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1

Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

NONE

2001-04-01

2

Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? What is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)? What ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

3

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

4

Nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1986-10-17

5

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

6

[In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine]. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-12-31

7

Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear Medicine Imaging What you need to know about… A nuclear medicine procedure is sometimes described as an “inside-out” ... that is directed through the patient’s body. Nuclear medicine procedures use small amounts of radioactive materials, called ...

8

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-07-01

9

Nuclear Medicine: Career Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients For Healthcare Providers Career Center Career Information Nuclear physicians are usually based in a university or ... and have limited involvement in direct patient care. Nuclear Medicine physicians participate in the intellectual challenge presented ...

10

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Processing of enriched tungsten-186 oxide targets after long irradiations (> 2 cycles) in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has resulted in specific activities significantly lower than the theoretical values, with the concomitant formation of varying amounts of highly radioactive black insoluble material to total tungsten-188 yield, 5% sodium hypochlorite solution has been found to dissolve this black material. Yields for longer irradiation periods (> 2 cycles) have nearly doubled. As an alternative, more simple approach, enriched tungsten-186 metallic targets have also now been irradiated. Following irradiation, these targets were dissolved in hydrogen peroxide/NaOH solution with no evidence of any residual black insoluble material remaining. Yields for a 2-cycle (e.g. 42 days) HFIR irradiation have thus now significantly increased, for example, from 5--6 mCi {sup 188}W/mg of {sup 186}W, to 10 mCi/mg (43 days) and 12.9 mCi/mg (53 days). Large clinical scale (< 1 Ci) generators fabricated from tungsten-188 prepared from such metal targets have exhibited the expected high {sup 188}Re yield and low {sup 188}W breakthrough. Also during this period, a systematic evaluation of the production yields of a number of radioisotopes of current interest in nuclear medicine were evaluated by irradiation of targets in the Hydraulic Tube Facility (HT) of the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Small samples were irradiated for short periods, and the radioactive contents of the sealed sources then analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.; Hsieh, B.T.

1994-01-01

11

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus_minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

1992-08-01

12

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

1992-08-01

13

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

14

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

15

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1995-12-31

16

Society of Nuclear Medicine  

Cancer.gov

June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

17

Nuclear Medicine and Imaging Research. Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation. Progress Report, January 15, 1984-January 14, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation...

R. N. Beck M. D. Cooper

1984-01-01

18

Pediatric nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1986-01-01

19

Costs of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The cost of nuclear medicine procedures in a small department run as part of a general imaging service in the financial year 1984/5, using standard commercial nomenclature and concepts (variable, semi-variable and fixed costs), are reported. The necessity for a standard costing system and the use of overhead absorption rates for all three types of cost are emphasized, and the value is shown of doing enough work to make economic use of the equipment and staff time. Nuclear medicine procedures appear to be comparable in cost to imaging procedures involving fluoroscopy. PMID:3386968

Bretland, P M

1988-01-01

20

Evaluative studies in nuclear medicine research. Progress report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Effort since the last progress report (September 1979) has been directed toward assessing the potential short and long term benefits of continued development and application and medical research of emission computed tomograhy (ECT). This report contains a review of existing ECT technology, including functional descriptions of current and proposed image systems, for both sngle-photon ECT (SPECT) and positron ECT (PECT) approaches. Medical research and clinical topics to which ECT has been, or may be, applied are presented. One such area of investigation involves the effects of stroke. The application of ECT to laboratory research, and to clinical diagnosis and prognosis, of stroke may result in improved management of the disease. An illustration of the potential savings in the cost of management of stroke due to the effects of applied ECT research is included. The results represent a compilation of data collected from conversations with, and conference presentations by, ECT users, researchers and image system designers, and from a review of the literature.

Potchen, E.J.

1980-07-01

21

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

22

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

23

Pediatric nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nuclear medicine as applied in pediatric patients. Particular emphasis is placed on the subject of scintigraphy of organ systems for diagnostic purposes. The topics covered are: scintigraphy of skeleton, bone marrow spleen, liver, thyroid, lungs, urinary tract, brain, heart and cerebrospinal fluid. The pathology and scintigraphy of lacrimal glands is also covered. Other diagnostic techniques of radiology in pediatrics are also briefly discussed for comparative evaluation.

Treves, S.T.

1985-01-01

24

Nuclear medicine annual  

SciTech Connect

This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

Freeman, L.M.

1988-01-01

25

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

SciTech Connect

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

1990-01-01

26

Synopsis of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The application of radionuclides to medical diagnosis and treatment has a relatively short history. The phenomenon of radioactivity was originally discovered by Henri Bacquerel in 1896, whereas Pierre and Marie Curie isolated the naturally occurring element radium in 1899. The use of radium in the treatment of malignant disease was first introduced at the turn of this century, and was established by 1920. It was not until 1938, however, that the discovery of nuclear fission made possible the subsequent development of the nuclear reactor, and the large-scale production of artificial radioactive nuclides. It was immediately realised that the latter opened up great possibilities in the medical field. The radioactive isotope was chemically indistinguishable from the stable isotopes of the element, and minute quantities of it in the body could be detected externally by virtue of the radiation they emitted; it could be used as a "tracer" to follow the metabolism of a substance throughout the body. The following synopsis is a brief attempt to introduce the Kenyan medical personnel into the scope of nuclear energy in medicine. PMID:2612403

Waweru, F N; Othieno, J O

1989-10-01

27

Peptide radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This article reviews the labelling of peptides that are recognised to be of interest for nuclear medicine or are the subject\\u000a of ongoing nuclear medicine research. Applications and approaches to the labelling of peptide radiopharmaceuticals are discussed,\\u000a and drawbacks in their development considered.

D. Blok; R. I. J. Feitsma; P. Vermeij; E. J. K. Pauwels

1999-01-01

28

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

Bennett, Gerald W. (East Moriches, NY); Brill, A. Bertrand (Shoreham, NY); Bizais, Yves J. C. (Upton, NY); Rowe, R. Wanda (Upton, NY); Zubal, I. George (Upton, NY)

1986-01-01

29

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab  

SciTech Connect

Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging. His talk was presented July 5, 2006.

Thomas Budinger

2008-03-04

30

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab  

ScienceCinema

Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging. His talk was presented July 5, 2006.

Thomas Budinger

2010-01-08

31

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab  

ScienceCinema

Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging. His talk was presented July 5, 2006.

Thomas Budinger

2013-06-12

32

Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, 2  

SciTech Connect

This book documents the dramatic progress in the design, evaluation, and clinical use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Included are recent studies of the chemicals and physico-chemical properties of technetium, reports on the production of new technetium molecules suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals, and analyses of the biological properties of these molecules. Coverage is given to nuclear medicine clinical investigations employing technetium, as well as to the development of apparatus for data acquisition.

Nicolini, M.; Bandoli, G.; Uderico, M.

1986-01-01

33

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

1983-03-11

34

Nuclear Medicine Imaging System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of th...

G. W. Bennett A. B. Brill Y. J. C. Bizais R. W. Rowe I. G. Zubal

1983-01-01

35

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This annual progress report describes new methods of incorporation of radioiodine into physiologically active compounds (amphetamines), and the use of organoboranes to labeled radiopharmaceuticals with Oxygen- 15, Nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18. Preclinical studies are also reported on evaluation of butyothiophenones as agents acting at dopaminergic or serotonic synapses.

Kabalka, G.W.

1992-09-01

36

Nuclear medicine: the Philippine Heart Center experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following is a report of a three (3) months on-the-job training in Nuclear Medicine at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Philippine Heart Center. The hospital has current generation nuclear medicine instruments with data processor and is capable ...

E. L. Cancino

1994-01-01

37

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science). Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of [F18]fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), [F18]fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of [F18]-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

1992-06-01

38

Nuclear medicine in NET.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are, despite increasing incidence, still rare, usually slow growing neoplasms with resemblance to nerve cells and the endocrine capability of hormone production. In contrast to commonly used conventional imaging procedures, nuclear imaging is feasible to visualize the presence of molecular biomarkers, particularly the overexpression of somatostatin receptors (sstr) with high diagnostic accuracy which has led to the establishment of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) as essential component and gold standard of functional imaging in the workup of NET. Another major feature is the selection of patients with inoperable or metastasized tumors showing sufficient uptake for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). While somatostatin receptor PET and PET/CT using Ga-68-labeled SSR analogs represents the consistent further development of SRS, FDG-PET can only be used in tumors with high proliferative activity but not on a routine basis for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. (18)F-DOPA represents an alternative PET tracer worth mentioning currently under assessment for NET imaging. PMID:22810487

Sorschag, Manfred; Malle, Phillip; Gallowitsch, Hans-Jürgen

2012-10-01

39

Explore the Latest Progress on Medicines in Development  

MedlinePLUS

... PRINCIPLES & GUIDELINES PUBLICATIONS EVENTS CONVERSATIONS THE CATALYST CONTRIBUTORS Medicines in Development Explore the Latest Progress on Medicines in Development Each patient battling with a disease ...

40

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT, and BNCT agents. Comprehensive progress report, March 1, 1989-February 29, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in computerized tomography. A portion of the research effort is directed towar...

G. W. Kabalka

1991-01-01

41

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

Westerman, B.R.

1986-07-01

42

Pulmonary applications of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine techniques have a long history in pulmonary medicine, one that has been continually changing and growing. Even longstanding methods, such as perfusion scanning for embolic disease or for pretherapy pulmonary function evaluation, have largely withstood the test of recent careful scrutiny. Not only have these techniques remained an important part of the diagnostic armamentarium, but we have learned how to use them more effectively. Furthermore, because of technical advances, we are in a phase of expanding roles for nuclear imaging. Gallium citrate scanning for the mediastinal staging and follow-up of lymphoma has been recognized as a valuable adjunct to the anatomic information provided by CT and MRI. With the growth of PET technology in areas that have been explored in a limited fashion until now, such as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and lung carcinoma, evaluation and management of these patients may substantially improve. Finally, in the field of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, attention is now being turned to both the diagnostic and the therapeutic problems presented by lung carcinoma. As radiolabeling methods are refined and as new and better antibodies are developed, radioimmunodetection and therapy in lung carcinoma may begin to make inroads on this common and hard to control disease.157 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Divgi, C.R. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

1991-03-01

43

Nuclear chemistry progress report  

SciTech Connect

This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

1993-08-01

44

Experience with nuclear medicine information system.  

PubMed

Objective: Radiology information system (RIS) is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS) that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven) and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system), radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex©) for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487446

Volkan-Salanci, Bilge; Sahin, Figen; Babeko?lu, Vahide; U?ur, Omer

2012-12-01

45

Experience with Nuclear Medicine Information System  

PubMed Central

Objective: Radiology information system (RIS) is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS) that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven) and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system), radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex©) for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Volkan-Salanci, Bilge; Sahin, Figen; Babekoglu, Vahide; Ugur, Omer

2012-01-01

46

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine provides an examination of the latest developments in the field of nuclear medicine. This volume reviews advances made in imaging techniques and presents a detailed overview of many new imaging procedures and their clinical applications, e.g.,the oncological applications of immunoscintigraphy. This book also elucidates the various diagnostic capabilities of nuclear imaging in a wide range of disciplines, including cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, oncology, and hematology.

Schmidt, H.A.E.; Csernay, L

1988-01-01

47

Enhancing laboratory activities in nuclear medicine education.  

PubMed

Hands-on or active learning is important in nuclear medicine education. As more curricula start to require greater standards and as distance education expands, the effective use of laboratories in nuclear medicine education remains important in physics, instrumentation, and imaging but is often overlooked or underutilized. Laboratory exercises are a unique opportunity for nuclear medicine educators to facilitate students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a manner that often cannot occur in lectures or during online education. Given the lack of current laboratory tools and publications, there exists a requirement for nuclear medicine educators to develop, enhance, and monitor educational tools for laboratory exercises. Expanding technologies, variations in imaging and measurement systems, and the need to ensure that the taught technology is relevant to nuclear medicine students are issues faced by nuclear medicine educators. This article, based on principles of instructional design, focuses on the components and development of effective and enhanced nuclear medicine laboratories in our current educational environment. PMID:19914977

Grantham, Vesper; Martin, Chris; Schmitz, Casey

2009-12-01

48

An all-digital nuclear medicine department.  

PubMed

An all-digital nuclear medicine department is described. Nuclear medicine images are acquired by a separate computer interfaced to each camera. The digital images are viewed, manipulated, and interpreted from remote display stations in an interpretation area. The interpretation is dictated into a Rapid Telephone Access System (RTAS), where the voice is digitized and stored. By dialing the patient's identification number, the referring physician can hear the interpretation over any telephone. The images are filed on large storage discs. The digital scans can be rapidly and easily accessed for later review by the use of several directory programs. This system has brought not only efficiency and cost savings, but the ability for remote viewing elsewhere in the hospital and telephone transmission of nuclear cardiology studies from community hospitals for interpretation in the digital nuclear medicine department. PMID:6828736

Parker, J A; Royal, H D; Uren, R F; Front, D; Bliss, J G; Rabuzzi, M; Jansons, D; Kolodny, G M

1983-04-01

49

Progress in Nuclear Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transformational and Applied Research Directorate (TAR) was established within the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to conduct, support, coordinate, and encourage near- and long-term Research and Development (R&D) programs for break-through technologies designed to dramatically improve capabilities to detect and report illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials. These programs cover a wide range of technologies and high-level technical challenges associated with the DNDO mission and the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA). They encompass a range of technology levels, ranging from feasibility and proof of concept studies to technology demonstrations of systems. Even though the focus is on high level challenges, the direction of some topic areas can change from year to year. This presentation will provide an overview of the TAR mission and discuss the current status of transformational R&D efforts in three major program areas: Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATD), Exploratory Research (ER) and Academic Research Initiative (ARI). )

Vojtech, Richard

2010-02-01

50

Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area.

Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dangelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

2014-01-01

51

Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area. PMID:25035834

Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dângelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

2014-07-18

52

Nuclear Medicine Reporting System for Microcomputers  

PubMed Central

Description: In this paper we present a completely user-defined reporting system for nuclear medicine. It is inexpensive, highly flexible and can be adapted for general radiology. Equipment: Apple II with 2 disc drives and printer. Language: Microsoft basic with microcode subroutines Availability: Pending

Ochs, Daniel; Haberman, Seth

1982-01-01

53

Perspectives in nuclear medicine: pulmonary studies  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of I-131 labeled macroaggregates in 1964, noninvasive techniques involving injection of radiolabeled agents and remote detection of emitted radiation have become well established in detecting pulmonary disorders in routine clinical medicine. In the past, pulmonary nuclear medicine has been dominated by studies that depict the distribution of pulmonary perfusion and/or ventilation-perfusion balance (e.g., for the detection of pulmonary embolism, obstructive airway disease, lung carcinoma). With the recent development of emission tomography and the potential for new, function-oriented radiopharmaceuticals, however, pulmonary nuclear medicine is entering a new era. The status of contemporary pulmonary nuclear medicine is briefly reviewed in several areas of major interest and applications and focus on areas where new developments are needed and seem feasible in the near future. Several important regional physiological processes measurable by these techniques include: (a) the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism, (b) relative pulmonary blood flow, (c) permeability to specific molecules, (d) lung tissue metabolism, (e) ventilation distribution and (f) the relationship between ventilation and blood flow (perfusion). (JMT)

Budinger, T.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); McNeil, B.J.; Alderson, P.O.

1982-01-01

54

Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

1989-01-01

55

Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

1989-11-01

56

(Coordinated research programs in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler visited the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, West Germany, to review, organize, and plan collaborative studies. He also met with the editorial board of the journal NucCompact -- European/American Communications in Nuclear Medicine, on which he serves as US editor. He also visited colleagues at the Cyclotron Research Center (CRC) at the University of Liege, Belgium, to coordinate clinical applications of the ultrashort-lived iridium-191m radionuclide obtained from the osmium-190/iridium-191m generator system. The traveler planned and coordinated continuing collaboration with colleagues at the CRC for further applications of this generator system. He also visited the University of Metz, Metz, France, to organize a three-center project for the synthesis and evaluation of various receptor-specific cerebral imaging agents, involving the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CRC, and the University of Metz.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1990-10-03

57

Introduction to suspension levels: nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

In 2007, the European Commission (EC) commissioned a group of experts to undertake the revision of Report Radiation Protection (RP) 91, written in 1997, on 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations'. The revised draft report was submitted to the EC. Before publication, the EC issued this document for public consultation and has commissioned the same group of experts to consider the comments of the public consultation in further improving the revised report. The EC intends to publish the final report under its Radiation Report Series with the number RP 162. This paper introduces the project and presents the methodology adopted to devise the criteria of acceptability/suspension levels for nuclear medicine equipment. PMID:23175644

Christofides, Stelios; Malone, Lesley; Mattson, Soren; Horton, Pat

2013-02-01

58

Solid state detectors in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Since Nuclear Medicine diagnostic applications are growing fast, room temperature semiconductor detectors such CdTe and CdZnTe either in the form of single detectors or as segmented monolithic detectors have been investigated aiming to replace the NaI scintillator. These detectors have inherently better energy resolution that scintillators coupled to photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes leading to compact imaging systems with higher spatial resolution and enhanced contrast. Advantages and disadvantages of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in imaging systems are discussed and efforts to develop semiconductor-based planar and tomographic cameras as well as nuclear probes are presented. PMID:12072840

Darambara, D G; Todd-Pokropek, A

2002-03-01

59

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

60

Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1996-01-16

61

Progress toward personalized medicine for glaucoma  

PubMed Central

How will you respond when a patient asks, “Doctor, what can I do to prevent myself from going blind from glaucoma like mom?”. There is optimism that genetic profiling will help target patients to individualized treatments based on validated disease risk alleles, validated pharmacogenetic markers and behavioral modification. Personalized medicine will become a reality through identification of disease and pharmacogenetic markers, followed by careful study of how to employ this information in order to improve treatment outcomes. With advances in genomic technologies, research has shifted from the simple monogenic disease model to a complex multigenic and environmental disease model to answer these questions. Our challenges lie in developing risk models that incorporate gene–gene interactions, gene copy-number variations, environmental interactions, treatment effects and clinical covariates.

Moroi, Sayoko E; Raoof, Duna A; Reed, David M; Zollner, Sebastian; Qin, Zhaohui; Richards, Julia E

2013-01-01

62

Potentials for progress in laser medicine  

SciTech Connect

Lasers could come to occupy a highly important position in the armament of medicine. They are the brightest known sources of light, man-made or natural, and emit light having such properties as coherence and monochromaticity. Furthermore, lasers have the ability to deliver very brief pulses of light which can cause unique alterations in biological materials. The major obstacle to the increased use of lasers in medicine and surgery is not the availability of laser devices, but the dearth of basic information about laser-tissue interactions. We have recently demonstrated that, even in turbid tissue such as the dermis, it is possible simultaneously to induce microscopically selective thermal damage, localized to millions of selectively absorbing targets, while sparing surrounding tissues. These targets may be as small as organelles or as large as blood vessels. Such localized thermal damage is truly unique to pulsed laser exposures. The scope and medical utility of these lesions has yet to be fully understood. Thus, there is much research to be done in describing and characterizing laser-induced injury. There is, however, ample evidence that several laser therapies could be improved by using selectively absorbed, short pulses that lead to the spatial confinement of thermal injury. Treatment of port wine stains, pigmented lesions, atheromatous arterial plaques, and the fragmentation of kidney and gall stones are examples. It should also be possible to use a variety of systems to deliver exogenous laser targets on or within individual types of cells or organelles. Such chromophores may lead to new forms of cancer therapy, for example.

Parrish, J.A.; Walsh, J.T. Jr.

1985-11-01

63

Progress towards personalized medicine for ameloblastoma.  

PubMed

Ameloblastoma is a locally infiltrative benign odontogenic neoplasm. Tumours may be large, destructive and recurrent, requiring radical surgery with associated facial deformity and morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of this tumour has been unclear, retarding the development of non-invasive gene-targeted therapies. In a recent paper in this journal, Kurppa et al. [4] showed that EGFR-targeted therapy blocked cell proliferation in an ameloblastoma primary cell culture. That this therapy was not effective in another primary cell culture led to the discovery of the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation in a high proportion (63%) of ameloblastoma samples. By defining two separate pathways, both of which can be specifically targeted, these findings are an important step towards personalized medicine of ameloblastoma. We discuss the findings in the broader context of ameloblastoma, as well as the effects of tumour microenvironment and molecular heterogeneity that need to be taken into account when considering the use of personalized therapies based on specific genetic mutations in individual patients. PMID:24749150

Gomes, Carolina C; Diniz, Marina G; Gomez, Ricardo S

2014-04-01

64

[Nuclear medicine diagnosis of focal liver lesions].  

PubMed

Confirmation and exclusion of benign focal liver lesions are the main object of liver studies in nuclear medicine. Hepatobiliary sequence scintigraphy (focal nodular hyperplasia, adenoma), blood pool scintigraphy (hemangioma) and, in some cases, colloid scintigraphy are the methods most frequently employed. Receptor scintigraphy with octreopeptides, immunoscintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies, PET and gamma camera scintigraphy with 18FDG, are used to solve special diagnostic problems, particularly in oncology. A stepwise diagnostic approach needs to be used for a successful classification of focal liver lesions and an extensive knowledge of indications for additional supplementary diagnostic procedures is required. PMID:8371998

Trampert, L; Benz, P; Ruth, T; Oberhausen, E

1993-08-01

65

Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

2014-08-01

66

Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

1984-06-01

67

Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

68

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2009-10-01

69

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2010-10-01

70

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section...482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services...

2013-10-01

71

Contemporary nuclear medicine imaging of neuroendocrine tumours.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, heterogeneous, and often hormonally active neoplasms. Nuclear medicine (NM) imaging using single photon- and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals allows sensitive and highly specific molecular imaging of NETs, complementary to anatomy-based techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy is a whole-body imaging technique widely used for diagnosis, staging and restaging of NETs. The increasing availability of hybrid single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT cameras now offers superior accuracy for localization and functional characterization of NETs compared to traditional planar and SPECT imaging. The potential role of positron-emission tomography (PET) tracers in the functional imaging of NETs is also being increasingly recognized. In addition to 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), newer positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and (68)Ga-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) peptides, show promise for the future. This article will summarize the role of current and emerging radiopharmaceuticals in NM imaging of this rare but important group of tumours. PMID:22633086

Wong, K K; Waterfield, R T; Marzola, M C; Scarsbrook, A F; Chowdhury, F U; Gross, M D; Rubello, D

2012-11-01

72

(In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. We are utilizing these endpoints to examine sets of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of medical procedures. The cohorts we are studying include: nuclear medicine technicians, two set of nuclear medicine patients, sets of controls and a new set of Hodgkins disease patients. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, and mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described in this report in more detail.

Not Available

1990-01-01

73

TL measurement of ambient dose at a Nuclear Medicine Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of ambient dose at the Nuclear Medicine Department, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologìa, Mexico, was performed using two types of thermoluminescent dosemeters: TLD-100 and TLD-900. In addition, ambient dose was measured at the outside corridor of the hospitalization room for 137Cs brachytherapy patients. Radionuclides used at the Nuclear Medicine Department are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl. Main gamma

O. Avila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa-deBuen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

74

Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.  

PubMed

The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

Cuocolo, A

2011-06-01

75

[Imaging in oncology and international rules for evaluation: the nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

The growing success of isotopic explorations in oncology is related to the number of growing radiotracers and progress in the methods for detection and imaging. Today, the nuclear medicine is able to answer important questions raised by biology and therapeutic progress results from this. The new radiopharmaceutical compounds are able to explore in vivo the metabolism, the proliferation, the hypoxia and the expression of some receptors or antigens in tumor cells. This progress in radiopharmaceuticals design can be combined with the new tools for detection, such as the cameras coupled to a tomodensitometer (TEMP-TDM and TEP-TDM), the new gamma cameras with semiconductors, and the peroperative gamma probes. The nuclear medicine can now be used to determine the initial staging of tumours, the evaluation of residual disease, the detection of recurrence, the evaluation and the prediction of response to treatments, i.e. chemotherapy, radiotherapy and now targeted treatments. This led to very promising prospects in the therapeutic adaptation and in the patient follow-up, as clearly shown in the malignant lymphomas. Standardized international criteria are set up for the therapeutic evaluation in TEP-FDG. Today, the nuclear medicine belongs to the family of "markers of substitution", participating more and more to the personalized medicine field. PMID:19854694

Bourre, Jean-Cyril; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe

2009-11-01

76

Chinese Herbal Medicine on Dyslipidemia: Progress and Perspective  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The statins are a milestone in the primary and second prevention of cardiovascular diseases and significantly improved its prognosis. Along with the long-term treatment with statins in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs or alone, its safety has attracted a particular attention in clinic, such as the elevation of transaminase and rhabdomyolysis, which have raised an idea of developing the other types of lipid-lowering agents from botanic materials. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 2000 years in China and showed some beneficial effects for human health and many diseases. Recently, many studies demonstrated a favorable effect of TCM for treating dyslipidemia; however, its mechanism remains unclear or totally unknown. The progress and perspective of studies on dyslipidemia with single Chinese herb and its monomers or effective extracts during the past 10 years are discussed in the present review.

Guo, Ming; Liu, Yue; Gao, Zhu-Ye; Shi, Da-zhuo

2014-01-01

77

Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

Olivier, Pierre

2004-07-01

78

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: The incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care.  

PubMed

The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15-19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,670 abstracts were received. Of these, 1,399 were accepted for oral or poster presentations, with a rejection rate of 16.2%. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine, and addressed particularly advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well-established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, nephrology, and infection and inflammation. It is noteworthy that a number of studies presented at this congress focussed on the quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, and identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and management. These and many other studies presented at the congress demonstrate once more the crucial role that nuclear medicine has to play in contemporary medicine. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress proceedings book, published as volume 32, supplement 1 of the Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in September 2005. PMID:16538466

Cuocolo, Alberto; Acampa, Wanda; Varrone, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco

2006-03-01

79

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed Central

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war.

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-01-01

80

Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

1988-01-01

81

The role of nuclear medicine in differentiated thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

In differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) nuclear medicine is able to cover the spectrum from diagnosis and treatment to follow up keeping patient's management in one institution. Nowadays, DTC is often diagnosed per chance, presenting as small indolent nodule diagnosed on routinely performed ultrasound. Ultrasound and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy together with scintigraphy are probably the most adequate tools for diagnosis. After thyroidectomy, treatment with iodine-131 is routinely performed in a nuclear medicine therapy institution as a standard procedure in most of the cases with regard to histology. In case of iodine positive metastases, repeated therapies can be performed in order to reduce tumour burden. In the follow up of DTC thyroglobulin (tumour marker), ultrasound and diagnostic whole body scan are established procedures. With the development of SPECT/CT and PET/CT ((18)F-FDG, (68)Ga-somatostatin receptor) combining functional and anatomic imaging the nuclear medicine spectrum has further increased. PMID:22815124

Kohlfürst, Susanne

2012-10-01

82

Staging of primary cervical cancers: the role of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

In nuclear medicine, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) and lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) may significantly improve the staging of primary cervical cancers. Indeed, the disease progresses in a 'level by level' fashion to regional nodes through the lymphatic channels, and also to extra-nodal sites via the hematogenous stream. Additionally, the sub-optimal efficacy of routine radiological protocols, while new combined therapies are proving to be more efficient, stresses the need for alternative staging procedures. Current data suggest that LM/SL accurately reflects the regional lymph node status in early stage cervical cancers, and thus could avoid unnecessary complete lymphadenectomies. Also, whole body 18FDG PET may provide valuable insights on extra-pelvic and distant tumor spreading, with a significant impact on treatment choices. If these promising results are confirmed on large controlled trials, LM/SL and 18FDG PET imaging could be incorporated in the routine staging work-up of primary cervical cancers. PMID:12791427

Belhocine, Tarik; Kridelka, Frédéric; Thille, Alain; De Barsy, Caroline; Foidart-Willems, Jacqueline; Hustinx, Roland; Rigo, Pierre

2003-06-01

83

Historic Images in Nuclear Medicine: 1976: The First Issue of Clinical Nuclear Medicine and the First Human FDG Study.  

PubMed

In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline. PMID:24978339

Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

2014-08-01

84

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

Heineman, W.R.

1992-01-24

85

Development of more efficacious Tc-99, organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1987-August 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. Three areas have been investigated during the second year of this project. (1) A chromatographic procedure has been developed for the separation of technetium dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) complexes. Tc-DPD complexes have been isolated from radiopharmaceutical preparations. The concentration of each complex in the preparation varies significantly depending on the pH of the preparation, the concentration of technetium, the presence or absence of oxygen, and the time interval after preparation. A single Tc-DPD complex has been isolated which shows good skeletal uptake and rapid soft tissue clearance. (2) An HPLC procedure for analyzing urine for Tc-Diphosphonate complexes has been developed. A Tc-HEDP complexd injected into a dog was found to concentrate rapidly in the bladder in the same chemical form. (3) An HPLC technique for the determination of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in disphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals and biological samples has been developed. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Heineman, W.R.

1988-04-01

86

Development of more efficacious {Tc}-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

Heineman, W.R.

1993-05-03

87

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1986-August 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The author developed analytical techniques that are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. During this one-year period, a chromatographic procedure has been developed for the separation of technetium phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) complexes and five Tc-PAA complexes have been isolated from radiopharmaceutical preparations. The concentration of each complex in the preparation varies significantly depending on the pH of the preparation. Radiopharmaceutical preparations based on the ligand methylene diphosphonate (MDP) have been prepared by electrochemical reduction of TcO/sub 4//sup -/. The yields of different Tc-MDP complexes are affected by the potential applied to the electrochemical cell. The control of both potential and pH enables a specific Tc-MDP complex to be produced in purer form and higher yield than by chemical reduction. An EXAFS spectrum of a solution of chromatographically isolated Tc-HEDP (hydroxyethylidine diphosphonate) complex shows evidence for a Tc-Tc bond, which is supportive of the postulated oligomeric/polymeric nature of these complexes. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Heineman, W.R.

1987-06-01

88

Electron Accelerator's Production of Technetium99m for Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m provides up to 90nuclear medicine at present. His generator Mo-99 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation. One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in Mo-100 under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of Tc-99m production. Report contents both an analysis of

V. L. Uvarov; N. P. Dikiy; A. N. Dovbnya; Ye. P. Medvedyeva; G. D. Pugachov; Yu. D. Tur; L. P. Abramova; V. P. Staren'ky

1997-01-01

89

Is there a place for music in nuclear medicine?  

PubMed

Music, since the time of ancient Greek Asclepieia is well-known for its influence on men's behavior. Nuclear Medicine can study the effect of music in humans' brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown brain areas to be activated after colored hearing vs after hearing to words. Furthermore, PET studies gave evidence that visual imagery of a musical stave is used by some musically untrained subjects in a pitch discrimination task. Listening to music combines intellect and emotion by intimate anatomical and functional connexions between temporal lobe, hippocampus and limbic system. Mozart's music is considered the best for bringing favorable music effects to men. This is called "the Mozart's effect" and by some is attributed to the fact that this kind of music's sequences tend to repeat regularly every 20-30sec, which is about the same length of time as brain-wave patterns. It may be useful to suggest that a certain kind of music played in the waiting room and/or in the examining room of a Nuclear Medicine Department may support patients ' cooperation with their physicians, especially in cardiac nuclear medicine. Furthermore, patients should be calm and not afraid of radioactivity. A long DVD program to be played during working hours can be decided between a music therapist and the Nuclear Medicine physician. PMID:23227458

Giannouli, Vaitsa; Lytras, Nikolaos; Syrmos, Nikolaos

2012-01-01

90

Restoration and functional analysis of nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear medicine physician uses visual interpretation of a movie-like display of the beating human heart to detect wall motion abnormalities which might be related to impaired cardiac function. The present work is directed toward extracting more information from the heart motion study, and presenting it in a useful manner. A spatially adaptive smoothing routine using a quadtree image representation

Wendt

1982-01-01

91

Eigen Analysis of Limited Angle Tomography Systems in Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is developed to characterize imaging systems in the field of nuclear medicine. The method is applied to three limited angle tomographic imaging devices: the seven pin hole collimator, the rotating slant hole collimator, and an eighteen pin hole coded aperture. Attenuation and scatter are neglected, the system is assumed linear, and a sampling interval of two of four

Wesley William Wooten

1982-01-01

92

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed

Fernanda Carla Lima Ferreira; Divanizia Do Nascimento Souza

2011-01-01

93

Nuclear morphometry, nucleomics and prostate cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) results from a multistep process. This process includes initiation, which occurs through various aging events and multiple insults (such as chronic infection, inflammation and genetic instability through reactive oxygen species causing DNA double-strand breaks), followed by a multistep process of progression. These steps include several genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as alterations to the chromatin structure, which occur in response to the carcinogenic stress-related events that sustain proliferative signaling. Events such as evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis are readily observed. In addition, in conjunction with these critical drivers of carcinogenesis, other factors related to the etiopathogenesis of PCa, involving energy metabolism and evasion of the immune surveillance system, appear to be involved. In addition, when cancer spread and metastasis occur, the ‘tumor microenvironment' in the bone of PCa patients may provide a way to sustain dormancy or senescence and eventually establish a ‘seed and soil' site where PCa proliferation and growth may occur over time. When PCa is initiated and progression ensues, significant alterations in nuclear size, shape and heterochromatin (DNA transcription) organization are found, and key nuclear transcriptional and structural proteins, as well as multiple nuclear bodies can lead to precancerous and malignant changes. These series of cellular and tissue-related malignancy-associated events can be quantified to assess disease progression and management.

Veltri, Robert W; Christudass, Christhunesa S; Isharwal, Sumit

2012-01-01

94

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...education in radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation therapy...examination in radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation therapy technology shall be utilized to...licensed Radiographer, Nuclear Medicine...

2010-10-01

95

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2009-10-01

96

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2010-10-01

97

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...examination shall be licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or...

2012-10-01

98

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...examination shall be licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or...

2013-10-01

99

Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

Alberto, Roger

2012-06-01

100

Traditional Chinese Medicine Models and Epidemiological Approaches in Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment and Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this pilot study is to integrate traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) to address breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and progression. It has been recognized that the heterogeneity of breast tumors makes treatment and prognosis debatable. TCM is ba...

M. M. Lee

2004-01-01

101

ELECTRON ACCELERATOR'S PRODUCTION OF TECHNETIUM99m FOR NUCLEAR MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present Technetium-99m provides up to 90% isotopic products used in nuclear medicine (1). His generator Molybdenum-99 is mainly produced in fission reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation (2). One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in 100Mo under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of 99m

V. L. Uvarov; N. P. Dikiy; A. N. Dovbnya; P. Medvedyeva; G. D. Pugachov; D. Tur

1998-01-01

102

Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2005-05-04

103

Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images  

PubMed Central

The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images.

Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

2012-01-01

104

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

105

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

2011-10-01

106

The role of nuclear medicine in modern therapy of cancer.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine is a multidisciplinary field that develops and uses instrumentation and tracers (radiopharmaceuticals) to study physiological processes and noninvasively diagnose, stage, and treat diseases. Particularly, it offers a unique means to study cancer biology in vivo and to optimize cancer therapy for individual patients. A tracer is either a radionuclide alone, such as iodine-131 or a radiolabel in a carrier molecule such as (18)F in fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG), or other feasible radionuclide attached to a drug, a protein, or a peptide, which when introduced into the body, would accumulate in the tissue of interest. Nuclear medicine imaging, including single-photon emission computer tomography and positron emission tomography, can provide important quantitative and functional information about normal tissues or disease conditions, in contrast to conventional, anatomical imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. For treatment, tumor-targeting agents, conjugated with therapeutic radionuclides, may be used to deposit lethal radiation at tumor sites. This review outlines the role of nuclear medicine in modern cancer therapy. PMID:22446937

Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Capala, Jacek

2012-06-01

107

American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

NONE

1991-12-31

108

Patents & the progress of personalized medicine: biomarkers research as lens.  

PubMed

This article addresses the barriers to personalized medicine, focusing on the burgeoning field of biomarkers research. The author begins by framing intellectual property issues as more than a product of industry incentives and suggests that these issues are deeply entangled with other barriers facing personalized medicine such as regulatory framework deficiencies. The author proposes a set of future research questions to more fully define the barriers to biomarkers research and to uncover which corrective measures may be effective. The author concludes by recommending an integration of regulatory and patent reforms, with a call to action by scholars, scientists, representatives of the biopharmaceutical industry, and policy-makers. PMID:21950239

Herder, Matthew

2009-01-01

109

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, April 1984-September 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; and supporting studies. 33 figures, 13 tables.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1984-12-01

110

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1985-06-01

111

Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging  

PubMed Central

The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned.

Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

2013-01-01

112

Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting  

SciTech Connect

The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

Williams, Lawrence E. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

2008-07-15

113

Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting  

PubMed Central

The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography?computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography?CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

Williams, Lawrence E.

2008-01-01

114

Education and training in family medicine: progress and a proposed national vision for 2030.  

PubMed

This review provides an update of education and training in family medicine in Singapore and worldwide. Family medicine has progressed much since 1969 when it was recognised as the 20th medical discipline in the United States. Three salient changes in the local healthcare landscape have been noted over time, which are of defining relevance to family medicine in Singapore, namely the rise of noncommunicable chronic diseases, the care needs of an expanding elderly population, and the care of a larger projected population in 2030. The change in the vision of family medicine into the future refers to a new paradigm of one discipline in many settings, and not limited to the community. Family medicine needs to provide a patient-centred medical home, and the discipline's education and training need to be realigned. The near-term training objectives are to address the service, training and research needs of a changing and challenging healthcare landscape. PMID:24664375

Goh, Lee Gan; Ong, Chooi Peng

2014-03-01

115

Antimalarial Drug Discovery: Approaches and Progress towards New Medicines  

PubMed Central

Malaria elimination has recently been reinstated as a global health priority but current therapies seem to be insufficient for the task. Elimination efforts require new drug classes that alleviate symptoms, prevent transmission and provide a radical cure. To develop these next generation medicines, public-private partnerships are funding innovative approaches to identify compounds that target multiple parasite species at multiple stages of the parasite lifecycle. Here, we review the cell-, chemistry- and target-based approaches used to discover new drug candidates that are currently in clinical trials or undergoing preclinical testing.

Flannery, Erika L.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

116

Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS {bar p} experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance.

Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

1992-07-15

117

Prediction of tumour hypoxia and radioresistance with nuclear medicine markers.  

PubMed Central

Second-generation nuclear medicine markers of tumour hypoxia have been synthesised and screened for hypoxic marking activity in cell cultures and in mouse tumours (EMT-6). Markers of the iodinated azomycin nucleoside class with greater water solubility and faster plasma clearance rates relative to iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) were of particular interest. The test systems used to characterise hypoxic marking activity of compounds included (1) covalent linkage of radiolabelled markers to cells in suspension culture equilibrated with specific O2 concentrations; (2) biodistribution of radiolabelled markers in EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice; and (3) biodistribution in R3327-AT tumour-bearing rats by nuclear medicine procedures. Of the iodinated azomycin nucleosides produced to date, beta-D-iodoazomycin galactoside (beta-D-IAZG) and beta-D-iodoazomycin xylopyranoside (beta-D-IAZXP) exhibited high metabolism-dependent hypoxic cell uptake, rapid clearance kinetics from the blood and excellent tumour marking activity in vivo. Tumour-blood (T/B) ratio (a measure of tumour hypoxic fraction) was dependent upon EMT-6 tumour size and implantation site. The radioresistance of individual tumours was measured by in vivo/in vitro assay and correlated well with the T/B ratio of hypoxic marker. These studies have identified beta-D-IAZG and beta-D-IAZXP as effective hypoxic markers for planar and single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) imaging studies of tumour oxygenation.

Chapman, J. D.; Coia, L. R.; Stobbe, C. C.; Engelhardt, E. L.; Fenning, M. C.; Schneider, R. F.

1996-01-01

118

Application of mathematical methods in dynamic nuclear medicine studies.  

PubMed

Dynamic nuclear medicine studies can generate large quantities of data, and their analysis consists essentially of a reduction of these data to a small number of relevant parameters which will assist in clinical decision making. This review examines some of the mathematical techniques that have been used in the process of data reduction and attempts to explain the principles behind their application. It particularly identifies the techniques that have stood the test of time and demonstrated their usefulness, many of which are now available as standard tools on nuclear medicine processing computers. These include curve processing tools such as smoothing, fitting and factor analysis, as well as tools based on empirical models, such as the Patlak/Rutland plot and deconvolution. Compartmental models and vascular models are also examined and the review finishes with a summary of some functional images and condensed images. It is concluded that an appreciation of the principles and limitations of these mathematical tools is valuable for their correct usage and interpretation of the results produced. PMID:10232797

Lawson, R S

1999-04-01

119

Java-based PACS and reporting system for nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In medical imaging practice, images and reports often need be reviewed and edited from many locations. We have designed and implemented a Java-based Remote Viewing and Reporting System (JaRRViS) for a nuclear medicine department, which is deployed as a web service, at the fraction of the cost dedicated PACS systems. The system can be extended to other imaging modalities. JaRRViS interfaces to the clinical patient databases of imaging workstations. Specialized nuclear medicine applets support interactive displays of data such as 3-D gated SPECT with all the necessary options such as cine, filtering, dynamic lookup tables, and reorientation. The reporting module is implemented as a separate applet using Java Foundation Classes (JFC) Swing Editor Kit and allows composition of multimedia reports after selection and annotation of appropriate images. The reports are stored on the server in the HTML format. JaRRViS uses Java Servlets for the preparation and storage of final reports. The http links to the reports or to the patient's raw images with applets can be obtained from JaRRViS by any Hospital Information System (HIS) via standard queries. Such links can be sent via e-mail or included as text fields in any HIS database, providing direct access to the patient reports and images via standard web browsers.

Slomka, Piotr J.; Elliott, Edward; Driedger, Albert A.

2000-05-01

120

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-04-01

121

Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (???? b? x? mó g?; Agaricus blazei, ?? yún zh?; Coriolus versicolor, ?? líng zh?; Ganoderma lucidum, ?? xi?ng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, ??? niú zh?ng zh?; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (???? d?ng chóng xià c?o), pomegranate (?? shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (?? l? chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (?? dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (?? ji?ng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (?? q?ng h?o; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

2012-01-01

122

Center of Excellence in laser medicine. Progress performance report  

SciTech Connect

Achievements during the last 12 months of funding to initiate a Center of Excellence in biomedical laser development include: seven specific research projects within the Center`s three broad interest areas, and program development to establish the MGH Laser Center and its activities. Progress in the three interest areas namely new medical laser systems development, optical diagnostics and photo sensitization is reported. Feasibility studies and prototype development were emphasized, to enhance establishing a substantial Center through future support. Specific projects are outlined below. In addition, the interdepartmental MGH Laser Center`s activities and accomplishments.

Parrish, J.A.

1993-04-29

123

Personalized medicine and pharmacogenetic biomarkers: progress in molecular oncology testing  

PubMed Central

In the field of oncology, clinical molecular diagnostics and biomarker discoveries are constantly advancing as the intricate molecular mechanisms that transform a normal cell into an aberrant state in concert with the dysregulation of alternative complementary pathways are increasingly understood. Progress in biomarker technology, coupled with the companion clinical diagnostic laboratory tests, continue to advance this field, where individualized and customized treatment appropriate for each individual patient define the standard of care. Here, we discuss the current commonly used predictive pharmacogenetic biomarkers in clinical oncology molecular testing: BRAF V600E for vemurafenib in melanoma; EML4–ALK for crizotinib and EGFR for erlotinib and gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer; KRAS against the use of cetuximab and panitumumab in colorectal cancer; ERBB2 (HER2/neu) for trastuzumab in breast cancer; BCR–ABL for tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia; and PML/RAR? for all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Ong, Frank S; Das, Kingshuk; Wang, Jay; Vakil, Hana; Kuo, Jane Z; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B; Lim, Stephen W; Goodarzi, Mark O; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Rotter, Jerome I; Grody, Wayne W

2012-01-01

124

The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

Kotz, D.

1995-08-01

125

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Packer, Samuel (Great Neck, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Sound Beach, NY)

1996-12-10

126

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

1996-12-10

127

Conceptual plan to link nuclear medicine and the MDIS radiology PACS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System (MDIS) is a project to install PACS systems at several medical sites in the military. The configuration calls for links to nuclear medicine in the near future but to date no definite system has been devised. This presentation describes a scenario in which a nuclear medicine department acts as a mini-PACS system with a

John Bauman; Steve Budd; Neil Katz; Michael A. Cawthon; John R. Romlein; John C. Weiser; Robert G. Leckie

1993-01-01

128

(In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-01-01

129

General comparison of functional imaging in nuclear medicine with other modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

New (noninvasive) diagnostic procedures in medicine (ultrasound (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) create a need for a review of the clinical utility of functional imaging in nuclear medicine. A general approach that is valid for all imaging procedures is not possible. For this reason, an individual assessment for each class of functional imaging

W ADAM

1987-01-01

130

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

131

Progress Report '1983. (Institute of Nuclear Research).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1983 the Institute of Nuclear Research implemented three main research projects: problems of the development of the nuclear power complex in Czechoslovakia, non-power use of ionizing radiation in the national economy, and problems of radiation safety. ...

1984-01-01

132

Modern problems of technical progress and methodological support in medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid development of modern computer technologies gave a powerful incentive to technical progress as a whole and to medical equipment in particular. A range of medical diagnostic computer-based systems has recently appeared. There are various fields these techniques are used in: roentgenology, ultrasound diagnostic, neurophysiology, angiology etc. The advantages of the use of computer interface are undoubted: it gives possibility to enhance the functioning of the system itself, speed up all technological processes, carry out a reliable and easy archivation and exchange the information obtained. But the most important advantage of using PC in diagnostic system lies in an unlimited freedom of use mathematical algorithms and flexible mathematical models for processing information obtained. On the other hand, the absence of clinical techniques for interpretation of the data obtained is an obstacle to the use of software at its full potential. As a result, a close connection of a scientific development of hardware with high-informative techniques for clinical interpretation of the instrumental data obtained has become topical as never before. We see an optimal solution in introducing the interpretation patterns in conjunction with purely numerical computations into mathematical simulations.

Novyc'kyy, Victor V.; Lushchyk, Ulyana B.

2001-06-01

133

Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging of the pediatric chest: current practical imaging assessment.  

PubMed

In the chest, the indications for nuclear medicine studies are broader and more varied in children than in adults. In children, nuclear medicine studies are used to evaluate congenital and developmental disorders of the chest, as well as diseases more typical of adults. In the chest, pediatric nuclear medicine uses the same radiopharmaceuticals and imaging techniques as used in adults to evaluate cardiac and pulmonary disease, aerodigestive disorders, and pediatric malignancies. The introduction of PET (mostly using (18)F-FDG) has transformed pediatric nuclear oncology, particular for imaging malignancies in the chest. PMID:21889020

Grant, Frederick D; Treves, S Ted

2011-09-01

134

Recent progress on anticancer candidates in patents of herbal medicinal products.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines in treatment of cancer as complementary and alternative therapy are accepted increasingly with growing scientific evidences of biomedical research and clinical trials. Anticancer drugs discovered from herbal medicines have a long history and some of them have been used in clinical setting as the conventional anticancer drugs. Actually, herbal medicines are a source for anticancer drug discovery and drug development. Recently, research continuously focuses on clues from traditional use of herbal medicines to develop new anticancer drugs in single pure compounds. On the other hand, standardized various extracts or fractions with anticancer effects or with adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment coming from single or mixed herbs are also accepted forms as dietary supplements and botanical drug products in the US for current statutory regulations. In the present paper, we analyzed the patented agents in the US from herbal medicines in recent ten years, both as potential anticancer extracts/fractions (containing multi-components) and single pure compound(s) that act as new anticancer substances. This review also highlighted the advances in knowledge about quality control, safety, efficacy and recent progress in anticancer candidates in patents of botanical drug products from herbal medicines. PMID:21114469

Feng, Yibin; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Meifen; Feng, Yigang; Li, Hongyun; Tsao, Saiwah

2011-01-01

135

Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.  

PubMed

As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

Chen, Man Yu

2014-05-01

136

Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (“thyroid”) uptake probe, ?-camera, SPECT and SPECT/CT scanner, and PET and PET/CT scanner. It should be particularly useful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and their respective frequencies are presented only as general guidelines.

Zanzonico, Pat

2009-01-01

137

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics; (g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j)...

2012-10-01

138

Recent progress in understanding activity cliffs and their utility in medicinal chemistry.  

PubMed

The activity cliff concept is of high relevance for medicinal chemistry. Recent studies are discussed that have further refined our understanding of activity cliffs and suggested different ways of exploiting activity cliff information. These include alternative approaches to define and classify activity cliffs in two and three dimensions, data mining investigations to systematically detect all possible activity cliffs, the introduction of computational methods to predict activity cliffs, and studies designed to explore activity cliff progression in medicinal chemistry. The discussion of these studies is complemented with new findings revealing the frequency of activity cliff formation when different molecular representations are used and the distribution of activity cliffs across different targets. Taken together, the results have a number of implications for the practice of medicinal chemistry. PMID:23981118

Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-01-01

139

Progress on the Hanford K basins spent nuclear fuel project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights progress made during the last year toward removing the Department of Energy`s (DOE) approximately, 2,100 metric tons of metallic spent nuclear fuel from the two outdated K Basins at the Hanford Site and placing it in safe, economical interim dry storage. In the past year, the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has engaged in an evolutionary process

G. E. Culley; J. C. Fulton; E. W. Gerber

1996-01-01

140

Optically Induced Nuclear Magnetization. A Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a suggestion by A. Kastler, an attempt has been made to produce a high degree of nuclear orientation in Hg199 vapor by the absorption of circularly polarized resonance radiation. A method is described for detecting the nuclear orientation by observing the intensity of the pi-component of the resonance radiation. No indication of orientation was found. The probable cause for

F. Bitter; R. F. Lacey; B. Richter

1953-01-01

141

Research progress on natural products from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging societies. Although research on this disease is advancing rapidly, thus far few very effective drugs are available for AD patients. The currently widely used medicines such as donepezil and galantamine transiently improve the symptoms of patients with mild to moderate AD. They are hardly capable of preventing, halting or reversing the progression of this disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, many herbs have been discovered and employed to treat dementia diseases in clinics in China. In recent decades, a number of agents were isolated from these herbs and their efficacies against AD were tested. Some flavonoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, triterpenoid saponins, and polysaccharides were demonstrated to have potential efficacies against AD via targeting multiple pathological changes of this disease. In this article, we reviewed research progress on the efficacies and underlying mechanisms of these agents. PMID:23715502

Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Li, Xuan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tang, Wei

2013-04-01

142

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design synthesis and initial animal testing of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue for the potential evaluation of clinical pancreatic insufficiency. The new agent is 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoyl] rac-glycerol(1,2-Pal-3-IPPA). Following oral administration of the iodine-125-labeled agent to rats, 34.5+8.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine within one day, demonstrating that radioiodinated IPPA is absorbed in the intestine after release from the triglyceride by pancreatic lipase. The final catabolic product of IPPA is then conjugated and excreted via the urinary bladder. Urine analysis following oral administration of this new agent to patients may thus be a new, simple method for the clinical evaluation of various gastrointestinal diseases. The synthesis and the initial biological evaluation of the 3R-isomer of [{sup 125}I]IQNP are also described.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.

1992-07-01

143

Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1987  

SciTech Connect

In this report the preparation of a new radioiodinated nucleoside as a potential tumor-localizing agent is described. The p-iodophenyl analogue of 5-amino-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide (AlCA) was prepared by a 5-step reaction sequence. The iodine-125-labeled analogue was evaluated in rats and nude mice with implanted tumors. This agent crossed the intact blood-brain barrier (0.28% injected dose/gm at 5 min) and also showed some uptake in implanted tumors (0.74% injected dose/gm at 30 min). These preliminary results demonstrate that radioiodinated nucleoside analogues are good candiates for tumor localization. To evaluate the possible formation of 3-R,S-hydroxy-3-methyl metabolites from radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (''BMIPP''), a new synthesis of 3-R,S-hydroxy fatty acids has been developed involving C-2 acylation of the ester (''Meldrum's'' acid) formed by condensation of malonic acid with acetone. Treatment with acid forms the methyl ketone which is condensed under Reformatsky conditions to give the racemic ..beta..-hydroxy-..beta..-methyl ester which is then hydrolyzed with base. In this way, the ..beta..-hydroxy analogues of BMIPP and 3-methylheptadecanoic acid have been prepared for the first time and are being used in biological studies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Allred, J.F.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

1988-03-01

144

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design synthesis and initial animal testing of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue for the potential evaluation of clinical pancreatic insufficiency. The new agent is 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoyl) rac-glycerol(1,2-Pal-3-IPPA). Following oral administration of the iodine-125-labeled agent to rats, 34.5+8.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine within one day, demonstrating that radioiodinated IPPA is absorbed in the intestine after release from the triglyceride by pancreatic lipase. The final catabolic product of IPPA is then conjugated and excreted via the urinary bladder. Urine analysis following oral administration of this new agent to patients may thus be a new, simple method for the clinical evaluation of various gastrointestinal diseases. The synthesis and the initial biological evaluation of the 3R-isomer of ({sup 125}I)IQNP are also described.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.

1992-07-01

145

Nuclear Medicine Progress Report for Quarter Ending September 30, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preparation and animal testing of a new radio-iodinated p-iodophenylamine-linked dihydropyridine system is described. The model agent, 1-methyl-3-(N-( beta -(4-( exp 125 I)iodophenyl)ethyl)carbamoyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine, was prepared by coupling 4-( e...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose M. M. Goodman P. C. ivastava

1984-01-01

146

Nuclear Medicine: Progress Report for Quarter Ending September 30, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The synthesis of two new dimethyl-branched analogues of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3'-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) is described. Methyl-branching was introduced into the 6- and 9-positions to determine the effect of the position of dimethyl-branching on my...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose M. M. Goodman P. C. ivastava

1987-01-01

147

Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of osmium-191 by thermal neutron irradiation of enriched osmium-190 has been further evaluated at neutron flux values from 4 \\/times\\/ 10¹⁴ to 2.5 \\/times\\/ 10¹⁵ neutrons\\/cm²\\/center dot\\/sec. In order to obtain osmium-191 with a specific activity of 250 mCi per mg of enriched osmium-190, irradiation periods at neutron flux values lower than 2.5 \\/times\\/ 10¹⁵ neutrons\\/cm²\\/center dot\\/sec have

Knapp F. F. Jr; J. F. Allred; K. R. Ambrose; S. L. Blystone; A. P. Callahan; E. C. Lisic; D. W. McPherson; D. E. Rice; C. J. Rogers; P. C. Srivastava

1988-01-01

148

Motion estimation for nuclear medicine: a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, Respiratory Motion Modelling of the abdominal-thoracic organs serves as a pre-requisite for motion correction of Nuclear Medicine (NM) Images. Many respiratory motion models to date build a static correspondence between a parametrized external surrogate signal and internal motion. Mean drifts in respiratory motion, changes in respiratory style and noise conditions of the external surrogate signal motivates a more adaptive approach to capture non-stationary behavior. To this effect we utilize the application of our novel Kalman model with an incorporated expectation maximization step to allow adaptive learning of model parameters with changing respiratory observations. A comparison is made with a popular total least squares (PCA) based approach. It is demonstrated that in the presence of noisy observations the Kalman framework outperforms the static PCA model, however, both methods correct for respiratory motion in the computational anthropomorphic phantom to < 2mm. Motion correction performed on 3 dynamic MRI patient datasets using the Kalman model results in correction of respiratory motion to ? 3mm.

Smith, Rhodri; Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Jones, John; Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin

2014-03-01

149

Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 ?Sv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 ?Sv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Gultekin, Salih Sinan; Sahmaran, Turan

2013-01-01

150

Importance of bladder radioactivity for radiation safety in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 ?Sv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 ?Sv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Sahmaran, Turan

2013-12-01

151

Recent progress on nuclear parton distribution functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report current status of global analyses on nuclear parton distribution functions (NPDFs). The optimum NPDFs are determined by analyzing high-energy nuclear reaction data. Due to limited experimental measurements, antiquark modifications have large uncertainties at x > 0.2 and gluon modifications cannot be determined. A nuclear modification difference between u and d quark distributions could be an origin of the long-standing NuTeV sin2?w anomaly. There is also an issue of nuclear modification differences between the structure functions of charged-lepton and neutrino reactions. Next, nuclear clustering effects are discussed in structure functions F2A as a possible explanation for an anomalous result in the 9Be nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Last, tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions are extracted from HERMES data on the polarized structure function b1 of the deuteron, and they could be used for testing theoretical models and for proposing future experiments, for example, the one at JLab. Such measurements could open a new field of spin physics in spin-one hadrons.

Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.; Saito, K.

2011-09-01

152

Progress in noise thermometry for nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear radiations on conventional thermocouples (type K, C and N) mainly used in irradiation experiments may create significant drifts of the signals. In order to solve these difficulties, the CEA (French Nuclear Energy Commission) has developed and qualified in laboratory conditions miniature devices, which combine a noise thermometer and intrinsic thermocouples (NT-TC), for future application in a research reactor. In this paper, a particular approach of combined NT-TC sensors is described. Present measurements, based on a correlation and a comparison technique, have been performed in a typical laboratory environment between 200 and 400 deg. C which are typical temperatures in materials irradiation experiments. (authors)

Lopez, A. L. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Villard, J. F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

2011-07-01

153

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-01-01

154

A computer program for calculation of approximate embryo/fetus radiation dose in nuclear medicine applications.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Material and Methods: Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. Results: The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Conclusion: Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487527

Bayram, Tuncay; Sönmez, Bircan

2012-04-01

155

The 2011 nuclear medicine technology job analysis project of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists.  

PubMed

The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) conducts periodic job analysis projects to update the content and eligibility requirements for all certification examinations. In 2009, the ARRT conducted a comprehensive job analysis project to update the content specifications and clinical competency requirements for the nuclear medicine technology examination. ARRT staff and a committee of volunteer nuclear medicine technologists designed a job analysis survey that was sent to a random sample of 1,000 entry-level staff nuclear medicine technologists. Through analysis of the survey data and judgments of the committee, the project resulted in changes to the nuclear medicine technology examination task list, content specifications, and clinical competency requirements. The primary changes inspired by the project were the introduction of CT content to the examination and the expansion of the content covering cardiac procedures. PMID:21078779

Anderson, Dan; Hubble, William; Press, Bret A; Hall, Scott K; Michels, Ann D; Koenen, Roxanne; Vespie, Alan W

2010-12-01

156

Current Status of Diagnostic Counting and Imaging Techniques Used in Nuclear Medicine: A Sketch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diagnostic procedures used in Nuclear Medicine are designed to provide information about the static and/or dynamic distribution of some particular stable or radioactive material within the patient, as well as the quantity of the material present. Thus, th...

R. N. Beck

1975-01-01

157

NCRP report 160 and what it means for medical imaging and nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain report 160 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement and the significance of the report to medical imaging as a whole and nuclear medicine specifically. The implications of the findings of report 160 have had repercussions and will continue to affect all of ionizing radiation medical imaging. The nuclear medicine community should have an understanding of why and how report 160 is important. After reading this article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with the main focus of report 160, the significant change that has occurred since the 1980s in the ionizing radiation exposure of people in the United States, the primary background source of ionizing radiation in the United States, the primary medical exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States, trends in nuclear medicine procedures and patient exposure, and a comparison of population doses between 2006 and the early 1980s as outlined in report 160. PMID:24179182

Bolus, Norman E

2013-12-01

158

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas (LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging)

2011-10-04

159

Impact of Operator on Determining Functional Parameters of Nuclear Medicine Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study was designed to assess the significance of the interoperator variability in theestimation of functional parameters forfour nuclear medicine procedures. Materials andMethods: Three nuclear medicine technologists with varying years of experience processed the following randomly selected 20 cases with diverse functions of each study type: renography, renal cortical scans, myocardial perfusion gated single-photon emission computed tomography (MP-GSPECT) and

A. M. Mohammed; S. Y. Naddaf; F. S. Mahdi; Q. I. Al-Mutawa; H. A. Al-Dossary; A. H. Elgazzar

2006-01-01

160

A dynamic renal phantom for nuclear medicine studies.  

PubMed

Dynamic radionuclide renal study (renography) provides functional and structural information of the kidney and urinary tract noninvasively. Our purpose in this study is to describe the construction and test results of a dynamic renal phantom with different clinical features of radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five pieces of different shaped Plexiglas boxes: Two kidneys, one liver, two square shaped boxes (one heart and one bladder). The bladder was internally divided into two compartments in order to collect each kidney output separately. The dynamic circulation of the phantom was maintained under a hydrostatic pressure approximately equal to 13.3 kPa (average human blood pressure). The standard dose distribution among different organs and different renographic parameters were calculated from series of normal patients study (91 with 99mTc-DTPA, 68 with 99mTc-EC). All the studies were performed with same camera (Siemens Orbiter Digitrac 7500) equipped with LEAP (low energy all purpose) collimator using ADAC Pegasys II analytic package program under the same clinical procedure. Different regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn for concerning organs and counts per second (CPS) were collected for each ROI. The series of renogram curves were generated by phantom-studies with different flow rates for left kidney (LK) and right kidney (RK). The renal index (RI) for an individual study was calculated as the product of two indexes: "Relative Renal Function" (RRF) (water-volume of LK/RK) and "Relative Renal Time" (RRT) (Tmax of LK/RK). The most significant correlation was found in total CPS for LK and RK between the EC group and phantom studies (p < 0.001). The calculated RI values were used to simulate the patients' study with different clinical features. The dynamics were found reproducible. The phantom is suitable for using in calibration and quality control protocols of the renogram procedure used in Nuclear Medicine. PMID:15789599

SabbirAhmed, A S M; Demir, Mustafa; Kabasakal, Levent; Uslu, Ilhami

2005-02-01

161

Nuclear medicine techniques for the imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide has proven its role in the diagnosis and staging of gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). New techniques in somatostatin receptor imaging include the use of different radiolabelled somatostatin analogues with higher affinity and different affinity profiles to the somatostatin receptor subtypes. Most of these analogues can also be labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides that are being used in positron emission tomography imaging. The latter imaging modality, especially in the combination with computed tomography, is of interest because of encouraging results in terms of improved imaging quality and detection capabilities. Considerable advances have been made in the imaging of NETs, but to find the ideal imaging method with increased sensitivity and better topographic localisation of the primary and metastatic disease remains the ultimate goal of research. This review provides an overview of the currently used imaging modalities and ongoing developments in the imaging of NETs, with the emphasis on nuclear medicine and puts them in perspective of clinical practice. The advantage of SRS over other imaging modalities in GEP-NETs is that it can be used to select patients with sufficient uptake for treatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasised NETs as it can induce symptomatic improvement with all Indium-111, Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177-labelled somatostatin analogues. The results that were obtained with [(90)Y-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide and [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate are even more encouraging in terms of objective tumour responses with tumour regression and documented prolonged time to progression. In the largest group of patients receiving PRRT, treated with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate, a survival benefit of several years compared with historical controls has been reported. PMID:22005114

Teunissen, Jaap J M; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Valkema, R; Krenning, Eric P

2011-10-01

162

Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (?e?e) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

2012-10-01

163

Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The most significant development this year has been the realization that EO transition strength is a fundamental manifestation of nuclear mean-square charge radius differences. Thus, EO transitions provide a fundamental signature for shape coexistence in nuclei. In this sense, EO transitions are second only to E2 transitions for signaling (quadrupole) shapes in nuclei and do so when shape differences occur. A major effort has been devoted to the review of EO transitions in nuclei. Experiments have been carried out or are scheduled at: ATLAS/FMA ({alpha} decay of very neutron-deficient Bi isotopes); MSU/NSCL ({beta} decay of {sup 56}Cu); and HRIBF/RMS (commissioning of tape collector, internal conversion/internal-pair spectrometer; {beta} decay of {sup 58}Cu). A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using HRIBF. Theoretical investigations have continued in collaboration with Prof. K. Heyde, Prof. D.J. Rowe, Prof. J.O. Rasmussen, and Prof. P.B. Semmes. These studies focus on shape coexistence and particle-core coupling.

Wood, J.L.

1996-12-31

164

Study progress in therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine monomer in severe acute pancreatitis*  

PubMed Central

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a common acute abdomen clinical problem characterized by high mortality, multiple complications, complicated pathogenesis and difficult treatment. Recent studies found traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) monomers have markedly good effect for treating SAP. Many TCM monomers can inhibit pancreatin, resist inflammation, improve microcirculation and immunoloregulation, etc. to block the pathological progress of SAP in multiple ways, reduce complications and lower mortality with rapid effects. It is significant for enhancing SAP treatment to deeply understand the current situation in TCM monomers for treating SAP and take precious references therein. This article summarizes the treating effects and mechanisms of TCM monomers for SAP in recent years.

Zhang, Xi-ping; Liu, Da-ren; Shi, Yan

2007-01-01

165

NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

1993-01-01

166

Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, April-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1988-07-01

167

Space Nuclear Safety Program: Progress report, January-March 1987  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, which were carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

Lewin, R. (ed.); George, T.G. (comp.)

1988-07-01

168

Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, July--September 1987  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1989-02-01

169

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, August 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 41 figs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-11-01

170

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1986-05-01

171

Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure: Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past year, research in theoretical nuclear physics at the University of Maryland attained a number of exciting and important results. These are described in some detail throughout the report, but some of the highlights are as follows: large N(s...

1989-01-01

172

Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The most significant development this year has been the successful elucidation of the low-energy systematics of the very neutron-deficient Pr, Nd, Pm, and Sm isotopes. This includes an extensive set of Nilsson bandheads in {sup 133}Nd. Some serious errors in earlier decay scheme work were found. The results require some significant reassessments of mean-field calculations in this region. Part of our program continues to focus on shape coexistence and electric monopole (E0) transitions in nuclei. Following the discovery of coexisting ``gamma`` bands connected by E0 transitions in {sup 184}Pt, a similar behavior in {sup 186}Pt was established from {sup 186}Au decay data. This includes a pure E0 transition between states with J{sup {pi}} = 3{sup +}, just as was seen in {sup 184}Pt. Progress has been made in elucidating the low-energy systematics of the neutron-deficient Ir isotopes. A search for the population of the superdeformed band in {sup 194}Pb in the decay of {sup 194}Bi was unsuccessful. An extensive program of systematics for nuclei at and near N = Z has been initiated.

Wood, J.L.

1993-10-31

173

Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies  

SciTech Connect

The experimental program in nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is led by Professors Carrol Bingham, Lee Riedinger, and Soren Sorenseni who respectively lead the studies of the exotic decay modes of nuclei far from stability, the program of high-spin research, and our effort in relativistic heavy-ion physics. Over the years, this broad program of research has been successful partially because of the shared University resources applied to this group effort. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has allowed us to build extremely strong programs of joint research, and in addition to play an important leadership role in the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research (JIHIR). Our experimental program is also very closely linked with those at other national laboratories: Argonne (collaborations involving the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) and {gamma}-ray arrays), Brookhaven (the RHIC and Phenix projects), and Berkeley (GAMMASPHERE). We have worked closely with a variety of university groups in the last three years, especially those in the UNISOR and now UNIRIB collaborations. And, in all aspects of our program, we have maintained close collaborations with theorists, both to inspire the most exciting experiments to perform and to extract the pertinent physics from the results. The specific areas discussed in this report are: properties of high-spin states; study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability; and high energy heavy-ion physics.

Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1996-01-16

174

Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

2004-01-01

175

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

SciTech Connect

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

Kieffer, C.T. (Children's Hospital of Buffalo, NY); Suto, P.A.

1983-03-01

176

Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.  

PubMed

During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome. PMID:19330183

Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

2009-01-01

177

Imaging of EGFR and EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Overexpression in Tumors by Nuclear Medicine Modalities  

PubMed Central

Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play a pivotal role in signal transduction pathways and in the development and maintenance of various cancers. They are involved in multiple processes such as transcription, cell cycle progression, proliferation, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. Among the PTKs, the EGFR is one of the most widely studied and has emerged as a promising key target for the treatment of cancer. Indeed, several drugs directed at this receptor are FDA-approved and many others are at various stages of development. However, thus far, the therapeutic outcome of EGFR-targeted therapy is suboptimal and needs to be refined. Quantitative PET molecular imaging coupled with selective labelled biomarkers may facilitate in vivo EGFR-targeted drug efficacy by noninvasively assessing the expression of EGFR in tumor, guiding dose and regime by measuring target drug binding and receptor occupancy as well as potentially detecting the existence of a primary or secondary mutation leading to either drug interaction or failure of EGFR recognition by the drug. This review describes the attempts to develop labelled EGFR molecular imaging agents that are based either on low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to the extracellular binding domain of the receptor to be used in nuclear medicine modalities.

Mishani, Eyal; Abourbeh, Galith; Eiblmaier, Martin; Anderson, Carolyn J

2008-01-01

178

Nuclear factor-kappaB in cancer development and progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factors and the signalling pathways that activate them are central coordinators of innate and adaptive immune responses. More recently, it has become clear that NF-kappaB signalling also has a critical role in cancer development and progression. NF-kappaB provides a mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer, and is a major factor controlling the ability of both pre-neoplastic

Michael Karin

2006-01-01

179

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Progress and activities are reported on the following: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization programs, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, monitoring of unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions technology, spent fuel and fuel pool integrity program, and engineered barriers. (DLC)

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-04-01

180

Trends of population radiation adsorbed dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran: 1985-1989  

SciTech Connect

In view of the rapid expansion of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran, this study was undertaken to examine trends of nuclear medicine practice in the country and to determine the mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita. Comprehensive national data covering 93% of all nuclear medicine centers in 1985-1989 were obtained. The total number of nuclear medicine examinations inc teased by 42% during these years. The relative frequency of thyroid investigations was 84% followed by liver/spleen and bone procedures (7% and 6%, respectively). {sup 99m}Tc was the radionuclide of choice for 86% of investigation while {sup 131}I alone accounted for 59% of collective effective dose equivalent. The annual average number of nuclear medicine procedures per 1,000 people was 1.9. For the thyroid, the highest number (48%) of patients investigated was in the 15-29 y age group and the lowest (3%) was in the >64 y age group. The male to female ratio of thyroid and cardiac patient was 0.18 and 3.64, respectively. The numbers of males and females studied for the remaining eight procedures were less frequent and about the same. The mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita was about 4.3 mSv and 8 {mu}Sv, respectively. {sup 131}I was responsible for most of collective effective dose equivalent produced by nuclear medicine. Therefore, future efforts should be concentrated on dose reduction for diagnostic {sup 131}I tests.

Mohammadi, H.; Tabeie, F.; Saghari, M. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1995-04-01

181

Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform  

PubMed Central

Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs.

2010-01-01

182

Induced pluripotent stem cells and personalized medicine: current progress and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. iPSCs can self-renew and can differentiate into many cell types, offering a potentially unlimited source of cells for targeted differentiation into somatic effector cells. Hence, iPSCs are likely to be invaluable for therapeutic applications and disease-related research. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of iPSC generation that has been made with an emphasis on both basic and clinical applications including disease modeling, drug toxicity screening/drug discovery and cell replacement therapy.

Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

2011-01-01

183

[Progress in regulation effect of aromatic refreshing traditional Chinese medicine on BBB permeability and its mechanism].  

PubMed

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain against unwanted substances, while, at the same time, limits the transport of many drugs into the brain. Aromatic refreshing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can induce resuscitation and modify the permeability of BBB, promoting other drugs entering into the brain with brain protection effect. This paper mainly reviews the research progress in regulation effects and mechanism of usual aromatic refreshing TCM, such as borneol, moschus, styrax, benzoinum and Tatarinow Sweetflag Rhizome, on BBB permeability. To broaden the application of these drugs in modern pharmaceutics in the future, the relatively research should emphasis on combining aromatic refreshing TCM with new formulations and technologies in pharmaceutics, providing novel promising strategies for brain diseases therapy. PMID:24956831

Wang, Li-Ping; Feng, Jian-Fang; Hu, Kai-Li

2014-03-01

184

The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

2013-05-01

185

Study of nuclear medicine practices in Portugal from an internal dosimetry perspective.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine practices involve the handling of a wide range of pharmaceuticals labelled with different radionuclides, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This work intends to evaluate the potential risks of internal contamination of nuclear medicine staff in several Portuguese nuclear medicine services and to conclude about the requirement of a routine internal monitoring. A methodology proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), providing a set of criteria to determine the need, or not, for an internal monitoring programme, was applied. The evaluation of the risk of internal contaminations in a given set of working conditions is based on the type and amount of radionuclides being handled, as well as the safety conditions with which they are manipulated. The application of the IAEA criteria showed that 73.1% of all the workers included in this study should be integrated in a routine monitoring programme for internal contaminations; more specifically, 100% of workers performing radioimmunoassay techniques should be monitored. This study suggests that a routine monitoring programme for internal exposures should be implemented in Portugal for most nuclear medicine workers. PMID:21795254

Bento, J; Teles, P; Neves, M; Santos, A I; Cardoso, G; Barreto, A; Alves, F; Guerreiro, C; Rodrigues, A; Santos, J A M; Capelo, C; Parafita, R; Martins, B

2012-05-01

186

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT, and BNCT agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in computerized tomography. A portion of the research effort is directed toward the development of new synthetic methods for the preparation of boron-containing neutron therapy agents. The uniqueness of the UT program

Kabalka

1991-01-01

187

Nuclear medicine in the 1990s: a quantitative physiological approach.  

PubMed

This paper describes the potential advantages to medical diagnosis and treatment that might be obtained from the wider application of positron emission tomography as a clinical tool. Developments along the lines suggested here will require a radical change in thinking from both clinicians and the medically related scientific community in the UK and some enlightened and resourceful funding from a mixture of charitable, industrial and government sources. If these ideas are to be pursued successfully, then the work must start now on a much wider scale than is presently perceived in the UK, and close collaboration between physicists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, clinicians and industrialists is needed. Furthermore, it is imperative that the scientific developments now underway in silicon technology, parallel data processors, biochemical and pharmacological processes and even high-temperature superconductors be kept under close and constant review by those associated with the technological advancements of medicine, so that the value of such developments is rapidly transferred to applications to medicine. This must include closer relationships between academic medicine and science than is the general rule in the UK at present. In conclusion, the scenario presented here includes the installation of regional cyclotron facilities to provide a large number of institutions in the UK with positron-emitter labelled radiopharmaceuticals. Additionally, agents labelled with radionuclides from in-house generators and other already existing higher-energy cyclotrons will provide a versatile and valuable range of radiopharmaceuticals for the study of human disease. These developments must be supported by the manufacture of lower-cost positron camera systems, as suggested here, connected to high-data-rate parallel processors to provide images of body function and to determine the effects brought about by disease. These images may then be processed using algorithms based on kinetic models of the body systems to provide information about the basic biochemical and physiological processes of the body. Such a development could have a profound effect on our knowledge of human disease and on our ability to control and treat it successfully. PMID:2785428

Ott, R J

1989-05-01

188

Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long?held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases.

2012-01-01

189

PACS in clinical neuroradiology, nuclear medicine, and teleradiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PACS research and development efforts at the University of Florida, Department of Radiology have been directed solely toward solving clinical problems with an objective of incorporating successful products or improving the functionality, performance, and reliability of the system. This paper describes the current network and system, experiences with system upgrades and changed, quality control measures used to verify that the system is operational, and current works in progress.

Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Frost, Meryll M.; Drane, Walter E.; Mancuso, Anthony A.; Quisling, Ronald G.; Peters, Keith R.; Litwiller, Anthony L.; Staab, Edward V.

1992-07-01

190

``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

2004-07-01

191

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

1992-06-01

192

Identification of medicinal mushroom species based on nuclear large subunit rDNA sequences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop molecular identification method for medical mushrooms and their preparations based on the nucleotide sequences of nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA. Four specimens were collected of each of the three representative medicinal mushrooms used in Korea: Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, and Fomes fomentarius. Fungal material used in these experiments included two different mycelial cultures and two different fruiting bodies from wild or cultivated mushrooms. The genomic DNA of mushrooms were extracted and 3 nuclear LSU rDNA fragments were amplified: set 1 for the 1.1-kb DNA fragment in the upstream region, set 2 for the 1.2-kb fragment in the middle, and set 3 for the 1.3-kb fragment downstream. The amplified gene products of nuclear large subunit rDNA from 3 different mushrooms were cloned into E. coli vector and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination. The sequence thus determined revealed that the gene sequences of the same medicinal mushroom species were more than 99.48% homologous, and the consensus sequences of 3 different medicinal mushrooms were more than 97.80% homologous. Restriction analysis revealed no useful restriction sites for 6-bp recognition enzymes for distinguishing the 3 sequences from one another, but some distinctive restriction patterns were recognized by the 4-bp recognition enzymes AccII and HhaI. This analysis was also confirmed by PCR-RFLP experiments on medicinal mushrooms. PMID:16554714

Lee, Ji Seon; Lim, Mi Ok; Cho, Kyoung Yeh; Cho, Jung Hee; Chang, Seung Yeup; Nam, Doo Hyun

2006-02-01

193

Nuclear medicine and imaging research: Quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science  

SciTech Connect

During the past three years the program has undergone a substantial revitalization. There has been no significant change in the scientific direction of this grant, in which emphasis continues to be placed on developing new or improved methods of obtaining quantitative data from radiotracer imaging studies. However, considerable scientific progress has been made in the three areas of interest: Radiochemistry, Quantitative Methodologies, and Experimental Methods and Feasibility Studies, resulting in a sharper focus of perspective and improved integration of the overall scientific effort. Changes in Faculty and staff, including development of new collaborations, have contributed to this, as has acquisition of additional and new equipment and renovations and expansion of the core facilities. 121 refs., 30 figs., 2 tabs.

Copper, M.; Beck, R.N.

1991-06-01

194

Inflammation and cancer: tumor initiation, progression and metastasis, and Chinese botanical medicines.  

PubMed

Both historically and contemporarily, cancer is seen as an inflammatory process. Evidence has emerged in the last two decades that at the molecular level most chronic diseases, including cancer, are caused by a dysregulated inflammatory response. The identification of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and their gene products such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, chemokines, cyclooxygenase-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, adhesion molecules and others has provided the molecular basis for the role of inflammation in cancer. Tumor initiation, its progression and metastasis and the failure of immune suppression of tumors all can be attributed in part to chronic and systemic inflammation. Chinese herbs have a long history in both treatment of cancer and suppression of inflammation. This paper looks at recent research on cancer and inflammation and Chinese herbs and compounds, which can be used in the treatment of cancer. PMID:21078262

Weber, Daniel; Wheat, Janelle M; Curri, Geoffrey M

2010-11-01

195

Accessibility and use of essential medicines in health care: Current progress and challenges in India  

PubMed Central

Essential Medicine Concept, a major breakthrough in health care, started in 1977 when World Health Organization (WHO) published its first list. Appropriate use of essential medicines is one of the most cost-effective components of modern health care. The selection process has evolved from expert evaluation to evidence-based selection. The first Indian list was published in 1996 and the recent revision with 348 medicines was published in 2011 after 8 years. Health expenditure is less in India as compared to developed countries. India faces a major challenge in providing access to medicines for its 1.2 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines. In the future, countries will face challenges in selecting high-cost medicines for oncology, orphan diseases and other conditions. There is a need to develop strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform.

Bansal, Dipika; Purohit, Vilok K.

2013-01-01

196

Epigenetic stochasticity, nuclear structure and cancer: the implications for medicine.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to summarize an evolution of thinking about the epigenetic basis of human cancer, from the earliest studies of altered DNA methylation in cancer to the modern comprehensive epigenomic era. Converging data from epigenetic studies of primary cancers and from experimental studies of chromatin in development and epithelial-mesenchymal transition suggest a role for epigenetic stochasticity as a driving force of cancer, with Darwinian selection of tumour cells at the expense of the host. This increased epigenetic stochasticity appears to be mediated by large-scale changes in DNA methylation and chromatin in domains associated with the nuclear lamina. The implications for diagnosis include the potential to identify stochastically disrupted progenitor cells years before cancer develops, and to target drugs to epigenetic drivers of gene expression instability rather than to mean effects per se. PMID:24635672

Feinberg, A P

2014-07-01

197

Recent Progress on the Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a set of containers for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository of DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This container design, referred to as the standardized DOE SNF canister or standardized canister, was developed by the Department's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Program (NSNFP) working in conjunction with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the DOE spent fuel sites. This canister had to have a standardized design yet be capable of accepting virtually all of the DOE SNF, be placed in a variety of storage and transportation systems, and still be acceptable to the repository. Since specific design details regarding the storage, transportation, and repository disposal of DOE SNF were not finalized, the NSNFP recognized the necessity to specify a complete DOE SNF canister design. This allowed other evaluations of canister performance and design to proceed as well as providing standardized canister users adequate information to proceed with their work. This paper is an update of a paper presented to the 1999 American Nuclear Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Conference. It discusses recent progress achieved in various areas to enhance acceptance of this canister not only by the DOE complex but also fabricators and regulatory agencies.

Morton, D.K.; Snow, S.D.; Rahl, T.E.; Hill, T.J. (INEEL); Morissette, R.P. (Beckman and Associates, Inc.)

2002-05-07

198

Recent Progress on the Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a set of containers for the handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository of DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This container design, referred to as the standardized DOE SNF canister or standardized canister, was developed by the Department's National Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Program (NSNFP) working in conjunction with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the DOE spent fuel sites. This canister had to have a standardized design yet be capable of accepting virtually all of the DOE SNF, be placed in a variety of storage and transportation systems, and still be acceptable to the repository. Since specific design details regarding the storage, transportation, and repository disposal of DOE SNF were not finalized, the NSNFP recognized the necessity to specify a complete DOE SNF canister design. This allowed other evaluations of canister performance and design to proceed as well as providing standardized canister users adequate information to proceed with their work. This paper is an update of a paper presented to the 1999 American Nuclear Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Conference. It discusses recent progress achieved in various areas to enhance acceptance of this canister not only by the DOE complex but also fabricators and regulatory agencies.

Morton, Dana Keith; Snow, Spencer David; Rahl, Tommy Ervin; Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Morissette, R. P.

2002-08-01

199

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)  

SciTech Connect

This is a report of progress in Year Two (January 1, 1990--December 31, 1990) of Grant FG02-86ER60438, Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science,'' awarded for the three-year period January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991 as a competitive renewal following site visit in the fall of 1988. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.

1990-09-01

200

[Diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the endocrine system: new trends in nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

Diagnosis and therapy of endocrine disorders in nuclear medicine has been improved through the implementation of new techniques especially with positron emission tomography (PET). In modern concepts of parathyroid gland surgery an exact anatomic localisation of adenomas is necessary, which may be achieved with MIBI-Scintigraphy being the most sensitive method in primary hyperparathyroidism. The optimal access to localise adenomas is the investigation with combined SPECT/X-CT systems. The use of such systems for diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system may also be helpful. For neoplasms of the adrenal gland PET systems could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant entities or to detect primary tumours. In case of incidentalomas J131-Norcholesterol and MIGB-scintigraphy has been proven helpful. Indications for nuclear medicine studies to detect abnormalities of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal system are established rarely. PMID:15518138

Kienast, Oskar; Kainberger, Franz; Kurtaran, Amir

2003-01-01

201

MAGIC-f Gel in Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry: study in an external beam of Iodine-131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAGIC-f gel applicability in Nuclear Medicine dosimetry was investigated by exposure to a 131I source. Calibration was made to provide known absorbed doses in different positions around the source. The absorbed dose in gel was compared with a Monte Carlo Simulation using PENELOPE code and a thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Using MRI analysis for the gel a R2-dose sensitivity of 0.23 s-1Gy-1was obtained. The agreement between dose-distance curves obtained with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD was better than 97% and for MAGIC-f and TLD was better than 98%. The results show the potential of polymer gel for application in nuclear medicine where three dimensional dose distribution is demanded.

Schwarcke, M.; Marques, T.; Garrido, C.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O.

2010-11-01

202

Nuclear medicine - factors influencing the choice and use of radionuclides in diagnosis and therapy  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the many factors which influence the choice of the proper radiopharmaceutical drug product for the diagnosis or treatment of a specific disease or condition in a human subject. The Report examines the historical factors that influence the choice of radionuclides, the factors that influence the localization of radionuclides in tissues, the factors that influence the choice of instruments, and include an evaluation of the nuclear medicine procedures that could be selected and their clinical usefulness. In examining these factors the desirable characteristics of the radiopharmaceutical drug products of the measurement systems are identified. The methods of dose determination and the assumptions used in determination of dose are developed. There is also a section on radiation effects. A chapter on guidelines for procedures in nuclear medicine and some general and specific recommendations for protection of patients conclude the body of the text.

Not Available

1983-01-01

203

The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1998-03-01

204

Optimizing bioimpedance measurement configuration for dual-gated nuclear medicine imaging: a sensitivity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion artefacts due to respiration and cardiac contractions may deteriorate the quality of nuclear medicine imaging leading\\u000a to incorrect diagnosis and inadequate treatment. Motion artefacts can be minimized by simultaneous respiratory and cardiac\\u000a gating, dual-gating. Currently, only cardiac gating is often performed. In this study, an optimized bioimpedance measurement\\u000a configuration was determined for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating signal acquisition.

Tuomas Koivumäki; Marko Vauhkonen; Jyrki T. Kuikka; Mikko A. Hakulinen

2011-01-01

205

Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used

H. H. Lin; S. L. Dong; H. J. Yang; Sharon Chen; C. T. Shih; K. S. Chuang; C. H. Lin; W. J. Yao; M. L. Jan

2011-01-01

206

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1981-03-01

207

Short- and long-term responses to molybdenum-99 shortages in nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

Most nuclear medicine studies use 99Tcm, which is the decay product of 99Mo. The world supply of 99Mo comes from only five nuclear research reactors and availability has been much reduced in recent times owing to problems at the largest reactors. In the short-term there are limited actions that can be taken owing to capacity issues on alternative imaging modalities. In the long-term, stability of 99Mo supply will rely on a combination of replacing conventional reactors and developing new technologies.

Ballinger, J R

2010-01-01

208

Progress on integrated Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the joints caused by wide variety of factors. factors. This paper\\u000a provides a review of the clinical and experimental research on integrated Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of\\u000a osteoarthritis. Western medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. (1) Clinical research: integrated Chinese and Western\\u000a medicine therapies were used including physiotherapy, medications,

He-ming Wang; Jun-ning Liu; Yi Zhao

2010-01-01

209

Digital Filtering of Scintigrams and an Investigation into the Application of the Fresnel Zone Plate in Nuclear Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By lack of media large enough to obtain a gamma-lens gamma radiation imaging detectors are based on collimation by absorbence. At present, routine static studies in Nuclear Medicine generally make use of gamma cameras equiped with conventional collimators...

C. J. M. van den Berg

1976-01-01

210

Healthcare Inspection: Alleged Residency Training Issues in Nuclear Medicine Service, Northport VA Medical Center, Northport, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) Office of Healthcare Inspections (OHI) conducted an inspection to determine the validity of allegations regarding Northport, NY VA Medical Center's (VAMC's) Nuclear Medicine Service. These allegations particularly pe...

2010-01-01

211

An Intercomparison of Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasonography, and Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Liver Disease: A Retrospective Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature review was conducted to intercompare nuclear medicine, ultrasonography, and computed tomography on the basis of their ability to aid in the differential diagnosis of the various focal liver lesions and diffuse hepatic diseases. Each imaging m...

J. A. Siegel C. D. Evans A. B. McIntyre

1981-01-01

212

Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research: Positron Computed Tomography Assessment. Final Report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of the final phase of the study effort generally titled Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research. The previous work is reviewed and extended to an assessment providing perspectives on medical applications of positron emission t...

E. J. Potchen G. I. Harris D. A. R. D. Gift J. E. Siebert

1983-01-01

213

Progress on integrated Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease of the joints caused by wide variety of factors. factors. This paper provides a review of the clinical and experimental research on integrated Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Western medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. (1) Clinical research: integrated Chinese and Western medicine therapies were used including physiotherapy, medications, acupuncture, functional training, intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate therapy, and arthroscopic debridement with Chinese medicine articular iontophoresis therapy. articular iontophoresis therapy. (2) Experimental research: modern methods were used in studying the mechanism of Chinese medicine in slowing down cartilage degeneration, promoting articular cartilage repair, inhibiting synovial inflammation, and blocking cartilage destruction. inflammation, and blocking cartilage destruction. In addition, this article also reviews the advantages, prospects, and problems of the therapies. and problems of the therapies. PMID:20697952

Wang, He-ming; Liu, Jun-ning; Zhao, Yi

2010-08-01

214

Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging.

Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

2012-01-01

215

Recent progress in EDF-based methods applied to nuclear properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results obtained with energy density functional (EDF) based methods are presented, focused on the nuclear phenomenology. EDF approaches aim for an universal description of the nuclear phenomena over the nuclear chart. Achievements from large to small nuclear systems are depicted: equation of state of nuclear matter, heavy and light nuclei. Dynamical aspects such as nuclear excitations, decay and reactions are also presented. EDF methods are progressing towards an unified and systematic description of the rich variety of the nuclear phenomena such as quantum liquid and cluster states, or nuclear structure and reactions.

Khan, E.

2014-03-01

216

Nuclear Fuel Management Optimization: A Work in Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this overview for this issue of Nuclear Technology, which contains papers presented at the American Nuclear Society Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management III (ANFM-III) 2004 topical meeting, is to introduce the subject of nuclear fuel management for light water reactors. A total of 23 papers was presented on this topic at ANFM-III. Nuclear fuel management involves making

Turinsky; Paul J

2005-01-01

217

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating ...

S. L. Jacques A. J. Welch M. Motamedi S. Rastegar F. Tittel

1992-01-01

218

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating ...

S. L. Jacques A. J. Welch M. Motamedi S. Rastegar F. Tittel

1993-01-01

219

Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

Not Available

1992-07-01

220

Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

Not Available

1992-01-01

221

Czechoslovakia Institute of Nuclear Research Progress Report '86.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major scientific, technical and partly also economic results are reported achieved in 1986 by the Institute of Nuclear Research. The research and development efforts were mainly focused on applied research in nuclear power, namely, nuclear safety of the r...

S. Havelka

1987-01-01

222

Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The project discussed in this progress report focusses on understanding the many facets and scales of strongly interacting systems using the electromagnetic probe. On one hand we are investigating the spin properties of the nucleon (proton and neutron) through its fundamental constituents (quarks and gluons). On the other hand we are studying the properties of nucleons in nuclei and the few-body systems. The E142 and the newly approved E143 experiments planned at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are designed to provide an answer to the mystery of the missing spin of the proton, while the new letter of intent submitted to SLAC, will investigate the so called Color transparency effect related to the prediction of PQCD for the (e,e{prime}p) quasielastic process in nuclei. Our research involvement at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility focusses in Hall A. From the technical point of view we are building the Coemption polarimeter for the Hall A beam line. This device should allow a precise measurement of the electron beam polarization for several approved experiments. From the physics aspect of the project we plan to perform the transverse/longitudinal separation of the nuclear response at high momentum transfer in the quasielastic region, the photodisintegration of deuterium with the measurement of the recoil polarization of the proton and the electromagnetic form factor of few body systems experiment.

Meziani, Z.E.

1992-01-01

223

Progress towards a nuclear EDM measurement of Ra-225  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a long term program to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the Radium-225 nucleus. A nonzero nuclear EDM is a signature of of CP- and T-violating interactions within nuclei. Currently, the best experimental limits on these interactions are derived from EDM measurements of Mercury-199. The Ra-225 radioisotope (half-life of 15 days) is an attractive alternative because, due to its peculiar shape (octupole deformation), it is predicted to be 10^2-10^3 times more sensitive to these types of interactions than Hg-199. In our measurement scheme, Ra atoms are first laser cooled & trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and then transferred to an optical dipole trap (ODT), both of which have already been demonstrated. Currently being studied is the motion of this ODT into the science chamber and the transfer of atoms into a second ODT. We will report on progress towards measurements of atomic properties necessary for the EDM search and the EDM search itself.

Singh, Jaideep; Dietrich, M. R.; Kalita, M.; Parker, R. H.; Sulai, I. A.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.

2011-06-01

224

Progress in complementary and alternative medicine: contribution of the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration.  

PubMed

Since the creation of the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), progress has been made in the evaluation and, where appropriate, the clinical and scientific acceptance of "complementary and alternative" medicine (CAM). This progress is due in part to initiatives jointly conducted by the NIH and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In particular, advances in the evaluation and acceptance of two CAM practices, acupuncture and botanical medicine, have resulted from ongoing cooperation between the two agencies. The legalization of the use of acupuncture needles in 1996 came as a result of a workshop sponsored by the OAM with the participation of the FDA, which explored key regulatory issues. Prompted by similar regulatory issues, as well as by the initiation of NIH-funded research projects, the OAM sponsored an international symposium to examine the evidence for and the role of botanical medicine in the United States. This conference generated a series of workshops sponsored by the Drug Information Association in conjunction with NIH and FDA, which explored the scientific, regulatory, and policy issues of heterogeneous botanical products. These efforts resulted in the initiation of a large randomized multicenter clinical trial (sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health) of the botanical, St. John's wort, for the treatment of depression, and the formation of internal working groups within the FDA that are drafting a guidance policy for the development of botanicals as drugs in the United States. This document is expected to be available in the near future. PMID:9884181

Eskinazi, D; Hoffman, F A

1998-01-01

225

ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity\\u000a and high-energy cyclotron.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy\\u000a and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of

Ferid Haddad; Ludovic Ferrer; Arnaud Guertin; Thomas Carlier; Nathalie Michel; Jacques Barbet; Jean-François Chatal

2008-01-01

226

Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-11-01

227

Principles of nuclear medicine imaging: planar, SPECT, PET, multi-modality, and autoradiography systems.  

PubMed

The underlying principles of nuclear medicine imaging involve the use of unsealed sources of radioactivity in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The ionizing radiations that accompany the decay of the administered radioactivity can be quantitatively detected, measured, and imaged in vivo with instruments such as gamma cameras. This paper reviews the design and operating principles, as well as the capabilities and limitations, of instruments used clinically and preclinically for in vivo radionuclide imaging. These include gamma cameras, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners, and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The technical basis of autoradiography is reviewed as well. PMID:22364319

Zanzonico, Pat

2012-04-01

228

Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

Martire, J.R.

1987-10-01

229

Improving patient access in nuclear medicine: a case study of PET scanner scheduling.  

PubMed

We used the systems engineering technique of discrete event simulation modeling to assist in increasing patient access to positron emission tomographic examinations in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Mayo Clinic, Rochester. The model was used to determine the best universal slot length to address the specific access challenges of a destination medical center such as Mayo Clinic. On the basis of the modeling, a new schedule was implemented in April 2012 and our before and after data analysis shows an increase of 2.4 scans per day. This was achieved without requiring additional resources or negatively affecting patient waiting, staff satisfaction (as evaluated by day length), or examination quality. PMID:24088878

Marmor, Yariv N; Kemp, Bradley J; Huschka, Todd R; Ruter, Royce L; McConnell, Daniel M; Rohleder, Thomas R

2013-01-01

230

Nuclear medicine in the era of genomics and proteomics: lessons from annexin V.  

PubMed

In the past decade, genomics and proteomics have begun to develop many new targets for potential diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Among the life sciences, nuclear medicine is also deeply involved in the field of clinical investigation. Experience with radiolabeled annexin V highlights the many steps required to translate a good basic-science concept into the clinical setting. This model also emphasizes the value of synergy between basic and medical specialties in developing and optimizing a clinically useful product initially derived from basic investigation. PMID:15253415

Belhocine, Tarik Z; Tait, Jonathan F; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc; Li, Chun; Blankenberg, Francis G

2004-01-01

231

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments

S. L. Jacques; A. J. Welch; M. Motamedi; S. Rastegar; F. Tittel; L. Esterowitz

1993-01-01

232

Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.  

PubMed

A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist in improving the accuracy and tractability of dose and shielding calculations for nuclear medicine facility design. PMID:24849904

Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

2014-07-01

233

[The nuclear medicine department and the TEP/Biomedical Cyclotron unit].  

PubMed

During the last 25 years, the clinical and experimental activity in nuclear medicine at Erasme hospital has been influenced by the implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) in 1990 as a method of brain functional investigation. The activity of the PET/biomedical cyclotron unit has been dedicated to various subjects in neurology, neurosciences, psychiatry, oncology and cardiology. This has been made possible by developments in radiochemistry. The radiochemistry laboratory has designed and produced original tracers such as 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)-methyl]guanine (FHPG), a tracer of viral thymidine kinase activity in gene therapy protocols. We have brought new applications of PET, such as its integration into stereotactic neurosurgical and radioneurosurgical techniques in order to improve their diagnostic and therapeutic performance in neurooncology. We have also conducted multiple studies on brain physiology and pathophysiology, in particular with the use of functional and metabolic brain mapping methods and the use of tracers of neurotransmission systems. The Department of nuclear medicine has also performed studies on bone metabolism and investigated in vivo imaging methods of infectious and immune processes. PMID:12584923

Goldman, S; Schoutens, A; Blocklet, D; Dumarey, N; Egrise, D; Lipschutz, B; Monclus, M; Moreno-Reyes, R; Schmitz, F; Van Naemen, J; Wikler, D

2002-01-01

234

Depicting Medullary Thyroid Cancer Recurrence: The Past and the Future of Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

PubMed Central

Context: Inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon and medically challenging malignancy. Even if the extent of initial surgery is deemed adequate, the recurrence rate remains high, up to 50% in most series. Measurement of serum calcitonin is important in the follow-up of patients with MTC, and reliably reflects the existence of the disease. Evidence Acquisition: There is no single sensitive diagnostic imaging method to reveal all MTC recurrences or metastases. Conventional morphologic imaging methods (U/S, CT, and MRI) and several methods of nuclear medicine have been used for this purpose with variable accuracy. Results: The main role of nuclear medicine imaging is the detection of residual or recurrent tumor in the postoperative follow-up. In this review we present the radiopharmaceuticals used in the diagnosis of MTC recurrence, and comparison among them. Conclusions: The most used radiopharmaceuticals labelled with ? emitters are: Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), labelled with 131I or 123I, 111In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan), 99mTc-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA), and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide ( Tektrotyd). The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with a positron-emitting radionuclide (?+), suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA), and 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues (68Ga-DOTATATE or DOTATOC).

Skoura, Evangelia

2013-01-01

235

Role of nuclear medicine in the management of cutaneous malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma of the skin is one of the most lethal cancers. The disease may spread either locally or regionally and to distant sites through predictable or unpredictable metastatic pathways. Accurate staging and restaging of disease are required for appropriate treatment decision making. Routine protocols based on clinical examinations and traditional radiologic evaluations are not cost-effective for the detection of systemic disease. In the last decade, nuclear medicine techniques, such as lymphoscintigraphy-directed lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy and (18)F-FDG PET, have played key roles in nodal and distant staging of melanoma. More recently, anatomic-functional imaging has been improved with the development of integrated PET/CT devices or combined SPECT/CT systems. (18)F-FDG-sensitive intraoperative probes have been specifically designed to detect small nodal and visceral metastases from melanoma and may become important tools for the cancer surgeon. In this article, we review the role of nuclear medicine in the assessment of malignant melanoma. PMID:16741305

Belhocine, Tarik Z; Scott, Andrew M; Even-Sapir, Einat; Urbain, Jean-Luc; Essner, Richard

2006-06-01

236

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

Coulot, J.

2003-08-01

237

Nuclear Physics Division progress report for the period 1st April 1972-- 31st March 1973  

SciTech Connect

Short summary progress reports are included for various groups in the Nuclear Physics Division at UKAEA for the period 1 April 1972 through 31 March 1973. Separate database records were created for 10 of the short summaries.

Blair, I.M.; Conlon, T.W. (eds.)

1974-01-15

238

[Progress of diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive renal damage by Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Hypertensive renal damage is based on the extent and duration of hypertension, renal damage caused by varying severity. Hypertensive renal damage due to various causes imbalance of vascular active substances, renal arteriosclerosis, so that the abnormal renal hemodynamic, renal ischemia, low specific gravity of urine, low osmotic pressure and urine. The rapidly increasing incidence of hypertensive renal damage has become one of the most important reasons of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Effective treatment of hypertension is limited by poor compliance and significant adverse reaction of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, some patients have turned to Chinese medicine (CM), hoping that such treatments might improve the efficiency. The author reviews relevant theory and the latest researches, on the basis of combining diseases and syndrome, discusses state and achievement of hypertensive renal damage with Chinese herbal medicines from fundamental and clinical research and action mechanism from standpoints of Chinese herbal compound and herbal effective chemical composition to take future research for important reference. PMID:24754161

Liu, Wei; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

2014-01-01

239

Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

Kwan, Joe W.

2002-05-31

240

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center] [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch] [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)] [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1992-05-01

241

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1993-05-01

242

Nuclear fuel cycle and production programs. Progress report for July--December 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the sixth progress report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Production programs being conducted at HEDL for ERDA. Progress is reported on the Commercial Alpha Waste and Chemical Processing of Combustible Solid Wastes (Acid Digestion) programs. Data on commercial burial of radioactive wastes, operational data on the Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU), and the design basis for an acid

C. R. Cooley; R. E. Lerch

1976-01-01

243

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements. PMID:25071885

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-07-28

244

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements.

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-01-01

245

Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This progress report studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions discusses the following topics: quantal effects on growth of instabilities in nuclear matter; collisional damping of giant resonances in a non-Markovian approach; and medium-modified interaction induced by fluctuations.

Ayik, S.

1996-03-01

246

Applied Nuclear Science Research and Development progress report, June 1, 1984-May 31, 1985  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the activities of the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group for June 1, 1984 through May 31, 1985. The topical content includes the theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections; neutron cross section processing and testing; neutron activation, fission products and actinides; and core neutronics code development and application. 70 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs. (WRF)

Arthur, E.D.; Mutschlecner, A.D. (comps.)

1985-09-01

247

Nuclear reactor safety. Progress report, April 1June 30, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work that is highlighted here represents accomplishments for the period April 1-June 30, 1982, by the groups at Los Alamos involved in reactor safety research for the Division of Accident Evaluation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Presented are brief overviews compiled by project, along with a bibliography of technical notes and publications written

Stevenson

1982-01-01

248

Nuclear reactor safety. Progress report, January 1March 31, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work that is highlighted here represents accomplishments for the period January 1-March 31, 1982 by the groups at Los Alamos involved in reactor safety research for the Division of Accident Evaluation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Presented are brief overviews compiled by project, along with a bibliography of Technical Notes and publications written

Stevenson

1982-01-01

249

Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

1982-05-01

250

Dose to patients through nuclear medicine procedures in a department in northern Greece.  

PubMed

Diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in a large hospital in northern Greece during 1984-1988 have been surveyed in order to estimate the radiation burden to the patients. The mean effective dose equivalent (EDE) was found to be 1.96 mSv/examination and 2.46 mSv/patient, allowing for the fact that a number of patients underwent more than one examination. Apart from EDE, absorbed dose has been calculated for bone marrow, thyroid, gonads, kidneys and bladder. Patients undergoing multiple examinations have been used to calculate true 'patient dose distribution' as well as 'patient time-weighted dose distribution'. Because of the predominance of renal examinations, 8.5 fatal renal malignancies are expected per 100,000 patients. PMID:2083554

Papadopoulos, G; Okkalides, D

1990-01-01

251

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

Wahner, H.W.

1985-12-01

252

One-year clinical experience with a fully digitized nuclear medicine department: organizational and economical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single-modality PACS has been operational since mid-1990. After one year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences, and the acceptability of the PACS were evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed were: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy, and security. It was concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting, and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, it is felt that in the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work.

Anema, P. C.; de Graaf, C. N.; Wilmink, J. B.; Hall, David R.; Hoekstra, A. G.; van Rijk, P. P.; Van Isselt, J. W.; Viergever, Max A.

1991-07-01

253

Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.  

PubMed

An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe. PMID:20142277

Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

2010-01-01

254

A new nuclear medicine scintillation camera based on image-intensifier tubes.  

PubMed

A large-field scintilation camera for nuclear medicine application has recently been developed by Old Delft. The system is based on a large-field image-intensifier tube preceded by a scintillator mosaic. A comparison is made with present state-of-the-art scintillation cameras in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) and sensitivity. These parameters, which determine the performance of scintillation cameras, are not independent of each other. Therefore, a comparative evaluation should be made under well-defined and identical conditions. The new scintillation camera achieves considerable improvement in image quality. In fact, the intrinsic MTF of the new camera is rather close to unity in the spatial frequency range up to 1 line pair per centimeter (1p/cm). Further improvement would require a fundamentally new approach to gamma imaging, free of the limitations of conventional collimators (e.g., coded-aperture imaging techniques). PMID:978249

Mulder, H; Pauwels, E K

1976-11-01

255

[Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].  

PubMed

Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821

Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2012-01-01

256

Identifying disease mutations in genomic medicine settings: current challenges and how to accelerate progress  

PubMed Central

The pace of exome and genome sequencing is accelerating, with the identification of many new disease-causing mutations in research settings, and it is likely that whole exome or genome sequencing could have a major impact in the clinical arena in the relatively near future. However, the human genomics community is currently facing several challenges, including phenotyping, sample collection, sequencing strategies, bioinformatics analysis, biological validation of variant function, clinical interpretation and validity of variant data, and delivery of genomic information to various constituents. Here we review these challenges and summarize the bottlenecks for the clinical application of exome and genome sequencing, and we discuss ways for moving the field forward. In particular, we urge the need for clinical-grade sample collection, high-quality sequencing data acquisition, digitalized phenotyping, rigorous generation of variant calls, and comprehensive functional annotation of variants. Additionally, we suggest that a 'networking of science' model that encourages much more collaboration and online sharing of medical history, genomic data and biological knowledge, including among research participants and consumers/patients, will help establish causation and penetrance for disease causal variants and genes. As we enter this new era of genomic medicine, we envision that consumer-driven and consumer-oriented efforts will take center stage, thus allowing insights from the human genome project to translate directly back into individualized medicine.

2012-01-01

257

Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Infection in Cancer Patients (With Emphasis on FDG-PET)  

PubMed Central

Infections are a common cause of death and an even more common cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Timely and adequate diagnosis of infection is very important. This article provides clinicians as well as nuclear medicine specialists with a concise summary of the most important and widely available nuclear medicine imaging techniques for infectious and inflammatory diseases in cancer patients with an emphasis on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). 67Ga-citrate has many unfavorable characteristics, and the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals has resulted in the replacement of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy by scintigraphy with labeled leukocytes or FDG-PET for the majority of conditions. The sensitivity of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in non-neutropenic cancer patients is comparable with that in patients without malignancy. The specificity, however, is lower because of the uptake of labeled leukocytes in many primary tumors and metastases, most probably as a result of their inflammatory component. In addition, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy cannot be used for febrile neutropenia because of the inability to harvest sufficient peripheral leukocytes for in vitro labeling. FDG-PET has several advantages over these conventional scintigraphic techniques. FDG-PET has shown its usefulness in diagnosing septic thrombophlebitis in cancer patients. It has also been shown that imaging of infectious processes using FDG-PET is possible in patients with severe neutropenia. Although larger prospective studies examining the value of FDG-PET in cancer patients suspected of infection, especially in those with febrile neutropenia, are needed, FDG-PET appears to be the most promising scintigraphic technique for the diagnosis of infection in this patient group.

Vos, Fidel J.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

2011-01-01

258

To be or not to be assembled: progressing into nuclear actin filaments.  

PubMed

The paradigm states that cytoplasmic actin operates as filaments and nuclear actin is mainly monomeric, acting as a scaffold in transcription complexes. However, why should a powerful function of actin, namely polymerization, not be used in the nucleus? Recent progress in the field forces us to rethink this issue, as many actin filament assembly proteins have been linked to nuclear functions and new experimental approaches have provided the first direct visualizations of polymerized nuclear actin. PMID:24088744

Grosse, Robert; Vartiainen, Maria K

2013-11-01

259

Applied nuclear science research and development progress report, June 1, 1985-November 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

This six month progress report reviews activities in nuclear reaction research. Specific content includes theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections for neutron, proton, and deuteron reactions for a number of isotopes; the processing and testing of nuclear cross section data; studies of neutron activation, fission products and actinides; and short notes on applications. Data are included in graphic and tabular form and include experimental, evaluated, and theoretical calculations and spectra. 136 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs. (DWL)

Arthur, E.D.; Mutschlecner, A.D. (comps.)

1986-04-01

260

Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, JP

2011-01-01

261

Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010,

S. Koumna; Ch Yiannakkaras; P. Avraamides; O. Demetriadou

2011-01-01

262

Joint Nuclear Power Plant Netherlands: Progress Report 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report 1984 of the N.V. Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland (Joint Nuclear Power Plant Netherlands) gives an overview of the main developments in the year 1984. The present situation of the Borsele reactor is compared with prospec...

1985-01-01

263

Research in Nuclear Astrophysics: Stellar Collapse and Supernovae, Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction between nuclear theory and some outstanding problems in astrophysics is examined. We are actively researching both the astrophysics of gravitational collapse, neutron star birth, and the emission of neutrinos from supernovae, on the one ha...

J. M. Lattimer A. Yahil

1989-01-01

264

Progress report on nuclear propulsion for space exploration and science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is continuing its work in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) on nuclear propulsion - both nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The focus of the NTP studies remains on piloted and cargo missions to Mars (with precursor missions to the moon) although studies are under way to examine the potential uses of NTP for science missions. The focus of the NEP studies has shifted to space science missions with consideration of combining a science mission with an earlier demonstration of NEP using the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system. Both NTP and NEP efforts are continuing in 1993 to provide a good foundation for science and exploration planners. Both NTP and NEP provide a very important transportation resource and in a number of cases enable missions that could not otherwise be accomplished.

Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.

1993-01-01

265

Progress and prospects: nuclear import of nonviral vectors  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope represents a key barrier to successful nonviral transfection and gene therapy both in vitro and in vivo. Although the main purpose of the nuclear envelope is to partition the cell to maintain cytoplasmic components in the cytoplasm and nuclear components, most notably genomic DNA, in the nucleus, this function poses a problem for transfections in which exogenous DNA is delivered into the cytoplasm. After delivery to the cytoplasm, nucleic acids rapidly become complexed with cellular proteins that mediate interactions with the cellular machinery for trafficking. Thus, it is these proteins that, in essence, control the nuclear import of DNA, and we must also understand their activities in cells. In this review, we will discuss the principles of nuclear import of proteins and DNA–protein complexes, as well as the various approaches that investigators have used to improve nuclear targeting of plasmids. These approaches include complexation of plasmids with peptides, native and engineered proteins, ligands and polymers, as well as the inclusion of transcription factor-binding sites for general and cell-specific delivery.

Lam, AP; Dean, DA

2014-01-01

266

Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on the research carried at Stanford University under contract DE-FG03-88ER40439. All the work accomplished under this grant is reported in the publications listed as part of the Principal Investigator bibliography at the end of this report. In the last few years our research was directed at some of the forefront questions in nuclear physics. We investigated the nuclear medium effects on the intrinsic properties of bound nucleons, specifically the ectromagnetic form factors. For these studies we performed a number of specialized electron scattering experiments with specific sensitivity to nuclear medium effects. At the next level of structure, elementary constituents of matter are quarks and gluons. Defining the energy regime where the quark-gluon description of nuclear systems becomes more relevant than the nucleon-meson description is of great importance in thoroughly understanding the nuclear structure. To explore this transition region, we studied the scaling region in the disintegration of the deuteron, the simplest nuclear system with high energy photons. Finally we focused on the investigation of the nucleon internal spin structure along with the test of the Bjoerken sum rule a fundamental sum rule of QCD.

Meziani, Z.E.

1994-10-01

267

Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1982-March 1983  

SciTech Connect

This document is one of a series of technical progress reports designed to report radioactive waste management programs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Accomplishments in the following programs are reported: waste stabilization; Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; low-level waste management; remedial action; and supporting studies.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1983-06-01

268

Activation of executioner caspases is a predictor of progression-free survival in glioblastoma patients: a systems medicine approach  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. GBM cells are highly resistant to apoptosis induced by antitumor drugs and radiotherapy resulting in cancer progression. We assessed whether a systems medicine approach, analysing the ability of tumor cells to execute apoptosis could be utilized to predict the response of GBM patients to treatment. Concentrations of the key proapoptotic proteins procaspase-3, procaspase-9, Smac and Apaf-1 and the antiapopotic protein XIAP were determined in a panel of GBM cell lines and GBM patient tumor resections. These values were used as input for APOPTO-CELL, a systems biological based mathematical model built to predict cellular susceptibility to undergo caspase activation. The modeling was capable of accurately distinguishing between GBM cells that die or survive in response to treatment with temozolomide in 10 of the 11 lines analysed. Importantly the results obtained using GBM patient samples show that APOPTO-CELL was capable of stratifying patients according to their progression-free survival times and predicted the ability of tumor cells to support caspase activation in 16 of the 21 GBM patients analysed. Calculating the susceptibility to apoptosis execution may be a potent tool in predicting GBM patient therapy responsiveness and may allow for the use of APOPTO-CELL in a clinical setting.

Murphy, A C; Weyhenmeyer, B; Schmid, J; Kilbride, S M; Rehm, M; Huber, H J; Senft, C; Weissenberger, J; Seifert, V; Dunst, M; Mittelbronn, M; Kogel, D; Prehn, J H M; Murphy, B M

2013-01-01

269

Activation of executioner caspases is a predictor of progression-free survival in glioblastoma patients: a systems medicine approach.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. GBM cells are highly resistant to apoptosis induced by antitumor drugs and radiotherapy resulting in cancer progression. We assessed whether a systems medicine approach, analysing the ability of tumor cells to execute apoptosis could be utilized to predict the response of GBM patients to treatment. Concentrations of the key proapoptotic proteins procaspase-3, procaspase-9, Smac and Apaf-1 and the antiapopotic protein XIAP were determined in a panel of GBM cell lines and GBM patient tumor resections. These values were used as input for APOPTO-CELL, a systems biological based mathematical model built to predict cellular susceptibility to undergo caspase activation. The modeling was capable of accurately distinguishing between GBM cells that die or survive in response to treatment with temozolomide in 10 of the 11 lines analysed. Importantly the results obtained using GBM patient samples show that APOPTO-CELL was capable of stratifying patients according to their progression-free survival times and predicted the ability of tumor cells to support caspase activation in 16 of the 21 GBM patients analysed. Calculating the susceptibility to apoptosis execution may be a potent tool in predicting GBM patient therapy responsiveness and may allow for the use of APOPTO-CELL in a clinical setting. PMID:23681224

Murphy, Á C; Weyhenmeyer, B; Schmid, J; Kilbride, S M; Rehm, M; Huber, H J; Senft, C; Weissenberger, J; Seifert, V; Dunst, M; Mittelbronn, M; Kögel, D; Prehn, J H M; Murphy, B M

2013-01-01

270

Recent Progress in the Theory of Nuclear Forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past two decades, it has been demonstrated that chiral effective field theory represents a powerful tool to deal with nuclear forces in a systematic and model-independent way. Two-, three-, and four-nucleon forces have been derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO) and (partially) applied in nuclear few- and many-body systems—with, in general, a good deal of success. This may suggest that we are finally done with the nuclear force problem; but that would be too optimistic. There are still some pretty basic open issues that have been swept under rug and, finally, need our full attention, like the proper renormalization of the two-nucleon potential. Moreover, the order-by-order convergence of the many-body force contributions is at best obscure at this time.

Machleidt, R.; MacPherson, Q.; Marji, E.; Winzer, R.; Zeoli, Ch.; Entem, D. R.

2013-08-01

271

Nuclear reactor safety. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The work that is highlighted here represents accomplishments for the period January 1-March 31, 1982 by the groups at Los Alamos involved in reactor safety research for the Division of Accident Evaluation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Presented are brief overviews compiled by project, along with a bibliography of Technical Notes and publications written during this quarter. Information is presented concerning the TRAC code development; thermal-hydraulic analysis for PWR after ECCS operation; failure criteria for graphites used in HTGR type reactors; upper structure dynamics experiments; CRBR loss-of-flow accident analysis; and LWR severe accident analysis.

Stevenson, M.G. (comp.)

1982-08-01

272

[The significance of activities in the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society for progression of medicine in the Middle East (to the 130th anniversary of foundation)].  

PubMed

The article deals with the history of foundation of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in Jerusalem and its input into progression of medicine in the Middle east. The medical activity of Russian physicians in medical institutions of the Society is reflected too. PMID:23634615

Gorelova, L Ye; Afanasiyeva, Ye A

2012-01-01

273

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51+/-0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05+/-0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

274

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

275

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, April 1September 30, 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced and Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Reports have been combined and are included in this report entitled, ''Safety Research Programs Sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research\\/endash\\/Progress Report.'' This progress report will describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering,

R. A. Bari; J. L. Boccio; J. F. Carew; C. J. Czajkowski; R. Fitzpatrick; T. Ginsberg; G. A. Greene; J. G. Guppy; R. E. Hall; M. Khatib-Rahbar; W. J. Jr. Luckas; K. R. Perkins; A. J. Philippacopoulos; W. T. Pratt; J. H. Taylor; G. J. van Tuyle; S. D. Unwin; W. Wulff; A. J. Weiss

1988-01-01

276

Progress on understanding the anticancer mechanisms of medicinal mushroom: inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer. PMID:23679238

Song, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiang-Shi; Chang, Wei; Song, Ge

2013-01-01

277

Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Current Research and Potential Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is part of a larger, comprehensive study of the nation's prospective energy economy during the period 1985-2010, with special attention to the role of nuclear power among the alternative energy systems. This report discusses the current state o...

1978-01-01

278

Space nuclear-safety program. Progress report, October 1982  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-03-01

279

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, April 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing and recovery, and safety technology program (biaxial testing, iridium chemistry).

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-10-01

280

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, March 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos Laboratory. They are divided into: general-purpose heat source, lightweight radioisotope heater unit, and safety technology program. 43 figs., 2 tabs.

Zocher, R.W.; George, T.G. (comps.)

1985-08-01

281

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-03-01

282

Technical progress report. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. of Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1977 to November 1, 1978, under Contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A002 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. The research activities of the Laboratory spanned a broad range of interests over the past year. Numerous topics in charged-particle spectroscopy and reaction studies, neutron time-of-flight measurements, and gamma-ray investigations performed at the cyclotron laboratory are covered in this report. In addition, several items in intermediate energy nuclear physics as studied at Los Alamos and Indiana University by members of the Laboratory are reported. The efforts in nuclear theory include studies in nuclear reaction mechanisms and pion scattering as related to the experimental program. Information is also included on apparatus and facility development, cyclotron operation, outside users, publications, and reports. Separate abstracts were written for thirty items in this report having significant amounts of data. (RWR)

Not Available

1978-11-01

283

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-06-01

284

Nuclear power and economics: keys to continuing progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, Electricite de France's (EdF's) chief concern is to keep close check on the performance and economics of its nuclear power reactors and to prepare for the future. The practice of building power plants in series and on a large scale has involved special constraints. This is true in particular of the pressurized water reactor series, which includes 39 standardized

Leclercq

1986-01-01

285

Space Nuclear Space Program. Progress report, December 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results from safety-verification tests including impact tests are presented.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-06-01

286

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, January 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-07-01

287

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, July 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-11-01

288

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, August 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-01-01

289

Space Nuclear-Safety Program progress report, February 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-08-01

290

Space nuclear-safety program, November 1982. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-05-01

291

Nuclear safeguards progress report, July 1974June 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondestructive technique for the determination of the atomic ratios of ;\\u000a plutonium-238, -240, -241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 using high-;\\u000a resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was developed. Results are discussed as they ;\\u000a apply to various compositions of plutonium-239 material, some of which have been ;\\u000a subjected to chemical analysis. Progress to date on an automated plutonium assay ;\\u000a system

Ratay

1975-01-01

292

Small GTPase RBJ mediates nuclear entrapment of MEK1/MEK2 in tumor progression.  

PubMed

Ras-related small GTPases play important roles in cancer. However, the roles of RBJ, a representative of the sixth subfamily of Ras-related small GTPases, in tumorigenesis and tumor progression remain unknown. Here, we report that RBJ is dysregulated in human gastrointestinal cancers and can promote carcinogenesis and tumor progression via nuclear entrapment of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)1/MEK2 and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Nucleus-localized RBJ interacts with MEK/ERK and prolongs the duration of MEK/ERK activation. Rbj deficiency abrogates nuclear accumulation of MEK1/MEK2, attenuates ERK1/ERK2 activation, and impairs AOM/DSS-induced colonic carcinogenesis. Moreover, Rbj knockdown inhibits growth of established tumors. Our data suggest that RBJ may be an oncogenic Ras-related small GTPase mediating nuclear accumulation of active MEK1/MEK2 in tumor progression. PMID:24746703

Chen, Taoyong; Yang, Mingjin; Yu, Zhou; Tang, Songqing; Wang, Chen; Zhu, Xuhui; Guo, Jun; Li, Nan; Zhang, Weiping; Hou, Jin; Liu, Haibo; Han, Chaofeng; Liu, Qiuyan; Gu, Yan; Qian, Cheng; Wan, Tao; Cui, Long; Zhu, Minghua; Zheng, Weiqiang; Cao, Xuetao

2014-05-12

293

Recent Progress Toward Hydrogen Medicine: Potential of Molecular Hydrogen for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications  

PubMed Central

Persistent oxidative stress is one of the major causes of most lifestyle-related diseases, cancer and the aging process. Acute oxidative stress directly causes serious damage to tissues. Despite the clinical importance of oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. We have proposed that molecular hydrogen (H2) has potential as a “novel” antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications [Ohsawa et al., Nat Med. 2007: 13; 688-94]. H2 has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H2. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2, including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (hydrogen water), taking a hydrogen bath, injecting H2-dissolved saline (hydrogen saline), dropping hydrogen saline onto the eye, and increasing the production of intestinal H2 by bacteria. Since the publication of the first H2 paper in Nature Medicine in 2007, the biological effects of H2 have been confirmed by the publication of more than 38 diseases, physiological states and clinical tests in leading biological/medical journals, and several groups have started clinical examinations. Moreover, H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 regulates various gene expressions and protein-phosphorylations, though the molecular mechanisms underlying the marked effects of very small amounts of H2 remain elusive.

Ohta, Shigeo

2011-01-01

294

Annual progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research progress is reported for the year 1979-1980. The report is divided into sections dealing individually with the divisions of Biomolecular and Cellular Science, Environmental Biology, and Nuclear Medicine. The sections have been individually entered into EDB. (ACR)

Not Available

1980-01-01

295

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, November 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: safety-verification impact tests; explosion test; fragment test; leaking fueled clads; effects of fresh water and seawater or PuO/sub 2/ pellets; and impact tests of 5 watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-06-01

296

Nuclear technology programs; Semiannual progress report, October 1989--March 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1989--March 1990. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of metal fuel and blanket materials of the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned water waste stream generated in production of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

Harmon, J.E. [ed.

1992-01-01

297

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, April-- September 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1990. These programs involve R D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation's high-level waste repositories.

Harmon, J.E. (ed.)

1992-06-01

298

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, April-- September 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1990. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

Harmon, J.E. [ed.

1992-06-01

299

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, October 1988--March 1989  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1988--March 1989. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of metal fuel and blanket materials of the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned with examining the feasibility of substituting low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in the production of fission product {sup 99}Mo. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories. 127 refs., 76 figs., 103 tabs.

Harmon, J.E. [ed.

1990-12-01

300

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1990--March 1991. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transpose of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

NONE

1992-12-01

301

Nuclear technology programs. Semiannual progress report, April--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April through September 1991. These programs involve R & D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

Not Available

1993-07-01

302

Progress in Understanding the Nuclear Equation of State at the Quark Level  

SciTech Connect

At the present time there is a lively debate within the nuclear community concerning the relevance of quark degrees of freedom in understanding nuclear structure. We outline the key issues and review the impressive progress made recently within the framework of the quark-meson coupling model. In particular, we explain in quite general terms how the modification of the internal structure of hadrons in-medium leads naturally to three- and four-body forces, or equivalently, to density dependent effective interactions.

A.W. Thomas; P.A.M. Guichon

2007-01-03

303

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2012-10-01

304

Knowledge-based factor analysis of multidimensional nuclear medicine image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a knowledge-based approach to analyzing dynamic nuclear medicine data sets using factor analysis. Prior knowledge is used as constraints to produce factor images and their associated time functions which are physically and physiologically realistic. These methods have been applied to both planar and tomographic image sequences acquired using various single-photon emitting and positron emitting radiotracers. Computer-simulated data, non-human primate studies, and human clinical studies have been used to develop and evaluate the methodology. The organ systems studied include the kidneys, heart, brain, liver, and bone. The factors generated represent various isolated aspects of physiologic function, such as tissue perfusion and clearance. In some clinical studies, the factors have indicated the potential to isolate diseased tissue from normally functioning tissue. In addition, the factor analysis of data acquired using newly developed radioligands has shown the ability to differentiate the specific binding of the radioligand to the targeted receptors from the non-specific binding. This suggests the potential use of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of radiolabeled compounds as well as in the investigation of specific receptor systems and their role in diagnosing disease.

Yap, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Cooper, Malcolm; Treffert, Jon D.

1994-05-01

305

Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities.  

PubMed

Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities used for assessing bone metastases treatment response include plain and digitalised radiography (XR), skeletal scintigraphy (SS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/CT. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assessment modalities as evident through different clinical trials. Additionally, we present the more established response criteria of the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization and compare them with newer MD Anderson criteria. Even though serial XR and SS have been used to assess the therapeutic response for decades, several months are required before changes are evident. Newer techniques, such as MRI or PET, may allow an earlier evaluation of response that may be quantified through monitoring changes in signal intensity and standard uptake value, respectively. Moreover, the application of PET/CT, which can follow both morphological and metabolic changes, has yielded interesting and promising results that give a new insight into the natural history of metastatic bone disease. However, only a few studies have investigated the application of these newer techniques and further clinical trials are needed to corroborate their promising results and establish the most suitable imaging parameters and evaluation time points. Last, but not least, there is an absolute need to adopt uniform response criteria for bone metastases through an international consensus in order to better assess treatment response in terms of accuracy and objectivity. PMID:21530193

Vassiliou, V; Andreopoulos, D; Frangos, S; Tselis, N; Giannopoulou, E; Lutz, S

2011-11-01

306

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

1991-01-01

307

A high-speed, pressurised multi-wire gamma camera for dynamic imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High count rate detectors are of particular interest in nuclear medicine as they permit lower radiation doses to be received by the patient and allow dynamic images of high statistical quality to be obtained. We have developed a high-speed gamma camera based on a multi-wire proportional chamber. The chamber is filled with a xenon gas mixture and has been operated at pressures ranging from 5 to 10 bar. With an active imaging area of 25 cm×25 cm, the chamber has been equipped with an advanced, high rate, digital, electronic read-out system which carries out pulse shaping, energy discrimination, XY coincidence and cluster selection at speeds of up to a few megahertz. In order to ensure stable, long-term operation of the camera without degradation in performance, a gas purification system was designed and integrated into the camera. Measurements have been carried out to determine the properties and applicability of the camera using photon sources in the 20-120 keV energy range. We present some design features of the camera and selected results obtained from preliminary measurements carried out to measure its performance characteristics. Initial images obtained from the camera will also be presented.

Barr, A.; Bonaldi, L.; Carugno, G.; Charpak, G.; Iannuzzi, D.; Nicoletto, M.; Pepato, A.; Ventura, S.

2002-01-01

308

The role of compact PSPMTs for image quality enhancement in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact gamma cameras based on arrays of compact Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMTs) (Hamamatsu R7600-C8/12) were recently developed by several research groups. The previous generation of dedicated gamma cameras (5 in. PSPMT) demonstrated the clinical benefit and general diagnostic value for functional breast imaging in comparison with conventional nuclear medicine technique (Anger Camera prone scintimammography and 99mTc Sestamibi administration). The aim of this paper is to investigate how scintillation material and pixel size of crystal arrays can improve image contrast and tumor SNR values. In this paper we compare tumor Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) results obtained by imagers based on CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) array, respectively, by means of a liquid and solid breast phantom. The data collected by NaI(Tl) array show a improvement of SNR values for small tumor size (less than 8 mm). The improvement is also evident in small camera, even though for tumor size less than 6 mm the results are near visibility limit.

Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Cusanno, F.; Campanini, R.; Lanconelli, N.; Riccardi, A.; Zavattini, G.; Di Domenico, G.; Belcari, N.; Bencivelli, W.; Motta, Alfonso; Vaiano, Angela; Del Guerra, A.

2003-06-01

309

[The indication for radiosynoviorthesis. From the perspective of the nuclear medicine expert, rheumatic orthopedist and internist].  

PubMed

Radiosynovectomy or radiosynoviorthesis (RSO), the intra-articular injection of beta-emitting radionuclides (e.g. colloidal preparations of 90-Yttrium, 186-Rhenium or 169-Erbium), is an approved, reliable and easily performed therapy for the treatment of chronic synovitis without harmful side effects. The best clinical results have been obtained in patients with predominantly inflammatory joint disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or reactive arthritis. But RSO is also established to treat pain and persistent effusions after total knee replacement. It also represents an adjuvant therapy in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis to protect against recurrence following synovectomy. In patients with hemophilia and arthropathy a reduction in joint bleeding is seen and the use of coagulation factor is reduced. The indication for RSO should be made in close cooperation between the referring physician, the rheumatologist and the nuclear medicine expert in the context of a multimodal therapy concept. In this way, success rates of over 80%, with only few side effects, can be achieved, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis and hemophilic arthropathy. PMID:21267739

Linke, R; Gelse, K; Schuch, F

2011-01-01

310

Role of nuclear medicine in neuroHIV: PET, SPECT, and beyond.  

PubMed

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain among the most common clinical disorders encountered in people infected with HIV despite widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. There is an enormous need for further evaluation and early diagnosis of HAND. The variety of PET agents such as FDG, C-PiB and [C]-R-PK11195 as well as SPECT agents Tc-HMPAO, I-FP-CIT and I-IBZM have been investigated for the diagnosis of HAND, for distinguishing between demented and nondemented HIV patients, for differentiation between HAND and nonHIV related dementia, as well as for assessing the influence of coinfection with the other viral pathogens on the brain functionality. In spite of some interesting results, none of these tracers have been specifically created for HAND and none can be recommended for HAND diagnosis. Specialized tracers need to be developed for better diagnosis and management of HAND. The potential role of therapeutic nuclear medicine as part of the curative strategies for HIV is also discussed. PMID:24781008

Sathekge, Mike; McFarren, Alicia; Dadachova, Ekaterina

2014-08-01

311

Exposures from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures: the dose impact on the Aosta Valley population.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the per-procedure, annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the Aosta Valley region population from nuclear medicine (NM) examinations performed from 2005 to 2011 at the regional NM department. Based on its demographical and socioeconomics characteristics, this area can be considered as representative of the level I countries, as defined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The NM per-procedures effective doses were within the range of 0.018-35 mSv. A steady frequency per 10 000 inhabitants has been observed, together with a decrease for thyroid and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Myocardial and bone scintigraphy studies were the major contributors to the total collective effective dose. The mean annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the population were 15 man Sv y(-1) and 120 µSv y(-1), respectively. The NM contribution to the total per-capita effective dose accounts for 5.9 % of that due to the medical ionising radiation examinations overall. PMID:23816980

Aimonetto, S; Arrichiello, C; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Catuzzo, P; Zeverino, M; Poti, C; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

2013-12-01

312

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed.

Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Callahan, A. P.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M.

313

NOTE: Externally triggered gating of nuclear medicine acquisitions: a useful method for partitioning data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiological gating in nuclear medicine image acquisition was introduced over 30 years ago to subdivide data from the beating heart into short time frames to minimize motion blurring and permit evaluation of contractile parameters. It has since been widely applied in planar gamma camera imaging, SPECT, positron tomography (PET) and anatomical modalities such as x-ray CT and MRI, mostly for cardiac or respiratory investigations. However, the gating capability of gamma cameras and PET scanners can be employed to produce multiply partitioned, statistically independent projection data that can be used in various ways such as to study the effect of varying total acquired counts or time, or administered radioactivity, on image quality and multiple observations for statistical image analyses. Externally triggered gating essentially provides 'something for nothing' as no data are lost and a 'non-gated' data set is easily synthesized post hoc, and there are few reasons for not acquiring the data in this manner (e.g., slightly longer processing time, extra disk space, etc). We present a number of examples where externally triggered gating and partitioning of image data has been useful.

Bailey, Dale L.; Kalemis, Antonis

2005-04-01

314

Scene setting: criteria for acceptability and suspension levels in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The EC (European Commission) Directive on radiation protection of patients requires that Criteria for Acceptability of Equipment in Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy be established throughout the member states. This paper reviews the background to this requirement and to its implementation in practice. It notes parallel requirements in the EC medical devices directive and International Electrotechnical Commission standards. It is also important to be aware and that both sets of requirements should ideally be harmonised due to the global nature of the equipment industry. The paper further reviews the type of criteria that can be well applied for the above purposes, and defines qualitative criteria and suspension levels suitable for application. Both are defined and relationships with other acceptance processes are considered (including acceptance testing at the time of purchase, commissioning and the issue of second-hand equipment). Suspension levels are divided into four types, A, B, C and D, depending on the quality of evidence and consensus on which they are based. Exceptional situations involving, for example, new or rapidly evolving technology are also considered. The publication and paper focuses on the role of the holder of the equipment and related staff, particularly the medical physics expert and the practitioner. Advice on how the criteria should be created and implemented and how this might be coordinated with the supplier is provided for these groups. Additional advice on the role of the regulator is provided. PMID:23173218

Malone, Jim; Faulkner, Keith; Christofides, Stelios; Lillicrap, Stephen; Horton, Patrick

2013-02-01

315

Theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of research: Pion double charge exchange and the role of meson exchange currents, including vector mesons, deltas, and nuclear correlations. K{sup +}-nucleus scattering and the role of meson exchange currents in supplying ``missing cross section.`` Pion excess distributions in nuclei, and the role of nuclear correlations. Interactions of two hyperons and the possibility of an H dibaryon. Shell model spectra and the NN tensor interaction. Statistical nuclear spectroscopy, including state densities and expectation values evaluated in terms of one-point and two-point (correlation) functions.

French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

1992-06-01

316

Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators—A tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators was begun in 2000. Nuclides of the most wide-spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed.In this paper, the participants’ performance is assessed by mean of a statistical

P. Oropesa; A. T. Hernández; R. Serra; C. Varela

2005-01-01

317

The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

318

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981  

SciTech Connect

Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

1981-09-01

319

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-09-01

320

Research in nuclear chemistry. Progress report. [Bio Rex-70  

SciTech Connect

The research is concerned primarily with complexes in aqueous solution of actinide elements. Actinides in the trivalent oxidation state have been studied more than species in other valence states. Similar systems have also been investigated for the trivalent lanthanides. Since 15 lanthanides can be studied using a wider variety of techniques than feasible with the actinides (e.g., NMR), comparison of these closely related families of elements using the greater amount and variety of lanthanide data provides better understanding of actinide behavior. The studies have included measurements of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation for both inorganic and organic ligands, of the kinetics of complexation, of the spectroscopic properties of complex species using f reverse arrow f electronic transitions, of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the complexed ligands and of binding to natural polyelectrolytes such as humic acid.

Choppin, Gregory R.

1980-01-01

321

Nuclear Technology Programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the ability of backfill to inhibit groundwater flow in a nuclear waste repository are reviewed. They involve permeability measurements, which are fundamental in determining whether the waste may be considered to remain isolated in the repository. Additional data on zeolite compositions have been obtained using new instrumentation and techniques for mineral separation. Tests using natural humic and fulvic acids taken from surface waters and added to groundwaters from wells in the Columbia River basalt show a strong correlation of americium complexation with acid concentrations in the groundwaters, but a weak correlation in the case of neptunium. A new effort to study the use of a TRUEX solvent extraction process for the Plutonium Finishing Plant waste stream is under way. The process is to remove plutonium and americium and then separate them. Destructive analyses of irradiated fuel rods continues. Work on several of the anticipated 16 or 17 rods has been accomplished.

Burris, L.

1985-07-01

322

PSI nuclear energy research progress report 1988. PSI annual report 1988 annex IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress report at hand deals with nuclear energy research at PSI. The collection of articles covers a large number of topics: different reactor systems, part of the fuel cycle, the behaviour of structural materials. Examples of the state of knowledeg...

H. P. Alder K. H. Wiedemann

1989-01-01

323

Nuclear Reactor Safety. Quarterly progress report, April 1June 30, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quarterly report summarizes technical progress from a continuing reactor safety research program conducted at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). The reporting period is from April 1 to June 30, 1980. This research effort concentrates on providing an accurate and detailed understanding of the response of nuclear reactor systems to a broad range of postulated accident conditions. All of

M. G. Stevenson; J. C. Vigil

1980-01-01

324

Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

1989-05-01

325

Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

1993-07-01

326

Quality Control of Techetium 99M Radiopharmaceutical in Nuclear Medicine. The Use of Gel Chromatography Column Scanning in Research and Routine Clinical Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gel chromatography column scanning (GCS) is a new method for radiochemical quality control. GCS techniques for Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine have been developed for use in both research and routine clinical work. The dependence o...

L. Darte

1981-01-01

327

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last year, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period, The structure of this report follows that of our 1991 Renewal Proposal and Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including the acquisition of our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our new Virginia campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1998-06-01

328

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last year, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1991 Renewal Proposal and Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including the acquisition of our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our new Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1992-12-31

329

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Reports and summaries are provided for the following programs: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclide in soils; low-level waste generation reduction handbook; waste management system studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comp.)

1981-06-01

330

Efficient quality assurance programs in radiology and nuclear medicine in Ostergotland, Sweden.  

PubMed

Owners of imaging modalities using ionising radiation should have a documented quality assurance (QA) program, as well as methods to justify new radiological procedures to ensure safe operation and adequate clinical image quality. This includes having a system for correcting divergences, written imaging protocols, assessment of patient and staff absorbed doses and a documented education and training program. In this work, how some aspects on QA have been implemented in the County of Ostergötland in Sweden, and efforts to standardise and automate the process as an integrated part of the radiology and nuclear medicine QA programs were reviewed. Some key performance parameters have been identified by a Swedish task group of medical physicists to give guidance on selecting relevant QA methods. These include low-contrast resolution, image homogeneity, automatic exposure control, calibration of air kerma-area product metres and patient-dose data registration in the radiological information system, as well as the quality of reading stations and of the transfer of images to the picture archive and communication system. IT-driven methods to automatically assess patient doses and other data on all examinations are being developed and evaluated as well as routines to assess clinical image quality by use of European quality criteria. By assessing both patient absorbed doses and clinical image quality on a routine basis, the medical physicists in our region aim to be able to spend more time on imaging optimisation and less time on periodic testing of the technical performance of the equipment, particularly on aspects that show very few divergences. The role of the Medical Physics Expert is rapidly developing towards a person doing advanced data-analysis and giving scientific support rather than one performing mainly routine periodic measurements. It is concluded that both the European Council directive and the rapid development towards more complex diagnostic imaging systems and procedures support this changing role of the medical physics professional. PMID:20181648

Sandborg, Michael; Althén, Jonas Nilsson; Gustafsson, Agnetha

2010-01-01

331

Development of a radiopharmaceutical dose calculator for pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: It is important to ensure that as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept during the radiopharmaceutical (RPH) dose administration in pediatric patients. Several methods have been suggested over the years for the calculation of individualized RPH dose, sometimes requiring complex calculations and large variability exists for administered dose in children. The aim of the present study was to develop a software application that can calculate and store RPH dose along with patient record. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the literature to select the dose formula and used Microsoft Access (a software package) to develop this application. We used the Microsoft Excel to verify the accurate execution of the dose formula. The manual and computer time using this program required for calculating the RPH dose were compared. Results: The developed application calculates RPH dose for pediatric patients based on European Association of Nuclear Medicine dose card, weight based, body surface area based, Clark, Solomon Fried, Young and Webster's formula. It is password protected to prevent the accidental damage and stores the complete record of patients that can be exported to Excel sheet for further analysis. It reduces the burden of calculation and saves considerable time i.e., 2 min computer time as compared with 102 min (manual calculation with the calculator for all seven formulas for 25 patients). Conclusion: The software detailed above appears to be an easy and useful method for calculation of pediatric RPH dose in routine clinical practice. This software application will help in helping the user to routinely applied ALARA principle while pediatric dose administration.

Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Priyanka; Kumar, Rakesh

2013-01-01

332

Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation in Nuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NM departments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collected information about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on the wrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q and Hp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses always were absorbed by those staff members who were involved in sources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time period was 4.22 mSv for Hp(10)a and 67.7 mSv for Hp(0.07)a. In 2011 no case of exceeding the allowed dose limits was noted. PMID:24068634

Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, S?awomir; Krajewski, Pawe?

2013-01-01

333

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

In this a report novel electrochemical method is described for the separation of copper-64 and copper-67 following the irradiation of zinc targets. This method is based on the spontaneous electrodeposition of copper on a platinum electrode immersed in the zinc target solution without requiring an external electromotive force (EMF). No-carrier-added N-(2-(3-({sup 125}I)iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl)-maleimide has been prepared by direct iodination of N-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl)-maleimide with (Na({sup 125}I)-chloramine-T). The precursor was prepared by condensation of tyramine with maleic anhydride followed by ring annulation. Studies in rats showed low thyroid uptake of radioactivity which reached a plateau after 4 h, indicating in vivo stability. This new radioiodinated maleimide analogue reacts with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under mild conditions and has been used for labeling a lung-endothelial-cell-specific antibody (411-201B). The ({sup 125}I)-labeled antibodies are currently being evaluated for immunoreactivity and tumor specificity. During this period several agents were also supplied to Medical Cooperative investigators, including iodine-123-labeled and iodine-131-labeled fatty acid analogues for studies at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Cardiology Department at the Free University of Amsterdam, and the University of Bonn, West Germany. A tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator was supplied to the University of Massachusetts, and osmium-191 was supplied for fabrication of generators for patient studies in Finland. 4 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1990-08-01

334

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1989  

SciTech Connect

In this report the development of a simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric technique to determine the specific activity of spallation-produced copper-67 (Cu-67) is described. The method is based upon the well-known strong absorption at 480 nm of the orange-colored copper (II) complexes with bis-thiosemicarbazone (TSC) ligands. We have used the Cu(II) complex of phenylglyoxal (PC-TSC) and determined a calibration curve in an acidic ethanol-acetate buffer which is linear up to a concentration of 40 ppM (40 {mu}gm/ml) with a lower limit of detection of about 0.4 ppM. Also in this report, the results it the synthesis and tissue distribution in fasted rats of a series of five analogues of 3.3-dimethyl-substituted terminal para-iodophenyl fatty acids to determine the effects of total chain length on myocardial uptake and retention properties are summarized. The C-11, C-12, C-13, C-14, C-15 (3,3-DMIPP) and C-19 analogues were evaluated. The C-15 analogue showed the highest heart uptake. The shorter C-11 {yields} C-14 and the C-19 chain lengths showed much lower heart uptake and heart:blood values. These studies clearly demonstrate that the position of dimethyl-branching and the total chain length are both important factors which affect myocardial uptake.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Lambert, S.J.; Lisic, E.C.; Rice, D.E.

1989-10-01

335

Nuclear medicine program: Progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

In this report the results of several studies with radioiodinated fatty acid are described. Studies with the isolated Langendorff- perfused rat heart system have continued to evaluate the distribution of (I-125)-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in myocardial lipids after 15 min of perfusion. At this time period 38--44% of the endogenous radioactivity is associated with material chromatographing in the region of triglycerides, 18--21% in the region of diglycerides and only 6--10% in the area of free fatty acids. Thus, the isolated heart mimics the in vivo studies in demonstrating that the retention of radioiodinated BMIPP is associated with lipid storage products. In addition, the synthesis of the isomeric mixture of 9- and 10-(I-125)-labeled iodooleic acid via formation of the corresponding a boronic acid intermediate is also described. The isomeric radioiodinated product mixture shows good heart uptake and retention (5 min, 3.45% dose/gm; 30 min, 2.44% dose/gm; 60 min, 2.28% dose/gm) and demonstrate that this structural perturbation does not interfere with myocardial specificity.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Lisic, E.C.; Rice, D.E.; Rogers, C.J.

1989-01-01

336

Nuclear Medicine Technology Progress Report for Quarter Ending June 30, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of experiments demonstrated that the alkyl portion of 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-THDA) is retained in the myocardial tissue of rats to the same extent as radioactivity from /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. Tissue distribution experiments in rats one hr af...

F. F. Knapp

1981-01-01

337

Nuclear medicine technology progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Results of experiments demonstrated that the alkyl portion of 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-THDA) is retained in the myocardial tissue of rats to the same extent as radioactivity from /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. Tissue distribution experiments in rats one hr after injection of 10-(/sup 14/C)-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid were compared with the results of a parallel study using /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. The results indicate that the alkyl region of 9-THDA is retained in the myocardium and that labeling of this portion of the 9-THDA molecule with radiohalogens such as /sup 123/I may be an attractive approach for evaluation of myocardial function. Results of preliminary studies for the development of radiolabeled barbiturates as a new class of agents for the measurement of regional blood perfusion in the brain are also described. Several new barbiturates substituted at the C-5 position were prepared and characterized. These compounds will be labeled with /sup 117m/Sn, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 123m/Te and brain uptake studies performed in rats. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Studies employing /sup 74/As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ have demonstrated that uptake of radioactivity from test substances administered to rats can be detected in cells taken from the intraperitoneally-implanted diffusion chambers. Preliminary synthetic studies of gold-based antirheumatoid complexes are also reported. Several /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids have been prepared for clinical testing. Platinum-195m-labeled-cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum(II) was supplied to collaborators for further testing and /sup 75/Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled long-chain fatty acids were supplied to several medical investigators for the evaluation of myocardial function in experimental animals. (ERB)

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1981-01-01

338

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 (W-188/Re-188) generator system has continued. Our goal is to develop a prototype system which will provide sufficient levels of Re-188 for radiolabeling of tumor-specific antibodies for radioimmunotherapy. During this review period several samples were supplied for collaborative studies. Samples of rhenium-188 from the ORNL W-188/Re-188 generators were supplied to the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a calibration standard. Iodine-125-labeled IMP protein labeling agent was supplied to the University of Michigan for antibody radiolabeling studies (D. Buchsbaum, Ph.D.). The iodine-123-labeled BMIPP fatty acid analogue developed at ORNL was also supplied to collaborators at BNL for SPECT imaging studies of the effects of cocaine intoxication on myocardial fatty acid uptake in a canine model. Iodine-125-BMIPP was also supplied to the University of Bonn, Germany for continuing metabolic studies in an isolated heart model. In this report the resumption of radioisotope production in the HFIR following the restart of this important facility in July 1990 and the preparation and review and evaluation of issues for the DOE Tiger Team visit to ORNL on November 1--December 7 are also discussed. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1991-02-01

339

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Processing of enriched tungsten-186 oxide targets after long irradiations (> 2 cycles) in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has resulted in specific activities significantly lower than the theoretical values, with the concomitant formation of vary...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose A. L. Beets A. P. Callahan H. Luo

1994-01-01

340

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of preliminary in vivo metabolic studies of the iodine-125-labeled E-(R,R)-IQNP in rats are described. The E-(R,R) isomer demonstrates highly selective and specific localization in cerebral regions rich in the m(sub 1) and m(sub 4) muscarinic-...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose A. L. Beets A. P. Callahan H. Luo

1994-01-01

341

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(l-fluoropentan-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (PQNPe) has been prepared and evaluated as a new candidate for the determination of muscarinic cholinergic receptor density by positron emission tomography (PET). The results of in vitro binding assays demonstrated that FONPe has high affinity for m{sub l} and M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtypes. Pretreatment of female Fisher rats with unlabeled FQNPe one hour prior to the intravenous administration of radioiodinated Z-(R,R)-IQNP, a high affinity muscarinic ligand, demonstrated FONPE significantly blocked the uptake of radioactivity in the brain and heart measured three hours post-injection of the radiolabeled ligand. These results demonstrate that this new fluoro analogue of QNB has high affinity for the muscarinic receptor and is able to effectively pass the blood-brain-barrier and localize in tissues rich in muscarinic receptors. The fluorine-18-labeled analogue thus represents an important target ligands for evaluation as potential receptor imaging agents in conjunction with PET. During this period several radioisotopes were provided to collaborators. Tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators were provided as part of a CRADA project.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

1995-02-01

342

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The results of preliminary in vivo metabolic studies of the iodine-125-labeled E-(R,R)-IQNP in rats are described. The E-(R,R) isomer demonstrates highly selective and specific localization in cerebral regions rich in the m{sub 1} and m{sub 4} muscarinic-cholinergic receptor subtypes and is a good candidate for potential human studies. Since the external evaluation of receptor-ligand complexes requires that only uptake of the unmetabolized agent is measured, these studies were performed to evaluate the metabolism of the radioiodinated ligand in the whole brain, heart, liver and serum from rats at several time points after intravenous administration. Radioactivity was very rapidly excreted in the first 24-hour period (urine = 46; feces = 26). Folch extracts of the different tissue samples showed that the lipid-soluble extract from brain tissue contained 87 of the activity at 24 hours. In the heart, 62 of the activity was extracted in the lipid soluble extract after 30 minutes and decreased to 51 after 4 hours. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the lipid soluble extracts indicated that only the unmetabolized E-(R,R)-IQNP was detected in brain extracts. Also in this report, the predicted medical radioisotope production capabilities of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) are discussed.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

1994-02-01

343

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe the first resolution of the 3R-(+)-and 3S- ({minus})-methyl BMIPP methyl-branched fatty acid stereoisomers and biodistribution of the radioiodinated isomers in rats to investigate the effects of the configuration of the 3({beta})-methyl group on the organ distribution and myocardial uptake and release kinetics. Synthesesis of 3R-(+)BMIPP was accompanied by initial acylation of the thiophene template with the acid chloride of ethyl 3R- methylglutarate. The amide of the synthetic 3R-BMIPP isomer prepared S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine exhibited identical spectral and chromatographic properties with the chromatographically more polar isomer (TLC and HPLC) which was separated from the mixture of amides prepared from reaction of the acid chloride of racemic BMIPP with the S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The second less chromatographically polar amide isomer was assigned the 3S-(-)-methyl configuration. The free acids were obtained by acid hydrolysis of the amides and converted to the radioiodinated analogues. While biodistribution studies in separate groups of rats demonstrated greater myocardial uptake of 3R-BMIPP compared with the 3S-isomer values for most other tissues evaluated (blood, lungs, kidneys and thyroid) were similar, whereas the 3S-BMIPP isomer consistently showed higher liver uptake. These results were confirmed in a [l-131]-3S-BMIPP/[l-125]-3R-BMIPP dual label study and both isomers had similar myocardial wash-out curves (5-180 min). These studies suggest that [l-123]-3R-BMIPP is a candidate for clinical evaluation and may show greater myocardial uptake than the 3S-isomer and thus may require a reduced injected dose compared to racemic BMIPP.

Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F

1995-12-31

344

Nuclear medicine program. Progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe the first synthesis of the (-)(-) and (-)(+) isomers of 1-azabicyclo oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate ({open_quotes}FQNPe{close_quotes}). Earlier studies with the racemic FQNPe mixture had demonstrated high in vitro binding affinity for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor and showed that pre-treatment of rats with this new agent significantly blocked receptor localization of subsequently injected -Z-(-,-)-IQNP. Because of the potential important use of fluorine-18-labeled analogues for clinical evaluation of changes in muscarinic-cholinergic receptors by positron emission tomography (PET), we have now synthesized the diastereomeric isomers of FQNPe. Multi-gram quantities of ethyl-{alpha}- (1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate were prepared and then saponified into the racemic {alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetic acid mixture. The racemic acid was resolved into (-)- and (+)-{alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetic acid enantiomers by isolation of the (-) salt of (S-)-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine and the (+) salt of (R)-(+)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The resolved (-)- ([{alpha}]{sub D} = -12.1{degrees}, c = 5.8, chloroform) and (+)-acetic acids ([{alpha}]{sub D} = + 11.6{degrees}, c = 6.0, chloroform) were fully characterized and then converted to the enantiomeric ethyl-{alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetates by a four-step reaction sequence. The (-)- and (+)-ethyl-{alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetates were then each transesterified with (-)-quinuclidinol to form the (-)(-) FQNPe and (-)(+) FQNPe diastereomers. These diastereomeric esters will now be evaluated in in vitro studies. The availability of the substrates for preparation of the fluorine-18-labeled enantiomers will now allow evaluation of the radiolabeled compounds in animals.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L. [and others

1995-09-01

345

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The four stereoisomers of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (FQNPe, 4) have been resolved and were evaluated as potential candidates for PET imaging agents. Labeling with fluorine-18 involved a two-step synthesis via fluoride displacement of a mesylate intermediate at the ethyl ester stage followed by transesterification with (R)-quinuclidinol. In vitro data utilizing cloned human receptor subtypes demonstrated that while the (+,+)-isomer did not have significant receptor binding, the other stereoisomers of FNPe bound with high affinity to the various mA ChR subtypes tested (K{sub i}, nm: m1, ({minus},{minus}), 0.33; ({minus},+), 1.4; (+,{minus}), 3.8; m2, ({minus},{minus}), 0.1; ({minus},+), 4.2; +,{minus}), < 75% binding; m3, ({minus},{minus}), 0.34; ({minus},+), 3.1; (+;{minus}), 7.6. [{sup 18}F]-({minus},{minus})- and [{sup 18}F]-({minus},+)-FQNPe (4) were prepared in decay corrected radiochemical yields of 14% ([{sup 18}F]-({minus},{minus})-4) and 8% ([{sup 18}F]-({minus},+)-4). In vivo biodistribution studies were conducted in female rats with [18F]-({minus},{minus})- and (+,{minus})-FQNPe (4). [{sup 18}F]({minus},{minus})-4 demonstrated high uptake in mA ChR regions of the brain up to 3 hours post injection and low accumulation of radioactivity in the bone indicated good in vivo stability.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Guhlke, S.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1996-12-31

346

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

We have exploring the possibility of measuring urinary radioactivity as an index of pancreatic lipase activity after oral administration of a new triglyceride containing a radioactive iodine-1 25-labeled fatty acid moiety. The new agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3[15-(p-iodophenyl)pentandecan-l-oyl]-racglycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA), was prepared by the thallation-iodide displacement method. Following oral gavage of the radioiodinated triglyceride to rats, about 30% of the administered activity was excreted in 24 hours in the urine. In normal human controls an higher urinary excretion (of about 75% was observed. In this report, we describe an evaluation of the metabolites excreted in the urine and the chemical species stored in adipose from rats. The urine activity co-chromatographed with hippuric acid by TLC indicating conjugation of the IPPA metabolites. Release of the acidic components from the conjugated excretory products by acid hydrolysis of the urine provided the radioactive acidic IPPA metabolites. Analysis of the Folch extracts of fat samples from rats demonstrated that the radioactive components co-chromatographed In the triglyceride region. Recent studies in patients with compromised pancreatic exocrine function have demonstrated significantly decreased 24 hr. urinary excretion of about 25%, following oral administration of [1 -1 31]-1,2-Pal-3-IPPA. Thus, urine analysis after oral administration of [I -1 31]-1,2-Pal-3-IPPA may be a simple, non-invasive tool for the clinical evaluation of various diseases involving dietary fat digestion.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-04-01

347

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report the conditions for ``direct`` labeling of the anti-granulocyte (MAb) BW 250/183 monoclonal antibody with rhenium-188 (Re-188) from a generator are described. Re-188-BW 250/183 is of interest for potential use for bone marrow ablation. The labeling time, temperature, pH, and the amount of tin and citric acid were optimized utilizing IgG. Radiolabeling yields of greater than 97% were achieved using 1 mL of a phthalate/tartrate buffer (pH 5.{und M}=?), 250 {micro} g BW 250/183, 1.0 mg citric acid, 400 {micro} g tin (II) chloride, and 1 mL of the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator eluent (200--800 {micro} Ci of Re-188). Analysis of the Re-188-labeled IgG and BW 250/183 was performed by Instant Thin Layer Chromatography (ITLC), Sephadex purification and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). When the labeling was performed at room temperature or 37 C, in vitro stability studies performed in HSA solution, cysteine solution, 6 {und M} urea solution and a 1% casein solution showed that the Re-188 label demonstrated a similar stability profile in all solutions. Initial studies indicate that Re-188-BW 250/183 retained {approximately} 90% of immunoreactivity when compared to the technetium-99m labeled antibody prepared from the same kit. During this period, several radioisotopes prepared in the ORNL HFIR were also supplied on a cost-recovery basis or provided to collaborators for ongoing collaborative projects. These include tin-117m, processed tungsten-188 and the ORNL alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1995-06-01

348

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The reactor production yields of tungsten-188 produced by neutron capture by enriched tungsten-186 in the HFIR and other reactors are nearly an order of magnitude lower than expected by calculation using established cross section values. Since neutron capture of tungsten-188 may be the major factor which significantly reduces the observed yields of tungsten-188, the authors have evaluated the possible burn-up cross section of the tungsten-188 product. Tungsten-189 was produced by irradiating a radioactive target containing a known amount of {sup 188}W. In order to reduce the radiation level to an acceptable level (<20% detector dead time), the authors chemically removed >90% of {sup 188}Re, which is the decay product of {sup 188}W, prior to irradiation. They were able to confirm the two predominant {gamma}-rays in the decay of {sup 189}W, 260.1 {+-} 1.4 and 421.5 {+-} 1.6 keV. By following the decay of these {gamma}-rays in two sets of experiments, a half-life of 10.8 {+-} 0.3 m was obtained for {sup 189}W. Based on a knowledge of the {sup 188}W content of target (52.6 mBq), neutron flux of 5 {times} 10{sup 13} n {center_dot} s{sup {minus}1} {center_dot} cm{sup {minus}2}, irradiation time of 10 min and with the assumption of 100% intensity for 260.1 and 421.5 keV {gamma}-rays, a cross-section of 12.0 {+-} 2.5 b was calculated for burn-up cross-section of {sup 188}W, which helps explain the greatly reduced production yields of {sup 188}W.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1997-01-01

349

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe tile first successful synthesis and in vivo evaluation of a fluorinated analogue of the IQNP muscarinic-cholinergic receptor ligand. Unanticipated synthetic hurdles lead to several unsuccessful approaches before the synthesis of a model compound was achieved. The successful route involved introduction of the fluoroethyl moiety at an early stage of the synthesis by alkylation of ethyl 1,3-dithiane-2-carboxylate with 1-fluoro-2-bromoethane. Subsequent unmasking of the carbonyl, followed by introduction of the phenyl group with phenylmagnesium bromide and subsequent transesterification with racemic quinuclidinol afforded the target compound, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoroethan-2-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (QNF). Pretreatment of Fisher rats with QNF one hour prior to the intravenous administration of the [I-131]-Z-(R,R) IQNP isomer demonstrated that the new fluoro analogue blocked uptake of iodine-131 in those regions of the brain rich in muscarinic-cholinergic receptors measured three hours after injection. As an example, the control values for group of nontreated animals were (5 animals; mean {+-} SD): cortex, 1.20{+-}0.27; striatum, 0.73{+-}0.19; pons, 0.70{+-}0.20; cerebellum, 0.43{+-}0.114. Brains from animals pretreated with the fluoro analogue had the following values (mean{+-}SD; % decrease): cortex, 0.67{+-}0.15 (65%); striatum, 0.35{+-}0.114 (52%); pons, 0.40{+-}0.08 (43%); cerebellum, 0.16{+-}0.09(63%). Also during this period several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators and tin-117m samples were provided for collaborative studies.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

1994-08-01

350

[Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine]. Comprehensive progress report, [1986--1989  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-12-31

351

Nuclear medicine program. Progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe the first synthesis of the (-)(-) and (-)(+) isomers of 1-azabicyclo oct-3-yl -(1-fluoropent-5-yl)--hydroxy--phenylacetate ({open_quotes}FQNPe{close_quotes}). Earlier studies with the racemic FQNPe mixture had demonstrated high in vitro binding affinity for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor and showed that pre-treatment of rats with this new agent significantly blocked receptor localization of subsequently injected -Z-(-,-)-IQNP. Because of the potential important

F. F. Jr. Knapp; K. R. Ambrose; A. L. Beets

1995-01-01

352

Nuclear medicine program. Progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report we describe the first synthesis of the (-)(-) and (-)(+) isomers of 1-azabicyclo oct-3-yl (alpha)-(1-fluoropent- 5-yl)-(alpha)-hydroxy- (alpha)-phenylacetate 'FQNPe'. Earlier studies with the racemic FQNPe mixture had demonstrated high in v...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose A. L. Beets

1995-01-01

353

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Biodistribution studies with the radioiodinated 3(R)- and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers in rats have shown that 3(R)-BMIPP has 20-25% higher heart uptake (15-180 min) than 3(S)-BMIPP, while uptake in other tissues examined is similar. To evaluate the possible differences in metabolic fate of the two isomers, a mixture of [I-125]-3(R)/[I-131]- 3(S)-BMIPP was administered to fasted female Fisher rats. Groups (n=3 rats per group) were sacrificed after 15, 60 and 180 min, and urine and feces collected from another group. Samples of blood, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and urine were Folch-extracted. The distribution of I-125 and I-131 in the organic, aqueous, and pellet samples were determined. Organic samples were then analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The relative distribution of I-125/I-131 in the lipid, aqueous, and pellet samples was similar for both isomers. Distribution of I-125/I-131 in the various components of the lipid extracts observed by TLC was similar, with principal incorporation into the free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) pools. HPLC analyses (Cl8) of the FFA fraction showed similar I-125/I-131 profiles, corresponding to BMIPP, and the {alpha}-methyl-C,4 (PIPA) and C12, Cl0 and C6 carbon chain-length catabolites. By TLC, urine I-125/I-131 chromatographed with hippuric acid. HPLC analyses (Cl 8) of acid-hydrolyzed urine gave a single I-125/I-131 component with the same RRT as 2-({beta}-iodophenyl)acetic acid, the final {alpha}/{beta}-oxidative BMIPP catabolite. Unexpectedly, HPLC of lipids from base hydrolyzed TG from the heart tissue, showed I-125/I-125 co-chromatographing with short-chain fatty acids, with only levels in BMIPP. These unexpected results demonstrate that the 3(R)-BMIPP and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers are metabolized similarly in rat tissues, and that the higher myocardial extraction observed for the 3(R)-BMIPP may reflect differences in the relative membrane transport of the two isomers.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Guhlke, S.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F.

1996-10-01

354

Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

1993-12-31

355

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute San Fernando Avenue No.22, Col. Section XVI (Mexico)

2012-10-23

356

Nuclear medicine dynamic investigations in the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the hepatic hemodynamics in the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) using per-rectal portal scintigraphy (PRPS) and liver angioscintigraphy (LAS). METHODS: Fourteen consecutive patients with BCS were evaluated by PRPS between 2003 and 2012. Ten of them underwent LAS and liver scan (LS) with Tc-99m colloid. Eleven patients had clinical manifestations and three were asymptomatic, incidentally diagnosed at PRPS. The control group included 15 healthy subjects. We used new parameters at PRPS, the liver transit time of portal inflow and the blood circulation time between the right heart and liver. PRPS offered information on the hepatic areas missing venous outflow or portal inflow, length and extent of the lesions, open portosystemic shunts (PSS), involvement of the caudate lobe (CL) as an intrahepatic shunt and flow reversal in the splenic vein. LAS was useful in the differential diagnosis between the BCS and portal obstructions, highlighting the hepatic artery buffer response and reversed portal flow. LS offered complementary data, especially on the CL. RESULTS: We described three hemodynamic categories of the BCS with several subtypes and stages, based on the finding that perfusion changes depend on the initial number and succession in time of the hepatic veins (HVs) obstructions. Obstruction of one hepatic vein (HV) did not cause opening of PSS. The BCS debuted by common obstruction of two HVs had different hemodynamic aspects in acute and chronic stages after subsequent obstruction of the third HV. In chronic stages, obstruction of two HVs resulted in opening of PSS. The BCS, determined by thrombosis of the terminal part of the inferior vena cava, presented in the acute stage with open PSS with low speed flow. At least several weeks are required in the obstructions of two or three HVs for the spontaneous opening of dynamically efficient PSS. The CL seems to have only a transient important role of intrahepatic shunt in several types of the BCS. CONCLUSION: Dynamic nuclear medicine investigations assess the extent and length of hepatic venous obstructions, open collaterals, areas without portal inflow, hemodynamic function of the CL and reverse venous flow.

Dragoteanu, Mircea; Balea, Ioan-Adrian; Piglesan, Cecilia-Diana

2014-01-01

357

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 +/- 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 +/- 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 +/- 1.53 and 4.18 +/- 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

2012-10-01

358

Design and optimization of a Compton camera for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major limitation in conventional SPECT imaging is the poor sensitivity. The lead collimators used in Anger cameras allow the detection of approximately 1 out of every 10000 photons that arrive to the front face of the collimator. Consequently, to offset this disadvantage, the radiation dosage given to the patient can be considerable. It is apparent that the performance of the camera will improve if the collimator is removed. A completely redesigned camera, without the lead collimator, has been introduced, and is referred to as a Compton camera. The Compton camera, in addition to increased sensitivity, can allow, from a single position, the simultaneous acquisition of data from multiple angular views. This reduces the possibility of artifacts due to camera motion and also eliminates the time wasted between angular positions. The increased sensitivity allows the use of lower activity levels and isotopes with shorter half- lives. The essential design of a Compton camera consists of 2 detectors. The function of the first detector is to cause and detect Compton scattered events. The material that this detector is comprised of is usually chosen from silicon (Si), germanium (Ge) or argon (Ar). The latter have high Compton scatter cross sections in the range 100-600 keV. The second detector's function is to absorb any incident radiation via the photoelectric process. Typical material choices are sodium iodide (NaI), and xenon (Xe) due to their high photo absorption cross sections. The scope of the current thesis is to determine the optimal design and configuration of a Compton camera for use in nuclear medicine applications. This is investigated by simulating the transport of the photon flux from the source to the detectors, with the camera design serving as a constraint. The physics behind such simulation is quite complex, requiring the Boltzmann photon transport equation to be solved at every instance in the phase space. There are, however, several other unsettled issues pertaining to the design and performance of this instrument. These can be broadly classified into two categories-geometry and physics of radiation measurement. The former would include the configuration, the materials to be used and the overall shape. The latter are inherent constraints such as Doppler effects in the energy measurement, absorption and scattering (Compton and Rayleigh) processes, and gamma ray polarization issues. Unless these problems are addressed, the mechanics of the Compton camera can not be fully understood nor can its design and manufacture be optimized for clinical use.

Chelikani, Sudhakar

359

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

SciTech Connect

A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

2010-12-07

360

Nuclear structure theory. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1979-August 31, 1980. [Univ. of Rochester  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of nuclear structure and reaction theory: statistical spectroscopy (including random matrix methods, with applications to fluctuations in spectra and in strength distributions, and to problems of ergodicity; group symmetries in spectral-distribution theory; electromagnetic and ..beta.. transitions); meson scattering and absorption by nuclei (including general scattering theory with absorption, multiple scattering theory and its reactive content, statistical theory of absorption); and meson currents in electromagnetic transitions.

French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

1980-01-01

361

A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1995-10-01

362

Division of Nuclear Physics Mentoring Award Talk: Progress in Mentoring of Young Scientists in Nuclear Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future of nuclear physics depends on attracting and retaining bright students. Several initiatives have begun to address issues related to successful recruiting and retention on various levels. Examples for undergraduate students, graduate students, post-docs, and faculty include the Conference Experience for Undergraduates at DNP meetings, the APS/AAPT Conference on Graduate Education, the NSF requirement for a post-doctoral mentoring plan, and the AAPT/AAS/APS New Faculty Workshops, respectively. In addition to these organized efforts, each member of the community can and should contribute to portraying nuclear physics as the exciting field that it is.

Thoennessen, Michael

2012-10-01

363

Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office final progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) was formally established by Executive Policy in 1983 following passage of the federal Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act). That Act provides for the systematic siting, construction, operation, and closure of high-level radioactive defense and research by-products and other forms of high-level radioactive waste from around the country which will be stored at such repositories. In 1985 the Nevada legislature formally established the NWPO as a distinct and statutorily authorized agency to provide support to the Governor and State Legislature on matters concerning the high-level nuclear waste programs. The NWPO utilized a small, central staff supplemented by contractual services for needed technical and specialized expertise in order to provide high quality oversight and monitoring of federal activities, to conduct necessary independent studies, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing program to ensure that risks to the environment and to human safety are minimized. It includes findings in the areas of hydrogeology, geology, quality assurance activities, repository engineering, legislature participation, socioeconomic affects, risk assessments, monitoring programs, public information dissemination, and transportation activities. The bulk of the reporting deals with the Yucca Mountain facility.

NONE

1992-12-31

364

Application of the ARRAMIS Risk and Reliability Software to the Nuclear Accident Progression  

SciTech Connect

The ARRAMIS risk and reliability analysis software suite developed by Sandia National Laboratories enables analysts to evaluate the safety and reliability of a wide range of complex systems whose failure results in high consequences. This software was originally designed to model the systems, responses, and phenomena associated with potential severe accidents at commercial nuclear power reactors by solving very large fault tree and event tree models. However, because of its power and versatility, ARRAMIS and its constituent analysis engines have recently been used to evaluate a wide variety of systems, including nuclear weapons, telecommunications facilities, robotic material handling systems, and aircraft systems using hybrid fault tree event tree analysis techniques incorporating fully integrated uncertainty analysis capabilities. This paper describes recent applications in the area of nuclear reactor accident progression analysis using a large event tree methodology and the ARRAMIS package.

Wyss, Gregory D.; Daniel, Sharon L.; Hays, Kelly M.; Brown, Thomas D.

1997-06-01

365

Nuclear microscopy. Its role and future in medicine and trace-element biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological improvement has occurred for micron and submicron nuclear probes. However, the nuclear microprobe has not yet been fully appreciated in the medical society. Some examples of recent applications in neurotoxicology and immunotoxicology will be presented. Specimen preparation is a crucial step before subjecting samples to nuclear microprobe analysis. Different ways of maintaining specimen integrity will be discussed. Although being time consuming, nuclear microprobe analyses often present a huge data set, and sometimes unexpected results are obtained. The scanning nuclear microprobes rapidly approach the practical resolution of electron microprobes with far better analytical sensitivity. Therefore, the adequate use of the technique at all levels of spatial resolution has to be discussed.

Lindh, Ulf

1991-03-01

366

Medicine and nuclear war: from Hiroshima to mutual assured destruction to abolition 2000.  

PubMed

To determine how physicians might participate in the prevention of nuclear war in the post-Cold War era, we review, from a medical perspective, the history of the nuclear weapons era since Hiroshima and the status of today's nuclear arsenals and dangers. In the 1950s, physicians were active partners in governmental civil defense planning. Since 1962, physicians have stressed prevention of nuclear war as the only effective medical intervention. Public advocacy by physicians helped end both atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1960s and superpower plans for fighting a nuclear war in the 1980s. Today's dangers include nuclear arms proliferation, an increasing risk of nuclear terrorism, and the 35000 warheads that remain in superpower-nuclear arsenals, many still on hair-trigger alert. Physicians have recently joined with military and political leaders and over 1000 citizens' organizations in calling for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. Global medical collaboration in support of a verifiable and enforceable Nuclear Weapons Convention would be a major contribution to safeguarding health in the 21st century. PMID:9701082

Forrow, L; Sidel, V W

1998-08-01

367

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

Weiss, A.J. (comp.)

1989-08-01

368

Progress report on nuclear data activities in India for the period from July 1987 to December 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present progress report on nuclear data activities in India is the sixth in the current new series of progress reports, the first of which was brought out in the year 1981. This report covers the work carried on during the period from July 1987 to Dec...

R. P. Anand

1989-01-01

369

Progress Report on Nuclear Data Activities in India for the Period from July 1981 to December 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress of Indian nuclear data activities during the period from July 1981 to December 1982 is reported in the form of summaries. Bulk of the nuclear data related work in India is being carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay and the...

R. P. Anand

1982-01-01

370

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known

O. Ávila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa de Buen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

2010-01-01

371

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, July 1 to September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced and Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Report will be combined and hereafter entitled Safety Research Programs Sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Quarterly Progress Report. This progress report will continue to describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, Thermal Hydraulic LWR and LMFBR Safety Experiments, RAMONA-3B Code Modification and Evaluation, LWR Plant Analyzer Development Program, LWR Code Assessment and Application, Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, and Standards for Materials Integrity in LWR's. The previous reports have covered the periods October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1981.

Cerbone, R.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Ginsberg, T.; Guppy, J.G.; Saha, P.; Sastre, C.; Weeks, J.R.; Wulff, W.; van Rooyen, D.

1981-11-01

372

KDP-1 is a nuclear envelope KASH protein required for cell-cycle progression  

PubMed Central

Summary Klarsicht, ANC-1 and Syne homology (KASH) proteins localize to the outer nuclear membrane where they connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. KASH proteins interact with Sad1-UNC-84 (SUN) proteins to transfer forces across the nuclear envelope to position nuclei or move chromosomes. A new KASH protein, KDP-1, was identified in a membrane yeast two-hybrid screen of a Caenorhabditis elegans library using the SUN protein UNC-84 as bait. KDP-1 also interacted with SUN-1. KDP-1 was enriched at the nuclear envelope in a variety of tissues and required SUN-1 for nuclear envelope localization in the germline. Genetic analyses showed that kdp-1 was essential for embryonic viability, larval growth and germline development. kdp-1(RNAi) delayed the entry into mitosis in embryos, led to a small mitotic zone in the germline, and caused an endomitotic phenotype. Aspects of these phenotypes were similar to those seen in sun-1(RNAi), suggesting that KDP-1 functions with SUN-1 in the germline and early embryo. The data suggest that KDP-1 is a novel KASH protein that functions to ensure the timely progression of the cell cycle between the end of S phase and the entry into mitosis.

McGee, Matthew D.; Stagljar, Igor; Starr, Daniel A.

2009-01-01

373

Nuclear physics and astrophysics. Progress report for period June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on recent progress of research at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. During the past year, the authors continued to work on Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis, the solar neutrino problem, the equation of state for dense matter, the quark-hadron phase transition, and the origin of gamma-ray bursts; and began studying the consequences of nuclear reaction rates in the presence of strong magnetic fields. They have shown that the primordial production of B and Be cannot explain recent detections of these elements in halo stars and have looked at spallation as the likely source of these elements. By looking at nucleosynthesis with inhomogeneous initial conditions, they concluded that the Universe must have been very smooth before nucleosynthesis. They have also constrained neutrino oscillations and primordial magnetic fields by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. On the solar neutrino problem, they have analyzed the implications of the SAGE and GALLEX experiments. They also showed that the presence of dibaryons in neutron stars depends weakly on uncertainties of nuclear equations of state. They have started to investigate the consequences of strong magnetic fields on nuclear reactions and implications for neutron star cooling and supernova nucleosynthesis.

Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

1993-06-01

374

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologi´a Department of Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologi´a, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologi´a, to known

O. A´vila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa de Buen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

2010-01-01

375

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

Maraman, W.J.

1980-02-01

376

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9·X90, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution.Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G

2011-06-01

377

Estimated collective effective dose to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations in Finland.  

PubMed

The collective effective doses to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine (NM) examinations in Finland in 2008 and 2009, respectively, were estimated. The estimated collective effective dose per inhabitant was 0.45 mSv from X-ray examinations and 0.03 mSv from NM examinations. The collective effective doses per inhabitant have not changed substantially during the last 10 y. However, proportional dose due to CT examinations has increased from 50 % in 2005 to 58 % in 2009 of the total collective effective dose from all X-ray examinations and proportional dose of PET examinations from 7 to 13 % of the total collective effective dose from NM examinations. The collective effective dose from conventional plain radiography was over 20 % higher when estimated using the new (ICRP 103) tissue weighting factors than that obtained using the old (ICRP 60) tissue weighting factors. PMID:21816721

Bly, R; Järvinen, H; Korpela, M H; Tenkanen-Rautakoski, P; Mäkinen, A

2011-09-01

378

Nuclear localization of ?-tubulin affects E2F transcriptional activity and S-phase progression  

PubMed Central

We show that the centrosome- and microtubule-regulating protein ?-tubulin interacts with E2 promoter binding factors (E2Fs) to modulate E2F transcriptional activity and thereby control cell cycle progression. ?-Tubulin contains a C-terminal signal that results in its translocation to the nucleus during late G1 to early S phase. ?-Tubulin mutants showed that the C terminus interacts with the transcription factor E2F1 and that the E2F1–?-tubulin complex is formed during the G1/S transition, when E2F1 is transcriptionally active. Furthermore, E2F transcriptional activity is altered by reduced expression of ?-tubulin or by complex formation between ?-tubulin and E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3, but not E2F6. In addition, the ?-tubulin C terminus encodes a DNA-binding domain that interacts with E2F-regulated promoters, resulting in ?-tubulin-mediated transient activation of E2Fs. Thus, we report a novel mechanism regulating the activity of E2Fs, which can help explain how these proteins affect cell cycle progression in mammalian cells.—Höög, G., Zarrizi, R., von Stedingk, K., Jonsson, K., Alvarado-Kristensson, M. Nuclear localization of ?-tubulin affects E2F transcriptional activity and S-phase progression.

Hoog, Greta; Zarrizi, Reihaneh; von Stedingk, Kristoffer; Jonsson, Kristina; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria

2011-01-01

379

Colorado School of Mines Low Energy Nuclear Physics Project technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activity and accomplishments of the Colorado School of Mines Low Energy Nuclear Physics project during the calendar year 1989. Many of the projects which were anticipated in the original grant proposal have been completed. Among these completed projects we include of study of the radiative capture of low energy protons on {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 11}B. Preliminary measurements of the branching ratios and yields of these reactions were reported in last year's Technical Progress Report. These measurements are now complete and have been used to extract the respective astrophysical S-factors and the corresponding thermonuclear reactivities. While not complete, progress has been made in some of the other originally proposed studies. Among these include a fairly extensive study of the interaction of low energy deuterons with {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li. In the course of this study we have made a solid observation of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect in the D-{sup 6}Li system. Progress has been made in our study of the radiative capture of alpha particles by deuterons, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 7}Li but considerable work remains in these studies. In our earlier reports we noted the observation of d-d reactions during the bombardment of deuterated targets with energetic beams of protons, alpha particles, and other light-to-medium ions. We believe we now understand this phenomenon and feel it has some fairly significant consequences both for our studies and for those of other researchers. Our susceptibility to mob hysteria led us to invest a significant effort in cold nuclear fusion, both employing a fairly unique accelerator based approach at CSM and as one of the gamma ray diagnosticians on the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Cold Fusion Task Force.

Cecil, F.E.

1990-01-05

380

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT  

SciTech Connect

This annual progress report describes new methods of incorporation of radioiodine into physiologically active compounds (amphetamines), and the use of organoboranes to labeled radiopharmaceuticals with Oxygen- 15, Nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18. Preclinical studies are also reported on evaluation of butyothiophenones as agents acting at dopaminergic or serotonic synapses.

Kabalka, G.W.

1992-09-01

381

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Sh?n N?ng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

382

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, January 1March 31, 1986. Volume 6, No. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced and Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Reports have been combined and are included in this report entitled, ''Safety Research Programs Sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research - Quarterly Progress Report.'' This progress report will describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division Accident Evaluation, Division

1986-01-01

383

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, October 1December 31, 1985. Volume 5, No. 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced and Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Progress Reports have been combined and are included in this report entitled, ''Safety Research Programs Sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research - Quarterly Progress Report.'' This progress report will describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Accident Evaluation,

1986-01-01

384

Preventive medicine in nuclear emergencies and the role of the physician in national defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likelihood of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons being used ; in war necessitates the peacetime training of the general practitioner in ; recognizing the symptoms of injuries caused by such weapons. He must also be ; able to treat the victims, institute prophylactic measures before an attack, and ; understand the effect of these weapons on the environment, particularly

Pejuskovic

1971-01-01

385

Nuclear medicine imaging in a case of hyperfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma associated with a parathyroid adenoma.  

PubMed

This report describes a rare case of parathyroid carcinoma associated with an adenoma. Nuclear imaging provided the most specific information about localization of the primary carcinoma and cervical metastasis, but failed to demonstrate evidence of a parathyroid adenoma. This could be explained by a partial inhibition of hormonal biosynthesis due to the high level of circulating parathormone produced by the carcinoma. PMID:8521661

Ceriani, L; Giovanella, L C; Salvadore, M; Roncari, G

1995-09-01

386

Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.  

PubMed

We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers. PMID:11217711

Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

2001-02-01

387

Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

1995-12-31

388

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This progress report will continue to describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, Thermal Hydraulic LWR and LMFBR Safety Experiments, RAMONA-3B Code Modification and Evaluation, LWR Plant Analyzer Development Program, LWR Code Assessment and Application, Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Standards for Materials Integrity in LWRs, Probability Based Load Combinations for Structural Design, Mechanical Piping Benchwork Problems, and Soil Structure Interaction.

Cerbone, R.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Ginsberg, T.; Guppy, J.G.; Reich, M.; Saha, P.; Sastre, C.; Weeks, J.R.; Wulff, W.; van Rooyen, D.

1982-02-01

389

NUCLEAR MEDICINE'S DOUBLE HAZARD Imperiled Treatment and the Risk of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the production of metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), the world's most important radiopharmaceutical, focusing on reliability of supply and risks of nuclear terrorism. Only four producers manufactured about 95 percent of the world's Tc-99m; a closure of any of them could cause worldwide shortfalls. Moreover, all four employ highly enriched uranium in their production process, in a form relatively

Cristina Hansell

390

Research in theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, February 1, 1984-October 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress is briefly described. The meson-nucleon scattering phase shifts are calculated for the Skyrme soliton with spin and isospin projections. The mixing of the S/sub 1/2//sup 6/ and S/sub 1/2//sup 4/ P/sub 3/2//sup 2/ configurations in the MIT bag model is calculated and it shows a large effect. The production of Q/sup 2/ anti Q/sup 2/ mesoniums which decay to vector meson pairs are studied in ..gamma gamma.. reactions, hadronic collisions and J/psi radiative decays. A possible measurement of the quark gluon plasma temperature in relativistic heavy ion collisions is proposed. The vacuum to glueball transition amplitudes are measured in a lattice gauge Monte Carlo calculation. Fusion reactions of the polarized deuterons are calculated in DWBA formalism. An extended Skyrme-Landau effective NN interaction is being developed so that nuclear structure calculations can be carried out. Publications are listed.

Liu, K.F.

1984-01-01

391

Greatwall kinase: a nuclear protein required for proper chromosome condensation and mitotic progression in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Mutations in the Drosophila gene greatwall cause improper chromosome condensation and delay cell cycle progression in larval neuroblasts. Chromosomes are highly undercondensed, particularly in the euchromatin, but nevertheless contain phosphorylated histone H3, condensin, and topoisomerase II. Cells take much longer to transit the period of chromosome condensation from late G2 through nuclear envelope breakdown. Mutant cells are also subsequently delayed at metaphase, due to spindle checkpoint activity. These mutant phenotypes are not caused by spindle aberrations, by global defects in chromosome replication, or by activation of a caffeine-sensitive checkpoint. The Greatwall proteins in insects and vertebrates are located in the nucleus and belong to the AGC family of serine/threonine protein kinases; the kinase domain of Greatwall is interrupted by a long stretch of unrelated amino acids. PMID:14970188

Yu, Jiangtao; Fleming, Shawna L; Williams, Byron; Williams, Erika V; Li, ZeXiao; Somma, Patrizia; Rieder, Conly L; Goldberg, Michael L

2004-02-16

392

Recent progress in research on tungsten materials for nuclear fusion applications in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current magnetic confinement nuclear fusion power reactor concepts going beyond ITER are based on assumptions about the availability of materials with extreme mechanical, heat, and neutron load capacity. In Europe, the development of such structural and armour materials together with the necessary production, machining, and fabrication technologies is pursued within the EFDA long-term fusion materials programme. This paper reviews the progress of work within the programme in the area of tungsten and tungsten alloys. Results, conclusions, and future projections are summarized for each of the programme's main subtopics, which are: (1) fabrication, (2) structural W materials, (3) W armour materials, and (4) materials science and modelling. It gives a detailed overview of the latest results on materials research, fabrication processes, joining options, high heat flux testing, plasticity studies, modelling, and validation experiments.

Rieth, M.; Dudarev, S. L.; Gonzalez de Vicente, S. M.; Aktaa, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Antusch, S.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Balden, M.; Baluc, N.; Barthe, M.-F.; Basuki, W. W.; Battabyal, M.; Becquart, C. S.; Blagoeva, D.; Boldyryeva, H.; Brinkmann, J.; Celino, M.; Ciupinski, L.; Correia, J. B.; De Backer, A.; Domain, C.; Gaganidze, E.; García-Rosales, C.; Gibson, J.; Gilbert, M. R.; Giusepponi, S.; Gludovatz, B.; Greuner, H.; Heinola, K.; Höschen, T.; Hoffmann, A.; Holstein, N.; Koch, F.; Krauss, W.; Li, H.; Lindig, S.; Linke, J.; Linsmeier, Ch.; López-Ruiz, P.; Maier, H.; Matejicek, J.; Mishra, T. P.; Muhammed, M.; Muñoz, A.; Muzyk, M.; Nordlund, K.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Opschoor, J.; Ordás, N.; Palacios, T.; Pintsuk, G.; Pippan, R.; Reiser, J.; Riesch, J.; Roberts, S. G.; Romaner, L.; Rosi?ski, M.; Sanchez, M.; Schulmeyer, W.; Traxler, H.; Ureña, A.; van der Laan, J. G.; Veleva, L.; Wahlberg, S.; Walter, M.; Weber, T.; Weitkamp, T.; Wurster, S.; Yar, M. A.; You, J. H.; Zivelonghi, A.

2013-01-01

393

Progress in Norwegian-Russian Regulatory Cooperation in Management of the Nuclear Legacy  

SciTech Connect

The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation have a collaboration programme which forms part of the Norwegian government's Plan of Action to improve radiation and nuclear safety in northwest Russia. The background to the NRPA-FMBA collaboration programme has been described in previous WM presentations. This paper presents the substantial progress made within that programme, describes ongoing progress within specific projects and sets out the value arising from wider involvement in the programme of other organisations such as NATO and the technical support derived from other national agencies such as the IAEA, and regulatory authorities from the USA, the UK and France. The main activities of the cooperation projects are concerned with the management of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia, in particular the remediation of facilities, and related spent fuel and radioactive waste management, at the former Shore Technical Bases at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha Village. New regulatory guidance documents have been developed, necessary because of the special abnormal situation at these sites, now designated as Sites of Temporary Storage (STS), but also because of the transition from military to civilian regulatory supervision and the evolving regulatory system in the Russian Federation. The work has involved major technical inputs from the Russian Federation Institute of Biophysics, as well as review and advice on international recommendations and good practice in other countries provided by other technical support organisations. Projects on-going in 2007 are described which involve regulatory guidance on very Low-Level Waste management, specifically for the licensing and operation of new VLLW disposal facilities; optimisation of operational radiation protection, particularly in areas of high ambient radiation dose rate as are found in some parts of the STSs; determination of factors which can be used to identify when to apply emergency procedures before the full emergency is obvious; and development of the radio-ecological basis for identifying radiation supervision area boundaries. (authors)

Sneve, M.K. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Statens Stralevern, Osteras (Norway); Shandala, N.K. [State Research Center - Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smith, G.M. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

394

Post transcriptional regulation of chloroplast gene expression by nuclear encoded gene products. Progress report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Many individual chloroplast genes require the products of a collection of nuclear genes for their successful expression. These nuclear gene products apparently work with great specificity, each committed to the expression of a single chloroplast gene. We have chosen as a model nuclear mutants of Chlamydomonas affected in different stages in the expression of the chloroplast encoded Photosystem II polypeptide, D2. We have made the progress in understanding how nuclear gene products affect the translation of the D2 encoding MRNA. Two nuclear genes are required for this process which have been mapped genetically. In contrast to other examples of nuclear control of translation in the chloroplast, these nuclear gene products appear to be required either for specific stages in translation elongation or for the post-translational stabilization of the nascent D2 protein. Pseudoreversion analysis has led us to a locus which may be directly involved in D2 expression. We have made considerable progress in pursuing the molecular basis of psbd MRNA stabilization. psbD 5` UTR specific transcripts have been synthesized in vitro and used in gel mobility shift assays. UV-crosslinking studies are underway to identify the transacting factors which bind to these sequences. The continued examination of these mutants will help us to understand how nuclear gene products work in this specific case of chloroplast gene expression, and will elucidate how two distinct genomes can interact generally.

Kuchka, M.R.

1992-08-01

395

Deregulation of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4)as a marker of epithelial tumors progression.  

PubMed

Tissue-specific transcription factors forming the regulatory cascades which determine the specification and differentiation of epithelial cells during embryogenesis, play the central role in the control of functional and morphological properties of different cell types. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) network is one of the most investigated tissue-specific regulatory systems which controls the specification and maintenance of differentiation of several epithelial cell types. Nuclear receptor HNF4? is one of the central elements of this regulatory network in the liver. We have found that deregulation of this gene is associated with rodent and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and induces the increase of proliferation rate, loss of epithelial morphology, dedifferentiation and metastasis. Restoration of HNF4? expression in dedifferentiated cells induced partial reversion of highly malignant phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. In human HCC samples HNF4? transcription was completely lost or significantly decreased in about 70% of HCCs, not associated with hepatitis B virus infection. Decrease of HNF4? isoforms expression correlated with poor prognosis. Thus we propose HNF4? is a candidate tumor suppressor for hepatic cells. Dysfunction of different HNFs was also reported in other epithelial tumors. We suppose that tissue-specific transcription factors which control the key steps of definite differentiation programs and are capable to receive and modulate extracellular signals can be considered as promising tumor suppressor candidates for their corresponding tissues. PMID:21403612

Lazarevich, N L; Shavochkina, D A; Fleishman, D I; Kustova, I F; Morozova, O V; Chuchuev, E S; Patyutko, Y I

2010-09-01

396

Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216  

SciTech Connect

Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq)] [Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Al-Jadraya, P.O. Box 0765, Baghdad (Iraq); Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories1, New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2013-07-01

397

A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna

2011-11-01

398

The potential use of the neurotensin high affinity receptor 1 as a biomarker for cancer progression and as a component of personalized medicine in selective cancers.  

PubMed

A growing challenge in medicine today, is the need to improve the suitability of drug treatments for cancer patients. In this field, biomarkers have become the "flags" to provide additional information in tumor biology. They are a relay between the patient and practitioner and consequently, aid in the diagnosis, providing information for prognosis, or in some cases predicting the response to specific therapies. In addition to being markers, these tumor "flags" can also be major participants in the process of carcinogenesis. Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) was recently identified as a prognosis marker in breast, lung, and head and neck squamous carcinomas. Neurotensin (NTS) was also shown to exert numerous oncogenic effects involved in tumor growth and metastatic spread. These effects were mostly mediated by NTSR1, making the NTS/NTSR1 complex an actor in cancer progression. In this review, we gather information on the oncogenic effects of the NTS/NTSR1 complex and its associated signaling pathways in order to illuminate its significant role in tumor progression and its potential as a biomarker and a therapeutic target in some tumors. PMID:21605619

Dupouy, Sandra; Mourra, Najat; Doan, Van Kien; Gompel, Anne; Alifano, Marco; Forgez, Patricia

2011-09-01

399

Evidence for a dual role for TC4 protein in regulating nuclear structure and cell cycle progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

TC4, a ras-like G protein, has been impli- cated in the feedback pathway linking the onset of mi- tosis to the completion of DNA replication. In this re- port we find distinct roles for TC4 in both nuclear assembly and cell cycle progression. Mutant and wild- type forms of \\

Sally Kornbluth; Mary Dasso; John Newport

1994-01-01

400

Experimental development of nuclear pumped laser candidate for inertial confinement fusion driver. Technical progress report, Phase 2, 1989--1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report is given on progress made during the second year of a three year contract studying the feasibility of nuclear pumping the atomic iodine laser. Experimental results are presented showing efficiencies of 25--38% at converting neutron-induced nuclea...

G. H. Miley

1990-01-01

401

Targeted Therapy in the Management of Advanced Gastric Cancer: Are We Making Progress in the Era of Personalized Medicine?  

PubMed Central

Background. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death. With greater understanding of the molecular basis of carcinogenesis, targeted agents have led to a modest improvement in the outcome of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients. Methods and Results. We conducted an overview of the published evidence regarding the use of targeted therapy in AGC patients. Thus far, the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) pathway, angiogenic pathway, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt–mammalian target of rapamycin pathway have emerged as potential avenues for targeted therapy in AGC patients. The promising efficacy results of the Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer trial led to the approved use of trastuzumab-based therapy as first-line treatment for patients with HER-2+ AGC. On the other hand, the Avastin® in Gastric Cancer trial evaluating bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy did not meet its primary endpoint of a longer overall survival duration despite a significantly higher response rate and longer progression-free survival time in patients in the bevacizumab arm. Phase III data are awaited for other targeted agents, including cetuximab, panitumumab, lapatinib, and everolimus. Conclusion. Recent progress in targeted therapy development for AGC has been modest. Further improvement in the outcome of AGC patients will depend on the identification of biomarkers in different patient populations to facilitate the understanding of gastric carcinogenesis, combining different targeted agents with chemotherapy, and unraveling new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention.

Wong, Hilda

2012-01-01

402

A control systems approach for the simulation of renal dynamic software phantoms for nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

For renal dynamic studies, the COST B2 hybrid phantom is an example of an artificially created software phantom. Although this phantom is useful, it is not possible to implement the phantom in a self-consistent fashion to produce, for example, a collection of tracer in the bladder which is related to the flow from the kidneys. In this study control systems are used to provide a self-consistent model. A feed-forward control system was designed for the transport of DTPA in the human body using SIMULINK. The system is based on a three-compartment model described by a set of differential equations with flow rates which may be set by the operator. The differential uptake in the kidneys may also be specified, while the flow of tracer through the renal parenchyma and collecting system of each kidney is determined using two-parameter retention functions. Curves corresponding to normal or pathological conditions may be simulated for plasma, parenchyma, collecting system and bladder by appropriate selection of parameters. The system is user-friendly and can be used to simulate almost all conditions seen in patient studies. The next stage of using this information to design dynamic image simulations is in progress. PMID:10070790

Houston, A S; Sampson, W F; Jose, R M; Boyce, J F

1999-02-01

403

A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging. PMID:22964063

Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

2013-06-01

404

Multivendor nuclear medicine PACS provide fully digital clinical operation at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to improve patient care while considering cost-effectiveness, we developed a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), which combines imaging cameras, computers and other peripheral equipment from multiple nuclear medicine vectors. The PACS provides fully-digital clinical operation which includes acquisition and automatic organization of patient data, distribution of the data to all networked units inside the department and other remote locations, digital analysis and quantitation of images, digital diagnostic reading of image studies and permanent data archival with the ability for fast retrieval. The PACS enabled us to significantly reduce the amount of film used, and we are currently proceeding with implementing a film-less laboratory. Hard copies are produced on paper or transparent sheets for non-digitally connected parts of the hospital. The PACS provides full-digital operation which is faster, more reliable, better organized and managed, and overall more efficient than a conventional film-based operation. In this paper, the integration of the various PACS components from multiple vendors is reviewed, and the impact of PACS, with its advantages and limitations on our clinical operation is analyzed.

Georgiou, Mike F.; Sfakianakis, George N.; Johnson, Gary; Douligeris, Christos; Scandar, Silvia; Eisler, E.; Binkley, B.

1994-05-01

405

Using nuclear medicine imaging in clinical practice: update on PET to guide treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

As we enter the era of personalized medicine, tests that can inform on molecular mechanisms of cancer, and on breast cancer in particular, are in high demand. We currently use DNA- or RNA-based tests of gene expression and/or immunohistochemistry to better characterize a given breast cancer and aid the clinician in selecting the best treatment options. In breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) are established biomarkers. There are several ways to obtain information on these biomarkers, including invasive testing (biopsy), which can be challenging depending on the location. However, not all tumors that express targets identified by tissue assay will respond to directed therapy. Nuclear imaging tests can be useful in these situations. They can be used as a noninvasive method for detecting tumor, obtaining information about the biology of the tumor, and predicting which tumors will respond to targeted therapies. Here, we will review how radiolabeled glucose and estrogen analogs can be used in breast cancer patients. We focus this review on the application of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to ER-positive metastatic breast cancer as an example of how imaging can guide breast cancer treatment. PMID:25004657

Clark, Amy S; McDonald, Elizabeth; Lynch, M Camilla; Mankoff, David

2014-05-01

406

Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

Heineman, W.R.

1993-05-03

407

Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010, with a maximum time interval of ± 9 months between the two types of medical exams. For 51 patients, the indication was the detection of CAD. For 45 patients, the indication was to assess viability and/or ischemia after MI, PCI or CABG. Out of 84 patients with CAD confirmed by angiography, 80 patients resulted in abnormal MPI (sensitivity of 95% and positive predictive value of 98%). Out of 12 patients with normal coronaries, 10 patients resulted in normal MPI (specificity of 83% and negative predictive value of 71%).In conclusion, for the patients with abnormal MPI and confirmed CAD, MPI was a useful aid for further therapy management.

Koumna, S.; Yiannakkaras, Ch; Avraamides, P.; Demetriadou, O.

2011-09-01

408

Preventive Medicine Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

Moore, George

1981-01-01

409

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients) b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients) and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 +/- 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 +/- 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 +/- 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

2006-09-01

410

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

SciTech Connect

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, 14080, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 D.F. (Mexico)

2006-09-08

411

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR\\/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients) b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185

F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; E. Gómez-Argumosa; E. Estrada-Lobato; L. A. Medina

2006-01-01

412

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR\\/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185

F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; E. Go´mez-Argumosa; E. Estrada-Lobato; L. A. Medina

2006-01-01

413

Research in Nuclear Astrophysics: Stellar Collapse and Supernovae. Progress Report, December 1, 1981-November 30, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The implications of nuclear theory for the final collapse of massive stars will be examined. Development of an appropriate nuclear equation of state and its implementation in hydrodynamic studies will be continued. The influence of nuclear dissociation an...

T. J. Mazurek J. M. Lattimer

1981-01-01

414

Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry: Progress Report, October 1, 1987-July 24, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet was assembled by the Committee on Training of Nuclear and Radiochemists of the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society as an aid to students interested in graduate studies in nuclear chemistry, radiochemi...

P. A. Baisden

1988-01-01

415

Nuclear factor-kappaB affects tumor progression in a mouse model of malignant pleural effusion.  

PubMed

We developed a novel mouse model of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) by injecting Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells directly into the pleural space of syngeneic C57B/6 mice. The pleural effusions in this model share common cellular and biochemical features with human MPEs. Implantation and growth of pleural tumors triggers a host inflammatory response characterized by a mixed inflammatory cell influx into the pleural fluid. LLC cells exhibited high basal nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity in vitro and in vivo, which we used to drive expression of a NF-kappaB-dependent green fluorescent protein-firefly luciferase fusion reporter construct. NF-kappaB-dependent reporter expression allowed intravital tracing of pleural tumors. Inhibition of NF-kappaB in LLC cells did not affect cell viability in culture; however, injection of LLC cells expressing a dominant NF-kappaB inhibitor resulted in decreased tumor burden, decreased pleural effusion volume, and decreased pleural effusion TNF-alpha levels. These studies indicate that tumor NF-kappaB activity regulates pleural tumor progression. This reproducible model of MPE can be used to further study the influence of specific host and tumor factors on the pathogenesis of MPE and evaluate new therapeutic strategies. PMID:16210694

Stathopoulos, Georgios T; Zhu, Zhiwen; Everhart, M Brett; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Lawson, William E; Bilaceroglu, Semra; Peterson, Todd E; Mitchell, Daphne; Yull, Fiona E; Light, Richard W; Blackwell, Timothy S

2006-02-01

416

Progress on an integrated multi-physics simulation predictive capability for plasma chamber nuclear components  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the behavior of a plasma chamber component in the fusion environment requires a simulation technique that is capable of integrating multi-disciplinary computational codes while appropriately treating geometric heterogeneity and complexity. Such a tool should be able to interpret phenomena from mutually dependent scientific disciplines and predict performance with sufficient accuracy and consistency. Integrated multi-physics simulation predictive capability (ISPC) relies upon advanced numerical simulation techniques and is being applied to ITER first wall/shield and Test Blanket Module (TBM) designs. In this paper, progress in ISPC development is described through the presentation of a number of integrated simulations. The simulations cover key physical phenomena encountered in a fusion plasma chamber system, including tritium permeation, fluid dynamics, and structure mechanics. Interface engines were developed in order to pass field data, such as surface deformation or nuclear heating rate, from the structural analysis to the thermo-fluid MHD analysis code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) velocity profile assessments, or from the neutronics analysis to the thermo-fluid analysis for temperature calculations, respectively. Near-term effort toward further ISPC development is discussed.

A. Ying; M. Abdou; H. Zhang; R. Munipalli; M. Ulrickson; M. Sawan; B. Merrill

2010-12-01

417

Nuclear-waste-management. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development, alternate waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1981-12-01

418

Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1994-06-01

419

Lincoln County nuclear waste project. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This document included the following three progress reports to the Yucca Mountain Project Office on radioactive waste storage in Lincoln County, Nevada: financial status report; federal cash transactions report; and technical progress report.

NONE

1996-03-01

420

Research in theoretical nuclear physics. Progress report, November 1, 1992October 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the accomplishments in basic research in nuclear physics carried out by the theoretical nuclear physics group in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, during the period of November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993. The work done covers three separate areas, low-energy nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, and nuclear structure studies. Although

Udagawa

1993-01-01

421

PROGRESS REPORT. CORROSION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL: THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The successful disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the most serious challenges to the success of the nuclear fuel cycle and the future of nuclear power generation. Spent nuclear fuel is essentially UO2 with approximately 4-5 atomic percent actinides and fission product...

422

Managing the Nuclear Legacy in the United Kingdom: Strategies and Progress in the Formation of a Liabilities Management Authority  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the status of recent initiatives undertaken by the United Kingdom Government to address the long-standing problems confronting it with regards to discharge of public sector civil nuclear liabilities. It describes the enabling steps taken thus far in the creation of a Liabilities Management Unit (LMU) to prepare the ground for this important work, with specific reference to some of the more technically challenging problems which must be resolved in order to make progress towards cleaning up the UK's nuclear legacy facilities and waste materials. Finally, it addresses some of the approaches proposed by the LMU as it seeks to establish a robust, permanent entity to meet the challenges.

Edwards, A.; Meyers, B.

2003-02-25

423

Experimental development of nuclear pumped laser candidate for inertial confinement fusion driver. Technical progress report, Phase 2, 1989--1990  

SciTech Connect

A report is given on progress made during the second year of a three year contract studying the feasibility of nuclear pumping the atomic iodine laser. Experimental results are presented showing efficiencies of 25--38% at converting neutron-induced nuclear reaction energy in the excimer XeBr into UV photons which can be used to pump the laser. Parametric studies were done utilizing the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, with three bromine donor chemicals, over a range of pressures and mix ratios, to optimize the fluorescence efficiency.

Miley, G.H.

1990-06-06

424

Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

425

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1986  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Accident Evaluation, Division of Engineering Technology, and Division of Risk Analysis and Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The projects reported are the following: High Temperature Reactor Research, SSC Code Improvements, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Safety Experiments, Thermodynamic Core-Concrete Interaction Experiments and Analysis, Plant Analyzer, Code Assessment and Application, Code Maintenance (RAMONA-3B), MELCOR Verification and Benchmarking, Source Term Code Package Verification and Benchmarking, Uncertainty Analysis of the Source Term; Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Soil-Structure Interaction Evaluation and Structural Benchmarks, Identification of Age Related Failure Modes; Application of HRA/PRA Results to Support Resolution of Generic Safety Issues Involving Human Performance, Protective Action Decisionmaking, Rebaseling of Risk for Zion, Containment Performance Design Objective, and Operational Safety Reliability Research.

Bari, R.A.; Bezler, P.; Boccio, J.L.; Ginsberg, T.; Greene, G.A.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Khatib-Rahbar, H.; Luckes, W.J. Jr.

1986-11-01

426

Two-phase flow phenomena in nuclear reactor technology. Quarterly progress report, June 1, 1977August 31, 1977. [BWR; PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is summarized in a university research program to develop a more thorough understanding of two-phase flow phenomena associated with certain hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents. The program is divided into three major tasks. Task I is concerned with the development of reliable, inexpensive and easily interpretable, two-phase flow instrumentation with which some basic two-phase flow parameters can be measured (e.g.,

Lahey; R. T. Jr

1977-01-01

427

Two-phase flow phenomena in nuclear reactor technology. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1977February 28, 1978. [BWR; PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is summarized in a university research program to develop a more thorough understanding of two-phase flow phenomena associated with certain hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents. The program is divided into three major tasks. Task I is concerned with the development of reliable, inexpensive and easily interpretable, two-phase flow instrumentation with which some basic two-phase flow parameters can be measured (e.g.,

Lahey; R. T. Jr

1978-01-01

428

What Is Nuclear Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... body’s own functions to determine disease status. Medical Imaging Modalitites and Their Range of Detection CT/X-ray US MRI PET/NM Optical Anatomy Physiology Metabolism Molecular Yes. For instance, thousands ...

429

Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/ ... in your body. Hybrid imaging techniques (PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used ...

430

General Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/ ... performed using either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET). The gamma camera, ...

431

Nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 18 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiobiology: Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiations; Absorbed Dose Calculation; Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Pain; Radioidodine Therapy of Hyperthryoidism; and Radiocolloid Therapy in Joint Diseases.

Harbert, J.C.; Robertson, J.S.; Held, K.D.

1987-01-01

432

Progress Report for 1985 (Institute of Nuclear Research in Rez, Czechoslovakia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary is presented of the major scientific, technical and economic results achieved by the Institute of Nuclear Research in Rez near Prague in the year 1985. Research and development was mainly oriented to nuclear power: problems of nuclear safety of ...

S. Havelka

1986-01-01

433

Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)  

SciTech Connect

This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

1982-06-01

434

Nuclear reactor safety. Quarterly progress report, January 1March 31, 1977. [LWR; HTGR; LMFBR; GCFR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research progress is reported under the following headings: LWR safety research, LMFBR safety research, HTGR safety research, GCFR core disruptive test program, and containment system studies and evaluation.

1977-01-01

435

Nuclear medicine and quantitative imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15-September 1, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes goals and accomplishments of the research program supported under DOE Grant No. FG02-86ER60418 entitled Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation, with R. Beck, P. I. and M. Cooper, Co-P.I. during the period January 15,...

R. N. Beck M. D. Cooper

1990-01-01

436

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science). Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated be...

M. Cooper R. N. Beck

1992-01-01

437

Nuclear Medicine and Quantitative Imaging Research (Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science): Comprehensive Progress Report, April 1, 1986-December 31, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes several years research to improve PET imaging and diagnostic techniques in man. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer metho...

M. D. Cooper R. N. Beck

1988-01-01

438

Plasma metabonomic analysis with 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance revealing the relationship of different tumors and the disease homology theory of traditional Uyghur medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the plasma samples obtained from tumor patients using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and find the biochemical foundation of abnormal Savda described in traditional\\u000a Uyghur medicine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 170 tumor patients with abnormal Savda syndrome who were confirmed clinically were enrolled in this study, and\\u000a 50 healthy volunteers were set up as controls. The plasma 1H

Batur Mamtimin; Halmurat Upur; Fu-hua Hao; Aynur Matsidik; Rena Rahim

2011-01-01

439