architecture in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder, commonly caused by a point mutation in the lamin A gene that results in a protein lacking 50 aa near the C terminus, denoted LA50. Here we show by light and electron microscopy that HGPS is associated with significant changes in nuclear shape, including lobulation of the nuclear envelope, thickening of

Robert D. Goldman; Dale K. Shumaker; Michael R. Erdos; Maria Eriksson; Anne E. Goldman; Leslie B. Gordon; Yosef Gruenbaum; Satya Khuon; Melissa Mendez; Renée Varga; Francis S. Collins

2004-01-01

406

Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

NONE

1991-03-01

407

Medicinal Herbman  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Japanese gardens are admired for their understated elegance, their meditation/movement fusion, their precise placement of essential elements such as water and stone. In this last way at least, Medicinal Herbman is typically...

Hacker, Randi

2010-07-21

408

Forensic Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary of forensic medicine; Life reactions; Necrosis and necrotic phenomena; Causes of death and violent deaths; Mechanical injuries; Poisoning and tests for poisons; Mechanical suffocation; Injury and death from burns and scalds; Electrocutio...

1969-01-01

409

Medicines management.  

PubMed

The Yellow Card reporting system is a way for healthcare professionals and the public to report suspected adverse reactions (side effects) to a medicine, vaccine, herbal or complementary remedy. PMID:25370251

Griffiths, Matt

2014-11-01

410

ADHD Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Learning & Emotional Problems > ... and the Mind How Therapy Can Help About ADHD Have you ever been so bored that you ...

411

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments for glaucoma. Use of alternative medicine continues to increase, although ... positive impact on your overall health and other glaucoma risk factors including high blood pressure. Always talk ...

412

Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

2005--2006 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Nobutaka Hirokawa Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The University of Tokyo Graduate

Miyashita, Yasushi

413

Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.  

PubMed

Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants, including persons providing student support, in the program. PMID:23561457

Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

2013-05-01

414

Nuclear Accumulation of the Papillomavirus E1 Helicase Blocks S-Phase Progression and Triggers an ATM-Dependent DNA Damage Response?  

PubMed Central

Replication of the papillomavirus genome is initiated by the assembly of a complex between the viral E1 and E2 proteins at the origin. The E1 helicase is comprised of a C-terminal ATPase/helicase domain, a central domain that binds to the origin, and an N-terminal regulatory region that contains nuclear import and export signals mediating its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. We previously reported that nuclear accumulation of E1 has a deleterious effect on cellular proliferation which can be prevented by its nuclear export. Here we have shown that nuclear accumulation of E1 from different papillomavirus types blocks cell cycle progression in early S phase and triggers the activation of a DNA damage response (DDR) and of the ATM pathway in a manner that requires both the origin-binding and ATPase activities of E1. Complex formation with E2 reduces the ability of E1 to induce a DDR but does not prevent cell cycle arrest. Transient viral DNA replication still occurs in S-phase-arrested cells but surprisingly is neither affected by nor dependent on induction of a DDR and of the ATM kinase. Finally, we provide evidence that a DDR is also induced in human papillomavirus type 31 (HPV31)-immortalized keratinocytes expressing a mutant E1 protein defective for nuclear export. We propose that nuclear export of E1 prevents cell cycle arrest and the induction of a DDR during the episomal maintenance phase of the viral life cycle and that complex formation with E2 further safeguards undifferentiated cells from undergoing a DDR when E1 is in the nucleus. PMID:21734051

Fradet-Turcotte, Amelie; Bergeron-Labrecque, Fanny; Moody, Cary A.; Lehoux, Michael; Laimins, Laimonis A.; Archambault, Jacques

2011-01-01

415

Development of tailored ceramics for geologic storage of nuclear wastes. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Tailored ceramics are crystalline assemblages made by high-temperature and pressure consolidation of a nuclear waste with selected additives. The multitask program includes waste form development and characterizations, and process and equipment development. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-02-15

416

Recent Progress in Constraining the Equation of State of Dense Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter with Heavy-Ion Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear symmetry energy E(?) is the most uncertain part of the Equation of State (EOS) of dense neutron-rich nuclear matter. In this talk, we discuss the underlying physics responsible for the uncertain E(?) especially at supra-saturation densities, the circumstantial evidence for a super-soft E(?) from analyzing ?-/?+ ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and its impacts on astrophysics and cosmology.

Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xiao, Zhigang; Xu, Chang; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zhang, Ming

2010-03-01

417

A Collaborative Needs Assessment and Work Plan in Behavioral Medicine Curriculum Development in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of family medicine education in the United States and abroad is behavioral medicine. Interpersonal and communication skills, mental health assessment, and sensitivity to diverse patient populations are areas of curricular importance. This article describes the behavioral medicine portion of a family medicine consultation with Vietnam, in progress since 1999. The needs assessment for behavioral medicine reveals few

Julie M. Schirmer; Cynthia Cartwright; Alain J. Montegut; George K. Dreher; Jeffrey Stovall

2004-01-01

418

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

419

[Special considerations for the regulation of biological medicinal products in individualised medicine. More than stratified medicine].  

PubMed

The term individualised medicine, also called personalised medicine, is commonly used as an equivalent to stratified medicine. However, this is erroneous since quite often it is forgotten that especially biological medicinal products have other aspects of individualization that go beyond mere stratification. The principles of stratified medicine have been applied for biological medicinal products for many years. A historical example is diphtheria antitoxin made from horse serum, while current examples are transfusion of red blood cells and the administration of factor VIII in haemophilia A. The stratifying aspects of these medicinal products are given by the following considerations: diphtheria antitoxin is only administered after a diagnosis of diphtheria and not in other forms of tonsillitis, red blood cells should only be transfused once blood group compatibility as been established and factor VIII replacement is only administered in haemophilia A as opposed to other acquired or hereditary disease of the coagulation system. The peculiarities of biological medicinal products, in particular the inherent variability of the drug, are especially important for autologous cellular medicinal products. In addition to the expected variability of the biological source material there is interindividual variability of patients as cell donors, which make definition of specifications and determination of criteria for pharmaceutical quality and potency tests difficult. Therapy with modified autologous cells, a common and important application of advanced therapy medicinal products, is exemplary for the special considerations that must be made when evaluating pharmaceutical quality, mode of action and toxicological properties of the biological medicine. The clinical investigation of advanced therapy medicinal products with the intent of demonstrating safety and efficacy is particularly challenging because of the complexity of therapy, which often involves invasive interventions. The development of biomarkers accelerates the process towards stratified or individualised therapies. Increased requirements for companion diagnostics are a possible consequence. Progress in analytical processes and in biotechnology make a higher degree of individualization likely, possibly to the degree that medicinal products will be individually manufactured for each patient. Current principles of medicinal product testing and market authorization may be applicable only with limitations, because the individual medicinal products are not uniform and are not repeatedly manufactured. The assessment of the process, performed on several different medicinal products manufactured by the same process could potentially serve as a basis for the assessment. For the evaluation of risk for the patient in clinical trials new concepts must be considered, which can be facilitated by interaction of regulatory authorities and developers. PMID:24170083

Müller-Berghaus, J; Volkers, P; Scherer, J; Cichutek, K

2013-11-01

420

Use of therapeutic radionuclides in medicine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to follow the course of historical development in the use of radiopharmaceuticals as a therapeutic tool in nuclear medicine. This chapter is designed to point out the different phases of the development of therapeutic nuclear medicine, pointing out the events which most shaped its history along the way. Those events included the discovery of radioactivity, the development of the cyclotron and nuclear reactor as a method of delivering high specific activity radioactive sources, and a few significant therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I and 32P. The most significant therapeutic radionuclide was radium, which is treated very extensively in this paper from an historical viewpoint. It is only recently that attention of the nuclear medicine community turned to new therapeutic agents, such as bone pain palliation agents, monoclonal antibodies, and others. It may be that the next growth phase of nuclear medicine will revolve around therapy with these radionuclides. PMID:7558861

Early, P J; Landa, E R

1995-11-01

421

(Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-01-01

422

Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ Nondestructive Assay of Radioactive Materials. Some of the information that will be presented includes observations made during site visits, how information useful to all facilities using nondestructive assay to determine holdup material quantities will be disseminated, and preliminary results of a gap analysis performed on current in situ nondestructive assay holdup measurements.

Bracken, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamb, Frank W [UNWIN CORPORATION

2009-01-01

423

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980  

SciTech Connect

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-04-01

424

Engineering and Physics Optimization of Breed and Burn Fast Reactor Systems; NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This project is organized under four major tasks (each of which has two or more subtasks) with contributions among the three collaborating organizations (MIT, INEEL and ANL-West): Task A: Core Physics and Fuel Cycle; Task B: Core Thermal Hydraulics; Task C: Plant Design; Task D: Fuel Design The lead PI, Michael J. Driscoll, has consolidated and summarized the technical progress submissions provided by the contributing investigators from all sites, under the above principal task headings.

ERROR, [value too long for type character varying(50); Hejzlar, Pavel; Yarsky, Peter; Driscoll, Mike; Wachs, Dan; Weaver, Kevan; Czerwinski, Ken; Pope, Mike; Parry, James; Marshall, Theron D.; Davis, Cliff B.; Crawford, Dustin; Hartmann, Thomas; Saha, Pradip

2005-01-31

425

Quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics at extreme energy density. Progress report, May 15, 1994--May 14, 1995  

SciTech Connect

A brief summary of the progress made for the year is given for each of the following areas: (1) quark-gluon plasma and relativistic heavy ion collisions (nine contributions); (2) effective theories for hadrons and nuclei (four contributions); (4) renormalization group approach to field theory at finite temperature; (5) symmetry-preserving regularization; and (6) an effective field theory approach to the cosmological constant problem.

Mueller, B.; Springer, R.P. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-05-15

426

Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the following studies dealing with mill tailings: long-term stabilizaton; interim stabilization of mill tailings piles; tailings dewatering techniques; tailings neutralization and other alternatives in immobilizing toxic materials in tailings; evaluation of seepage and leachate transport from tailings disposal facilities; effluent and environmental monitoring methods and equipment and instrument testing; attenuation of radon emissions; assessment of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings; and methods of minimizing ground water contamination in in-situ leach uranium mining.

Foley, M.G.; Opitz, B.E.; Deutsch, W.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.; Hartley, J.N.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Walters, W.H.; Fayer, M.J.; Wogman, N.A.; Nelson, R.W.

1984-05-01

427

Uranium recovery research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the following studies dealing with mill tailings: long-term stabilization; interim stabilization of mill tailings piles; tailings dewatering techniques; tailings neutralization and other alternatives in immobilizing toxic materials in tailings; evaluation of seepage and leachate transport from tailings disposal facilities; effluent and environmental monitoring methods and equipment and instrument testing; attenuation of radon emissions; assessment of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings; and methods of minimizing ground water contamination in in-situ leach uranium mining. 1 figure.

Foley, M.G.; Deutsch, W.J.; Gee, G.W.; Hartley, J.N.; Kalkwarf, D.R.; Fayer, M.J.; Nelson, R.W.; Opitz, B.E.; Peterson, S.R.; Serne, R.J.; thomas, V.W.; Walters, W.H.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-08-01

428

The future of internal medicine.  

PubMed

Internal medicine may be in its twilight because it has failed to address the shortage of primary care physicians by training more general internists. Data from several sources indicate that progressively fewer persons are entering general internal medicine as opposed to its subspecialties. The reasons for this decline include adverse experiences in medical school, an unfavorable patient mix, declining incomes, and increasing hassles in caring for patients. A series of reforms, such as improving the teaching in medical school, strengthening divisions of general medicine, and establishing financial incentives, are proposed to reverse this trend. Other actions that must be taken include stopping the proliferation of subspecialty certificates, designating and accrediting primary care tracks, and cutting subspecialty positions. Internal medicine's fate is in its own hands, and the discipline must reorient itself to conform to societal needs. PMID:8239233

Petersdorf, R G; Goitein, L

1993-12-01

429

Is old medicine new medicine?  

PubMed

By the year 2000, over 90% of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are expected in Third World countries where Western medicine is often unavailable, unaffordable, or culturally unacceptable. Thus, there is a need for greater attention to the potential role of traditional medicine and healers in the prevention and treatment of AIDS. A US-based nongovernmental organization, Green Cross Inc, is examining cross-cultural healing traditions and seeking areas of convergence between scientific bio-medicine and indigenous traditional healing systems. At a street clinic operated by Green Cross in Washington DC, both Western medicine and traditional Chinese practices such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and meditation are offered to AIDS patients at those at risk of infection. Although the individualized nature of Chinese medicine makes it difficult to evaluate through use of Western research methods, there is anecdotal evidence that it reduces the stress, anxiety, depression, and fatigue that accompany AIDS. Health care systems in all parts of the world could benefit from the concept that illness cannot be treated in isolation from individuals and communities. PMID:12284192

Montaocean, K

1991-07-01

430

LLL field test systems division support to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. FY 1978 progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) performed technical evaluations for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Operating Reactors, as part of a continuing program. This report summarizes the work done in FY 78 and provides references to detailed reports. Evaluations were performed on Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control System Issues in existing reactors. The Select Issues investigated include reactor coolant

Rumble

1979-01-01

431

NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) TLD (Thermoluminescent Dosimetry) direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July-September 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution,

R. Struckmeyer; N. McNamara; L. Cohen

1987-01-01

432

Progress in Nuclear Energy 61 (2012) 48 56 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Sandberg b a Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear negative in the uranium thorium based design, but still within acceptable limits. One advantage of this new a negative isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity (ITC). In some fuel assemblies, some fuel pins

Demazière, Christophe

433

school of medicine school of medicine  

E-print Network

school of medicine #12;school of medicine Dr. Richard Hoppmann, Dean "The School of Medicine has, compassionate health care throughout the state and world." #12;the promise of medicine: to students, to society "Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also love of humanity." - Hippocrates It is a place where

Almor, Amit

434

A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: Comparison with other Monte Carlo codes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Methods: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 32}P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 111}In, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. Results: GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 90}Y, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re generated in water, bone, and lung. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece) and Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyrid