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1

Progress and direction of gastrointestinal nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, gastrointestinal nuclear medicine has made much progress in recent years due to advances in instrumentation, new radiopharmaceuticals, new clinical indications, and the development of new and better methodologies. This has been a personal view and I have only touched on some of these recent advances. This continues to be an area where radionuclide techniques truly demonstrate their ability

Manuel D. Cerqueira

1994-01-01

2

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)|

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

3

New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image pro...

1990-01-01

4

Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the era of multimodality imaging techniques, functional information represents a remarkable aspect in medical imaging and\\u000a nuclear medicine is the technique par excellence for functional information. One of the first applications of radioactive\\u000a substances in clinical practice is represented by renal disorders, nowadays largely investigated by nuclear medicine examinations.\\u000a Among the different physiologic processes in which kidneys take part,

Egesta Lopci; Stefano Fanti

5

Nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography

H. N. Jr

1986-01-01

6

[In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine]. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-12-31

7

Nuclear medicine annual, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

1984-01-01

8

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188\\/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated

F. F. Jr. Knapp; A. L. Beets; R. Boll; H. Luo; D. W. McPherson; S. Mirzadeh

1997-01-01

9

Technologists for Nuclear Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)|

Barnett, Huey D.

1974-01-01

10

Nuclear medicine annual, 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide evaluation of brain death, bone imaging with SPECT, and lymphoscintigraphy are among the topics covered in Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1987. In addition, the book includes reviews of the role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reports describe advances in radionuclide and magnetic resonance

L. M. Freeman; H. S. Weissmann

1987-01-01

11

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

12

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1995-12-31

13

Nuclear medicine annual, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is intended to help physicians to keep current with major developments in investigational and interventional nuclear medicine. Each volume reviews topics of medical imaging. Technological advances in instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and their clinical applications are explored in depth.

L. M. Freeman; H. S. Weissmann

1985-01-01

14

Society of Nuclear Medicine  

Cancer.gov

June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

15

Diagnostic nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The authors address major topics in nuclear medicine, as well as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), monoclonal antibodies, positron emission tomography, cerebral perfusion studies, computer applications, and cell-labeling techniques. They correlate nuclear medicine with other imaging modalities. In general, the text is clear and concise, with high-quality, well-annotated images. This book includes sections covering hepatobiliary, adrenal, esophageal, and gastric studies and detection of pulmonary emboli.

Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Potchen, J.

1988-01-01

16

Nuclear medicine training in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are diverse approaches to the teaching of nuclear medicine in China: (1) Nuclear medicine is taught as part of the clinical curriculum in most medical schools. (2) Three medical schools undertake undergraduate training in nuclear medicine. (3) Four medical schools train nuclear medicine specialists to graduate level. (4) Eight medical schools have been authorized to provide a postgraduate programme

Shih-Chen Wang

1996-01-01

17

Efficacy of Clinical Diagnostic Procedures Utilized in Nuclear Medicine. Technical Progress Report, 1 December 1981-30 November 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficacy of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was measured. Three levels of efficacy were defined. However, two different methods of evaluating efficacy itself were first compared. Using two methods, logistic regression and entropy-minimax patter...

E. L. Saenger

1982-01-01

18

Nuclear medicine data communications.  

PubMed

Nuclear Medicine was one of the earliest imaging modalities to adopt the use of computers for acquisition, processing, storage, and display of digital images. Originally used for processing images, computer technologies were quickly adopted for image storage, display, and transmission. Modern nuclear medicine cameras produce digital images that can be transmitted over computer networks to other cameras, storage devices, workstations, and printers. In order to achieve nuclear medicine data communication, images must be successfully acquired and transmitted to the appropriate location to be displayed or printed. Standards have been developed over the years to facilitate the creation of interfaces between vendors and equipment, notably the interfile format for nuclear medicine and the DICOM standard for medical images. Studies can be transmitted over network communication links to other sites using telecommunication protocol standards where they can be stored and/or displayed on a wide variety of devices. This ability to move images in a well-understood format to general purpose devices using standard equipment enables the use of the Internet to disseminate nuclear medicine study information over a wide area for clinical use, research, and education. A number of universities have created Internet sites with nuclear medicine teaching files and information. As technology advances, it will be feasible to transmit medical images of all kinds to virtually anyone who needs them in near real-time, without regard to the distance between locations, or the types of instrumentation and computers used. The next few years should prove to be very interesting for digital medical imaging in general and nuclear medicine in particular. PMID:9579417

Honeyman, J C

1998-04-01

19

Nuclear Medicine Technology Progress Report for Quarter Ending June 30, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported for the applications of exp 11 C, /sup 195m/Pt, exp 75 Se, and /sup 123m/Te. Additional human clinical trials with exp 11 C-DL-tryptophan and exp 11 C-l-aminocyclobutane carboxylic acid have been completed. The modified Buecherer-Stre...

F. F. Knapp

1978-01-01

20

Coordination compounds in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiopharmaceuticals, drugs containing a radionuclide, are used routinely in nuclear medicine departments for the diagnosis of disease and are under investigation for use in the treatment of disease. Nuclear medicine takes advantage of both the nuclear properties of the radionuclide and the pharmacological properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Herein lies the real strength of nuclear medicine, the ability to monitor biochemical

S. Jurisson; D. Berning; Wei. Jia; Dangshe. Ma

1993-01-01

21

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of

1990-01-01

22

Nuclear medicine case studies  

SciTech Connect

This text presents case studies in nuclear medicine which emphasize the diagnosis of the patient's problem rather than the technical performance of the procedure. The book is arranged by organ systems and each section begins with a description of the technique and findings in a normal study.

Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1986-01-01

23

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

24

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

25

Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nuclear medicine clinical information is derived from observing the distribution of a pharmaceutical administered to the\\u000a patient. By incorporating a radionuclide into the pharmaceutical, measurements can be made of the distribution of this radiopharmaceutical\\u000a by noting the amount of radioactivity present. These measurements may be carried out either in vivo or in vitro. In vivo imaging\\u000a is the most

Peter F. Sharp; Keith A. Goatman

26

Nuclear medicine annual  

SciTech Connect

This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

Freeman, L.M.

1988-01-01

27

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

SciTech Connect

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

1990-01-01

28

Nuclear medicine at the crossroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many nuclear medicine procedures, originally developed more than 20 years ago, are now performed with new radiopharmaceuticals or instruments; it is therefore apposite to reappraise what we are doing and why we are doing it. The clinical utility of nuclear medicine is discussed with reference, by way of example, to gated blood pools scans and myocardial perfusion imaging; the importance

H. William Strauss

1996-01-01

29

Efficacy of clinical diagnostic procedures utilized in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, 1 December 1981-30 November 1982  

SciTech Connect

The efficacy of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was measured. Three levels of efficacy were defined. However, two different methods of evaluating efficacy itself were first compared. Using two methods, logistic regression and entropy-minimax pattern detection, substantial agreement was found between them in several clinical observations. (1) There are no attributes that indicate that any grouping of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings is capable of suggesting that a patient does or does not have a pulmonary embolus. (2) The lung scan test is the only reliable method which indicates that a patient may have a pulmonary embolus or does not have a pulmonary embolus. (3) The validity of these conclusions and the ability to apply them widely to ongoing clinical practice is based on the prospective design of the Study which included an appropriate distribution of institutions by type, size, and geographic location. Also, the only judgement samples was that of the referring physician. (ERB)

Saenger, E.L.

1982-07-01

30

Progress in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research  

PubMed Central

Integrative Medicine at Yale and the Yale Center for Continuing Medical Education (CME) sponsored the Yale Research Symposium on Complementary and Integrative Medicine in March 2010 at the university’s School of Medicine. Delivering the keynote address, Dr. Josephine P. Briggs, Director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), highlighted recent progress made in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

Millet, John D.

2010-01-01

31

Pulmonary applications of nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine techniques have a long history in pulmonary medicine, one that has been continually changing and growing. Even longstanding methods, such as perfusion scanning for embolic disease or for pretherapy pulmonary function evaluation, have largely withstood the test of recent careful scrutiny. Not only have these techniques remained an important part of the diagnostic armamentarium, but we have learned

E. L. Kramer; C. R. Divgi

1991-01-01

32

Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

... Nuclear Lo que usted necesita saber acerca de... Un procedimiento de medicina nuclear se describe algunas veces ... viaja a través del cuerpo, produce emisiones radioactivas. Un tipo especial de cámara detecta estas emisiones en ...

33

Introductory physics of nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is primarily addressed to resident physicians in nuclear medicine, as well as residents in radiology, pathology, and internal medicine. Topics covered include: basic review; nuclides and radioactive processes; radioactivity-law of decay, half-life, and statistics; production of radionuclides; radiopharmaceuticals; interaction of high-energy radiation with matter; radiation dosimetry; detection of high-energy radiation; in-vitro radiation detection; in-vivo radiation detection using external

1976-01-01

34

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual progress report describes new methods of incorporation of radioiodine into physiologically active compounds (amphetamines), and the use of organoboranes to labeled radiopharmaceuticals with Oxygen- 15, Nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18. P...

G. W. Kabalka

1992-01-01

35

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

1983-03-11

36

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This annual progress report describes new methods of incorporation of radioiodine into physiologically active compounds (amphetamines), and the use of organoboranes to labeled radiopharmaceuticals with Oxygen- 15, Nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18. Preclinical studies are also reported on evaluation of butyothiophenones as agents acting at dopaminergic or serotonic synapses.

Kabalka, G.W.

1992-09-01

37

Oncological molecular imaging: nuclear medicine techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the expanding interest and development in mol- ecular biology, nuclear medicine imaging, essentially a molecular imaging technique studying biological processes at the cellular and molecular level, has much to offer. As other non-isotope techniques develop there has also been an opportunity for nuclear medicine to broaden its horizons in this field. Nuclear medicine's involvement in molecular imaging has been

G J R Cook

2003-01-01

38

Progress Report on Geriatric Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent studies by the Institute of Medicine, part of the National Academy of Sciences, and the Rand Corporation have suggested that most physicians in the United States are inadequately trained to cope with the care of the elderly, in spite of the fact that over 11% of the population is over age 65. At present, nearly 30% of all health care…

Dieffenbach, Ann

39

1986 yearbook of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This year's edition summarizes recent published articles about nuclear medicine in major medical journals. The book starts with a review on quantitative analysis of thallium-201 scintigraphy. Chapters then follow on magnetic resonance imaging, the cardiovascular system, peripheral vasculature, the pulmonary system, physics and instrumentation, radiochemistry, and radiopharmacology, health physics and radiation biology, oncology, infection, bone, joints and muscles, the endocrine system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal tract, hemotology, and the central nervous system.

Hoffer, P.B.; Gore, J.C.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Sostman, D.

1986-01-01

40

Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to

1988-01-01

41

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT and BNCT agents. Progress report, March 1, 1990-February 28, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Medicine Program at the University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in PET and SPECT. A small, but significant portion of o...

G. W. Kabalka

1990-01-01

42

Boron in Nuclear Medicine: New Synthetic Approaches to PET, SPECT, and BNCT Agents: Progress Report, March 1, 1989-February 28, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in PET and SPECT. A small, but significant portion of our effort is directed t...

G. W. Kabalka

1989-01-01

43

Nuclear Medicine Applications: Summary of Panel 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and tech...

A. P. Wolf

1988-01-01

44

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

Westerman, B.R.

1986-07-01

45

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine provides an examination of the latest developments in the field of nuclear medicine. This volume reviews advances made in imaging techniques and presents a detailed overview of many new imaging procedures and their clinical applications, e.g.,the oncological applications of immunoscintigraphy. This book also elucidates the various diagnostic capabilities of nuclear imaging in a

H. A. E. Schmidt; L Csernay

1988-01-01

46

Differential diagnosis in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book examines diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine. Topics considered include cardiovascular system, first-pass angiography (non-quantitative) of the heart and great vessels, blood pool and quantitative first-pass studies, pericardial imaging, 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate imaging, 201/Tl-thallium myocardial perfusion imaging, intracoronary particle injection, radionuclide angiography of medium sized arteries, 201/Tl-thallium imaging of arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities, radionuclide venography, lung imaging with radiolabeled particles in heart disease, central nervous system, cerebral blood flow, brain scintigraphy (static), endocrine system, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, the eye, dacryoscintigraphy, and radioactive phosphorus (32p-phosphorus).

Silberstein, E.B.; McAfee, J.G.

1984-01-01

47

Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot  

SciTech Connect

Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

1987-04-01

48

Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

Cesareo, R.

1988-01-01

49

Nuclear chemistry progress report  

SciTech Connect

This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

1993-08-01

50

Experience with Nuclear Medicine Information System  

PubMed Central

Objective: Radiology information system (RIS) is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS) that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven) and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system), radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex©) for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Volkan-Salanci, Bilge; Sahin, Figen; Babekoglu, Vahide; Ugur, Omer

2012-01-01

51

Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

Wolf, A.P.

1988-01-01

52

Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last\\u000a decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging\\u000a in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted\\u000a by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion,

M. Donald Blaufox; Valery Kalika; Stephen Scharf; David Milstein

1982-01-01

53

The Impact of Computers in Nuclear Medicine  

PubMed Central

Computers have had a major impact on the development of Nuclear Medicine. Computer technology has allowed improved acquisition, display and analysis of radionuclide data and is largely responsible for the ability of radionuclide studies to accurately quantify organ physiology. In addition, computers are vital to reconstruction tomography, which has been applied to nuclear imaging. Mathematical modeling, which provides improved quantitative descriptions of complex physiologic systems investigated by radionuclides is also aided by computer technology. The role of the computer has even be extended to administrative functions like patient record keeping, automated data reporting, and programmed instruction of nuclear medicine trainees. In this review these aspects of computers in nuclear medicine will be reviewed, with emphasis on the recent improvements in nuclear imaging. Imagesp59-a

Alderson, Philip O.

1978-01-01

54

Recent advances in pediatric nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications of nuclear medicine in pediatrics have grown parallel with the development of higher resolution complementary imaging modalities such as computed tomography, ultrasound, digital angiography, and magnetic resonance. The purpose of this article is to present clinically significant advances in pediatric nuclear imaging, with emphasis on newer techniques less often associated with pediatric patients.91 references.

M. A. Gainey; M. A. Capitanio

1988-01-01

55

Brief overview of nuclear medicine in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1956 witnessed the birth of Nuclear Medicine in China, when the first course, Biomedical Applications of Isotopes, was offered in our country by the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). This course was preceded by a training course in nuclear instruments in which students learned to construct the radiation detection devices required for performing experiments using radioisotopes. In 1958,

S. C. Wang; C. E. Chou

1989-01-01

56

Small-animal preclinical nuclear medicine instrumentation and methodology.  

PubMed

Molecular medicine enhances the clinician's ability to accurately diagnose and treat disease, and many technological advances in diverse fields have made the translation of molecular medicine to the clinic possible. Nuclear medicine encompasses 2 technologies--single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)--that have driven the field of molecular medicine forward. SPECT and PET, inherently molecular imaging techniques, have been at the forefront of molecular medicine for several decades. These modalities exploit the radioactive decay of nuclides with specific decay properties that make them useful for in vivo imaging. As recently as the mid-1990s, SPECT and PET were mostly restricted to use in the clinical setting because their relatively coarse spatial resolution limited their usefulness in studying animal (especially rodent) models of human disease. About a decade ago, several groups began making significant strides in improving resolution to the point that small-animal SPECT and PET as a molecular imaging technique was useful in the study of rodent disease models. The advances in these 2 techniques progressed as the result of improvements in instrumentation and data reconstruction software. Here, we review the impact of small-animal imaging and, specifically, nuclear medicine imaging techniques on the understanding of the biological basis of disease and the expectation that these advances will be translated to clinical medicine. PMID:18396180

Rowland, Douglas J; Cherry, Simon R

2008-05-01

57

Criteria for Acceptability for Radiological, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy Equipment – Part 4: Nuclear Medicine Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 2007, the European Commission commissioned a group of Experts to undertake the revision of Report RP91 on “Criteria for\\u000a Acceptability of Radiological (including Radiotherapy) and Nuclear Medicine Installations”, which will be published soon.\\u000a This paper presents the revised criteria for Nuclear Medicine Equipment.

S. Christofides; L. Malone; S. Mattsson; P. Horton

58

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work;

B WESTERMAN

1986-01-01

59

Nuclear physics in medicine, minefield and kitchen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plethora of phenomena discovered and investigated in the Maria Curie laboratories constitute nowadays basis of functioning of various advanced devices used in modern science, industry and medicine. In this article we briefly describe few examples of nuclear physics applications, such as: non-invasive imaging of living organisms by means of Positron Emission Tomography, remote identification of explosives and other dangerous substances, using the technique of atometry, and preservation of food by its exposure to nuclear radiation.

Moskal, Pawe?

2011-01-01

60

Nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents explanations of current procedures involving the kidney with information of the performance of each test, its rationale, and interpretation. The information covers all currently used radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, test protocols, and mathematical principles of pathophysiology as they relate to nuclear medicine studies. Information is provided on which radiopharmaceutical, instrument, or computer application to use, and when.

Tauxe, W.N.; Dubousky, E.V.

1985-01-01

61

Image Registration Techniques in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine has a long tradition of incorporating quantitative analysis in its diagnostic procedures. Until recently, the analysis was based on radionuclide images as the sole input although the importance of the complementary information available from other modalities or from earlier scans has long been recognized. Indeed, qualitative correlation between images, based on anatomical expertise, has always been part of

B. F. Hutton; M. Braun; P. Slomka

62

HOSPITAL PHYSICS: Nuclear medicine: diagnosis and therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine is a small but unique speciality, and any physics student who already enjoys computing, image processing, human biology and physiology as well as physics and chemistry, will be fascinated by this medical speciality. Those who enter, whether they be clinical or scientific, rarely leave and remain under its spell for life.

Dixon-Brown, Ann; Soper, Nigel D. W.

1996-03-01

63

Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

64

Wiener filter for nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality of digital nuclear medicine images, a new implementation of the Wiener restoration filter has been developed. The Wiener filter uses as its optimality criterion the minimization of the mean-square error between the undistorted image of the object and the filtered image. In order to form this filter, the object and noise power spectrums are needed. The

M. A. King; P. W. Doherty; R. B. Schwinger; B. C. Penney

2009-01-01

65

Liquid scintillation counting in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine can be measured by ; liquid scintillation (LS) counting, and the technique is the only practical ; approach to counting low-energy BETA emissions. The capabilities of LS ; counting and of some precautions that should be observed are reviewed. Because ; most scintillation solvents will tolerate only minimal amounts of aqueous samples

Bransome; E. D. Jr

1973-01-01

66

Noise reduction in nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common methods of reducing random noise in nuclear medicine use lowpass filtering, which has the disadvantage that it affects high-frequency components of the image. We developed a noise-reduction approach that estimates signal and noise levels in each of several frequency bands and removes the appropriate amount of noise with little effect on the signal in each band.

C. C. Kuni; B. H. Hasegawa; W. R. Hendee

1983-01-01

67

Wavelet domain filtering for nuclear medicine imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new filtering\\/estimation method for nuclear medicine imaging. The statistical method of cross-validation is used to design optimal wavelet domain filters for improved image estimation. The quality of the resulting images is much better than standard image estimates, in both visual and mean square error senses. Moreover, experiments have shown that, using the new estimate, one can

Robert D. Nowak; David J. Nowak; R. G. Baraniuk; Robert S. Hellman

1996-01-01

68

Standardized Annotation of Nuclear Medicine Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no generally accepted standards for annotating nuclear medicine images. This is a potential problem when- ever hardcopies from other centers are being evaluated, reinterpreted or compared to actual images of the same patient. Proposals for image annotation are elaborated to support image evaluation by a third party. In this paper, examples are given of lung scintigraphy, thyroid scintigraphy,

Karl H. Bohuslavizki; Eberhard Henze; Markus Schwaiger; Malte Clausen

69

Development of More Efficacious Tc-99, Organ Imaging Agents for Use in Nuclear Medicine by Analytical Characterization of Radiopharmaceutical Mixtures: Progress Report for Period September 1, 1987-August 31, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which...

W. R. Heineman

1988-01-01

70

Perspectives in nuclear medicine: pulmonary studies  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of I-131 labeled macroaggregates in 1964, noninvasive techniques involving injection of radiolabeled agents and remote detection of emitted radiation have become well established in detecting pulmonary disorders in routine clinical medicine. In the past, pulmonary nuclear medicine has been dominated by studies that depict the distribution of pulmonary perfusion and/or ventilation-perfusion balance (e.g., for the detection of pulmonary embolism, obstructive airway disease, lung carcinoma). With the recent development of emission tomography and the potential for new, function-oriented radiopharmaceuticals, however, pulmonary nuclear medicine is entering a new era. The status of contemporary pulmonary nuclear medicine is briefly reviewed in several areas of major interest and applications and focus on areas where new developments are needed and seem feasible in the near future. Several important regional physiological processes measurable by these techniques include: (a) the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism, (b) relative pulmonary blood flow, (c) permeability to specific molecules, (d) lung tissue metabolism, (e) ventilation distribution and (f) the relationship between ventilation and blood flow (perfusion). (JMT)

Budinger, T.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); McNeil, B.J.; Alderson, P.O.

1982-01-01

71

Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1996-01-16

72

Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Medicine and PET.  

PubMed

Purpose: With the increasing use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for scanning in oncology in our center, a radiation dose survey was performed to determine the impact on staff exposure. Conventional nuclear medicine procedures such as gallium scan, bone scans, and sestamibi cardiac scans are used for comparative purposes.Procedure: Patients were measured using a hand-held radiation monitor (Victoreen 450-P) at various distances and times that replicate typical patient contact scenarios in the Diagnostic Imaging Department.Results: We present our findings from the survey and the implications these have on staff radiation exposure. The data suggest that emerging oncologic techniques such as PET, high dose gallium-67, and high dose Tl-201 do not represent a significantly greater occupational radiation hazard than conventional nuclear medicine procedures. PMID:11008102

White; Binns; Johnston; Fawcett; Greer; Ciavarella; Hicks

2000-05-01

73

Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Medicine and PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: With the increasing use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for scanning in oncology in our center, a radiation dose survey was performed to determine the impact on staff exposure. Conventional nuclear medicine procedures such as gallium scan, bone scans, and sestamibi cardiac scans are used for comparative purposes.Procedure: Patients were measured using a hand-held radiation monitor (Victoreen

Stephen White; David Binns; Val Johnston; Megan Fawcett; Brett Greer; Filomena Ciavarella; Rodney Hicks

2000-01-01

74

Progress on RNAi-based molecular medicines  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising strategy to suppress the expression of disease-relevant genes and induce post-transcriptional gene silencing. Their simplicity and stability endow RNAi with great advantages in molecular medicine. Several RNAi-based drugs are in various stages of clinical investigation. This review summarizes the ongoing research endeavors on RNAi in molecular medicine, delivery systems for RNAi-based drugs, and a compendium of RNAi drugs in different stages of clinical development. Of special interest are RNAi-based drug target discovery and validation, delivery systems for RNAi-based drugs, such as nanoparticles, rabies virus protein-based vehicles, and bacteriophages for RNA packaging.

Chen, Jing; Xie, Jianping

2012-01-01

75

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

76

[Evidence-based nuclear medicine and experience-based nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

The basis and methods of Evidence-Based medicine (EBM) and its applications in Nuclear Medicine (NM) are described. EBM criteria are contrasted with clinical experience. Some NM Meta-analysis and Systematic Reviews are described. The methods of redefining the probability through diagnostic tests and the methods of Decision Analysis and of Cost-Efficiency Studies applied to NM are described. Finally a Series of proposals to improve the application of EBM to NM are presented. PMID:11205044

Carreras Delgado, J L

2000-01-01

77

Nanotechnology and nuclear medicine; research and preclinical applications.  

PubMed

The birth of nanotechnology in human society was around 2000 years ago and soon found applications in various fields. In this article, we highlight the current status of research and preclinical applications and also future prospects of nanotechnology in medicine and in nuclear medicine. The most important field is cancer. A regular nanotechnology training program for nuclear medicine physicians may be welcome. PMID:21761018

Assadi, Majid; Afrasiabi, Kolsoom; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

78

Sports medicine: a century of progress.  

PubMed

According to the international Olympic Committee, it is the responsibility of the sports medicine profession to care for the health and welfare of Olympic athletes, treat and prevent injuries, conduct medical examinations, evaluate performance capacity, provide nutritional advice, prescribe and supervise training programs, and to monitor substance use. Implicit in these functions is to assist Olympic athletes in achieving the objectives of the Olympic Motto (Citius, Altius, Fortius), which is to become faster, higher, and stronger. During the past Olympiads, athletic performance has increased, as indicated by times for the men's marathon (-28%) or by the distance covered in the women's javelin throw (+80%). However, the fulfillment of these responsibilities was a slow and protracted process, as demonstrated by the facts that medical examinations were not required until 1920, that 28 years elapsed before an official team physician was appointed, and that women had to wait until 1984 before sanction was given to compete in the marathon race. Doping was not defined until 1964, and monitoring of substance abuse did not materialize until after 1972. Although individuals have prepared for athletic competition since the ancient Olympics, the scientific foundations for various training prescriptions were not firmly established until the 1960s and 1970s. It was speculated that performance records will continue to improve in the next century because more scientific sports medicine information would be available and because such information would be better disseminated to athletes. PMID:9164256

Tipton, C M

1997-05-01

79

Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases.

Zaidi, Habib

80

Development of more efficacious Tc99, organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1987August 31, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. Three areas have been investigated during the second year of this

Heineman

1988-01-01

81

Development of more efficacious {Tc}-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992August 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with

Heineman

1993-01-01

82

Progress toward personalized medicine for glaucoma  

PubMed Central

How will you respond when a patient asks, “Doctor, what can I do to prevent myself from going blind from glaucoma like mom?”. There is optimism that genetic profiling will help target patients to individualized treatments based on validated disease risk alleles, validated pharmacogenetic markers and behavioral modification. Personalized medicine will become a reality through identification of disease and pharmacogenetic markers, followed by careful study of how to employ this information in order to improve treatment outcomes. With advances in genomic technologies, research has shifted from the simple monogenic disease model to a complex multigenic and environmental disease model to answer these questions. Our challenges lie in developing risk models that incorporate gene–gene interactions, gene copy-number variations, environmental interactions, treatment effects and clinical covariates.

Moroi, Sayoko E; Raoof, Duna A; Reed, David M; Zollner, Sebastian; Qin, Zhaohui; Richards, Julia E

2013-01-01

83

A Memoir of Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: Part III: Finding a Place for Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

major impediment to the utilization of pediatric nuclear medicine techniques occurred in the mid- 1970s with the introduction of competitive imaging technologies such as CT and ultrasound. Although the early versions of these technologies were somewhat primitive, the use of these modalities increased with technological advances, innovative upgrades, and newer devices. My personal experiences in practice, research, and teaching in

James J. Conway

84

The role of the IAEA in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programmatic activities in nuclear medicine of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are mainly directed towards developing countries and include co-ordination of research projects, technical co-operation and information services. During the last 30?40 years the IAEA has introduced nuclear medicine in 39 countries. It has started more than 350 RIA laboratories and thereby often disseminated nuclear medicine to areas

Steffen Groth; Ajit Padhy

1999-01-01

85

IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

2013-05-01

86

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

2012-10-01

87

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

2011-10-01

88

Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

89

Where are we with nuclear medicine in pediatrics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of nuclear medicine in children is different from that in adults. Technical considerations including immobilization, dosing of radiopharmaceuticals, and instrumentation are of major importance. Image magnification and the capability to perform singlephoton emission tomography are essential to performing state of the art pediatric nuclear medicine. New advances in instrumentation with multiple detector imaging, the possibility of clinical positron

Helen R. Nadel

1995-01-01

90

Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing

R. Finn; J. Fowler

1988-01-01

91

Pharmacologic Interventions in Nuclear Medicine Assessment of Cardiac Perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs that are currently used for therapeutic purposes can also be used in diagnostic tests. This paper will review the use of such pharmacological interventions in cardiac assessment in Nuclear Medicine. To fully com- prehend the effect of these drugs, a small review of diag- nostic nuclear medicine as currently used to assess cardiac perfusion is included. This will allow

Gilbert G. Matte; David C. Barnes; Douglas N. Abrams

2001-01-01

92

Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

Loudos, George K.

2007-11-01

93

[Cancer, environment, radiation and nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

Today, although science and technology have greatly developed, cancer is still under the shadow of prejudice and considered as a death sentence. As for who is to blame for this situation, we should not forget the actual influence of natural, technical and social environment in which we all live and offer or receive various forms of energy. Various kinds of radiation including radiation from the sun are found in our natural environment and radiation from the sun contributes especially to the development of melanoma. In our social environment we tend to develop harmful habits such as smoking and alcohol drinking, to have insufficient physical exercise and increased body weight. All these habits are concidered potentially carcinogenic. A new branch of medicine, which also tries to diagnose and treat cancer has been created lately. This is the speciality of Nuclear Medicine which has developed since 1945. This new specialty, aided by modern equipment has many useful diagnostic and therapeutic applications against cancer as mentioned in this lecture. PMID:20809000

Minas, Aristippos K

94

Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

Atkins, H.L.

1984-01-01

95

Minimizing and communicating radiation risk in pediatric nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The value of pediatric nuclear medicine is well established. Pediatric patients are referred to nuclear medicine from nearly all pediatric specialties including urology, oncology, cardiology, gastroenterology, and orthopedics. Radiation exposure is associated with a potential, small, risk of inducing cancer in the patient later in life and is higher in younger patients. Recently, there has been enhanced interest in exposure to radiation from medical imaging. Thus, it is incumbent on practitioners of pediatric nuclear medicine to have an understanding of dosimetry and radiation risk to communicate effectively with their patients and their families. This article reviews radiation dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals and also CT given the recent proliferation of PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It also describes the scientific basis for radiation risk estimation in the context of pediatric nuclear medicine. Approaches for effective communication of risk to patients' families are discussed. Lastly, radiation dose reduction in pediatric nuclear medicine is explicated. PMID:22393223

Fahey, Frederic H; Treves, S Ted; Adelstein, S James

2012-03-01

96

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section...482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services...

2012-10-01

97

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section...482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services...

2011-10-01

98

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2009-10-01

99

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2010-10-01

100

Determination of efficacy of nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine, a high technology field, is evaluated as to its usefulness. This paper describes the SNM study of 2023 patients comparing two methods evaluating efficacy for lung scanning (LS). Only the referring physicians determined the probabilities of the most important (MI) and most likely (ML) diagnoses and management before and after lung scanning. A logistic regression model was developed for probability of a signout diagnosis of PE. Equal patient groups tested the validity of the regression equations for the probability of PE as MI or ML. The models developed on Group I (G-I) and used on Group II (G-II) gave similar results. This shows that LS classifies PE and NOT PE categories where PE was considered both MI and ML. Entropy minimax pattern detection (EMPD) attempts prediction of signout diagnosis and management from prior patient attributes. In 2023 cases, attributes alone could not eliminate the use of LS for all patients. Comparing the two methods, the predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of each method are similar. EMPD predicts on a relatively small percent (40% before LS, 71% post LS) while the logistic equation predicts on 100% of the cases. An advantage of EMPD is that it does not require estimates of prior probability. However, LR, uses this estimate, thus incorporating intuitive knowledge not evaluated by EMPD. These methods are unique in showing that LS can direct the referring physician toward or away from anticoagulant therapy based on findings of the lung scan.

Saenger, E.L.; Buncher, C.R.; Specker, B.; McDevitt, R.A.

1984-01-01

101

Progress of French Nuclear Programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980. (Ato...

J. H. Pierrard

1981-01-01

102

Training Requirements for Chemists in Radiotracer Development for Nuclear Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight th...

R. Finn J. Fowler

1988-01-01

103

Labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals applied in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book includes material on radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine with a section on in vitro assays. Contents are divided into four parts: radioisotopes, labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals; radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostic purposes; in vitro methods of analysis with labelled compounds and applications of radioimmunoassay to medicine.

Balaban, A.; Galateanu, I.; Geogescu, G.; Simionescu, L.

1986-01-01

104

Nuclear reaction studies: Progress report  

SciTech Connect

A principal focus of recent research has been the three-body problem. A great deal of effort has been devoted to the creation of a computer program to calculate physical observables in the three body problem below 1 GeV. Successful results have been obtained for the triton. Additional work concerns scattering of K/sup +/ mesons from nuclei, antinucleon physics, relativistic nuclear physics and inclusive reactions. (DWL)

Thaler, R.M.

1986-11-19

105

Brain Tumor Imaging: European Association of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a These guidelines summarize the views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee (ENC).\\u000a The purpose of the guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting\\u000a the results of brain tumor imaging using 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET) as well as radiolabeled amino acid analogues\\u000a SPECT or PET. The aim is to help in achieving a

Thierry Vander Borght; Susanne Asenbaum; Peter Bartenstein; Christer Halldin; Özlem Kapucu; KoenVan Laere; Andrea Varrone; Klaus Tatsch

106

Left-ventricle boundary detection from nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new algorithm for segmentation of nuclear medicine images to detect the left-ventricle (LV) boundary. In\\u000a this article, other image segmentation techniques, such as edge detection and region growing, are also compared and evaluated.\\u000a In the edge detection approach, we explored the relationship between the LV boundary characteristics in nuclear medicine images\\u000a and their radial orientations: we

Xiaolong Dai; Wesley E. Snyder; Griff L. Bilbro; Rodney Williams; Robert Cowan

1998-01-01

107

Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.  

PubMed

The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

Cuocolo, A

2011-06-01

108

Nuclear medicine in the first year of life.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine has an important role in the care of newborns and children less than 1 y old. Patients in this age group present with a spectrum of diseases different from those of older children or adults. These patients can benefit from the full range of nuclear medicine studies. In these young children, nuclear medicine studies are more likely to be used to evaluate a wide range of congenital conditions but also can be helpful for evaluating acquired conditions such as infection, cancer, and trauma. This review first will cover the general aspects of nuclear medicine practice with these patients, including the special considerations that can help achieve successful diagnostic imaging. These topics will include clinical indications, imaging technology, instrumentation, software, positioning and immobilization, sedation, local and general anesthesia, radiopharmaceutical doses, radiation risk, and dose reduction. The review then will discuss the specific nuclear medicine studies that typically are obtained in patients in this age group. With extra care and attention to the special needs of this population, nuclear medicine departments can successfully study patients less than 1 y old. PMID:21622894

Treves, S Ted; Baker, Amanda; Fahey, Frederic H; Cao, Xinhua; Davis, Royal T; Drubach, Laura A; Grant, Frederick D; Zukotynski, Katherine

2011-06-01

109

Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

Not Available

1992-05-01

110

IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a priority for healthcare providers in many countries. The IAEA's response to meet the increasing needs for training has been 2-folds. Through its regular program, a priority is given to the development of standardized syllabi and education and clinical training guides. Through its technical cooperation programme, support is given for setting up national medical physics education and clinical training programs in countries. In addition, fellowships are granted for professionals working in the field for specialized training, and workshops are organized at the national and regional level in specialized topics of nuclear medicine physics. So as to support on-the-job training, the IAEA has also setup a gamma camera laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The laboratory is also equipped with QC tools and equipments, and radioisotopes are procured when training events are held. About 2-3 specialized courses are held every year for medical physicists at the IAEA gamma camera laboratory. In the area of research and development, the IAEA supports, through its coordinated research projects, new initiatives in quantitative nuclear medicine and internal dosimetry. The future of nuclear medicine is driven by advances in instrumentation, by the ever increasing availability of computing power and data storage, and by the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy. Future developments in nuclear medicine are partially driven by, and will influence, nuclear medicine physics and medical physics. To summarize, the IAEA has established a number of programs to support nuclear medicine physics and will continue to do so through its coordinated research activities, education and training in clinical medical physics, and through programs and meetings to promote standardization and harmonization of QA or QC procedures for imaging and treatment of patients. PMID:23561455

Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

2013-05-01

111

Recent Progress in Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear mean-field theory, with its various extensions, plays a major role in the description of nuclear structure and excitations, and has somewhat gained the status of ``Standard Model'' in nuclear structure. Until recently, its microscopic variant has relied essentially on a phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction. Although qualitatively very versatile, such nuclear mean-field approaches are often not as precise as Shell Model or Ab Initio techniques, and their connection with the underlying theory of nuclear forces is not very clear. Three recent evolutions are beginning to change this picture, and suggest that the spectroscopic-quality description of heavy nuclei could be possible in a not so distant future. Firstly, the remarkable achievements of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) in Quantum Chemistry have proved very fruitful for the development of its nuclear counterpart; simultaneously, major progress has been made in the construction of nuclear interactions based on chiral effective field theory; finally, the fast development of large-scale computing facilities across the world has allowed calculations that were unthinkable only a few years ago. This talk will begin by a brief overwiew of modern nuclear DFT, essentially from a practitioner's point of view. Some of the recent noticeable achievements in the field will then be reviewed. Finally, I will indicate some of the present avenues of research in nuclear DFT.

Schunck, Nicolas

2010-11-01

112

Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals. (ACR)

Entine, G.

1985-05-07

113

[Alzheimer's dementia, sleep disorders and nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

In case new diagnostic procedures for Alzheimer's dementia (AD) appear, Nuclear Medicine (NM) would like to be aware of them in order to evaluate its own contribution to diagnose AD by SPET and PET brain studies. Recently, sleep disturbances were studied in AD and tend to be diagnostic for early AD. In AD the actual time of night sleep was found to be 5.7 h, while awakeness time for the same night sleep increased to 2.7 h. Also in AD, the REM and the slow wave stage (SWS) during sleep are shorter and hypopnea and apnea phases are abundant. Internal body temperature during night sleep is only slightly increased in AD, while in temporofrontal dementia and in normal individuals this increase is significant. The circadian rhythm of melatonin is disturbed in AD. The normal duration of inspiration and expiration during daytime which is reversed during normal night sleep, has not been studied in patients with AD. However, this reverse condition favoring inspiration is expected to provide more oxygen to the brain. Chronic but not acute stress causes memory loss and is currently being studied by us as a possible causative factor for memory loss in AD. Tomographic SPET and PET brain studies can locate the site of brain damage in AD. This is important since memory has recently been classified into four categories, namely episodic, semantic, procedural and working memory. In early AD only procedural memory remains intact. This means that these patients may drive a car, do computer word processing and play some games at home or/and in the field. This memory is located in specific nuclei in the cerebellum and the occipital frontal area which do not relate to sites of other kinds of memory. This difference could be well identified by tomographic SPET or PET studies. Thus NM may also diagnose the early stage of AD. Another issue refers to the indications that the unified Medicare and Medicaid system in the USA has issued on September 15, 2004 for performing a PET (18)F-FDG study for AD. These indications are fully described in this editorial. PMID:15886744

Grammaticos, Philip

114

Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody (90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

Olivier, Pierre

2004-07-01

115

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil

A Haines; C de B White; J Gleisner

1983-01-01

116

The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered.

McGlone, B; Balan, K

2001-01-01

117

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-12-01

118

Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

1988-01-01

119

Proceedings of a workshop on molecular nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy (DOE) has increased the emphasis on research in structural biology and molecular biology. The Department has increased support substantially in the area of basic molecular and structural biology research. To exploit the advances in these fields, OHER has sought to apply those advances in their other areas of responsibility, e.g., health effects research, environmental biology, and, in particular, nuclear medicine. The applications of biotechnology have contributed greatly to the productive research efforts of molecular biology. These techniques include gene manipulation for targeted gene delivery; characterization of molecular probes for hormone, tumor, and neuroreceptors; the receptor-agonist/antagonist binding interactions; studies of mechanisms of cellular communication; and the development of in vitro diagnostics such as molecular probes for studying the aging process and patients with mental disorders, cancer, and atherosclerosis. The importance of this work is the reasonable expectation that mainly, through an appreciation of the molecular basis of disease, will the most effective and rapid progress be made toward understanding, identifying, solving, and preventing specific disease processes. Critical questions arising before and during the Workshop are how the following technologies can be applied in a practical clinical research or patient management setting: the recombinant DNA methodology, the technology of engineered monoclonal antibodies, the new methods for protein production and purification, and the production of transgenic animals.

Reba, R.C. (ed.) (Chicago Univ., IL (United States))

1992-01-01

120

Utilization of nuclear medicine scintigraphy in Taiwan, 1997–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To analyze the utilization of nuclear medicine scintigraphy in the Taiwanese population within the national health-care system\\u000a between 1997 and 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Based on the Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database of 1997–2009, a retrospective population-based analysis\\u000a was conducted. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were employed to analyze the frequencies and longitudinal trends\\u000a in the utilization of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

Mao-Chin Hung; Wanhua Annie Hsieh; Peter Wushou Chang; Jeng-Jong Hwang

121

State of the art in nuclear medicine dose assessment.  

PubMed

Basic calculational methods and models used in dose assessment for internal emitters in nuclear medicine are discussed in this overview. Methods for quantification of activity in clinical and preclinical studies also are discussed, and we show how to implement them in currently available dose calculational models. Current practice of the use of internal emitters in therapy also is briefly presented here. Some of the future challenges for dose assessment in nuclear medicine are discussed, including application of patient-specific dose calculational methods and the need for significant advances in radiation biology. PMID:18662553

Stabin, Michael G; Brill, A Bertrand

2008-09-01

122

Patient preparation for diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures: an analysis of ward nurse knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This study examined ward nurse understanding of diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures in order to assess whether they were adequately informed to prepare their patients for nuclear medicine imaging examinations.Method A questionnaire was used to establish ward nurse knowledge and understanding of nuclear medicine. The questionnaire had two sections: nurse characteristics and nurse knowledge of information sources about nuclear

R. Higgins; P. Hogg

2002-01-01

123

Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.  

PubMed

Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

Grammaticos, Philip C

124

Development of more efficacious Tc-99, organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1987-August 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. Three areas have been investigated during the second year of this project. (1) A chromatographic procedure has been developed for the separation of technetium dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) complexes. Tc-DPD complexes have been isolated from radiopharmaceutical preparations. The concentration of each complex in the preparation varies significantly depending on the pH of the preparation, the concentration of technetium, the presence or absence of oxygen, and the time interval after preparation. A single Tc-DPD complex has been isolated which shows good skeletal uptake and rapid soft tissue clearance. (2) An HPLC procedure for analyzing urine for Tc-Diphosphonate complexes has been developed. A Tc-HEDP complexd injected into a dog was found to concentrate rapidly in the bladder in the same chemical form. (3) An HPLC technique for the determination of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in disphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals and biological samples has been developed. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Heineman, W.R.

1988-04-01

125

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

Heineman, W.R.

1992-01-24

126

[Research progress in medicinal plant cell suspension culture].  

PubMed

China consumes and exports traditional Chinese medicinal resources the most in the world. However, we cannot anchor our hope on field production of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and their active ingredients, due to limited land resources. Therefore, the development of biotechnology is of great importance for China to solve the problem of traditional Chinese medicinal resources. Plant cell culture is an important approach for the sustainable development of precious medicinal resources. This essary summarizes the optimization of conditions for medicinal plant cell culture, the regulation of secondary metabolic pathways and cell bioreactor culture, and realizes that the authentic commercial production of more medicinal plants requires efforts from all aspects. PMID:23630994

Wang, Juan; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Wei, Chang-Long

2012-12-01

127

Basic principles of nuclear medicine techniques for detection and evaluation of trauma and sports medicine injuries.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine skeletal imaging is a very sensitive technique for evaluating bone and muscle abnormalities because it can detect minor changes in metabolism and blood flow. The specificity of bone imaging, however, depends on the ability of the nuclear medicine physician to make a differential diagnosis. To aid in making a specific diagnosis, this article describes the various patterns of abnormality in stress fractures, tibial stress syndrome (shin splints), compartment syndrome, enthesopathy, and traumatic fractures. The characteristic scintigraphic appearance of joint injuries, muscle injuries (rhabdomyolysis), and radionuclide arthrography is discussed and the way the scan patterns change with time in these various disorders is described. A brief summary of the basic anatomy and physiology of bone and muscle in normal and injured tissue is presented and the basic mechanisms which cause the various abnormal scan patterns is postulated. In addition, a staging system for stress fractures is presented to help direct the referring physician toward the proper management of the injured patient. In most cases, nuclear medicine skeletal imaging can be used to differentiate between acute muscle injury, tibial stress syndrome, skeletal injury (periosteal reaction, stress fracture, and traumatic fracture) or an abnormality that is entirely associated with the joint or connective tissue. This differential diagnosis is easier if the nuclear medicine procedure is performed within a few days after the onset of injury. PMID:3291129

Matin, P

1988-04-01

128

Adaptive Neural Network for Nuclear Medicine Image Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel adaptive neural network is proposed for image restoration using a nuclear medicine gamma camera based on the point spread function of measured system. The objective is to restore image degradation due to photon scattering and collimator photon penetration with the gamma camera and allow improved quantitative external measurements of radionuclides in-vivo. The specific clinical model proposed is the

Wei Qian; Huaidong Li; Maria Kallergi; Dansheng Song; Laurence P. Clarke

1998-01-01

129

Advanced Compton camera system for nuclear medicine: Prototype system study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma-ray imager called Compton camera is expected as a new medical instrument for nuclear medicine. It has several advantages over the conventional techniques such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography. Especially, the Compton camera can expand the range of diagnosis and therapy because various gamma-ray energies can be measured without changing system configuration. Many studies have

Ryota Kohara; Takashi Shirahata; Tetsuo Nakazawa; Osamu Miyazaki; Shigeto Kabuki; Shunsuke Kurosawa; Kentaro Miuchi; Hidetoshi Kubo; Toru Tanimori; Tadaki Nakahara; Etsuo Kunieda; Atsushi Kubo; Hirofumi Fujii

2008-01-01

130

High Transparency Coded Apertures in Planar Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coded apertures provide an alternative to the collimators of nuclear medicine imaging, and advances in the field have lessened the artifacts that are associated with the near-field geometry. Thickness of the aperture material, however, results in a decoded image with thickness artifacts, and constrains both image resolution and the available manufacturing techniques. Thus in theory, thin apertures are clearly desirable,

David M. Starfield; David M. Rubin; Tshilidzi Marwala

2007-01-01

131

Carcinogenic risk in diagnostic nuclear medicine: biological and epidemiological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade new data have become available on the mechanism of carcinogenesis and on cancer induction by ionizing radiation. This review concentrates on these two items in relation to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine. On the basis of reports of expert committees, the concept of radiation risk is elucidated for high and low doses. Mortality

F. Overbeek; E. K. J. Pauwels; J. J. Broerse

1994-01-01

132

Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The largest man-made contributor to the ionising radiation dose to the Australian population is from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. The last estimation of this dose was made in 2004 (1.3 mSv), this paper describes a recent re-evaluation of this dose to reflect the changes in imaging trends and technology. The estimation was calculated by summing the dose from five modalities, computed tomography (CT), general radiography/fluoroscopy, interventional procedures, mammography and nuclear medicine. Estimates were made using Australian frequency data and dose data from a range of Australian and international sources of average effective dose values. The ionising radiation dose to the Australian population in 2010 from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine is estimated to be 1.7 mSv (1.11 mSv CT, 0.30 mSv general radiography/fluoroscopy, 0.17 mSv interventional procedures, 0.03 mSv mammography and 0.10 mSv nuclear medicine). This exceeds the estimate of 1.5 mSv per person from natural background and cosmic radiation. PMID:23604741

Hayton, A; Wallace, A; Marks, P; Edmonds, K; Tingey, D; Johnston, P

2013-04-19

133

Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging. 3rd edition  

SciTech Connect

This book covers topics ranging from basic physics and instrumentation to various aspects of clinical imaging and regulatory issues. It includes a section on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical sections include newer aspects of nuclear medicine, such as antibody imaging, pharmacologic stress, bone mineral analysis, evaluation of renovascular hypertension, and the role of gallium in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Mettler, F.A.; Guiberteau, M.J.

1991-01-01

134

Dictionary/handbook of nuclear medicine and clinical imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Fundamentals of English medical etymology, Abbreviations, acronyms, symbols, denotations, and signs commonly used or defined in the dictionary, Characteristics of the elements, Characteristics of practicable radioisotopes and of selected radionuclides commonly used in nuclear medicine, Properties and production of radionuclides, Radioactive decay, Radiopharmaceuticals, and Radiation dosimetry.

Iturralde, M.P. (Univ. of Pretoria and H.S. Verwoerd Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (ZA))

1989-01-01

135

Dictionary\\/handbook of nuclear medicine and clinical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers the following topics: Fundamentals of English medical etymology, Abbreviations, acronyms, symbols, denotations, and signs commonly used or defined in the dictionary, Characteristics of the elements, Characteristics of practicable radioisotopes and of selected radionuclides commonly used in nuclear medicine, Properties and production of radionuclides, Radioactive decay, Radiopharmaceuticals, and Radiation dosimetry.

Iturralde

1989-01-01

136

Measuring and Minimizing the Radiation Dose to Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Nuclear medicine technologists rely on a single dosimeter to measure their work-related dose. Estimates of whole-body effective dose are based on the assumptions that the radiation is incident from the front and in a uniform beam. We sought to investigate these assumptions and also to quantify doses associated with different activities. Methods: A single technologist wore 3 electronic dosimeters

Thea M. Lundberg; Peta J. Gray; Marissa L. Bartlett

137

Applicability of the rotation collimator to nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotation collimator is recommended as a camara for radiology and nuclear medicine. The advantages over Fresnel skiagraphy are that the collimator uses a high quantum efficiency, single-channel detector and automatic numerical processing to produce an image in almost real time on a cathode ray tube without needing any cumbersome photographic steps. The use of a halftone screen permits the

L. Mertz

1974-01-01

138

Edge detection in gated cardiac nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean field annealing using a piecewise linear model was applied to gated cardiac nuclear medicine images as a preprocessing tool for image smoothing and noise reduction. A second derivative operator was then used to extract the edges for ventricle boundary estimation. Combined with the user input initial boundary estimate, the extracted edge information was used to find a minimum cost

Cliff X. Wang; Lon Small; Wesley E. Snyder; Rodney Williams

1994-01-01

139

PULSE MONITOR FOR UPPER EXTREMITIES DOSIMETRY IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the manipulation of radioactive materials in Nuclear Medicine service the body parts of workers that are more displayed to the ionizing radiation are hands, underarm and arm. Therefore is necessary to developing personal dosimeters to monitoring of easy reproduction and low cost with purpose to determine the doses level radiation received by the worker in these extremities. However thermoluminescent

Clêdison de Jesus Cunha; Nascimento Souza

140

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2009-10-01

141

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2010-10-01

142

Concerning Nuclear Medicine Services. Notes on the Practical Situation in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear medicine presents a certain number of teething problems, which are analysed here. An attempt is made first to estimate the worthwhileness or utility/cost ratio of a nuclear medicine service by determining firstly the expenses involved and secondly...

D. Ducassou

1977-01-01

143

Abstracts of the 1st croatian international congress of nuclear medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Main scientific topics of the Congress were: diagnostic and therapeutical procedures in nuclear medicine, thyroid gland - diagnosis and therapy, instrumentation and imaging in nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiation protection and radiobiolo...

1994-01-01

144

Image Segmentation Techniques in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is gratifying to see in overview the progress that image segmentation has made in the last ten years, from operator-dependent\\u000a manual delineation of structures, through simple thresholding, the use of classifiers and fuzzy clustering, and more recently\\u000a atlas-guided approaches incorporating prior information. Recent developments have been enormous particularly in the last ten\\u000a years, the main opportunities striving towards improving

A. O. Boudraa; H. Zaidi

145

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods;

C. T. Kieffer; P. A. Suto

1983-01-01

146

Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services  

SciTech Connect

The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage.

Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

1986-07-01

147

Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective  

SciTech Connect

The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5. The three-day interval between the incident and its discovery outside the USSR caused great apprehension. This chain of events indicates the very important role for the nuclear medicine physician, the medical physicist and their colleagues. It is likely that this medical specialty area is staffed by personnel who are best qualified to interpret these findings and to determine the necessary course of action both for patients and the general public. The nuclear medicine specialist can provide valuable input in estimating the radiation dose impact resulting from such an incident. This estimate may be accomplished either by combining measured activity levels with the physiological and physical factors involved; or by actual in vivo counting and quantitation of radioactivity in individuals exposed to radionuclides. From the measured activities in air, water and food, and assumed intakes for various age groups, doses can be estimated both for inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides. In vivo measurements of radionuclides can be performed with conventional instrumentation used routinely in nuclear medicine laboratories.

Kereiakes, J.G.; Saenger, E.L.; Thomas, S.R.

1986-07-01

148

Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

1988-04-01

149

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine  

PubMed Central

Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10

McKinstry, C S

1986-01-01

150

Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1983-March 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; and supporting studies. 58 figures, 22 tables.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.

1984-06-01

151

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, April 1984-September 1984  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; and supporting studies. 33 figures, 13 tables.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1984-12-01

152

Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1985-06-01

153

Limits of Tumor Detectability in Nuclear Medicine and PET  

PubMed Central

Objective: Nuclear medicine is becoming increasingly important in the early detection of malignancy. The advantage of nuclear medicine over other imaging modalities is the high sensitivity of the gamma camera. Nuclear medicine counting equipment has the capability of detecting levels of radioactivity which exceed background levels by as little as 2.4 to 1. This translates to only a few hundred counts per minute on a regular gamma camera or as few as 3 counts per minute when using coincidence detection on a positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Material and Methods: We have experimentally measured the limits of detectability using a set of hollow spheres in a Jaszczak phantom at various tumor-to-background ratios. Imaging modalities for this work were (1) planar, (2) SPECT, (3) PET, and (4) planar camera with coincidence detection capability (MCD). Results: When there is no background (infinite contrast) activity present, the detectability of tumors is similar for PET and planar imaging. With the presence of the background activity , PET can detect objects in an order of magnitude smaller in size than that can be seen by conventional planar imaging especially in the typical clinical low (3:1) T/B ratios. The detection capability of the MCD camera lies between a conventional nuclear medicine (planar / SPECT) scans and the detection capability of a dedicated PET scanner. Conclusion: Among nuclear medicine’s armamentarium, PET is the closest modality to CT or MR imaging in terms of limits of detection. Modern clinical PET scanners have a resolution limit of 4 mm, corresponding to the detection of tumors with a volume of 0.2 ml (7 mm diameter) in 5:1 T/B ratio. It is also possible to obtain better resolution limits with dedicated brain and animal scanners. The future holds promise in development of new detector materials, improved camera design, and new reconstruction algorithms which will improve sensitivity, resolution, contrast, and thereby further diminish the limits of tumor detectability. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Erdi, Yusuf Emre

2012-01-01

154

Patient exposures to HIV during nuclear medicine procedures.  

PubMed

Although the potential for transmission of bloodborne pathogens to patients through transfusion of contaminated blood is well known, it is less widely recognized that such transmission can also occur during medical procedures involving withdrawal and reinjection of blood or blood products (e.g., nuclear medicine procedures). Since 1989, three patients (two in hospitals in the United States and one in the Netherlands) undergoing nuclear medicine procedures have been reported to have inadvertently received intravenous injections of blood or other material from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two of these patients are known to have become infected with HIV during these procedures; HIV test results are not available for the third patient. This report summarizes these three incidents and provides recommendations for preventive measures. PMID:1640924

1992-08-01

155

Search of new scintillation materials for nuclear medicine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide crystals have a great potential to develop new advanced scintillation materials which are dense, fast, and bright. This combination of parameters, when combined with an affordable price, gives a prospect for materials to be applied in nuclear medicine devices. Some of them have been developed in the last two decades along the line of rear-earth (RE) garnet (RE3Al5O12) oxiorthosilicate

Mikhail Korzhik; Poul Lecoq

2001-01-01

156

Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2005-05-04

157

Nuclear medicine image segmentation using a connective network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for post-reconstruction nuclear medicine image segmentation based on an analogy to the Ising model of a two-dimensional square lattice of N particles (pixels) is presented. A reconstructed 2-D slice image is analyzed as a multi-pixel system where pixels correspond to a 2-D lattice of points with non-zero interaction energy with their nearest neighbors. The model assumes that pixel

J. Peter; R. Freyer; M. F. Smith; C. Scarfone; R. E. Coleman; R. J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

158

A practical guide to quality improvement in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Innovations and improvements in the field of nuclear medicine have created remarkable image accuracy and detail, which allow physicians to better diagnose disease. This ability has led to dramatic differences in patient care. To ensure that these diagnoses are reliable, imaging facilities must constantly monitor and seek to improve their practices. Quality improvement is a formal process of examining and improving performance through the analysis of data with the primary goal of enhancing patient care. Quality improvement activities in a nuclear medicine laboratory should emphasize accuracy and efficiency, patient and staff safety, and the patient's experience during care. Quality improvement in the nuclear medicine laboratory can potentially reduce the number of studies that need to be repeated because of poor quality, increase diagnostic accuracy, reduce radiation exposure, increase patient satisfaction, and save resources. This article will review the process of quality improvement; provide detailed, step-by-step instructions with special emphasis on project selection and data collection; and show examples of how to perform quality improvement projects. PMID:23071346

Farrell, Mary Beth; Abreu, Sue H

2012-10-15

159

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

160

Initial experience with a nuclear medicine viewing workstation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphical User Interfaced (GUI) workstations are now available from commercial vendors. We recently installed a GUI workstation in our nuclear medicine reading room for exclusive use of staff and resident physicians. The system is built upon a Macintosh platform and has been available as a DELTAmanager from MedImage and more recently as an ICON V from Siemens Medical Systems. The workstation provides only display functions and connects to our existing nuclear medicine imaging system via ethernet. The system has some processing capabilities to create oblique, sagittal and coronal views from transverse tomographic views. Hard copy output is via a screen save device and a thermal color printer. The DELTAmanager replaced a MicroDELTA workstation which had both process and view functions. The mouse activated GUI has made remarkable changes to physicians' use of the nuclear medicine viewing system. Training time to view and review studies has been reduced from hours to about 30-minutes. Generation of oblique views and display of brain and heart tomographic studies has been reduced from about 30-minutes of technician's time to about 5-minutes of physician's time. Overall operator functionality has been increased so that resident physicians with little prior computer experience can access all images on the image server and display pertinent patient images when consulting with other staff.

Witt, Robert M.; Burt, Robert W.

1992-07-01

161

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

2011-10-01

162

An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications.  

PubMed

There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,?) or (?,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity?gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented. PMID:23556835

D'Auria, John M; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E; Ruth, Thomas J; Schmor, Paul

2013-03-01

163

Role of nuclear medicine in chemotherapy of malignant lesions.  

PubMed

The major role of nuclear medicine in clinical oncology is in tumor imaging, which includes evaluating specific organs or the entire body for the presence of tumor. Nuclear medicine studies have been used clinically in the initial evaluation of the tumor extent and in the subsequent management of the cancer patient to assess response to treatment, to detect early relapse, and to assist in making decisions concerning follow-up treatment. Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion study for intraarterial chemotherapy has been helpful in monitoring the catheter tip, providing a map of regional perfusion at the capillary level (tumor vascularity), evaluating the degree of arteriovenous shunt in tumor bed, and optimizing division of the dose of chemotherapeutic agent when bilateral arterial catheters are used. Quantitative and serial radionuclide angiocardiography has been useful in assessing doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Adria Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio) toxicity, and 67Ga-citrate imaging has been used to monitor chemotherapy effect on lungs and kidneys. Radionuclide venography can demonstrate suspected thrombus, and the delineation of the vascular anatomy also allows proper placement of another catheter for continuous effective chemotherapy. Serial bone scans have been the primary modality to assess the response of bone metastasis to systemic therapy in breast cancer patients, and nuclear hepatic imaging may show tumor response, hepatocellular dysfunction, and cholecystitis related to chemotherapeutic agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3885397

Kim, E E; Haynie, T P

1985-01-01

164

[Progress in myofibroblast and its application in forensic medicine].  

PubMed

The myofibroblasts have dual characteristics of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. In repairing tissular wound, myofibroblasts are involved in fibrogenesis and remodeling the extracellular matrix of the fibrotic cascades reaction. The review describes the morphological characteristics and biological behaviors of myofibroblasts and the application of skin wound age determination, which may provide reference for research in forensic medicine. PMID:23930512

Yu, Tian-Shui; Ling, Yue; Guan, Da-Wei

2013-04-01

165

To what extent can artificial neural network support nuclear medicine?  

PubMed

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are computer programs that emulate the operation of a large number of processing units that mimic the fundamental mechanisms of the biological activity of nervous cells as well as their connections and interactions. As a human brain, an ANN has the ability to learn from the experience of general relations between variables and thus ANN are particularly suitable to capture the natural complexity of medical data. Today ANN are widely used as a tool for computer aided diagnosis. This editorial discusses to what extent ANN can support Nuclear Medicine. PMID:23106047

Palumbo, Barbara; Fravolini, Mario Luca

2012-10-25

166

Interface requirements in nuclear medicine devices and systems  

SciTech Connect

Interface designs for three nuclear medicine imaging systems, and computer networking strategies proposed for medical imaging departments are presented. Configurations for two positron-emission-tomography devices (PET III and ECAT) and a general-purpose tomography instrument (the UNICON) are analyzed in terms of specific performance parameters. Interface designs for these machines are contrasted in terms of utilization of standard versus custom modules, cost, and ease of modification, upgrade, and support. The requirements of general purpose systems for medical image analysis, display, and archiving, are considered, and a realizable state-of-the-art system is specfied, including a suggested timetable.

Maguire, G.Q. Jr.; Brill, A.B.; Noz, M.E.

1982-01-01

167

Fifty-Year Progress in Soviet Clinical Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Drug therapy of rheumatism in the USSR during the last fifty years; Treatment of tuberculosis in the Soviet Union: Fifty years of progress; Fifty years of Soviet pneumology; Surgical advances during the fifty years of the Soviet regime; Accompli...

M. A. Yasinovskii F. A. Mikhailov A. T. Lidskii I. I. Elkin

1968-01-01

168

Progress of integrative Chinese and Western medicine in treating polycystic ovarian syndrome caused infertilit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most popular diseases that cause menstrual dysfunction and infertility in\\u000a women. The present paper is a brief retrospection on the progress in treatment of PCOS caused infertility with integrative\\u000a Chinese and Western medicine (ICWM). It can be seen from these materials that using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) recipes\\u000a formulated by Shen-replenishing herbs

Juan-juan Song; Miao-e Yan; Xiao-ke Wu; Li-hui Hou

2006-01-01

169

Progress towards a nuclear fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article starts by outlining the physical conditions under which nuclear fusion reactions are most likely to be sustained, pointing out the sharp difference between the plasma state of matter necessary for nuclear fusion reactions and the thermodynamically more relaxed conditions sufficient for nuclear fission reactions. The confinement of hot dense plasmas by magnetic fields is the principal scientific problem

J. B. Adams

1969-01-01

170

NUCLEAR REACTORS IN THE SERVICE OF MEDICINE. THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE REACTOR PLANT AND THE INSTITUTE FOR MEDICINE IN THE NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN\\/JULICH NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTALLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief survey is given on the future cooperation between the reactor ; stations and the Institute for Medicine being established at the Nuclear Research ; Installation Nordrhein-Westfalen\\/Jullich according to the well-tested model of ; the Clinical Department in the Atomic Center of Brookhaven, USA. The capacities ; are mentioned and the desired requirements of medicine are enumerated by way

1962-01-01

171

The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

Kotz, D.

1995-08-01

172

Highlights of nuclear medicine. [Recent advances in techniques, raiopharmaceuticals, and data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summary discusses recent advances in nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, renal imaging, pulmonary studies, gastrointestinal studies, hematological studies, imaging bone joints, immunological approaches to the in vivo radioisotopic detection of cancer, brain imaging, imaging endocrine glands with emphasis on adrenal and thyroid function studies, pediatric nuclear medicine, the development of new radiopharmaceuticals and imaging instruments,

1977-01-01

173

Gdynia Oncology Centre of the Polish Red Cross Maritime Hospital in Gdynia Nuclear Medicine Department.  

PubMed

A new Nuclear Medicine Department has been opened in Gdynia. In October 2011, the construction and procuring equipment for the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of the Polish Red Cross Maritime Hospital in Gdynia-Red?owo was completed after several years of efforts. PMID:22936514

?uka, Krzysztof

2012-08-28

174

(In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-01-01

175

Will the Australian nuclear medicine technologist workforce meet anticipated health care demands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of national nuclear medicine tech- nologist workforce size was made from census data in 2001 and 1996 and from the professional body in 2004. A survey conducted by the authors in 2005 provided retention patterns in north-east- ern Australia and suggested causes. Utilisation of nuclear medicine diagnostic services was estab- lished through the Medicare Benefits Schedule group statistics. More

Edwina Adams; Deborah Schofield; Jennifer Cox; Barbara Adamson

2008-01-01

176

Role of nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

The application of radionuclide studies to nephrologic and urologic practice has reached a measurable degree of maturity during the past several years. In spite of this, the utilization of these techniques in many institutions in the United States continues to be far less frequent than one would expect from the clinical advantages. The aim of this editorial is to try to place the role of nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology in perspective. At the present time, in spite of the large number of renal agents that have been developed, there is no practical ideal radiopharmaceutical that can serve as a universal agent. Arbitrarily, one may reduce the chief armamentarium to only four radiopharmaceuticals; technetium-99m DTPA, I-131 OIH (orthoiodohippurate), technetium-99m glucoheptonate and technetium-99m DMSA. These agents are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages.

Blaufox, M.D.; Fine, E.; Lee, H.B.; Scharf, S.

1984-05-01

177

Selected Interventions in Nuclear Medicine: Gastrointestinal Motor Functions  

PubMed Central

Measurement of gastrointestinal functions by scintigraphy is established in clinical practice and research. The most commonly used test is the gastric emptying test. This is acknowledged as the gold standard and is conducted according to a consensus statement from the national nuclear medicine and motility societies. Other techniques are somewhat more esoteric (e.g. measurement of gastric accommodation with SPECT) or the scintigraphic approach is not the acknowledged gold standard (e.g. colonic transit, recto-anal angle and emptying, esophageal transit). The performance characteristics of many of the scintigraphic measurements have been published and the pros and cons established in the literature. Gastrointestinal scintigraphy is an integral and important component of the assessment of gastrointestinal function.

Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Camilleri, Michael

2009-01-01

178

An efficient and cost effective nuclear medicine image network.  

PubMed

An image network that is in use in a large nuclear medicine department is described. This network was designed to efficiently handle a large volume of clinical data at reasonable cost. Small, limited function computers are attached to each scintillation camera for data acquisition. The images are transferred by cable network or floppy disc to a large, powerful central computer for processing and display. Cost is minimized by use of small acquisition computers not equipped with expensive video display systems or elaborate analysis software. Thus, financial expenditure can be concentrated in a powerful central computer providing a centralized data base, rapid processing, and an efficient environment for program development. Clinical work is greatly facilitated because the physicians can process and display all studies without leaving the main reading area. PMID:3622561

Sampathkumaran, K S; Miller, T R

1987-01-01

179

Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

In this paper, data available on nuclear medicine imaging using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals for the differentiation, staging, and prediction or assessment of the response to treatment in tuberculosis (TB) are reviewed. Limited available studies suggest that single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using either 201Tl, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc-tetrofosmin is accurate (?85%) and has a high negative predictive value (?90%) for the differentiation of TB from carcinoma in patients presenting with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). The criteria for detection of TB on 201Tl SPECT are nondepiction of the suspicious lesion in the delayed image or a negative retention index [washout on the delayed images (3–4 h postinjection) vs. the early image (5–15 min postinjection)] and a comparable-to-background uptake on 99mTc-sestamibi or 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT. Another SPECT tracer of potential interest for the differentiation of TB from malignant SPN that warrants further exploration, is N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP). In contrast, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET is unable to differentiate malignancy from TB and thus cannot be used as a tool to reduce futile biopsy/thoracotomy in these patients. A limited number of studies have reported on the potential of nuclear medicine imaging in assessment of the extent of disease in patients with extrapulmonary TB using 67Ga-citrate SPECT and 18F-FDG PET, respectively. 67Ga-citrate SPECT was shown to be as sensitive as bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone infection and was found to be complementary to computed tomography (CT) imaging. 18F-FDG PET was found to be significantly more efficient when compared with CT, respectively, in over half of patients for the identification of sites of lymph node involvement that were missed by CT and often the only sites of extrapulmonary TB identified. Unfortunately, 18F-FDG PET findings did not lead to alterations in treatment planning in any of the patients under study. Additional studies confirming these findings are urgently required. Similar to the setting of SPN, 18F-FDG PET cannot differentiate malignant lymph node involvement from lymph node involvement by TB. These results and the recent findings of Demura and colleagues using 18F-FDG PET further suggest that nuclear medicine imaging techniques could be used for the evaluation of therapeutic response. Prospective studies, focusing on specific subgroups of patients in whom such an imaging approach might be clinically relevant, for example in multidrug-resistant TB patients, are warranted. In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, 67Ga scintigraphy proved to be a reliable and sensitive method for the primary detection and follow-up of opportunistic pneumonias, including TB. Combining 201Tl scintigraphy with 67Ga scintigraphy was shown to increase the specificity for both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, which is a 67Ga(+) and 201Tl(-) mismatch pattern in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients that is specific for mycobacterial infections. Finally, the results obtained using both SPECT and PET indicate that nuclear medicine could be an important noninvasive method for the determination of disease activity, detection of extrapulmonary TB, and determination of response to therapy. PMID:22422098

Sathekge, Mike; Maes, Alex; D'Asseler, Yves; Vorster, Mariza; Van de Wiele, Christophe

2012-06-01

180

NMINT--introductory courseware for nuclear medicine: database design.  

PubMed Central

Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) provides a dynamic and self-paced learning experience to the medical trainee. Microcomputer based hypermedia systems integrate text, graphics, and image information. We present the design of an introductory CAI course for nuclear medicine called NMINT and elaborate on the underlying relational database that contains clinically relevant information and links to local or remote image storage over high speed networks. The IBM PS/2 Windows system uses Toolbook software augmented by C language modules for image and image-overlay database access. The current implementation stores text, graphical lesson material, and image index information on microcomputer magnetic disk; image data are stored on the attached optical disk. The storage architecture is described in detail. We emphasize its multi-access methods and its expandability into department-wide image networks.

Mankovich, N. J.; Verma, R. C.; Yue, A.; Veyne, D.; Ratib, O.; Bennett, L. R.

1991-01-01

181

Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

1982-07-01

182

Center of Excellence in laser medicine. Progress performance report  

SciTech Connect

Achievements during the last 12 months of funding to initiate a Center of Excellence in biomedical laser development include: seven specific research projects within the Center`s three broad interest areas, and program development to establish the MGH Laser Center and its activities. Progress in the three interest areas namely new medical laser systems development, optical diagnostics and photo sensitization is reported. Feasibility studies and prototype development were emphasized, to enhance establishing a substantial Center through future support. Specific projects are outlined below. In addition, the interdepartmental MGH Laser Center`s activities and accomplishments.

Parrish, J.A.

1993-04-29

183

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

184

ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.  

PubMed

The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21571791

Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

2011-05-13

185

ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.  

PubMed

The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21636052

Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

2011-06-01

186

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: history, progress, and challenges.  

PubMed

The past three decades have seen the emergence of an endeavor called tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in which scientists, engineers, and physicians apply tools from a variety of fields to construct biological substitutes that can mimic tissues for diagnostic and research purposes and can replace (or help regenerate) diseased and injured tissues. A significant portion of this effort has been translated to actual therapies, especially in the areas of skin replacement and, to a lesser extent, cartilage repair. A good amount of thoughtful work has also yielded prototypes of other tissue substitutes such as nerve conduits, blood vessels, liver, and even heart. Forward movement to clinical product, however, has been slow. Another offshoot of these efforts has been the incorporation of some new exciting technologies (e.g., microfabrication, 3D printing) that may enable future breakthroughs. In this review we highlight the modest beginnings of the field and then describe three application examples that are in various stages of development, ranging from relatively mature (skin) to ongoing proof-of-concept (cartilage) to early stage (liver). We then discuss some of the major issues that limit the development of complex tissues, some of which are fundamentals-based, whereas others stem from the needs of the end users. PMID:22432625

Berthiaume, François; Maguire, Timothy J; Yarmush, Martin L

2011-01-01

187

Recent progress on anti-liver fibrosis candidates in patents of herbal medicinal products.  

PubMed

Liver fibrosis is a common cause of chronic failure of liver function, which is characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation and disruption of normal tissue architecture. Liver fibrosis-dependent mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis have drawn much attention. Herbal medicines are one of the strategies against liver fibrosis and a way to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Herbal medicines are usually used as official drugs in China, Japan and other parts of Asia. In this review, we retrieved and summarized current progress of anti-liver fibrosis candidates in USA, European and worldwide patents of herbal medicines in recent ten years. The pure compounds, fractions in single herbs and composite formulae were analyzed and discussed. The results indicated that herbal medicinal products can have potential on antiliver fibrosis. Further studies should focus on the structure modification of natural compound by computer-assisted drug design, quality control by acceptable worldwide guidelines, and mechanisms of action, drug metabolism and translational research. PMID:22594662

Wang, Xuan-bin; Feng, Yibin; Wang, Ning; Cheung, Fan; Wong, Chi-woon

2012-08-01

188

Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most significant development this year has been the realization that E0 transition strength is a fundamental manifestation of nuclear mean-square charge radius differences. Thus, EO transitions provide a fundamental signature for shape coexistence in ...

J. L. Wood

1996-01-01

189

Personalized medicine and pharmacogenetic biomarkers: progress in molecular oncology testing  

PubMed Central

In the field of oncology, clinical molecular diagnostics and biomarker discoveries are constantly advancing as the intricate molecular mechanisms that transform a normal cell into an aberrant state in concert with the dysregulation of alternative complementary pathways are increasingly understood. Progress in biomarker technology, coupled with the companion clinical diagnostic laboratory tests, continue to advance this field, where individualized and customized treatment appropriate for each individual patient define the standard of care. Here, we discuss the current commonly used predictive pharmacogenetic biomarkers in clinical oncology molecular testing: BRAF V600E for vemurafenib in melanoma; EML4–ALK for crizotinib and EGFR for erlotinib and gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancer; KRAS against the use of cetuximab and panitumumab in colorectal cancer; ERBB2 (HER2/neu) for trastuzumab in breast cancer; BCR–ABL for tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia; and PML/RAR? for all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

Ong, Frank S; Das, Kingshuk; Wang, Jay; Vakil, Hana; Kuo, Jane Z; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar B; Lim, Stephen W; Goodarzi, Mark O; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Rotter, Jerome I; Grody, Wayne W

2012-01-01

190

Recent progress on nuclear parton distribution functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report current status of global analyses on nuclear parton distribution functions (NPDFs). The optimum NPDFs are determined by analyzing high-energy nuclear reaction data. Due to limited experimental measurements, antiquark modifications have large uncertainties at x > 0.2 and gluon modifications cannot be determined. A nuclear modification difference between u and d quark distributions could be an origin of the long-standing NuTeV sin2?w anomaly. There is also an issue of nuclear modification differences between the structure functions of charged-lepton and neutrino reactions. Next, nuclear clustering effects are discussed in structure functions F2A as a possible explanation for an anomalous result in the 9Be nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Last, tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions are extracted from HERMES data on the polarized structure function b1 of the deuteron, and they could be used for testing theoretical models and for proposing future experiments, for example, the one at JLab. Such measurements could open a new field of spin physics in spin-one hadrons.

Hirai, M.; Kumano, S.; Saito, K.

2011-09-01

191

PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (Y????/?Y????/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their research and results to more than 150 participants from 14 countries. During the conference, exhibitors presented medical equipment used in nuclear medicine. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, the European Regional Development Fund and the Cyprus Biomedical Research Foundation. Also, we appreciate the support of the various local sponsors listed in the conference programme. We would like to express our sincere thanks and gratitude to the organising committee, the scientific committee and the supporting professional organizations for the success of the conference. We also thank all of speakers for their excellent contributions, all the participants for their input, and the exhibitors for their valuable presentations. Special thanks go to Demetris Kaolis, Maria Christofidou, Isabelle Chrysanthou, Charalambos Yiannakkaras, Ourania Demetriadou, and Elena Christofidou for their invaluable contribution to the conference. The conference volume consists of 26 selected proceedings papers. We would like to thank all of the authors for their time and genuine efforts and the reviewers for their fruitful comments. The Conference Chairpersons Stelios Christofides and Yiannis Parpottas

Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

2011-09-01

192

Progress in noise thermometry for nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear radiations on conventional thermocouples (type K, C and N) mainly used in irradiation experiments may create significant drifts of the signals. In order to solve these difficulties, the CEA (French Nuclear Energy Commission) has developed and qualified in laboratory conditions miniature devices, which combine a noise thermometer and intrinsic thermocouples (NT-TC), for future application in a research reactor. In this paper, a particular approach of combined NT-TC sensors is described. Present measurements, based on a correlation and a comparison technique, have been performed in a typical laboratory environment between 200 and 400 deg. C which are typical temperatures in materials irradiation experiments. (authors)

Lopez, A. L. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Villard, J. F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

2011-07-01

193

The Current Status and Future Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice\\u000a and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians,\\u000a technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing\\u000a approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6

Myung Chul Lee; So Won Oh; June-Key Chung; Dong Soo Lee

2010-01-01

194

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-01-01

195

Nuclear Medicine Progress Report, Quarter Ending September 30, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a systematic evaluation of adsorbents for potential use in the exp 191 Os//sup 191m/Ir medical radionuclide generator are described. The adsorbents included 39 inorganic materials broadly classified as oxides, antimonates, ferro-ferricyanid...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose T. A. Butler M. M. Goodman P. C. ivastava

1984-01-01

196

Nuclear medicine progress report, quarter ending September 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The results of a systematic evaluation of adsorbents for potential use in the /sup 191/Os//sup 191m/Ir medical radionuclide generator are described. The adsorbents included 39 inorganic materials broadly classified as oxides, antimonates, ferro-ferricyanides, phosphates, sulfides, and miscellaneous materials, and the organic anion-exchanger AGMP-1. The uptake of /sup 191/Os in oxidation states (VI), (IV) and (III) was measured and the adsorbents having a high /sup 191/Os uptake were evaluated for /sup 191m/Ir elution yield using three physiologically compatible eluents. The synthesis and evaluation of a variety of radiolabeled fatty acids as potential myocardial imaging agents has continued. Because of interest in the use of radiobrominated fatty acids for positron emission tomographic evaluation (PET) of myocardial disease, several bromine-82 labeled agents were prepared and studied. These include both cis (Z) and trans (E) 18-(/sup 82/Br)bromo-5-tellura-17-octadecenoic acid and 17-(/sup 82/Br)bromo-9-telluraphetadecanoic acid. A variety of telluraheptadecanoic acid (THDA) analogs and other fatty acids have been evaluated using the rat myoblast assay system. In the most recent studies 11-THDA, 18-bromo-9-THDA and 15-(iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), were evaluated for myoblast uptake and retention.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Butler, T.A.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

1984-01-01

197

Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) has been prepared as a new terminal iodophenyl-substituted fatty acid containing dimethyl-branching at the beta-position. Iodine-125-labeled DMIPP showed rapid, high myocardial uptake (min, mean % injected dose/g) in fasted rats (5, 4.67; 30, 5.06; 60, 4.79; 120, 4.37), and also exhibited high heart:blood ratios (min, ratio) 5, 3:1; 30, 12:1; 60, 12:1; 120, 13:1. These data demonstrate an unanticipated much longer myocardial residence time with DMIPP (+/sub 1/2/ 7-8 h) than observed with either the 3-monomethyl (BMIPP) analogue (+/sub 1/2/ 30-45 min) or the rapidly metabolized straight-chain (IPP) analogue (+/sub 1/2/ 10-15 min). The (/sup 123/I)DMIPP is thus an excellent candidate for clinical evaluation of regional fatty acid metabolism under conditions where the uptake of energy substrates can be assessed independent of regional blood delivery. Studies with the new activated carbon-based osmium-191/iridium-191m generator system have also continued. A standard lead shipping container has been modified for shipment of the generators to Medical Cooperative investigators. Studies include both left and right ventricular ejection fraction measurements and evaluation of blood flow in the cerebral and leg arteries. Studies with potential new brain imaging agents have also continued and a radioiodinated pargyline analogue has been prepared and evaluated. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

1985-07-01

198

Nuclear Medicine Progress Report for Quarter Ending December 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new osmium-191/iridium-191m radionuclide generator system has been developed based on the adsorption of K sub 2 OsCl sub 6 (Os-IV) on 140 to 230 mesh heat-treated activated carbon. The generator is eluted with pH 2 saline solution to give Ir-191m in goo...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose M. M. Goodman P. C. ivastava

1985-01-01

199

Nuclear Medicine progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect

An in vitro analysis of the susceptibility of the 3,3-dimethyl-branched (DMIPP) and 3-monomethyl-branched (BMIPP) analogues, and the parent straight-chain 15-para-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPP) to oxidation by an acyl CoA oxidase enzyme are described. The degree of myocardial retention appears to be directly related to the susceptibility to ..beta..-oxidation. Glucose analogues labeled with single photon emitting radionuclides are desirable candidates for measuring brain glucose utilization using SPECT. Because of the attractive radionuclidic properties of iodine-123, a new deoxy-substituted iodovinyl-substituted carbohydrate has been prepared and evaluated in rats with the objective of achieving high brain uptake. The model agent, methyl-2-deoxy-2-(E)-(/sup 125/I)iodovinyl-2,4,6-0-tri-acetyl-..beta..-D-altropyranoside, was prepared by a 5-step sequence of reactions. The new radioiodinated iodovinyl-branched carbohydrate showed significant brain uptake (2.31% dose/gm at 2 min), and retention (0.78% dose/gm at 60 min) in rats. The new carbohydrate represents the first reported transport of radioiodide stabilized onto carbon of a sugar molecule across the blood-brain barrier.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

1986-10-01

200

Nuclear Medicine progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro analysis of the susceptibility of the 3,3-dimethyl-branched (DMIPP) and 3-monomethyl-branched (BMIPP) analogues, and the parent straight-chain 15-para-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPP) to oxidation by an acyl CoA oxidase enzyme are described. The degree of myocardial retention appears to be directly related to the susceptibility to ..beta..-oxidation. Glucose analogues labeled with single photon emitting radionuclides are desirable candidates for measuring

F. F. Jr. Knapp; K. R. Ambrose; M. M. Goodman; P. C. Srivastava

1986-01-01

201

Nuclear medicine technology. Progress report, quarter ending March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The successful detection of experimentally produced myocardial infarctions in rats and dogs using /sup 123m/Te-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA) is described. Preferential localization of radioactivity in normal myocardial tissue of rats that had experimentally produced infarctions was also demonstrated by tissue distribution studies following injection of 9-(/sup 123m/Te)-THDA. The effects of chain length on the myocardial uptake of /sup 75/Se-labeled long-chain fatty acids was also studied further. Selenium-75-labeled 13-selenaheneicosonic acid (H/sub 3/C-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 7/-/sup 75/Se-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/-COOH, 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA) shows the highest heart uptake in rats of the agents studied. These results indicate that myocardial imaging may be possible with 13-(/sup 75/Se)-SHCA and also suggest that potential positron emission tomography of the myocardium with the /sup 73/Se-labeled agent should be explored. The results of continuing studies with /sup 11/C and /sup 195m/Pt-labeled agents are also described. A variety of /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids were prepared and tested as pancreas and tumor localizing agents in a Medical Cooperative Program with the Oak Ridge Associated Universities. The microscale synthesis of /sup 195m/Pt-labeled cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-(isopropylamine)platinum(IV) (/sup 195m/Pt-CHIP) was developed further and preliminary tissue distribution studies with this important second-generation antitumor drug were completed in rats. Platinum-195m-labeled cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (/sup 195m/Pt-cis-DDP) was supplied for testing to a number of Medical Cooperative Programs. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Further investigation of this arsenic-induced cytotoxicity has demonstrated a linear dose-response relationship and a difference in the permanence of the growth inhibitory effect using different doses.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1980-10-01

202

Nuclear Medicine Progress Report for Quarter Ending December 31, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The synthesis of the 4,4'-dimethyl analogue of the model 3,3'-dimethyl fatty acid, 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (3,3'-DMIPP), is described. The (I-125) labeled 4,4'-DMIPP was evaluated in fasted rats and surprisingly showed higher myoc...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose M. M. Goodman P. C. ivastava

1987-01-01

203

Nuclear medicine: Progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The development of a new method of protein radiolabeling involving the attachment of radioiodinated N-substituted maleimides to the sulfhydryl groups of proteins is described. Maleimides are known to form strong, sulfide bonds by reaction with organic thiols, and this method thus represents a new alternative to minimize the deiodination of radiolabeled proteins. As a model radioiodinating agent, N-(p(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)maleimide (IPM), was prepared by coupling p-iodoaniline with maleic anhydride, followed by subsequent ring closure. When administered to rats, the (I-125) IPM resulted in the retention of high levels of radioactivity in the blood pool. Further analysis demonstrated about 90% binding to red blood cells. It was also demonstrated that this agent effectively radiolabels model proteins such as BSA and IgG. An evaluation of the relative lipid pool distribution in rat heart extracts after intravenous administration of the straight-chain 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid and 3,3-dimethyl-branched terminal iodophenyl-substituted fatty acid analogues to normotensive and hypertensive rats has been evaluated. Six shipments of osmium-191 were made to the University of Liege, Belgium, for preparation of radionuclide generators for clinical use and two generators were supplied to the Massachusetts General Hospital for continuous infusion studies in animals. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava. P.C.

1986-12-01

204

Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of the 4,4'-dimethyl analogue of the model 3,3'-dimethyl fatty acid, 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (3,3'-DMIPP), is described. The (I-125) labeled 4,4'-DMIPP was evaluated in fasted rats and surprisingly showed higher myocardial uptake and faster blood clearance than the 3,3'-, 6,6'- and 9,9'-DMIPP analogues (heart(heart:blood), % dose/gm, 30 min: 3,3' = 5.06 (12:1), 4,4' = 8.03 (16.7:1), 6,6' = 2.26 (3.1:1), 9,9'= 3.06 (2.77)). Since all analogues have the same chain length, differences in tissue uptake and clearance apparently result from the position of geminal dimethyl-branching. This report describes the development of a ''kit'' for the rapid, one-step radioiodination of N-(p-iodophenyl)maleimide. This work involved the coupling of 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate with maleic anhydride to give the acid amide which was then ring annulated with sodium acetate to give the N-(p-acetylmercuricphenyl)maleimide ''kit.'' The crystalline kit is readily radioiodinated with /*I)I/sub 2/ to give the N-(p-iodophenyl)maleimide protein labeling agent. Shipments of research products were made to medical cooperative programs. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

1987-06-01

205

Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect

A new osmium-191/iridium-191m radionuclide generator system has been developed based on the adsorption of K/sub 2/OsCl/sub 6/ (Os-IV) on 140 to 230 mesh heat-treated activated carbon. The generator is eluted with pH 2 saline solution to give Ir-191m in good yield. Elution of the prototype generator with a 2 ml bolus results in elution of Ir-191m in approx. 20% yield with an osmium-191 breakthrough of only 1 x 10/sup -4/%. The generator eluate is neutralized to physiological pH and isotonicity with Tris buffer immediately prior to intravenous injection. This new system represents a readily available source of Ir-191m for radioangiography. In this report the preparation of the first radioiodinated glucose analogue with radioiodide stabilized as a vinyl iodide moiety at the 3-position is described. The model substrate, 3-C-ethynyl-1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-..cap alpha..-D-allofuranose, was prepared by reaction of the 3-keto sugar with lithium trimethylsilylacetylene followed by treatment with base. The I-125 agent showed little in vivo deiodination but low heart and brain uptake. Iodovinyl hexose derivatives with the active D-glucos- and D-manno-configurations are now being pursued. Three new p-alkylphenyl-substituted alkanoic acids have also been prepared and radioiodinated to evaluate the effects of internal phenyl-substitution and radioiodinated to evaluate the effects of internal phenyl-substitution on the uptake and myocardial retention of modified fatty acids. Five samples of /sup 191/Os-potassium osmate, four samples of /sup 195m/Pt-cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) and three samples of /sup 64/CuCl/sub 2/ were supplied to collaborators through Medical Cooperative Programs during this period. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

1985-04-01

206

Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics. Progress report for 1996  

SciTech Connect

This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma ray spectroscopy, computational and nuclear astrophysics, and the interface between these disciplines. The authors report substantial progress in all those areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 43 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 15 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

Guidry, M.W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

1996-12-31

207

Current progress of nuclear astrophysics study and BRNBF at CIAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A secondary beam line (GIRAFFE) at the Beijing tandem accelerator lab was constructed for yielding low energy secondary beams. The current progress on the study of nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure is presented. Up to now, we have carried out measurement of 7Be(d,n)8B, 11C(d,n)12N, 8Li(d,n)9Be and 6He(p,n)6Li reactions. The proposed Beijing radioactive nuclear beam facility and its current R&D progress are briefly introduced. This facility is based on the exist HI-13 tandem accelerator. A proton cyclotron will be built to provide 100 MeV 200 ?A proton beam, together with an isotope separator on line system and a super-conducting heavy ion LINAC. By this facility, intensity of order of 109 pps radioactive nuclear beams for mass up to /A=120 will be produced.

Liu, Weiping; Li, Zhihong; Bai, Xixiang; Wang, Youbao; Lian, Gang; Zeng, Sheng; Yan, Shengquan; Wang, Baoxiang; Zhao, Zhixiang; Zhang, Tianjue; Tang, Hongqing; Yang, Bingfan; Guan, Xialing; Cui, Baoqun

2003-05-01

208

Nuclear Medicine Procedures for the Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this review is on the current role of nuclear imaging studies in the clinical evaluation of patients with acute and chronic renal failure. In this setting nuclear imaging has two roles: diagnostic and prognostic, indicating that these methods are an essential component in the evaluation of renal diseases. The functional assessment of the kidney by nuclear medicine

Sabine E. Haufe; K. Riedmüller; U. Haberkorn

2006-01-01

209

Multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging: artefacts, pitfalls and recommendations.  

PubMed

Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming an essential tool in oncology. Clinically, the best example of multimodality imaging is seen in the rapid evolution of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT scanners. However, use of multi-modality imaging is prone to artefacts and pitfalls. Important artefacts that may lead to clinical misinterpretation result from the use of CT data to correct for attenuation and the existence of mismatches between the fused images, for example due to respiratory movement. Furthermore, for institutions who proceed from a standalone PET to a hybrid PET-CT, there is an issue of interchangeability between these systems, especially for quantitative studies. Another issue is visualisation: hospital PACS is not sufficiently capable of adequately viewing integrated images. This article reviews and illustrates the most common artefacts and pitfalls that can be encountered in multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging. For correct management of oncological patients it is essential to be able to detect and correctly interpret these artefacts and pitfalls. Therefore, solutions and recommendations to these problems are provided. PMID:17535775

van Dalen, Jorn A; Vogel, Wouter V; Corstens, Frans H M; Oyen, Wim J G

2007-05-28

210

Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 ?m square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 ?m and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 ?m. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 ?m pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 ?m pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the ‘ideal’ sensor are made.

Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

2009-06-01

211

Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

2011-09-01

212

Research progress on natural products from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging societies. Although research on this disease is advancing rapidly, thus far few very effective drugs are available for AD patients. The currently widely used medicines such as donepezil and galantamine transiently improve the symptoms of patients with mild to moderate AD. They are hardly capable of preventing, halting or reversing the progression of this disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, many herbs have been discovered and employed to treat dementia diseases in clinics in China. In recent decades, a number of agents were isolated from these herbs and their efficacies against AD were tested. Some flavonoids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, triterpenoid saponins, and polysaccharides were demonstrated to have potential efficacies against AD via targeting multiple pathological changes of this disease. In this article, we reviewed research progress on the efficacies and underlying mechanisms of these agents. PMID:23715502

Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Li, Xuan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tang, Wei

2013-04-01

213

Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The most significant development this year has been the outcome of a survey of EO transition strength, {rho}{sup 2}(EO), in heavy nuclei. The systematics of {rho}{sup 2}(EO) reveals that the strongest EO`s are between pairs of excited states with the same spin and parity. This is observed in the regions Z,N = 38,60; 48,66; 64,88; and 80,106. Unlike other multipoles it is rare that nuclear ground states are strongly connected to excited states by monopole transitions. Another significant finding is in the results of the experimental study of levels in {sup 187}Au. Two bands of states are observed with identical spin sequences, very similar excitation energies, and EO transitions between the favored band members but not between the unfavored band members. This is interpreted in terms of nearly identical diabatic structures. Experimental data sets for the radioactive decays of {sup 183}Pt and {sup 186}Au to {sup 183}Ir and {sup 186}Pt, respectively, have been under analysis. The studies are aimed at elucidating shape coexistence and triaxiality in the A = 185 region. An extensive program of systematics for nuclei at and near N = Z has been continued in preparation for the planned nuclear structure research program using the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge. A considerable effort has been devoted to HRIBF target development.

Wood, J.L.

1994-10-31

214

Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

The most significant development this year has been the realization that EO transition strength is a fundamental manifestation of nuclear mean-square charge radius differences. Thus, EO transitions provide a fundamental signature for shape coexistence in nuclei. In this sense, EO transitions are second only to E2 transitions for signaling (quadrupole) shapes in nuclei and do so when shape differences occur. A major effort has been devoted to the review of EO transitions in nuclei. Experiments have been carried out or are scheduled at: ATLAS/FMA ({alpha} decay of very neutron-deficient Bi isotopes); MSU/NSCL ({beta} decay of {sup 56}Cu); and HRIBF/RMS (commissioning of tape collector, internal conversion/internal-pair spectrometer; {beta} decay of {sup 58}Cu). A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using HRIBF. Theoretical investigations have continued in collaboration with Prof. K. Heyde, Prof. D.J. Rowe, Prof. J.O. Rasmussen, and Prof. P.B. Semmes. These studies focus on shape coexistence and particle-core coupling.

Wood, J.L.

1996-12-31

215

Study progress in therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine monomer in severe acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a common acute abdomen clinical problem characterized by high mortality, multiple complications,\\u000a complicated pathogenesis and difficult treatment. Recent studies found traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) monomers have markedly\\u000a good effect for treating SAP. Many TCM monomers can inhibit pancreatin, resist inflammation, improve microcirculation and\\u000a immunoloregulation, etc. to block the pathological progress of SAP in multiple ways,

Xi-ping Zhang; Da-ren Liu; Yan Shi

2007-01-01

216

NASA's progress in nuclear electric propulsion technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a requirement for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology for robotic planetary science mission applications with potential future evolution to systems for piloted Mars vehicles. To advance the readiness of NEP for these challenging missions, a near-term flight demonstration on a meaningful robotic science mission is very desirable. The requirements for both near-term and outer planet science missions are briefly reviewed, and the near-term baseline system established under a recent study jointly conducted by the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Technology issues are identified where work is needed to establish the technology for the baseline system, and technology opportunities which could provide improvement beyond baseline capabilities are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop this promising technology is presented and discussed.

Stone, James R.; Doherty, Michael P.; Peecook, Keith M.

1993-06-01

217

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, August 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 41 figs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-11-01

218

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, September 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems conducted for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 15 figs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1986-02-01

219

Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, July--September 1987  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1989-02-01

220

Progress in nuclear astrophysics using secondary-radioactive beams.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author reviews progress in studying two central problems in nuclear astrophysics: the 12C(?, ?)16O, of importance for stellar processes in a progenitor star prior to a supernova collapse and the 7Be(p, ?)8B reaction rates at very low energies, of importance for estimating the solar neutrino flux.

Gai, M.

1997-11-01

221

Space Nuclear Safety Program: Progress report, January-March 1987  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, which were carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

Lewin, R. (ed.); George, T.G. (comp.)

1988-07-01

222

Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, April-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1988-07-01

223

A Computer Program for Calculation of Approximate Embryo/Fetus Radiation Dose in Nuclear Medicine Applications  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Material and Methods: Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. Results: The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Conclusion: Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Bayram, Tuncay; Sonmez, Bircan

2012-01-01

224

Development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% o...

F. F. Knapp

1998-01-01

225

A computer program for calculation of approximate embryo/fetus radiation dose in nuclear medicine applications.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Material and Methods: Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. Results: The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Conclusion: Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487527

Bayram, Tuncay; Sönmez, Bircan

2012-04-01

226

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

SciTech Connect

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas (LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging)

2006-07-05

227

4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

228

The use of different types of thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure extremity doses in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth–dose curves in LiF detectors of different effective thicknesses, together with their responses, were calculated for typical nuclear medicine radiation fields with 99mTc, 18F and 90Y sources. Responses were analysed in function of the radionuclide, detector effective thickness and irradiation geometry. On the other hand the results of the nuclear medicine measurement campaign of the ORAMED project were presented focussing

A. Carnicer; M. Ginjaume; M. A. Duch; F. Vanhavere; M. Sans Merce; S. Baechler; I. Barth; L. Donadille; P. Ferrari; M. Fulop; G. Gualdrini; S. Krim; M. Mariotti; X. Ortega; A. Rimpler; N. Ruiz; P. Olko

229

Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies  

SciTech Connect

The experimental program in nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is led by Professors Carrol Bingham, Lee Riedinger, and Soren Sorenseni who respectively lead the studies of the exotic decay modes of nuclei far from stability, the program of high-spin research, and our effort in relativistic heavy-ion physics. Over the years, this broad program of research has been successful partially because of the shared University resources applied to this group effort. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has allowed us to build extremely strong programs of joint research, and in addition to play an important leadership role in the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research (JIHIR). Our experimental program is also very closely linked with those at other national laboratories: Argonne (collaborations involving the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) and {gamma}-ray arrays), Brookhaven (the RHIC and Phenix projects), and Berkeley (GAMMASPHERE). We have worked closely with a variety of university groups in the last three years, especially those in the UNISOR and now UNIRIB collaborations. And, in all aspects of our program, we have maintained close collaborations with theorists, both to inspire the most exciting experiments to perform and to extract the pertinent physics from the results. The specific areas discussed in this report are: properties of high-spin states; study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability; and high energy heavy-ion physics.

Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

1996-01-16

230

Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of

Bill Williams; Tilman A. Ruff

2007-01-01

231

Quality management in nuclear medicine for better patient care: the IAEA program.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency promotes the practice of nuclear medicine among its Member States with a focus on quality and safety. It considers quality culture as a part of the educational process and as a tool to reduce heterogeneity in the practice of nuclear medicine, and in turn, patient care. Sensitization about quality is incorporated in all its delivery mechanisms. The Agency has developed a structured peer-review process called quality management (QM) audits in nuclear medicine practices to help nuclear medicine facilities improve their quality through this voluntary comprehensive audit process. The process is multidisciplinary, covering all aspects of nuclear medicine practice with a focus on the patient. It complements other QM and accreditation approaches developed by professional societies or accreditation agencies. The Agency is committed to propagate its utility and assist in the implementation process. Similar auditing programs for practice in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, called QUADRIL and QUATRO, respectively, are also in place. Necessary amendments in the auditing process and content are incorporated based on technological and practice changes with time. The reader will become familiar with the approach of the Agency on QM in nuclear medicine and its implementation process to improve patient care. PMID:23561453

Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Pascual, Thomas; Paez, Diana; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

2013-05-01

232

A dynamic renal phantom for nuclear medicine studies.  

PubMed

Dynamic radionuclide renal study (renography) provides functional and structural information of the kidney and urinary tract noninvasively. Our purpose in this study is to describe the construction and test results of a dynamic renal phantom with different clinical features of radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five pieces of different shaped Plexiglas boxes: Two kidneys, one liver, two square shaped boxes (one heart and one bladder). The bladder was internally divided into two compartments in order to collect each kidney output separately. The dynamic circulation of the phantom was maintained under a hydrostatic pressure approximately equal to 13.3 kPa (average human blood pressure). The standard dose distribution among different organs and different renographic parameters were calculated from series of normal patients study (91 with 99mTc-DTPA, 68 with 99mTc-EC). All the studies were performed with same camera (Siemens Orbiter Digitrac 7500) equipped with LEAP (low energy all purpose) collimator using ADAC Pegasys II analytic package program under the same clinical procedure. Different regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn for concerning organs and counts per second (CPS) were collected for each ROI. The series of renogram curves were generated by phantom-studies with different flow rates for left kidney (LK) and right kidney (RK). The renal index (RI) for an individual study was calculated as the product of two indexes: "Relative Renal Function" (RRF) (water-volume of LK/RK) and "Relative Renal Time" (RRT) (Tmax of LK/RK). The most significant correlation was found in total CPS for LK and RK between the EC group and phantom studies (p < 0.001). The calculated RI values were used to simulate the patients' study with different clinical features. The dynamics were found reproducible. The phantom is suitable for using in calibration and quality control protocols of the renogram procedure used in Nuclear Medicine. PMID:15789599

SabbirAhmed, A S M; Demir, Mustafa; Kabasakal, Levent; Uslu, Ilhami

2005-02-01

233

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: the incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15–19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field.

Alberto Cuocolo; Wanda Acampa; Andrea Varrone; Marco Salvatore

2006-01-01

234

Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.  

PubMed

The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:16710545

Musungu, Sisule F

2006-05-17

235

From prenatal genomic diagnosis to fetal personalized medicine: progress and challenges.  

PubMed

Thus far, the focus of personalized medicine has been the prevention and treatment of conditions that affect adults. Although advances in genetic technology have been applied more frequently to prenatal diagnosis than to fetal treatment, genetic and genomic information is beginning to influence pregnancy management. Recent developments in sequencing the fetal genome combined with progress in understanding fetal physiology using gene expression arrays indicate that we could have the technical capabilities to apply an individualized medicine approach to the fetus. Here I review recent advances in prenatal genetic diagnostics, the challenges associated with these new technologies and how the information derived from them can be used to advance fetal care. Historically, the goal of prenatal diagnosis has been to provide an informed choice to prospective parents. We are now at a point where that goal can and should be expanded to incorporate genetic, genomic and transcriptomic data to develop new approaches to fetal treatment. PMID:22772565

Bianchi, Diana W

2012-07-06

236

Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

2004-01-01

237

The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to

Kotz

1995-01-01

238

The continuing important role of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the continuing importance and status of development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine are discussed. Radioisotope costs and availability are two important factors, and both nuclear reactors and accelerator facilities are required for production of the parent radioisotopes. Radionuclide generator research is currently focused on the development of generators which provide radioisotopes for positron emission tomography

S. Mirzadeh

1994-01-01

239

Nuclear medicine technologists are able to accurately determine when a myocardial perfusion rest study is necessary  

PubMed Central

Background In myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), typically a stress and a rest study is performed. If the stress study is considered normal, there is no need for a subsequent rest study. The aim of the study was to determine whether nuclear medicine technologists are able to assess the necessity of a rest study. Methods Gated MPS using a 2-day 99mTc protocol for 121 consecutive patients were studied. Visual interpretation by 3 physicians was used as gold standard for determining the need for a rest study based on the stress images. All nuclear medicine technologists performing MPS had to review 82 training cases of stress MPS images with comments regarding the need for rest studies, and thereafter a test consisting of 20 stress MPS images. After passing this test, the nuclear medicine technologists in charge of a stress MPS study assessed whether a rest study was needed or not or if he/she was uncertain and wanted to consult a physician. After that, the physician in charge interpreted the images and decided whether a rest study was required or not. Results The nuclear medicine technologists and the physicians in clinical routine agreed in 103 of the 107 cases (96%) for which the technologists felt certain regarding the need for a rest study. In the remaining 14 cases the technologists were uncertain, i.e. wanted to consult a physician. The agreement between the technologists and the physicians in clinical routine was very good, resulting in a kappa value of 0.92. There was no statistically significant difference in the evaluations made by technicians and physicians (P?=?0.617). Conclusions The nuclear medicine technologists were able to accurately determine whether a rest study was necessary. There was very good agreement between nuclear medicine technologists and physicians in the assessment of the need for a rest study. If the technologists can make this decision, the effectiveness of the nuclear medicine department will improve.

2012-01-01

240

Nuclear medicine comes of age: its present and future roles in diagnosis.  

PubMed

The current role of nuclear medicine in clinical diagnosis was surveyed in a retrospective review of medical records by two internists. About one radiologic imaging study in 20 was a radionuclide procedure, and a somewhat larger fraction was performed in outpatients. The internists found that diagnostic screening procedures in nuclear medicine influenced patient management in 63% of hospital inpatients, and quantitative/monitoring types of tests influenced management in 56%. Of the projected health care costs in the United States of $490 billion, all imaging procedures will account for only $12 billion, and nuclear medicine procedures will account for about $1 billion. Nuclear medicine research continues to blossom. The National Institutes of Health budget for diagnostic imaging research in fiscal year 1988 totaled $86.6 million; nuclear medicine projects represented 43% of this total, all other projects in radiology represented 30%, and projects outside radiology represented 30%. Research with positron emitters and positron emission tomography totaled $20.5 million, and research with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies totaled $6.2 million. Two major problems may hinder the future practice of nuclear medicine in the United States compared with that in other developed countries: (a) the serious time lag in the approval process for new radiopharmaceuticals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other agencies and (b) the lack of a facility dedicated to the continuous production of radionuclides for biomedical research. Now, there is sporadic production permitted only during high-energy physics experiments. The recent developments which will probably induce the greatest changes in clinical nuclear medicine in the near future are the improvements in design and utilization of single photon emission computed tomographic devices and prolific generation of new radiopharmaceuticals, especially technetium-99m agents for cerebral and myocardial imaging and tumor agents. PMID:2406775

McAfee, J G; Kopecky, R T; Frymoyer, P A

1990-03-01

241

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Progress and activities are reported on the following: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization programs, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, monitoring of unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions technology, spent fuel and fuel pool integrity program, and engineered barriers. (DLC)

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-04-01

242

Recent Progress of Strangeness Nuclear Physics at BNL and KEK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a great progress in strangeness nuclear physics in recent years. A lot of experimental discoveries has been made mainly at BNL and KEK. For the S=-1 nuclei, we can pick up following examples; 1) Observation of many core excited states of ? hypernuclei by SKS. 2) Life time has been measured with high precision up to medium nuclei and its saturation against nuclear mass number has been established. 3) The ratio of nn and np nonmesonic decay rate has been measured for several nuclei with good accuracy, and the experimental results disagree drastically with any meson exchange model of weak BB interaction. 4) The high resolution ? spectroscopy of ? hypernuclei has been very succesfully carried out with Hyperball. Fine structures of ? hypernuclei due to the ?-N spin dependent interaction have been observed clearly. The B(E2) was also measured for the first time for hypernuclei. 5) ? hypernuclei was established for ^4_?He nuclei. Experiments of S=-2 nuclei are rather difficult. However, we have several important results such as 1) Observation of ^6_??He event in emulsion and measurement of its binding energy with high precision. 2) The evidence of ?-hypernuclei. 3) Possible evidence of ^4_??H. The H-dibaryon search and hyperon-nucleon scattering experiments are other major experiments which provide basic understanding of strangeness nuclear physics. Among these topics, we will describe a few experiments which has a key importance in the progress of nuclear and hadronic physics. Reviewing recent progress and current questions, a prospect of strangeness nuclear physics at "JHF" is discussed.

Imai, Ken'ichi

2001-10-01

243

Hospital-wide distribution of nuclear medicine studies through a broadband digital network.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine provides a good environment for the evaluation of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) because of the relatively small quantity of digital data that are generated, leading to reduced requirements for storage, display, and transmission compared with those found in radiology. The PACS in nuclear medicine is characterized by use of a single computer as a central storage, display, and analysis node. Images are acquired with use of small, low-cost computers attached to each camera. This network configuration offers advantages of convenience, but with great reliance on a single computer. A campus-wide picture network is under development at Washington University employing broadband cable television technology supplemented by baseband Ethernet (Digital Equipment Corp, Maynard, MA) components. All areas of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are connected via a PACS testbed project. A radiology information system, supporting over 250 terminals, provides digital tracking of patients and report generation and retrieval. A new image workstation is under development in conjunction with Digital Equipment Corp. This system will permit display in multiple windows of report information and images from various modalities. A lung scan demonstration project is now beginning that is designed to test the value of a PACS in nuclear medicine. Digitally acquired chest radiographs will be displayed on an image workstation in nuclear medicine along with digital ventilation and perfusion lung scans. It is hoped that time-consuming logistic bottlenecks now encountered in lung scan interpretation will be reduced. PMID:2367872

Miller, T R; Jost, R G; Sampathkumaran, K S; Blaine, G J

1990-07-01

244

Brain death revisited: utility confirmed for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides considerable improvement of prognosis in treatable causes of coma, modern intensive care has resulted in a number of patients being kept alive although it is obvious they have no chance of regaining consciousness or of leading a life outside the intensive care unit. Furthermore, advances in immunosuppressive therapy and in surgical techniques have accelerated the field of transplantation medicine.

M. Weckesser; O. Schober

1999-01-01

245

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

SciTech Connect

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

Kieffer, C.T. (Children's Hospital of Buffalo, NY); Suto, P.A.

1983-03-01

246

Cardiac imaging using nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

This article concentrates on specific issues that are of current interest in mainstream nuclear cardiology. These include developments in myocardial perfusion technique, the potential diagnostic benefits of ECG-gating and attenuation correction, nuclear imaging in the diagnosis of hibernating myocardium, and the cost-effectiveness of perfusion imaging in patients with suspected angina. PMID:15193933

Crean, Andrew; Dutka, David; Coulden, Richard

2004-05-01

247

An introduction to economic analysis in medicine--the basics of methodology and chosen terms. Examples of results of evaluation in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

This article overviews the basic terms and methodology approaches in economic analysis in medicine: cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis and costminimisation analysis. Particular emphasis is put on nuclear medicine economic evaluation, e.g. FDG - PET studies, sestamibi breast cancer imaging and radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism. PMID:14600950

Brockhuis, Bogna; Lass, Piotr; Popowski, Piotr; Scheffler, Justyna

2002-01-01

248

Nuclear medicine in the acute clinical setting: indications, imaging findings, and potential pitfalls.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine imaging provides valuable functional information that complements information obtained with anatomic imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with specific acute clinical manifestations. Nuclear medicine studies are most often used in conjunction with other imaging modalities and as a problem-solving tool. Under certain circumstances a nuclear medicine study may be indicated as the first-line imaging modality, as in the case of renal scintigraphy for transplant dysfunction in the early postoperative period. Nuclear imaging may be preferred when a conventional first-line study is contraindicated or when it is important to minimize radiation exposure. The portability of nuclear imaging offers particular advantages for the evaluation of critically ill patients whose clinical condition is unstable and who cannot be safely transported out of the intensive care unit. The ability to visualize physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over relatively long time periods without adding to the patient's radiation exposure contributes to the high diagnostic sensitivity of several types of nuclear medicine studies. Viewing the acquired images in the cine mode adds to the value of these studies for diagnosing and characterizing dynamic abnormalities such as intermittent internal bleeding and bile or urine leakage. In this pictorial review, the spectrum of nuclear medicine studies commonly performed in the acute care setting is reviewed according to body systems and organs, with detailed descriptions of the indications, technical considerations, findings, and potential pitfalls of each type of study. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.332125098/-/DC1. PMID:23479703

Uliel, Livnat; Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Holz, Andrew L; McConathy, Jonathan

249

Current progress of nuclear astrophysics experiments at CIAE  

SciTech Connect

This paper described current progress of nuclear astrophysical studies using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE. We measured the angular distributions for some low energy reactions, such as 11C(d,n)12N, 8Li(d,p)9Li and 17F(d,n)18Ne in inverse kinematics, and indirectly derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates of 11C(p,{gamma})12N, 8Li(n,{gamma})9Li, 8B(p,{gamma})9C at astrophysically relevant energies.

Liu Weiping; Li Zhihong; Su Jun; Bai Xixiang; Wang Youbao; Lian Gang; Guo Bing; Zeng Sheng; Yan Shengquan; Wang Baoxiang; Shu Nengchuan; Chen Yongshou [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O.Box 275(46), Beijing 102413 (China)

2006-07-12

250

Current progress of nuclear astrophysics experiments at CIAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper described current progress of nuclear astrophysical studies using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE. We measured the angular distributions for some low energy reactions, such as 11C(d,n)12N, 8Li(d,p)9Li and 17F(d,n)18Ne in inverse kinematics, and indirectly derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates of 11C(p,?)12N, 8Li(n,?)9Li, 8B(p,?)9C at astrophysically relevant energies.

Liu, Weiping; Li, Zhihong; Su, Jun; Bai, Xixiang; Wang, Youbao; Lian, Gang; Guo, Bing; Zeng, Sheng; Yan, Shengquan; Wang, Baoxiang; Shu, Nengchuan; Chen, Yongshou

2006-07-01

251

Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

252

Proceedings of seventh symposium on sharing of computer programs and technology in nuclear medicine, computer assisted data processing  

SciTech Connect

The Council on Computers (CC) of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) annually publishes the Proceedings of its Symposium on the Sharing of Computer Programs and Technology in Nuclear Medicine. This is the seventh such volume and has been organized by topic, with the exception of the invited papers and the discussion following them. An index arranged by author and by subject is included.

Howard, B.Y.; McClain, W.J.; Landay, M. (comps.)

1977-01-01

253

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki 2004, and a dash of horizon scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine represents the major scientific and professional event in the field of nuclear medicine in Europe. Specialists from all allied professions meet to discuss the latest findings and discoveries. A very large industrial exhibition demonstrates the latest technological innovations and developments. This Highlights Lecture summarises the scientific and medical advances discussed

Peter J. Ell

2005-01-01

254

Evaluating the fundamental qualities of a nuclear medicine radiographer for the provision of an optimal clinical service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing nature of nuclear medicine practice highlights the need for an evaluation of the fundamental qualities of a Radiographer working within this discipline. Existing guidelines appear to be in place for clinical technologists working within nuclear medicine. However, limited guidance has been provided for Radiographers practicing within this discipline. This article aims to discuss the fundamental qualities that are

Marc Griffiths; Simon King; Rob Stewart; Gary Dawson

2010-01-01

255

Advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation: considerations in the design and selection of an imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nuclear medicine remains a vibrant and dynamic medical specialty because it so adeptly marries advances in basic science\\u000a research, technology, and medical practice in attempting to solve patients’ problems. As a physicist, it is my responsibility\\u000a to identify or design new instrumentation and techniques, and to implement, validate, and help apply these new approaches\\u000a in the practice of nuclear

Jonathan M. Links

1998-01-01

256

Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture

F. F. Jr. Knapp; S. Mirzadeh; A. L. Beets

1995-01-01

257

Nuclear medicine in diagnosis and therapy of bone and joint diseases.  

PubMed

Concerning bone and joint diseases therapy of rheumatic synovitis (= radiosynoviorthesis) was introduced in 1952 before clinically relevant diagnostic procedures were developed. Radionuclides of Sr and later on 99mTc phosphonates then started the wide use of bone scintigraphy since > 30 years. The diagnostic methods have an excellent sensitivity for detection of local abnormalities of bone metabolism, the specificity of such studies, however, is low. Modifications of the technique (3-phase-bone-scintigraphy, pinhole collimators, ROI-technique), increasing knowledge of pathological scan patterns and introduction of other radionuclide studies (67Ga, 201Tl, inflammation scans with 99mTc-leukocytes or 99mTc-HIG) as well as 18FDG-PET have increased the specificity significantly in recent years and improvements of imaging systems (SPECT) also increased the accuracy of diagnostic methods in diseases of bone and joints. Therapy of such diseases has made considerable progress: inflamed, swollen joints can effectively be treated with 90Y-, 186Re, 169Er-colloids or with 165Dy-particles by radiosynoviorthesis. Severe pain due to disseminated bone metastases of cancer or polyarthritis can be controlled by radionuclide therapy with 89Sr, 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re- or 188Re-HEDP and possibly 117mSn-DTPA with an acceptable risk of myelodepression. Possibilities, technical details and limitations of radionuclide applications for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes must be considered if optimal benefit for individual patients should be achieved. Overall Nuclear Medicine can become an essential element in management of bone and joint diseases. The relationship of Nuclear Medicine to bone and joint pathology is peculiar: In 1952 treatment of rheumatic synovitis by radiosynoviorthesis with 198Au Colloid was started by Fellinger and Schmid before diagnostic approaches to bone pathology existed. Bone scintigraphy was introduced only in 1961 using 85Sr but obviously the unfavourable radiation characteristics of this radionuclide limited it's broad application and 87mSr did not improve this situation. Only when 99mTc phosphonates were developed by Subramanian the importance of bone scintigraphy became apparent: The excellent imaging properties of these radiotracers showed, that abnormal bone metabolism could be visualized even before morphological alterations in the skeleton become visible on radiographies or even CT-scans. Moreover, proposals made earlier to use 32P or 89Sr for palliation of pain in patients with disseminated skeletal metastases were picked up again and led also to other radiopharmaceuticals (186Re-HEDP, 153Sm-EDTMP, 117mSn-DTPA) which are applied today for the same purpose with very good success. Therefore Nuclear Medicine today has a broad program for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to diseases of bone and joints. In bone scanning the high sensitivity led to inclusion of this method for routine staging and re-staging programs in a variety of cancer forms which have a trend to develop bone metastases (e.g. breast, lung, prostate, melanoma) but the low specificity of abnormal patterns on such scans can impair the diagnostic value of the technique. To increase specificity and to define inflammatory lesions, radiotracers used for "inflammation scanning" were introduced such as labeled granulocytes, 99mTc Human Immunoglobulin and others but also a simple modification of bone scanning--triple phase bone scintigraphy--was used. Recently the excellent properties of 18F for PET of the skeleton were rediscovered again and emission CT scanning--possibly with overlay with transmission CT or MRT pictures--can enhance the diagnostic impact of radionuclide bone studies. PMID:14601000

Riccabona, G

1999-01-01

258

Induced pluripotent stem cells and personalized medicine: current progress and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. iPSCs can self-renew and can differentiate into many cell types, offering a potentially unlimited source of cells for targeted differentiation into somatic effector cells. Hence, iPSCs are likely to be invaluable for therapeutic applications and disease-related research. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of iPSC generation that has been made with an emphasis on both basic and clinical applications including disease modeling, drug toxicity screening/drug discovery and cell replacement therapy.

Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

2011-01-01

259

[Research progress of microparticles as drug delivery system for traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Microparticle preparation, a new drug delivery system based on microencapsulation technique, includes micro-spheres and microcapsules. Recently, this new drug delivery system has been applied in developing new dosage forms for the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM microparticles can perform several sound characteristics and functions which are currently unavailable in TCM preparations, such as controlled release, effect of targeting, increasing bioavailability or low toxicity. This makes it possible that TCM may exert much higher therapeutic efficacy and show lower side-effects as well. Although the studies on TCM microparticles are still in the beginning stage, microparticle preparation of TCM has given rise to comprehensive attention and will have a wonderful prospect. The progress in this field is reviewed in this article. PMID:17511135

Li, Wen-Hao; He, Ying

2007-03-01

260

The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

2013-05-01

261

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the

J. Coulot

2003-01-01

262

Nuclear Medicine Techniques for the Diagnosis and Therapy of Prostate Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine techniques play an important role in (re)staging and treatment of prostate carcinoma patients. These techniques are reviewed in this paper. For many years, bone scanning has been a valuable tool for the evaluation of bone metastases. Although utilized in a more refined way since the introduction of serum prostate–specific antigen (PSA) measurement, it is still the procedure of

W. J. G. Oyen; J. A. Witjes; F. H. M. Corstens

2001-01-01

263

Possibilities for the production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medicine problems by means of photonuclear reactions  

SciTech Connect

For electrons of energy about 55 MeV that create an average current of about 40 Micro-Sign A, it is shown that the production of many of the radioisotopes important for nuclear medicine is possible in significant amounts.

Dzhilavyan, L. Z., E-mail: dzhil@cpc.inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Karev, A. I.; Raevsky, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

264

Assesment of Population Dose from Nuclear Medicine Procedures in Pernambuco (Brazil) During the Period 1990 - 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pernambuco, with its population of 7.1 million, is the most important States of the northeast region of Brazil, and many patients from other States of the region come to be treated in Recife. In Recife there were two clinics, one private the other public, with nuclear medicine practices during the period of 1990-1994. Data were collected on: a) the types

H. J. Khoury; M. A. Pereira; M. G. Stabin; C. A. Hazin; G. Drexler

265

The Impact of Nuclear Medicine on the Diagnosis and Management of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the methods of diagnostic cardiology have brought a change in emphasis toward noninvasive patient study. Nuclear Medicine techniques play an important part among noninvasive methods which enable diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation in the majority of patients with cardiac problems, without resorting to dangerous, painful and costly cardiac catheterization. Discussed are only a few of the myriad clinical

Elias H. Botvinick; David M. Shames

1976-01-01

266

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT and BNCT agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Medicine Program at the University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in PET and SPECT. A small, but significant portion of our effort is directed toward the design of boron-containing neutron therapy agents. The uniqueness of the UT program is

Kabalka

1990-01-01

267

High-transparency coded apertures in planar nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coded apertures provide an alternative to collimators in gamma-ray imaging. Advances in the field of coded apertures have lessened the artifacts that are associated with the near-field geometry of nuclear medicine. Nevertheless, image resolution and the manufacturing techniques that are available are constrained by the thickness of the aperture material. Thickness artifacts result. Thin apertures are theoretically desirable, but high

David M. Starfield; David M. Rubin; Tshilidzi Marwala; Rex J. Keddy

2007-01-01

268

A Memoir of Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: Part 1. Pioneers and Early Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

r. Conrad Nagle, Newsline editor, has requested that I provide an essay on the history of pediatric nuclear medicine. I recognize that the development of a complex medical discipline results from a series of introductory innovations and contributions by many in- dividual practitioners and by industry. These innovations and contributions, small and large, evolve over time and build one upon

James J. Conway

269

Criteria for Acceptability for Radiological, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy Equipment – Part 3: Radiotherapy Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 2007, the European Commission has commissioned a group of Experts to undertake the revision of Report RP91 on “Criteria\\u000a for Acceptability of Radiological (including Radiotherapy) and Nuclear Medicine Installations”, which will be published soon.\\u000a This paper presents the revised criteria for Radiotherapy Equipment.

P. Horton; I.-L. Lamm; W. Lehmann; S. Lillicrap

270

Delivery of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine and ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes and provides an overview of, and recent developments in, the area of liposomal contrast agents as applied to the diagnostic specialities of magnetic resonance, computed tomography, nuclear medicine and ultrasonography. Following a brief background of the clinical context and role of contrast agents in these various modalities, the review presents, where appropriate, a discussion of the theoretical

Colin Tilcock

1999-01-01

271

Advances In Processing Of Physical Problems Associated With Acquired Information In Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate functional measurements in nuclear medicine are affected by the attenuation due to photon beam interaction with matter, the poor spatial resolution and the bad energy resolution of the gammaray detector. In this work, an innovative processing of all these effects will be suggested for single photon emission computed tomography imaging. The method requires all of the energy information. Scatter

R. BEN YOUNES; J. Mas; A. Pousse; R. Bidet

1991-01-01

272

Current status of diagnostic counting and imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine: a sketch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic procedures used in Nuclear Medicine are designed to provide ; information about the static and\\/or dynamic distribution of some particular ; stable or radioactive material within the patient, as well as the quantity of the ; material present. Thus, the static distribution of ¹³¹I in the thyroid ; indicates the structure of the gland, whereas changes in the distribution

Beck

1975-01-01

273

Stochastic online appointment scheduling of multi-step sequential procedures in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The increased demand for medical diagnosis procedures has been recognized as one of the contributors to the rise of health care costs in the U.S. in the last few years. Nuclear medicine is a subspecialty of radiology that uses advanced technology and radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Procedures in nuclear medicine require the use of radiopharmaceuticals, are multi-step, and have to be performed under strict time window constraints. These characteristics make the scheduling of patients and resources in nuclear medicine challenging. In this work, we derive a stochastic online scheduling algorithm for patient and resource scheduling in nuclear medicine departments which take into account the time constraints imposed by the decay of the radiopharmaceuticals and the stochastic nature of the system when scheduling patients. We report on a computational study of the new methodology applied to a real clinic. We use both patient and clinic performance measures in our study. The results show that the new method schedules about 600 more patients per year on average than a scheduling policy that was used in practice by improving the way limited resources are managed at the clinic. The new methodology finds the best start time and resources to be used for each appointment. Furthermore, the new method decreases patient waiting time for an appointment by about two days on average. PMID:23536029

Pérez, Eduardo; Ntaimo, Lewis; Malavé, César O; Bailey, Carla; McCormack, Peter

2013-03-28

274

A general algorithm for optimal sampling schedule design in nuclear medicine imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal sampling schedule (OSS) is of great interest in biomedical experiment design, as it can improve the physiological parameter estimation precision and significantly reduce the samples required. A number of well designed algorithms and software packages have been developed, which deal with the instantaneous measurements at discrete times. However, in nuclear medicine tracer kinetic studies, the imaging systems, such as

Xianjin Li; David Dagan Feng; Koon-pong Wong

2001-01-01

275

Upper extremity DVT correlation of MR and nuclear medicine flow imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine correlation between MR and nuclear medicine flow studies in the evaluation of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis. We retrospectively reviewed MR and radionuclide venography images obtained in 10 patients with suspected upper extremity venous thrombosis. In nine cases there was complete agreement in the identification of thrombus. In one case, MR images

Julia R. Fielding; J. Stevan Nagel; Oliver Pomeroy

1997-01-01

276

Constrained least-squares restoration of nuclear medicine images: selecting the coarseness function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image restoration using the constrained least-squares (CLS) method theoretically adapts to the image being processed. In addition, it only requires knowing the modulation transfer function of the imaging system when applied to nuclear medicine images. Prompted by these observations, a systematic evaluation of the effects of the form of the \\

Bill C. Penney; Michael A. King; Ronald B. Schwinger; Stephen P. Baker; Peter Stritzke; Paul W. Doherty

1987-01-01

277

The use of data compression in telecomunication of Nuclear Medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike conventional radiographs, the detail contained within Nuclear Medicine images is not fine in its structure. Consequently, it is possible that some loss of detail may be tolerable when using data compression techniques in image telecomunication. This study has been performed to compare a software implementation of the linear predictive coding method with a hardware based 2 dimensional cosine transform

Stuart A. Jackson; Ivan Szasz

1992-01-01

278

High energy 3-D nuclear medicine imaging using coded apertures with a conventional gamma camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard nuclear medicine imaging uses photon collimation and thus suffers from very low sensitivity, especially if high energy (>511 keV) isotopes are to be imaged. Coded aperture techniques use a coded pattern mask instead of a collimator to encode the photon source distribution, thus every photon source contributes to the signal in the whole detector area. It significantly improves the

L. Zhangl; R. C. Lanzal; B. K. P. Horn; R. E. Zimmerman

1998-01-01

279

Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5.

J. G. Kereiakes; E. L. Saenger; S. R. Thomas

1986-01-01

280

Nuclear medicine in the 1990s: a quantitative physiological approach.  

PubMed

This paper describes the potential advantages to medical diagnosis and treatment that might be obtained from the wider application of positron emission tomography as a clinical tool. Developments along the lines suggested here will require a radical change in thinking from both clinicians and the medically related scientific community in the UK and some enlightened and resourceful funding from a mixture of charitable, industrial and government sources. If these ideas are to be pursued successfully, then the work must start now on a much wider scale than is presently perceived in the UK, and close collaboration between physicists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, clinicians and industrialists is needed. Furthermore, it is imperative that the scientific developments now underway in silicon technology, parallel data processors, biochemical and pharmacological processes and even high-temperature superconductors be kept under close and constant review by those associated with the technological advancements of medicine, so that the value of such developments is rapidly transferred to applications to medicine. This must include closer relationships between academic medicine and science than is the general rule in the UK at present. In conclusion, the scenario presented here includes the installation of regional cyclotron facilities to provide a large number of institutions in the UK with positron-emitter labelled radiopharmaceuticals. Additionally, agents labelled with radionuclides from in-house generators and other already existing higher-energy cyclotrons will provide a versatile and valuable range of radiopharmaceuticals for the study of human disease. These developments must be supported by the manufacture of lower-cost positron camera systems, as suggested here, connected to high-data-rate parallel processors to provide images of body function and to determine the effects brought about by disease. These images may then be processed using algorithms based on kinetic models of the body systems to provide information about the basic biochemical and physiological processes of the body. Such a development could have a profound effect on our knowledge of human disease and on our ability to control and treat it successfully. PMID:2785428

Ott, R J

1989-05-01

281

Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long?held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases. PMID:23244780

Parr, Ryan L; Martin, Luis H

2012-07-01

282

Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long?held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases.

2012-01-01

283

``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, ``The Unveiled Heart'', has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

2004-07-01

284

Nuclear Excitations and Reaction Mechanisms. Progress Report, 1 August-31 July 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report describes activities of the Nuclear Theory group at Brown University during the period 1 August 1983 to 31 July 1984. Completed and ongoing research include various theoretical and numerical studies of few-particle systems, nuclear re...

S. Fallieros F. S. Levin

1984-01-01

285

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1981-03-01

286

Nuclear medicine survey recommendations for a changing regulatory environment.  

PubMed

The revision of 10 CFR 35 approved on 23 September 2000 and due for implementation in 2001, reduces the number of required radiation and contamination surveys to one ambient radiation survey each day when an administration requiring a written directive is used. This paper compares the current requirements in 10 CFR 35; the single, remaining, specific requirement in the revised part 35; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guidance in the proposed NUREG SR1556 and the general requirement for surveys to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 20. We also make recommendations on what periodic surveys are prudent. PMID:11669196

Vernig, P G; Schumacher, T A

2001-11-01

287

Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production.  

PubMed

Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'. PMID:17987979

Williams, Bill; Ruff, Tilman A

288

Medicinally important secondary metabolites in recombinant microorganisms or plants: progress in alkaloid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Plants produce a high diversity of natural products or secondary metabolites which are important for the communication of plants with other organisms. A prominent function is the protection against herbivores and/or microbial pathogens. Some natural products are also involved in defence against abiotic stress, e.g. UV-B exposure. Many of the secondary metabolites have interesting biological properties and quite a number are of medicinal importance. Because the production of the valuable natural products, such as the anticancer drugs paclitaxel, vinblastine or camptothecin in plants is a costly process, biotechnological alternatives to produce these alkaloids more economically become increasingly important. This review provides an overview of the state of art to produce alkaloids in recombinant microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeast. Some progress has been made in metabolic engineering usually employing a single recombinant alkaloid gene. More importantly, for benzylisoquinoline, monoterpene indole and diterpene alkaloids (taxanes) as well as some terpenoids and phenolics the proof of concept for production of complex alkaloids in recombinant Escherichia coli and yeast has already been achieved. In a long-term perspective, it will probably be possible to generate gene cassettes for complete pathways, which could then be used for production of valuable natural products in bioreactors or for metabolic engineering of crop plants. This will improve their resistance against herbivores and/or microbial pathogens. PMID:19946877

Schäfer, Holger; Wink, Michael

2009-12-01

289

Semiconductor detectors for Compton imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation is underway at the University of Liverpool to assess the suitability of two position sensitive semiconductor detectors as components of a Compton camera for nuclear medical imaging. The ProSPECTus project aims to improve image quality, provide shorter data acquisition times and lower patient doses by replacing conventional Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems. These mechanically collimated systems are employed to locate a radioactive tracer that has been administered to a patient to study specifically targeted physiological processes. The ProSPECTus system will be composed of a Si(Li) detector and a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, a configuration deemed optimum using a validated Geant4 simulation package. Characterising the response of the detectors to gamma irradiation is essential in maximising the sensitivity and image resolution of the system. To this end, the performance of the HPGe ProSPECTus detector and a suitable Si(Li) detector has been assessed at the University of Liverpool. The energy resolution of the detectors has been measured and a surface scan of the Si(Li) detector has been performed using a finely collimated 241Am gamma ray source. Results from the investigation will be presented.

Harkness, LJ; Judson, D. S.; Kennedy, H.; Sweeney, A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Sampson, J. A.; Burrows, I.; Groves, J.; Headspith, J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Simpson, J.; Bimson, W. E.; Kemp, G. J.

2012-01-01

290

MAGIC-f Gel in Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry: study in an external beam of Iodine-131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAGIC-f gel applicability in Nuclear Medicine dosimetry was investigated by exposure to a 131I source. Calibration was made to provide known absorbed doses in different positions around the source. The absorbed dose in gel was compared with a Monte Carlo Simulation using PENELOPE code and a thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Using MRI analysis for the gel a R2-dose sensitivity of 0.23 s-1Gy-1was obtained. The agreement between dose-distance curves obtained with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD was better than 97% and for MAGIC-f and TLD was better than 98%. The results show the potential of polymer gel for application in nuclear medicine where three dimensional dose distribution is demanded.

Schwarcke, M.; Marques, T.; Garrido, C.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O.

2010-11-01

291

Nuclear medicine in pediatric neurology and neurosurgery: epilepsy and brain tumors.  

PubMed

In pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy, nuclear medicine can provide important additional information in the presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus. The main modalities used are interictal (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and ictal regional cerebral perfusion study with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nuclear medicine techniques have a sensitivity of approximately 85% to 90% in the localization of an epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe epilepsy; however, in this clinical setting, they are not always clinically indicated because other techniques (eg, icterictal and ictal electroencephalogram, video telemetry, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) may be successful in the identification of the epileptogenic focus. Nuclear medicine is very useful when MRI is negative and/or when electroencephalogram and MRI are discordant. A good technique to identify the epileptogenic focus is especially needed in the setting of extra-temporal lobe epilepsy; however, in this context, identification of the epileptogenic focus is more difficult for all techniques and the sensitivity of the isotope techniques is only 50% to 60%. This review article discusses the clinical value of the different techniques in the clinical context; it also gives practical suggestions on how to acquire good ictal SPECT and interictal FDG-PET scans. Nuclear medicine in pediatric brain tumors can help in differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, in assessing the response to treatment, in directing biopsy, and in planning therapy. Both PET and SPECT tracers can be used. In this review, we discuss the use of the different tracers available in this still very new, but promising, application of radioisotope techniques. PMID:17707242

Patil, Shekhar; Biassoni, Lorenzo; Borgwardt, Lise

2007-09-01

292

Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used

H. H. Lin; S. L. Dong; H. J. Yang; Sharon Chen; C. T. Shih; K. S. Chuang; C. H. Lin; W. J. Yao; M. L. Jan

2011-01-01

293

A high-speed, pressurised multi-wire gamma camera for dynamic imaging in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

High count rate detectors are of particular interest in nuclear medicine as they permit lower radiation doses to be received by the patient and allow dynamic images of high statistical quality to be obtained.We have developed a high-speed gamma camera based on a multi-wire proportional chamber. The chamber is filled with a xenon gas mixture and has been operated at

A. Barr; L. Bonaldi; G. Carugno; G. Charpak; D. Iannuzzi; M. Nicoletto; A. Pepato; S. Ventura

2002-01-01

294

The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99\\/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the

F. F. Jr

1998-01-01

295

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188\\/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194

F. F. Knapp Jr.; A. P. Callahan; S. Mirzadeh; C. Brihaye; M. Guillaume

1991-01-01

296

The molecular imaging approach to image infections and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory and infectious diseases are a heterogeneous class of diseases that may be divided into infections, acute inflammation\\u000a and chronic inflammation. Radiological imaging techniques have, with the exception of functional MRI, high sensitivity but\\u000a lack in specificity. Nuclear medicine techniques, by contrast, allow the in vivo detection in humans of different physiologic\\u000a and pathologic phenomena and offer noninvasive tools to

Alberto SignoreAndor; Andor W. J. M. Glaudemans

297

A nuclear medicine gamma-ray detector based on germanium strip detector technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in germanium strip detector technology have opened up the possibility to produce a novel gamma-ray detector for use in nuclear medicine. The advantages of position sensitivity coupled with the fine spectral resolution from high-purity germanium can be exploited to produce a tracking detector for use with a variety of biochemically useful isotopes. The tracking ability of the gamma-ray

C. J Hall; W. I. Helsby; R. A Lewis; P. Nolan; A. Boston

2003-01-01

298

Redundant array of independent disks: Practical on-line archiving of nuclear medicine image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

While various methods for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine image data exist, none support rapid on-line search and\\u000a retrieval of information. We assembled a 90-Gbyte redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system using 10-, 9-Gbyte disk\\u000a drives. The system was connected to a personal computer and software was used to partition the array into 4-Gbyte sections.\\u000a All studies (50,000) acquired

James L. Lear; Jonathan P. Pratt; Nelson Trujillo

1996-01-01

299

Patient exposure to ionising radiation due to nuclear medicine cardiac procedures.  

PubMed

Nuclear cardiology procedures are among the most extensively performed radionuclide studies. Procedures for the assessment of myocardial perfusion, contractile function and metabolism have gained a prominent position in clinical practice. Health risk to patients from radiopharmaceuticals results only from exposure to ionizing radiation. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures,including the cardiological ones, are accompanied by a very small risk of radiation induced malignant tumours. Death risk from stress and rest perfusion of myocardium (effective dose of about 10 mSv) could be estimated as lower than 0.1 per mille. PMID:23047576

Ku?mierek, Jacek; P?achci?ska, Anna

2012-04-24

300

Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

1995-02-01

301

Magnetic resonance and nuclear medicine imaging in ataxias.  

PubMed

Imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been widely applied to the investigation of patients with acute or chronic ataxias. Fundamentally, CT has a role in the emergency evaluation of the patient with acute ataxia to ascertain brainstem or cerebellar hemorrhage and to exclude a mass lesion in the posterior cranial fossa. Conventional MRI is the most frequently performed imaging investigation in patients with ataxia. It can support the diagnosis of acute cerebellitis and Wernicke encephalopathy by revealing T2 signal changes with a typical distribution. In patients with inherited or sporadic chronic ataxia it reveals three fundamental patterns of atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord which match the gross neuropathological descriptions. These are represented by olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA), and spinal atrophy (SA). A substantial correspondence exists among these patterns of atrophy shown by MRI and the etiological classification of inherited or acquired chronic ataxias. This, along with demonstration of T2 signal changes characteristic of some diseases, makes conventional MRI potentially useful for the diagnostic work-up of the single patient, especially in the case of a sporadic disease. Non-conventional MR techniques including diffusion MR, spectroscopy, and functional MR have been used in patients with acute or chronic ataxia, but their exact role in the evaluation of the single patient is not established yet. They are currently investigated as potential tools to monitor progression of neurodegeneration in chronic ataxia and to serve as "surrogate markers" in clinical trials. Several radiotracers have been utilized in combination with SPECT and PET in patients with ataxia. Perfusion SPECT can reveal cerebellar blood flow abnormalities early in the course of cerebellitis. It has also been utilized to investigate perfusion of the brain in several inherited or sporadic chronic ataxic diseases, contributing to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions. Recently, perfusion SPECT has been tested as a "surrogate marker" to verify the effects of newly developed therapies in patients with a variety of chronic ataxias. Whole-body FDG-PET is recommended in patients with suspected paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration to detect the primary malignancy. Brain FDG-PET has provided important information on the pathophysiology of several acquired and inherited conditions. PET and SPECT with radiotracers able to assess the nigrostriatal system or the density of D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum are increasingly used in patients with adult-onset sporadic ataxia for the differential diagnosis between multiple system atrophy in which overt striatal abnormalities are found and idiopathic late-onset cerebellar ataxia in which no abnormality is detected. PMID:21827882

Mascalchi, Mario; Vella, Alessandra

2012-01-01

302

CT and MR in pulmonary embolism: A changing role for nuclear medicine in diagnostic strategy.  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to summarize current data on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in relation to the radionuclide ventilation perfusion scan. It is important for the nuclear medicine, CT, and MR communities to develop a shared approach to this disorder. Triage using chest radiographs appears to be a practical method for enhancing both nuclear medicine and CT/MR performance. The realization that there is no clinically available gold standard for the diagnosis of PE suggests that the imaging community should replace impractical and idealistic discussions with more realistic outcome-oriented approaches. A simplified one-step evaluation of the pulmonary arteries and the lower extremity veins for deep venous thrombus can provide a comprehensive examination for PE. CT is currently a more practical diagnostic tool, whereas MR offers a scientific probe for pulmonary physiology including the regional mapping of ventilation-perfusion relationships. Nuclear medicine, CT, and MR thus form an imaging triad for the diagnosis of acute PE. PMID:12105799

Hatabu, Hiroto; Uematsu, Hidemasa; Nguyen, Binh; Miller, Wallace T; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Gefter, Warren B

2002-07-01

303

Extremity exposure in nuclear medicine: preliminary results of a European study.  

PubMed

The Work Package 4 of the ORAMED project, a collaborative project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is concerned with the optimisation of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine. To evaluate the extremity doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, an extensive measurement programme has been started in 32 nuclear medicine departments in Europe. This was done using a standard protocol recording all relevant information for radiation exposure, i.e. radiation protection devices and tools. This study shows the preliminary results obtained for this measurement campaign. For diagnostic purposes, the two most-used radionuclides were considered: (99m)Tc and (18)F. For therapeutic treatments, Zevalin(®) and DOTATOC (both labelled with (90)Y) were chosen. Large variations of doses were observed across the hands depending on different parameters. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of the positioning of the extremity dosemeter for a correct estimate of the maximum skin doses. PMID:21233097

Sans Merce, M; Ruiz, N; Barth, I; Carnicer, A; Donadille, L; Ferrari, P; Fulop, M; Ginjaume, M; Gualdrini, G; Krim, S; Mariotti, F; Ortega, X; Rimpler, A; Vanhavere, F; Baechler, S

2011-01-12

304

Synthesis and theoretical analysis of samarium nanoparticles: perspectives in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The use of lanthanides as radionuclides in nuclear medicine is well-known, because they can be used for detecting and treating cancerous tumors. Due to the fact that the doses are directly related to the number of unstable atoms involved, the possibility of obtaining controlled-size lanthanide nanoparticles opens a wide scope for their application in nuclear medicine. In this work, we report the synthesis of anew samarium nanoparticle by using the bioreduction method, where the pH conditions play an important role in the size control of the produced clusters. The nanoparticles were characterized by using an transmission electron microscope, in addition to the use of a quantum mechanical method to relate the atomic and electronic structures to the chemical selectivity, which allows us to predict a direct coordination between the DTPA-bis-biotin molecules with the samarium nanoparticles larger than 55 atoms. This work involves experimental and theoretical methods to propose a totally new application for nanotechnology in nuclear medicine. PMID:16852046

Ascencio, Jorge A; Rincon, Ana C; Canizal, Gerardo

2005-05-12

305

Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality were analysed to position nuclear medicine organisations in the service triangle theory of Haywood-Farmer [ Int J Production and Operations Management 1988; 6:19-29]. After distinguishing the service quality dimensions of nuclear medicine, a comparison was made between the service quality perceptions of patients ( n=259) and those of personnel ( n=24). We examined the importance of different service quality dimensions by studying their relationship to patient satisfaction. The proposed five dimensions of SERVQUAL, the most commonly used service quality measurement scale, were not confirmed. Patients considered tangibles and assurance as one dimension, while the original empathy dimension was separated into empathy and convenience. Personnel perceived all service quality dimensions as less good than did patients, except for empathy. Results indicated that patients' perception of service quality was correlated with patient satisfaction, especially in terms of reliability and tangibles-assurance. Based on these service quality dimensions, we suggest that nuclear medicine services need to optimise their physical and process component and the technical skills of personnel. PMID:12192553

De Man, Stefanie; Gemmel, Paul; Vlerick, Peter; Van Rijk, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi

2002-06-20

306

[Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions]. Progress summary  

SciTech Connect

The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p), {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p{sub 0}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 0}), comparison of the {sup 12}C(e, e{prime}p{sub 0}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 3}) reactions, quadrupole strength in the {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}{alpha}{sub 0}) reaction, quadrupole strength in the {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}{alpha}) reaction, analysis of the {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p{sub 1}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 3}) angular distributions, analysis of the {sup 40}Ca(e,e{prime}x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments).

Not Available

1992-12-31

307

Development of software for clinical protocols in nuclear medicine. Final report for the period 21 November 1994 - 21 November 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After two technical contracts of IAEA, a portable image processing software (PIP) has been developed and some clinical protocols for nuclear medicine studies with IBM PCs which are connected to analogue gamma cameras. In addition, a suitable front end for...

A. Todd-Pokropek

1996-01-01

308

32. Dni Nuklearnej Mediciny: Suhrny prednasok a posterov. (32. Days of the Nuclear Medicine: Summaries of the lectures and posters).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the conference dealing with nuclear medicine problems. The book consists of the sections: (1) Introduction lectures; (2) Radionuclide diagnostic methods in the oncology; (3) Miscellaneous; (4) Device techn...

1995-01-01

309

Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research: Positron Computed Tomography Assessment. Final Report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of the final phase of the study effort generally titled Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research. The previous work is reviewed and extended to an assessment providing perspectives on medical applications of positron emission t...

E. J. Potchen G. I. Harris D. A. R. D. Gift J. E. Siebert

1983-01-01

310

Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The project discussed in this progress report focusses on understanding the many facets and scales of strongly interacting systems using the electromagnetic probe. On one hand we are investigating the spin properties of the nucleon (proton and neutron) through its fundamental constituents (quarks and gluons). On the other hand we are studying the properties of nucleons in nuclei and the few-body systems. The E142 and the newly approved E143 experiments planned at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center are designed to provide an answer to the mystery of the missing spin of the proton, while the new letter of intent submitted to SLAC, will investigate the so called Color transparency effect related to the prediction of PQCD for the (e,e{prime}p) quasielastic process in nuclei. Our research involvement at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility focusses in Hall A. From the technical point of view we are building the Coemption polarimeter for the Hall A beam line. This device should allow a precise measurement of the electron beam polarization for several approved experiments. From the physics aspect of the project we plan to perform the transverse/longitudinal separation of the nuclear response at high momentum transfer in the quasielastic region, the photodisintegration of deuterium with the measurement of the recoil polarization of the proton and the electromagnetic form factor of few body systems experiment.

Meziani, Z.E.

1992-01-01

311

Applied nuclear data research and development. Semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the activities of the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Group for April 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983. Topics covered include theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections; nuclear cross-section processing and testing; neutron activation; fission products, and actinides; and core neutronics code development in support of LMFBR carbide core assessment. (GHT)

Arthur, E.D. (comp.)

1984-06-01

312

Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging.

Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

2012-01-01

313

[Research progress on immunosuppressive activity of monomers extracted from Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The clinical or experimental study proves that Chinese medicine such as Tripteryglum wilfordii, Lignum Sappan, Caulis Sinomenii, Radix Trichosanthis and Herba Artemisiae Annuae have good immunosuppressive activity. Further researches on the immunosuppressive active components from Chinese medicine have been the main direction in recent years. The recent researches on immunosuppressive effect and possible mechanisms for the monomers such as triperine, triptolide, bazilein, potosappanin A, sinomenine, trichosanthin and artemisinin extracted from those Chinese medicine are introduced in this review. PMID:20423014

Sun, Shiqin; Wang, Youzhi; Zhou, Yabin

2010-02-01

314

Presidential address: medicine, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis--Roots III of progressive psychoanalysis.  

PubMed

In order to preserve and be more specific about the proper domain of psychoanalysis, those of us who are concerned about the psychoanalysis of the future must be increasingly aware of new knowledge in medicine and psychiatry. We must be fully aware of current progress especially when these contributions affect the care and treatment of our patients. I have enumerated several examples where new knowledge is very important in the care of our patients. I believe that the psychoanalysis of the future will be much more flexible, much in the image of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis, and will be aimed toward the correction of the omission of the vast majority of Americans from consideration for psychoanalytic therapy. One of our founding presidents, Franz Alexander, showed us the way decades ago when he insisted upon the importance of flexibility in psychoanalytic therapy and also advocated short term psychoanalytic therapy. I do not need to remind us that Sigmund Freud himself began by analyzing his analysands first for three months and later for six. Indeed, let me close by telling you the delightful story related by Abram Kardiner about how he himself was analyzed by Freud. Kardiner arrived in Vienna and found that Freud had overscheduled himself! Instead of having eight patients, he had invited nine to come to see him. His daughter, Anna Freud, brilliantly (perhaps as a forecast of her subsequent important contributions to psychoanalysis) suggested to her father that he see his analysands only five times a week instead of six. Thus, Abram Kardiner was able to become one of the pioneering psychoanalysts who have contributed much to American psychiatry and psychoanalysis. I hope that all of use will also think in flexible and innovative ways for the improvement of psychoanalysis and for the benefit of our patients in the future. PMID:6102084

Yamamoto, J

1980-04-01

315

Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

2005-12-01

316

25 years of the WHO essential medicines lists: progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1977, the birth of the WHO model list of essential drugs led the organisation to advocate for the principle that some medicines were more essential than others, pointing out that many medicines in developing countries were not useful, whereas others that were did not reach populations at need. In the past 25 years, 11 revisions of the list have

Richard Laing; Brenda Waning; Andy Gray; Nathan Ford; Ellen't Hoen

2003-01-01

317

Progress Report on Nuclear Data Activities in Sweden for 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains information from laboratories in Sweden about measurements and compilations which are relevant to obtain nuclear data for research and development in different applied fields of nuclear physics. The report also contains short informati...

H. Conde

1981-01-01

318

Integration Between Computed Tomography and Nuclear Medicine for Non-invasive Assessment of Coronary Anatomy and Myocardial Perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of nuclear medicine techniques to cardiology is based on the identification of the functional consequences of coronary stenoses, i.e. of myocardial ischaemia. In nuclear cardiology, the evaluation of myocardial perfusion with single-photon- emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the most commonly performed procedure. The SPECT study is currently performed with electrocardiogram (ECG) gating, which enables a simultaneous evaluation of

Wanda Acampa; Mario Petretta; Carmela Nappi; Alberto Cuocolo

2010-01-01

319

Progress in Seismic Design and Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Japan, seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities is examined according to the “Regulatory Guide for Examining\\u000a Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities” [1]. Therefore, the seismic design of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is conducted\\u000a based on this guide.

Shohei Motohashi

320

Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.  

PubMed Central

The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and an assumed dose limit of 1 mSv (effective dose equivalent) to the infant.

Stabin, M G

1997-01-01

321

Progress report on nuclear data activities in India for the period January 1989 to June 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress report covering the period from January 1989 to June 1990 contains brief descriptions of various activities such as measurements, evaluations, compilations and processing of nuclear data and other related works being carried out in India, mai...

R. P. Anand

1990-01-01

322

Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

Ulm, Franz-Josef

2000-03-31

323

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of granular flows: Technical progress report, quarter ending 09/30/93.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Technical Progress Report for the quarter ending 09/30/93 describes work on two tasks which are part of nuclear magnetic resonance studies of granular flows. (1) Research has been directed toward improving concentration measurements under reasonably ...

1993-01-01

324

Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

Martire, J.R.

1987-10-01

325

[Advances of the surgery of the breast cancer with help of the nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

The incorporation of the nuclear medicine to the surgical current practice In the treatment of the cancer of breast, by means of the application of radioactive isotopes, have supposed a great achievement not only in the surgical and predicted results but also in the surgical skills more effective and less aggressive. The systematic research of the marking and extirpation of Sentinel Lymph Node is avoiding in the early cancer the linfadenectomy axilar. The application of the ROLL and SNOLL skills is being determinant in the extirpation with trustworthy margins of the non-palpable lesions cancer, with big safety instead harpoons that we used before. PMID:20432675

Sierra García, Antonio

2009-01-01

326

The traceability chain of 131I measurements for nuclear medicine in Cuba.  

PubMed

The national traceability chain for (131)I activity measurements performed in nuclear medicine in Cuba is described. At the highest (primary) level, liquid scintillation counting employing the CIEMAT/NIST method is used; at the secondary level, a secondary standard radionuclide calibrator is utilized that allows for a quick and simple transference of the measurement unit to the tertiary level of end-users' instruments. The equivalence of Cuban standards and the assessment of measurement uncertainties at the end-user level are determined through the results of measurement comparisons. PMID:22534014

Oropesa, P; Moreno, Y; Serra, R A; Hernández, A T

2012-03-05

327

National comparison of 131I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries.  

PubMed

A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of (131)I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value. PMID:20006521

Olsovcová, Veronika; Iwahara, Akira; Oropesa, Pilar; Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha; Ghafoori, Mostafa; Son, Hye-Kyung; Sahagia, Maria; Tastan, Selma; Zimmerman, Brian

2009-11-20

328

Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-11-01

329

ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity\\u000a and high-energy cyclotron.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy\\u000a and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of

Ferid Haddad; Ludovic Ferrer; Arnaud Guertin; Thomas Carlier; Nathalie Michel; Jacques Barbet; Jean-François Chatal

2008-01-01

330

Research progress on the mechanism of single-Chinese medicinal herbs in treating diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating diabetes mellitus (DM) with Chinese medicine (CM) has had a few thousands years of history. Past Chinese medical\\u000a texts had already recorded numerous medicinal herbs as well as recipes for treating DM and accumulated much clinical experience.\\u000a In the following article, the prevention of DM using CM in the past 5 years is retrospectively studied, and mainly focuses\\u000a on

Li-xia Yang; Tong-hua Liu; Zong-tao Huang; Juan-e Li; Li-li Wu

2011-01-01

331

The Frontlines of Medicine Project progress report: standardized communication of emergency department triage data for syndromic surveillance.  

PubMed

This article reports progress since the original publication of the Frontlines of Medicine Project. This project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, other government agencies involved in health care and preparedness, law enforcement, and informatics to develop nonproprietary, standardized methods for reporting emergency department patient data. These data may be used for a variety of public health or clinical care initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. This article reviews the outcome of the Project meeting in April 2002. Also, the article describes a Delphi Survey process to define the data elements in a triage surveillance report and to define a set of codified values for the chief complaint data element. An initial retrospective validation of the codified chief complaint values is provided, and prospective study of the proposed Frontlines' standards is encouraged. PMID:15332067

Barthell, Edward N; Aronsky, Dominik; Cochrane, Dennis G; Cable, Greg; Stair, Thomas

2004-09-01

332

Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions. Progress report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This progress report studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions discusses the following topics: quantal effects on growth of instabilities in nuclear matter; collisional damping of giant resonances in a non-Markovian approach; and medium-modified interaction induced by fluctuations.

Ayik, S.

1996-03-01

333

Applied Nuclear Science Research and Development progress report, June 1, 1984-May 31, 1985  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the activities of the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group for June 1, 1984 through May 31, 1985. The topical content includes the theory and evaluation of nuclear cross sections; neutron cross section processing and testing; neutron activation, fission products and actinides; and core neutronics code development and application. 70 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs. (WRF)

Arthur, E.D.; Mutschlecner, A.D. (comps.)

1985-09-01

334

Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

2008-04-01

335

Nuclear medicine and ultrasound; correlation in diagnosis of disease of liver and biliary tract.  

PubMed

Even though the radiocolloid scan is nonspecific it will be approximately 70%-80% accurate in predicting the presence or absence of liver disease and somewhat less accurate than that in making statements as to the specific type of disease. This compares well with other modalities. The ability of nuclear medicine techniques to provide a correct diagnosis is improved when additional isotopic techniques such as hepatic blood flow studies and 131I-rose bengal and 67Ga scanning are performed. Ultrasound scanning is also non specific. To date, the major application of ultrasound in the study of the liver has been in deciphering puzzling contour abnormalities seen on nuclear medicine scans and in demonstrating fluid-filled abnormalities. Its usefulness in diffuse and solid focal lesions has been less dramatic. More recently, however, the development of gray scale has necessitated a reevaluation of the technique. Gray scale demonstrates a large number of intrahepatic interfaces that were previously invisible, and it has already been shown to demonstrate focal disorders such as metastasis more easily than the nongray-scale method. It can also demonstrate dilated biliary radicals, the gallbladder, and gallstones. In addition, while routinely studying the liver one can evaluate diaphragmatic motion and various retroperitoneal structures such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and abdominal vascular structures. PMID:1209273

Lomonaco, A; Kline, P; Halpern, S; Leopold, G

1975-10-01

336

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, October 1988March 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1988--March 1989. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and

1990-01-01

337

Nuclear technology programs; Semiannual progress report, October 1989March 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1989--March 1990. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and

1992-01-01

338

Nuclear technology programs semiannual progress report, April--September 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Program of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1989. These programs involve R D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and

1991-01-01

339

Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

1982-05-01

340

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

Coulot, J.

2003-08-01

341

Theoretical Research in Nuclear Collective Motion. Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is summarized on the following research projects: generalized density matrix method, large amplitude collective motion, boson mappings for the Interacting Boson Model, and semi-classical method for testing IBM hypothesis. (ERA citation 09:047017)

1984-01-01

342

Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project discussed in this progress report focusses on understanding the many facets and scales of strongly interacting systems using the electromagnetic probe. On one hand we are investigating the spin properties of the nucleon (proton and neutron) th...

Z. E. Meziani

1992-01-01

343

"Nuclear" medicine physicians as communicators: their point of view on the aftermath of "nuclear" disaster.  

PubMed

On March 11th, 2011 earthquakes and a subsequent tsunami devastated northern Japan. The consecutive technical catastrophe in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only an additional local tragedy, it also turned out to be a global disaster. In this review we intend to discuss emerging problems and enlighten a way to communicate in such events, tell people how to react in such scenarios and prevent panic by providing rational information. PMID:22476594

Staudenherz, Anton; Sinzinger, Helmut

2012-02-01

344

[Progress and prospects of research on information processing techniques for intelligent diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Information processing for intelligent diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important part of the modernization of Chinese medicine, attracts world wide attention from the science circle. This article presents a systematic introduction to the development of information technology, especially the processing of pulse and tongue images and systems of computer-aided Chinese medical diagnosis. Furthermore, it points out four essential areas of future research, including epistemic logic system of syndrome differentiation, system construction technology, data miming technology and information acquisition and analysis in TCM diagnosis. PMID:17090367

Zhou, Chang-Le; Zhang, Zhi-Feng

2006-11-01

345

Research in Nuclear Astrophysics: Stellar Collapse and Supernovae. Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This proposal describes the nuclear astrophysics research program in the Earth and Space Sciences Department at Stony Brook. The central themes in the many projects that comprise this program are supernovae, neutron star formation, and the equation of sta...

J. M. Lattimer A. Yahil

1986-01-01

346

Nuclear technology programs. Semiannual progress report, April--September 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April through September 1991. These programs involve R & D in three areas: applied physical chemistry...

1993-01-01

347

[Progress on the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy by Chinese and Western medicine].  

PubMed

Among all the adverse reactions of anti-tumor drugs, the incidence of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy elevated gradually in recent years, but no trustworthy treatment by Chinese and Western medicine for it has been found so far. The related clinical and experimental reports published in the latest 10 years were reviewed in this paper. PMID:19213355

Xu, Wei-Ru; Hua, Bao-Jin

2008-11-01

348

Nuclear research with the electromagnetic probe. Final progress report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on the research carried at Stanford University under contract DE-FG03-88ER40439. All the work accomplished under this grant is reported in the publications listed as part of the Principal Investigator bibliography at the end of this report. In the last few years our research was directed at some of the forefront questions in nuclear physics. We investigated the nuclear medium effects on the intrinsic properties of bound nucleons, specifically the ectromagnetic form factors. For these studies we performed a number of specialized electron scattering experiments with specific sensitivity to nuclear medium effects. At the next level of structure, elementary constituents of matter are quarks and gluons. Defining the energy regime where the quark-gluon description of nuclear systems becomes more relevant than the nucleon-meson description is of great importance in thoroughly understanding the nuclear structure. To explore this transition region, we studied the scaling region in the disintegration of the deuteron, the simplest nuclear system with high energy photons. Finally we focused on the investigation of the nucleon internal spin structure along with the test of the Bjoerken sum rule a fundamental sum rule of QCD.

Meziani, Z.E.

1994-10-01

349

Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL  

SciTech Connect

Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

Kwan, Joe W.

2002-05-31

350

Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1993-05-01

351

Recent progress in voice-based sasang constitutional medicine: improving stability of diagnosis.  

PubMed

Sasang constitutional medicine is a unique form of tailored medicine in traditional Korean medicine. Voice features have been regarded as an important cue to diagnose Sasang constitution types. Many studies tried to extract quantitative voice features and standardize diagnosis methods; however, they had flaws, such as unstable voice features which vary a lot for the same individual, limited data collected from only few sites, and low diagnosis accuracy. In this paper, we propose a stable diagnosis model that has a good repeatability for the same individual. None of the past studies evaluated the repeatability of their diagnosis models. Although many previous studies used voice features calculated by averaging feature values from all valid frames in monotonic utterance like vowels, we analyse every single feature value from each frame of a sentence voice signal. Gaussian mixture model is employed to deal with a lot of voice features from each frame. Total 15 Gaussian models are used to represent voice characteristics for each constitution. To evaluate repeatability of the proposed diagnosis model, we introduce a test dataset consisting of 10 individuals' voice recordings with 50 recordings per each individual. Our result shows that the proposed method has better repeatability than the previous study which used averaged features from vowels and the sentence. PMID:24062794

Jang, Jun-Su; Kim, Young-Su; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol

2013-08-26

352

Recent Progress in Voice-Based Sasang Constitutional Medicine: Improving Stability of Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Sasang constitutional medicine is a unique form of tailored medicine in traditional Korean medicine. Voice features have been regarded as an important cue to diagnose Sasang constitution types. Many studies tried to extract quantitative voice features and standardize diagnosis methods; however, they had flaws, such as unstable voice features which vary a lot for the same individual, limited data collected from only few sites, and low diagnosis accuracy. In this paper, we propose a stable diagnosis model that has a good repeatability for the same individual. None of the past studies evaluated the repeatability of their diagnosis models. Although many previous studies used voice features calculated by averaging feature values from all valid frames in monotonic utterance like vowels, we analyse every single feature value from each frame of a sentence voice signal. Gaussian mixture model is employed to deal with a lot of voice features from each frame. Total 15 Gaussian models are used to represent voice characteristics for each constitution. To evaluate repeatability of the proposed diagnosis model, we introduce a test dataset consisting of 10 individuals' voice recordings with 50 recordings per each individual. Our result shows that the proposed method has better repeatability than the previous study which used averaged features from vowels and the sentence.

Kim, Young-Su; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jong Yeol

2013-01-01

353

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

Wahner, H.W.

1985-12-01

354

Determination of clinical efficacy: nuclear medicine as applied to lung scanning  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a Society of Nuclear Medicine sponsored study of 2023 patients which compares two methods, logistic regression (LR) and entropy minimax pattern detection (EMPD), to evaluate efficacy. Lung scans, used in determining or excluding a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), were utilized to create the data set. The LR analysis, presented here, shows that lung scan findings have significant influence on the referring physician's diagnostic thinking. Models were developed for the probability of a signout diagnosis of PE, and equal patient groups tested the validity of these regression equations. A comparison of the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of EMPD and LR was done. EMPD predicts a signout diagnosis on only 41% of cases before lung scan and 71% after lung scan; LR provides a prediction of the signout diagnosis on 100% of cases. An advantage of EMPD is that it does not require poor probability estimates.

Saenger, E.L.; Buncher, C.R.; Specker, B.L.; McDevitt, R.A.

1985-07-01

355

[Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].  

PubMed

Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821

Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2012-01-01

356

An iterative particle filter approach for respiratory motion estimation in nuclear medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continual improvement in spatial resolution of Nuclear Medicine (NM) scanners has made accurate compensation of patient motion increasingly important. A major source of corrupting motion in NM acquisition is due to respiration. Therefore a particle filter (PF) approach has been proposed as a powerful method for motion correction in NM. The probabilistic view of the system in the PF is seen as an advantage that considers the complexity and uncertainties in estimating respiratory motion. Previous tests using XCAT has shown the possibility of estimating unseen organ configuration using training data that only consist of a single respiratory cycle. This paper augments application specific adaptation methods that have been implemented for better PF estimates with an iterative model update step. Results show that errors are further reduced to an extent up to a small number of iterations and such improvements will be advantageous for the PF to cope with more realistic and complex applications.

Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Wells, Kevin; Lewis, Emma; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

2011-03-01

357

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, January 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-07-01

358

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, April--September 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April-September 1987. Work in applied physical chemistry included investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of metal fuel and blanket materials of the Integral Fast

1989-01-01

359

Nuclear power and economics: keys to continuing progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, Electricite de France's (EdF's) chief concern is to keep close check on the performance and economics of its nuclear power reactors and to prepare for the future. The practice of building power plants in series and on a large scale has involved special constraints. This is true in particular of the pressurized water reactor series, which includes 39 standardized

Leclercq

1986-01-01

360

Space nuclear-safety program. Progress report, October 1982  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-03-01

361

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, August 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-01-01

362

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, July 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-11-01

363

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-06-01

364

Space Nuclear-Safety Program progress report, February 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1983-08-01

365

Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-03-01

366

Recent Progress in Nuclear Lattice Simulations with Effective Field Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proceedings article summarizes recent work presented at Chiral Dynamics 2006 on nuclear lattice simulations with chiral effective field theory for light nuclei. This work has been done in collaboration with Bubar {gra} Borasoy , Evgeny Epelbaum, Hermann Krebs, and Ulf-G. Meißner.

Lee, D.

2007-10-01

367

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, April 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing and recovery, and safety technology program (biaxial testing, iridium chemistry).

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-10-01

368

Progress in Photomultiplier Tubes for Scintillation Counting and Nuclear Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is primarily concerned with the development of high speed photomultiplier tubes designed for nuclear physics research applications. The significant characteristics and parameters influencing the performance of high speed tubes are discussed with particular emphasis to rise time, transit time fluctuations, high gain and linearity throughout a wide range of anode currents. The performance of the well-known types 56AVP

G. Pietri

1962-01-01

369

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, July 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing; results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. 10 figs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-11-01

370

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, March 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos Laboratory. They are divided into: general-purpose heat source, lightweight radioisotope heater unit, and safety technology program. 43 figs., 2 tabs.

Zocher, R.W.; George, T.G. (comps.)

1985-08-01

371

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, June 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. 36 figs.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-11-01

372

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, May 1984  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing, light-weight radioisotope heater unit, and iridium biaxial testing.

George, T.G. (comp.)

1985-09-01

373

Space nuclear-safety program. Progress report, January 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

Bronisz, S.E.

1983-06-01

374

Individual monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers requires frequent measurements due to the short physical half-lives of most radionuclides used in this field. The aim of this study was to develop screening measurements performed at the workplace by local staff using standard laboratory instrumentation, to detect whether potential intake has occurred. Such measurements do not enable to determine the committed effective dose, but are adequate to verify that a given threshold is not exceeded. For radioiodine, i.e. (123)I, (124)I, (125)I and (131)I, a calibrated surface contamination monitor is placed in front of the thyroid to detect whether the activity threshold has been exceeded. For radionuclides with very short physical half-lives (? 6 h), such as (99m)Tc and those used in positron emission tomography imaging, i.e. (11)C, (15)O, (18)F and (68)Ga, screening procedures consist in performing daily measurements of the ambient dose rate in front of the abdomen. Other gamma emitters used for imaging, i.e. (67)Ga, (111)In and (201)Tl, are measured with a scintillation detector located in front of the thorax. For pure beta emitters, i.e. (90)Y and (169)Er, as well as beta emitters with low-intensity gamma rays, i.e. (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re and (188)Re, the procedure consists in measuring hand contamination immediately after use. In Switzerland, screening procedures have been adopted by most nuclear medicine services since such measurements enable an acceptable monitoring while taking into account practical and economic considerations. PMID:21081522

Baechler, S; Stritt, N; Bochud, F O

2010-11-15

375

Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

Kinney, E.R., ed.

2004-05-12

376

Nuclear Waste Management quarterly progress report, October--December 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research topics on which progress is reported include decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues, monitoring of effluents from waste solidification, TRU waste fixation, krypton solidification, ¹⁴C and ¹²⁹I fixation, waste management system studies, organic complexes of fission products, characterization of 300 Area burial grounds, electropolishing as a decontamination technique, and decommissioning of Hanford facilities. 11 tables, 18 figures. (DLC)

2009-01-01

377

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for

F. Botta; M. Cremonesi; A. Di Dia; G. Pedroli; A. Mairani; G. Battistoni; A. Fassò; A. Ferrari; M. Ferrari; G. Paganelli; M. Valente

2011-01-01

378

Preoperative Localization of Parathyroid Adenomas: A Comparison of Power and Colour Doppler Ultrasonography with Nuclear Medicine Scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To compare power and colour Doppler ultrasonography (US) with nuclear medicine scintigraphy (NM) in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT underwent pre-operative US and NM for parathyroid adenoma localization. Both studies were interpreted independently without prior knowledge of the other study's findings. All

Jac D. Scheiner; Damian E. Dupuy; John M. Monchik; Richard B. Noto; John J. Cronan

2001-01-01

379

Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with

Heineman

1993-01-01

380

Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, JP

2011-01-01

381

Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

Lahey, R.T. Jr.

1993-03-01

382

[Somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

The study is concerned the design of new assays that may detect rare somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, which may increase upon exposure to mutagens, and thus become a marker of human exposure to such mutagens. Two assays for somatic mutation were presented, one for mitochondrial DNA deletions which was developed by the author, and one for deletions of the ADA gene which resides in the nucleus.

Not Available

1992-09-01

383

Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, November 1983  

SciTech Connect

This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics discussed include: safety-verification impact tests; explosion test; fragment test; leaking fueled clads; effects of fresh water and seawater or PuO/sub 2/ pellets; and impact tests of 5 watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator.

Bronisz, S.E. (comp.)

1984-06-01

384

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect

Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-06-01

385

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, April-- September 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1990. These programs involve R D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation's high-level waste repositories.

Harmon, J.E. (ed.)

1992-06-01

386

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, April-- September 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1990. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

Harmon, J.E. [ed.

1992-06-01

387

Nuclear technology programs quarterly progress report, October-December 1983  

SciTech Connect

The radiolytic production of nitric acid or ammonia in a nuclear waste repository can potentially cause degradation of bentonite-based backfill materials. This potential is being evaluated, and experiments regarding the transformation of bentonite under hydrothermal conditions to albite, quartz, and paragonite are reported. The analysis of active geothermal systems as natural experiments in the transport of trace elements in lithic material is discussed. In addition, a summary of a literature review regarding the interaction of humic substances with heavy metals is reported. New prototype vessels for evaluation of the reaction of nuclear waste glass with water are being tested, the need for which was indicated by the results of preliminary testing. Also, a program studying the applicability of natural basaltic glass as an analog for nuclear waste glass is under way. Two extraction systems for the separation of transuranic elements from high-level waste are to be investigated. Work has included identification of mathematical relationships for calculating material balance and development of procedures for a literature survey of the extractants. Full-scale equipment and systems for the destructive analysis of full-length irradiated fuel rods from the Light Water Breeder Reactor are being developed, installed, tested, and qualified. A full-scale shear facility, dual dissolver system, and other systems and facilities are included. 14 figures, 19 tables.

Steindler, M.J.

1984-08-01

388

Nuclear Technology Programs semiannual progress report, October 1990--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period October 1990--March 1991. These programs involve R&D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transpose of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor, and the properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation`s high-level waste repositories.

NONE

1992-12-01

389

The effect of glucose on the progression of the nuclear maturation of pig oocytes.  

PubMed

The progression of the nuclear maturation of oocytes is a useful marker for the estimation of the subsequent developmental competence of oocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of energy substrates in an in vitro maturation medium on the progression of the nuclear maturation of oocytes. In experiment 1, the supplementation of the maturation medium with 0, 5 and 10 mM of glucose lead to increase in the total cell number of the blastocysts. In experiments 2 and 3, the maturation phase was divided into two stages (germinal vesicle (GV) stage: 0-20 h and nuclear maturation stage: 20-44 h), and the effects of glucose or pyruvate added at each stage on the kinetics of nuclear maturation were examined. The addition of glucose at the nuclear maturation stage rather than at the GV stage of maturation effected greater acceleration in the progression of nuclear maturation. However, the addition of pyruvate at both stages had the same effect on the progression of nuclear maturation was the same. In addition, when glucose was added to the medium containing pyruvate, an additive effect on the progression of nuclear maturation was observed (experiment 4). In experiment 5, the inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN) decreased the rate of the final maturation of oocytes and reduced the difference between the rates of the final maturation of oocytes cultured with glucose and those cultured with pyruvate. In the experiment 6, when the activator of G6PD, brilliant cresyle blue (BCB), was added to the maturation medium, the progression of nuclear maturation was significantly accelerated. The results of this study suggested that in addition to the role of an energy substrate, glucose or its metabolites play a role in nuclear maturation. This role was more pronounced at the second stage of maturation (transition from GV breakdown (GVBD) to M2), probably due to the metabolism of glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) rather than the glycolysis pathway. PMID:16784824

Sato, H; Iwata, H; Hayashi, T; Kimura, K; Kuwayama, T; Monji, Y

2006-06-19

390

Nuclear Questions: Church and Nuclear Energy, Church and Environment, Church and Progress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment i...

W. Hohlfeld

1977-01-01

391

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

392

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51+/-0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05+/-0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

393

Annual progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Research progress is reported for the year 1979-1980. The report is divided into sections dealing individually with the divisions of Biomolecular and Cellular Science, Environmental Biology, and Nuclear Medicine. The sections have been individually entered into EDB. (ACR)

Not Available

1980-01-01

394

[Research progress of antitumor components from original animals of traditional Chinese medicine powder of Notarchus].  

PubMed

Powder of Notarchus is a traditional Chinese medicine originated from the eggs of various sea hares species of family Aplysiidae Lamarck, especially Notarchus. leachii cirrosus, Aplysia kurodai and A. pulmonica. It has been used for clinical treatment of cancer and cancer-like diseases in China since the Ming dynasty. Isolation and identification of numerous cytotoxic ingredients from sea hares organisms were reported. Bioactive components of sea hares in China sea including 23 species from six genera of the Aplysiidae were reviewed in this paper. Approximately 300 molecules were identified in 11 species. More than 85 compounds extracted from 7 species were confirmed to have antitumor activity, which indicated that powder of Notarchus would have potential in developing new antineoplastic agents. PMID:22308698

Yang, Xinyu; Zhu, He; Yang, Wenyu

2011-11-01

395

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1980-09-01

396

Recent experimental progress in nuclear halo structure studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments (since the last review in J. of Physics G by I. Tanihata in 1996 [1]) at RIB facilities opened possibilities of detailed studies of halo nuclei. New facilities have been constructed to provide higher intensity beams of radioactive nuclei in a wide range of energies. At the time of the last review, only secondary beams by projectile fragmentation were the production source of halo nuclei for use in reaction studies. Since then, re-acceleration facilities have been developed and thus high-quality low-energy beams become available for the reaction studies. The wide variety of new data are thus available on halo nuclei and nuclei on and outside of proton and neutron drip lines.Low energy beams provided a means to determine the masses and charge radii of halo nuclei (6,8He, 11Li). Also transfer reactions have been measured in many nuclei far from the stability line. In fragmentation facilities, new experimental methods such as gamma ray detection in coincidence with breakup fragments of halo nuclei have been developed. Also the reaction cross sections have been measured in a wide range of beam energies. In addition, proton elastic scattering of halo nuclei has been measured at high energies. All together, studies of density distribution, identification of shell orbitals and spectroscopic factors of halo wave function became possible. Such studies reveal many new important information such as the change of magic numbers in nuclei far from the stability line.In this article, we would like to review the experimental developments on halo nuclei and other related drip line nuclei. Also the new view of the nuclear structure learned from such studies will be discussed. Development of selected theories on related nuclear structure problems will be mentioned briefly.

Tanihata, Isao; Savajols, Herve; Kanungo, Rituparna

2013-01-01

397

Risk biomarker assessment for breast cancer progression: replication precision of nuclear morphometry.  

PubMed

Nuclear morphometry is a method for quantitative measurement of histopathologic changes in the appearance of stained cell nuclei. Numerous studies have indicated that these assessments may provide clinically relevant information related to the degree of progression and malignant potential of breast neoplasia. Nuclear features are derived from computerized analysis of digitized microscope images, and a quantitative Feulgen stain for DNA was used. Features analyzed included: (1) DNA content; (2) nuclear size and shape; and (3) texture features, describing spatial features of chromatin distribution. In this study replicated measurements are described on a series of 54 breast carcinoma specimens of differing pathologic grades. Duplicate measurements were performed using two serial sections, which were processed and analyzed separately. The value of a single feature measurement, the nuclear area profile, was shown to be the strongest indicator of progression. A quantitative nuclear grade was derived and shown to be strongly correlated with not only the pathologic nuclear grade, but also with tubule formation, mitotic grade, and with the overall histopathologic grade. Analysis of replication precision showed that the standard methods of the histopathology laboratory, if practiced in a uniform manner, are sufficient to ensure reproducibility of these assessments. We argue that nuclear morphometry provides a standardized and reproducible framework for quantitative pathologic assessments. PMID:12775917

Poulin, N; Frost, A; Carraro, A; Mommers, E; Guillaud, M; Van Diest, P J; Grizzle, W; Beenken, S

2003-01-01

398

Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics. Technical progress report, June 15, 1991--June 14, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses progress on the following research: quark cluster model; solving quantum field theories in non-perturbative regime;relativistic wave equations, quarkonia and electron-positron resonances; nuclear dependence at large transverse momentum; factorization at the order of power corrections; single-spin asymmetries; and hadronic photon production. (LSP)

Vary, J.P.

1992-07-01

399

Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported for Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1996. Development and production activities in Plutonium Recovery and Processing, Plutonium Packaging, and Uranium Recovery and Processing are covered. Packaging quality assurance activities are reported.

Chidester, K.M. [comp.

1996-05-01

400

76 FR 78702 - Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 09-879-04-COL-BD01] Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c)...

2011-12-19

401

Nuclear Technology Programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1984  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of the ability of bentonite to retard groundwater flow after its exposure to moisture at high temperatures has been evaluated. A decrease in swelling capacity of bentonite after reaction with water vapor at high temperature has been observed, and an increase in sand-bentonite permeability results. Studies of the redistribution of elements in lithic materials during hydrothermal alteration and of the thermal history of active geothermal systems are under way. Iron in basalt near surfaces exposed to water can reduce and immobilize actinide elements in groundwaters; the chemical state of iron in altered rock is examined. The influence of colloids on the chemical behavior of americium in groundwaters is investigated. Parametric tests to aid the interpretation of a waste form performance test are in progress. The behavior in a radiation field of waste glasses doped with uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium is under investigation. The hydration of defense waste glass has been examined. Extraction processes for separating transuranic elements from high-level wastes are being investigated, and conceptual flowsheets have been developed. A demonstration of operational readiness for the destructive analyses of irradiated fuel rods has been accomplished. All systems and procedures were subjected to qualification tests, and a full-length, irradiated, experimental rod has been processed.

Steindler, M.J.

1985-01-01

402

Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

1993-07-01

403

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Quarterly progress report, April 1June 30, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Accident Evaluation, Division of Engineering Technology, and Division of Risk Analysis and Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The projects reported are the following: High Temperature Reactor Research, SSC Code Improvements, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor

R. A. Bari; P. Bezler; J. L. Boccio; T. Ginsberg; G. A. Greene; J. G. Guppy; R. E. Hall; C. H. Hofmayer; H. Khatib-Rahbar; W. J. Jr. Luckes

1986-01-01

404

Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Quarterly progress report, July 1September 30, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This progress report will describe current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Accident Evaluation, Division of Engineering Technology, and Division of Risk Analysis and Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The projects reported are the following: High Temperature Reactor Research, SSC code improvements, Thermal-Hydraulic

R. A. Bari; P. Bezler; J. L. Boccio; T. Ginsberg; G. A. Greene; J. G. Guppy; R. E. Hall; C. H. Hofmayer; H. Khatib-Rahbar; W. J. Jr. Luckas

1987-01-01

405

Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from Ge-68/Ga-68 generator  

PubMed Central

Objective: To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of Ga-68 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N?,N?,N??-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Materials and Methods: Synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Results: Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ± 0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ± 1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65± 0.82 mSv. Conclusion: Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC.

Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Pant, Gauri Shankar

2011-01-01

406

trnp: A conserved mammalian gene encoding a nuclear protein that accelerates cell-cycle progression.  

PubMed

We herein describe a novel protein encoded by a single exon in a single-copy conserved mammalian gene. This protein, termed TMF regulated nuclear protein (TRNP), was identified in a yeast "two-hybrid" screen in which the "BC box" containing protein-TMF/ARA160 served as a bait. TRNP is a basic protein which accumulates in an insoluble nuclear fraction in mammalian cells. It is 227 aa long in humans and chimps and 223 aa long in mice. Enforced expression of TRNP in cells that do not express this protein significantly increased their proliferation rate by enhancing their cell-cycle progression from the G0/G1 to the S phase. Like another proliferation promoting factor, Stat3, TRNP was directed to proteasomal degradation by TMF/ ARA160. Thus, the trnp gene encodes a novel mammalian conserved nuclear protein that can accelerate cellcycle progression and is regulated by TMF/ARA160. PMID:16792503

Volpe, Marina; Shpungin, Sally; Barbi, Chany; Abrham, Galya; Malovani, Hanna; Wides, Ron; Nir, Uri

2006-06-01

407

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last year, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period, The structure of this report follows that of our 1991 Renewal Proposal and Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including the acquisition of our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our new Virginia campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1998-06-01

408

Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Reports and summaries are provided for the following programs: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclide in soils; low-level waste generation reduction handbook; waste management system studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comp.)

1981-06-01

409

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2012-10-01

410

CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine diagnostic applications are growing in search for more disease specific or more physiologically relevant imaging. The data are obtained non-invasively from large field /? cameras or from miniaturised probes. As far as single photon emitters are concerned, often labelled with 99mTc (140 keV, /?), nuclear instrumentation deals with poor counting statistics due to the method of spatial localisation and low contrast to noise due to scatter in the body. Since the 1960s attempts have been made to replace the NaI scintillator by semiconductor detectors with better spectrometric characteristics to improve contrast and quantitative measurements. They allow direct conversion of energy and thus more compact sensors. Room-temperature semiconductor detectors such as cadmium tellure and cadmium zinc tellure have favourable physical characteristics for medical applications which have been investigated in the 1980s. During one decade, they have been used in miniaturised probes such as for inter-operative surgery guidance which is today in a fast growing phase. This material suffers from charge transport problems which has slowed down imaging applications. Owing to a considerable research work on material, contacts and dedicated electronics small field of view compact pixellated /? cameras have been prototyped and one already marketed. Although extended clinical evaluation has to be conducted and long-term reliability assesed, the available data already confirm the expected gain in image contrast. Medical interest for dedicated imaging systems is greater than it was in the 1980s when the first mobile /? cameras were marketed. The future of CdTe or CdZnTe-based imager for routine use now relies at first on industrial costs.

Scheiber, C.

2000-07-01

411

[Leprosy and medicine II--progress and establishment of an absolute isolation policy].  

PubMed

The leprosy policy of Japan began from when the government enacted "law No. 11 (The leprosy prevention act)" in 1907 (Meiji 40) and several leprosy sanatoriums were built to receive previously homeless patients. Then, with the rise of totalitarianism, the isolation policy of Japan gained national support under the slogan "Patient Relief", which would become a major factor behind the enactment of "Leprosy Prevention Law" in 1931 (Showa 6) by which the leprosy policy was changed to one of absolute isolation aimed at the internment of all leprosy patients. From recent research on the leprosy policy of Japan, the internment of all leprosy patients, isolation for life, social defense, and neglect of patients' human-rights had tragic results in many cases. However, there is little research which can reply clearly to the question of whether the leprosy policy of Japan was really original and what factors led to the formation of the absolute isolation policy. This paper focuses on the relation between leprosy policy and treatment, and from this, I make clear the similarities, or peculiarities, of the isolation policy between Japan and the rest of the world, while clarifying the factors associated with the progress of the absolute isolation policy. The processes involved were historical and medical historical in that the relation between the formation of a national health system and the progress of the isolation policy of Meiji Era, the proposal of the isolation policy by Dr. Keizo Dohi, Dr. Shibasaburo Kitasato, and Dr. Masatsugu Yamane; the practical application of this policy by Dr. Kensuke Mitsuda, and the decision to enact this policy and its support by the Health and Medical Bureau and the Department of the Interior, as well as many other factors, all contributed to the final implementation of the absolute isolation policy. PMID:17315749

Mori, Shuichi; Ishii, Norihisa

2007-02-01

412

Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services.  

PubMed

This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131I and 99mTc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed. PMID:11214886

Iwahara, A; De Oliveira, A E; Tauhata, L; da Silva, C J; Lopes, R T

2001-03-01

413

A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

2012-12-01

414

Nuclear medicine diagnostic techniques in the era of pathophysiology-based CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine techniques were the first functional imaging techniques used to support the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Perfusion-SPECT allows registration of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) which is altered in a characteristic temporal-parietal pattern in AD. Numerous studies have shown the diagnostic value of reduced CBF and metabolic changes using perfusion-SPECT and FDG-PET in AD diagnosis as well as in differential diagnosis against frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia with Lewy-Bodies (DLB), and vascular cognitive disorders. This renders perfusion-SPECT an important piece of the puzzle (together with other diagnostic tests) by the clinician is often faced when making a final etiologic dementia diagnosis especially between AD and FTD. A similar diagnostic value can be expected when arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI sequence is used, but the diagnostic value has yet to be confirmed in lager studies. Recently, more pathophysiology-based biomarkers in CSF and Amyloid-PET tracers have been developed that probably have a higher diagnostic accuracy than the more indirect rCBF changes seen in perfusion-SPECT. In the current review, we describe recent advances in AD biomarkers as well as improvements in the SPECT technique. PMID:21971454

Weih, Markus; Degirmenci, Umüt; Kreil, Sebastian; Suttner, Gerald; Schmidt, Daniela; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr; Kuwert, Torsten

2011-01-01

415

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed.

Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Callahan, A. P.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M.

416

Production of 99Mo for Nuclear Medicine by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a new route to produce 99Mo for nuclear medicine by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction. The reaction cross section is known to be ˜1.5 b in the neutron energy, En, range from 12 to 17 MeV: 10-times larger than the thermal-neutron capture cross section of 98Mo. By irradiating an enriched 100Mo target for 198 h with neutrons of ˜1013 n/(cm2 s) at En˜ 14 MeV, one can produce 79 GBq/g specific activity of 99Mo. Since the cross sections for 100Mo(n, p)100Nb, 100Mo(n,n p)99Nb and 100Mo(n,?)97Zr at 12? En? 17 MeV are small, less than a few mb, radioactive waste during and/or after chemical processing of 99Mo would not be a serious problem. The proposed route could bring a major breakthrough in the solution of ensuring a constant and reliable supply of 99Mo without using highly enriched 235U.

Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

2009-03-01

417

An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.  

PubMed

Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

2011-04-01

418

Correlative imaging in abdominal infection: an algorithmic approach using nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of focal and diffuse infectious processes involve the abdomen. At one extreme are diseases such as pyelonephritis, cystitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease, conditions usually diagnosed without imaging studies and treated without complications. At the other extreme are abdominal abscesses, which may defy clinical diagnosis, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may remain undetected or insufficiently characterized in spite of multiple imaging studies. The limited diagnostic value of clinical evaluation and plain film radiography in abscess detection has lead to widespread use of sophisticated imaging techniques including Gallium-67 (67Ga) scintigraphy, Indium-111 WBC (111In-WBC) scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography (US). Abdominal abscesses occur in a wide variety of anatomic sites, may involve any abdominal organ system, and have a number of different causes. The heterogeneity of the disease process and the varying capabilities of the different imaging techniques (with respect to site and organ system) make reliance on a single technique undesirable. An algorithmic approach using 67Ga or 111In-WBC scintigraphy, CT, and US provides a logical and clinically practical approach to complicated abdominal infection. By recognizing differences in clinical presentation and by appreciating the diagnostic strengths and weaknesses of nuclear medicine, CT, and US, the algorithm provides a reliable and direct route to accurate diagnosis while minimizing unnecessary examinations.

Gagliardi, P.D.; Hoffer, P.B.; Rosenfield, A.T.

1988-10-01

419

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

1991-01-01

420

Rapid estimation of inhaled particle size for internal dose during nuclear emergency medicine.  

PubMed

Information on particle size is one of the important factors for internal dose estimation at accidents with airborne radioactive materials. An autoradiography method has been investigated as a technique for the sizing of alpha-emitting particles. Concerning nuclear emergency medicine, the waiting time for dose estimation is limited. For determining the shortest estimation time, the exposure time of autoradiography was examined using PuO2 particles captured on HEPA filters. In this study, the effective counting efficiency of tracks produced by alpha particles was evaluated to be 0.31 by a numerical simulation. The minimum exposure time for PuO2 with aerodynamic diameter of 5 ?m was found to be only 10 min. When any star-like alpha particle track was not detected after 6 h of exposure, even if the sample had significant radioactivity, the aerodynamic diameter was assumed to be less than 1 ?m. When the radioactivity of PuO2 particles detected by autoradiography within 1 h was dominant of total activity, the aerodynamic diameter would be estimated to be over 5 ?m. These results indicate that the precise dose estimation is useful for the decision of medical treatment. PMID:24162059

Fukutsu, Kumiko; Yamada, Yuji

2013-12-01

421

[The indication for radiosynoviorthesis. From the perspective of the nuclear medicine expert, rheumatic orthopedist and internist].  

PubMed

Radiosynovectomy or radiosynoviorthesis (RSO), the intra-articular injection of beta-emitting radionuclides (e.g. colloidal preparations of 90-Yttrium, 186-Rhenium or 169-Erbium), is an approved, reliable and easily performed therapy for the treatment of chronic synovitis without harmful side effects. The best clinical results have been obtained in patients with predominantly inflammatory joint disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or reactive arthritis. But RSO is also established to treat pain and persistent effusions after total knee replacement. It also represents an adjuvant therapy in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis to protect against recurrence following synovectomy. In patients with hemophilia and arthropathy a reduction in joint bleeding is seen and the use of coagulation factor is reduced. The indication for RSO should be made in close cooperation between the referring physician, the rheumatologist and the nuclear medicine expert in the context of a multimodal therapy concept. In this way, success rates of over 80%, with only few side effects, can be achieved, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis and hemophilic arthropathy. PMID:21267739

Linke, R; Gelse, K; Schuch, F

2011-01-01

422

Highlights of the 25th Anniversary EANM Congress Milan 2012: nuclear medicine and molecular imaging at its best.  

PubMed

The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) celebrated its 25th Anniversary Congress in Milan under the chairmanship of Professor Emilio Bombardieri and the auspices of the Italian Society of Nuclear Medicine. As always, the Congress was a great success: more than 5,530 participants from 88 countries came from Europe and beyond. In spite of limited budgets, industry again made an important contribution: New innovative equipment and tracers demonstrating the latest technology and innovations were presented by 122 companies. This review is a brief summary of the major scientific contributions made in the fields of oncology, multimodality imaging, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers, and in other clinical sciences as well as in radionuclide therapy, which all show promising and great innovations. PMID:23917722

Langsteger, Werner; Beheshti, Mohsen

2013-08-06

423

Comparison of TLD100 and MCP-Ns for use as an extremity dosemeter for PET nuclear medicine staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on extremity monitoring of PET nuclear medicine personnel. In particular, it aims to compare the performance of ring dosemeters with TLD-100 and MCP-Ns detectors during the handling of positron emitters such as 18F-FDG radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental and Monte Carlo results highlight the fact that the contribution of positron to Hp(0.07), in contact with or at short distances from

M. Ginjaume; S. Pérez; M. A. Duch; X. Ortega

2008-01-01

424

The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

425

Production of therapeutic radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for applications in nuclear medicine, oncologyand interventional cardiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Greater availability of therapeutic radioisotopes is required to meet the demands for increasing clinical applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology. Because of the need for very high specific activity products, methods other than direct neutron capture reactions (n,?-elastic and n,n’-inelastic routes) are required to insure that the highest specific activity - and hopefully no carrier added (nca) -

S. Mirzadeh; A. L. Beets; M. Du

2005-01-01

426

Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

1989-05-01

427

Research and Development Program (for the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology, University of California, Los Angeles). Fiscal Year 1966.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1966 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Leve...

1964-01-01

428

Standoff and progress in North Korean nuclear dilemma after the joint statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to analyze the standoff and progress in the nuclear dilemma with North Korea, not only following the\\u000a September 2005 Joint Statement but also the February and October 2007 agreements. Ever since the Joint Statement, the USA\\u000a and the DPRK have confronted each other on and off again in process of trying to implement an accord that set

Hun Kyung Lee; Sung-Jo Park; Byoung Chul Park

2009-01-01

429

Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of granular flows: Technical progress report, quarter ending 09/30/93  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Progress Report for the quarter ending 09/30/93 describes work on two tasks which are part of nuclear magnetic resonance studies of granular flows. (1) Research has been directed toward improving concentration measurements under reasonably fast conditions. (2) The process continues of obtaining comprehensive velocity, concentration, and diffusion information at several angular velocities of the cylinder for seeds (mustard, sesame, and sunflower seeds) flowing in a half-filled cylinder.

Not Available

1993-10-27

430

Nuclear medicine staff and patient doses in Manitoba (1981-1985)  

SciTech Connect

The number of diagnostic in vivo nuclear medicine (NM) procedures in the Province of Manitoba (population 1 million) has been examined over the period 1981 to 1985. The annual number of procedures performed has remained relatively constant at about 25 per thousand population. The isotope 99mTc accounted for 86% of all the studies performed and the number of NM procedures per imaging system was approximately 1,300 per annum. The total number of NM operators in the province increased from 30 in 1981 to about 40 in 1985. The mean NM operator dose was reduced from 3.8 mSv to 2.5 mSv over this five-year period and the collective operator dose underwent a smaller reduction of 13% to about 100 person-mSv in 1985. The value of the mean patient effective dose equivalent (HE) was relatively constant at 5.2 mSv. The contribution of diagnostic NM procedures to the annual per caput population dose in Manitoba was 0.13 mSv. Three diagnostic procedures (brain, bone and cardiac) accounted for approximately 80% of the collective patient HE. Patient profiles (age, sex and medical history) were obtained for the patients undergoing these three procedures, which showed them to be atypical in comparison to a normal working population. These data suggested that the application of the International Commission on Radiological Protection risk factor of 1.65 X 10(-2) Sv-1 to this patient population would have significantly overestimated the expected radiation detriment.

Huda, W.; Gordon, K.

1989-03-01

431

A Compton camera for nuclear medicine applications using 113mIn1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical studies show our prototype Compton camera, C-SPRINT, matches the 99mTc performance of clinically available mechanically collimated systems if an advantage in sensitivity of ~45 can be achieved. Imaging at higher energies substantially reduces the required sensitivity advantage. At ~400keV, our Compton camera system needs only five times the raw count rate of a mechanically collimated system imaging at 99mTc energy to reach the performance ``break even'' point. We analyze our C-SPRINT system performance for the isotope 113mIn (391.7keV), and compare it to a collimated system imaging 99mTc. 113mIn has been used in nuclear medicine applications in the past, and can potentially be used to label many of the same radiopharmaceuticals as 99mTc. In order to fully compare the two systems, their relative sensitivities are combined with the relative amount of useful gamma rays that escape the object being imaged (the patient) for the same patient radiation dose. Results for uniformly distributed sources show that for equal lifetime radiation dose, the ratio of useful 99mTc to 113mIn gamma rays is 1.59. For a point source of activity centered inside the ellipsoid, the useful ratio decreases to 1.33. These fractions scale up the required raw sensitivity advantage to yield a required sensitivity advantage of 5 - 8. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that a raw sensitivity advantage of 25 can be achieved by improving C-SPRINT geometry and using a larger volume of silicon detectors. We conclude that gains of 3-5 in noise equivalent sensitivity are achievable when imaging 113mIn with our Compton camera relative to a collimated system imaging 99mTc.

LeBlanc, J. W.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Hua, C.; Rogers, W. L.; Wehe, D. K.; Wilderman, S. J.

1999-02-01

432

Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratoryof Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation inNuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NMdepartments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collectedinformation about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on thewrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q andHp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses alwayswere absorbed by those staff members who were involved insources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time period was 4.22 mSv for Hp(10)a and 67.7 mSv for Hp(0.07)a. In 2011 no case of exceeding the allowed dose limits was noted. PMID:24068634

Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, S?awomir; Krajewski, Pawe?

2013-01-01

433

Division of Nuclear Physics Mentoring Award Talk: Progress in Mentoring of Young Scientists in Nuclear Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future of nuclear physics depends on attracting and retaining bright students. Several initiatives have begun to address issues related to successful recruiting and retention on various levels. Examples for undergraduate students, graduate students, post-docs, and faculty include the Conference Experience for Undergraduates at DNP meetings, the APS/AAPT Conference on Graduate Education, the NSF requirement for a post-doctoral mentoring plan, and the AAPT/AAS/APS New Faculty Workshops, respectively. In addition to these organized efforts, each member of the community can and should contribute to portraying nuclear physics as the exciting field that it is.

Thoennessen, Michael

2012-10-01

434

Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office final progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) was formally established by Executive Policy in 1983 following passage of the federal Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act). That Act provides for the systematic siting, construction, operation, and closure of high-level radioactive defense and research by-products and other forms of high-level radioactive waste from around the country which will be stored at such repositories. In 1985 the Nevada legislature formally established the NWPO as a distinct and statutorily authorized agency to provide support to the Governor and State Legislature on matters concerning the high-level nuclear waste programs. The NWPO utilized a small, central staff supplemented by contractual services for needed technical and specialized expertise in order to provide high quality oversight and monitoring of federal activities, to conduct necessary independent studies, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing program to ensure that risks to the environment and to human safety are minimized. It includes findings in the areas of hydrogeology, geology, quality assurance activities, repository engineering, legislature participation, socioeconomic affects, risk assessments, monitoring programs, public information dissemination, and transportation activities. The bulk of the reporting deals with the Yucca Mountain facility.

NONE

1992-12-31

435

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1-Azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl (alpha)-(l-fluoropentan-5-yl)-(alpha)-hydroxy-(alpha)-phenylacetate (PQNPe) has been prepared and evaluated as a new candidate for the determination of muscarinic cholinergic receptor density by positron emission tomography (PE...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose A. L. Beets C. R. Lambert D. W. McPherson

1995-01-01

436

Nuclear Medicine Technology Progress Report for Quarter Ending December 31, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Platinum-195m-labeled cis-dichloro-trans-dihydroxy-bis-(isopropylamine)-platinum(IV) (CHIP) was prepared for the first time. This second-generation platinum antitumor agent appears superior to the widely used cis-dichloro-diammineplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) si...

F. F. Knapp

1980-01-01

437

Nuclear Medicine Technology Progress Report for Quarter Ending September 30, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brain uptake of several exp 75 Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labelled barbiturates is being studied. These new agents, substituted at the C-5 position, freely pass through the intact blood-brain barrier. Barbiturates labelled with gamma-emitting radionuclides may ...

F. F. Knapp

1981-01-01

438

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the use of a simple colorimetric assay employing the bisthiosemicarbazone (TSC) derivative of phenylglyoxal to evaluate the specific activity of spallation-produced copper-67 (Cu-67) samples is described. Four samples from the Los Alamos Na...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose A. P. Callahan D. W. McPherson S. Mirzadeh

1990-01-01

439

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the use of a simple colorimetric assay employing the bisthiosemicarbazone (TSC) derivative of phenylglyoxal to evaluate the specific activity of spallation-produced copper-67 (Cu-67) samples is described. Four samples from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and one sample from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) were analyzed and the results compared in a blind study'' with specific activity

F. F. Jr. Knapp; K. R. Ambrose; A. P. Callahan; D. W. McPherson; S. Mirzadeh; P. C. Srivastava; J. F. Allred; A. Hasan; C. R. Lambert; S. J. Lambert; D. E. Rice

1990-01-01

440

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe the first resolution of the 3R-(+)-and 3S- ({minus})-methyl BMIPP methyl-branched fatty acid stereoisomers and biodistribution of the radioiodinated isomers in rats to investigate the effects of the configuration of the 3({beta})-methyl group on the organ distribution and myocardial uptake and release kinetics. Synthesesis of 3R-(+)BMIPP was accompanied by initial acylation of the thiophene template with the acid chloride of ethyl 3R- methylglutarate. The amide of the synthetic 3R-BMIPP isomer prepared S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine exhibited identical spectral and chromatographic properties with the chromatographically more polar isomer (TLC and HPLC) which was separated from the mixture of amides prepared from reaction of the acid chloride of racemic BMIPP with the S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The second less chromatographically polar amide isomer was assigned the 3S-(-)-methyl configuration. The free acids were obtained by acid hydrolysis of the amides and converted to the radioiodinated analogues. While biodistribution studies in separate groups of rats demonstrated greater myocardial uptake of 3R-BMIPP compared with the 3S-isomer values for most other tissues evaluated (blood, lungs, kidneys and thyroid) were similar, whereas the 3S-BMIPP isomer consistently showed higher liver uptake. These results were confirmed in a [l-131]-3S-BMIPP/[l-125]-3R-BMIPP dual label study and both isomers had similar myocardial wash-out curves (5-180 min). These studies suggest that [l-123]-3R-BMIPP is a candidate for clinical evaluation and may show greater myocardial uptake than the 3S-isomer and thus may require a reduced injected dose compared to racemic BMIPP.

Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F

1995-12-31

441

Nuclear Medicine Program: Progress Report for Quarter Ending June 30, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes our initial studies on developing techniques of attaching radioisotopes of copper (Cu-64 and Cu-67) and rhenium (Re-186 and Re-188) to proteins. Our work has focused on the synthesis of para-carboxyalkylphenylglyoxal-bis-(N sub 4 -me...

F. F. Knapp A. P. Ambrose A. P. Callahan J. F. Allred S. L. Blystone

1989-01-01

442

Nuclear medicine technology progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Results of experiments demonstrated that the alkyl portion of 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid (9-THDA) is retained in the myocardial tissue of rats to the same extent as radioactivity from /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. Tissue distribution experiments in rats one hr after injection of 10-(/sup 14/C)-9-telluraheptadecanoic acid were compared with the results of a parallel study using /sup 123m/Te-9-THDA. The results indicate that the alkyl region of 9-THDA is retained in the myocardium and that labeling of this portion of the 9-THDA molecule with radiohalogens such as /sup 123/I may be an attractive approach for evaluation of myocardial function. Results of preliminary studies for the development of radiolabeled barbiturates as a new class of agents for the measurement of regional blood perfusion in the brain are also described. Several new barbiturates substituted at the C-5 position were prepared and characterized. These compounds will be labeled with /sup 117m/Sn, /sup 75/Se, and /sup 123m/Te and brain uptake studies performed in rats. Studies of arsenic trioxide (As/sub 2/O/sub 3/) toxicity for human cells in the diffusion chamber assay system have continued. Studies employing /sup 74/As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ have demonstrated that uptake of radioactivity from test substances administered to rats can be detected in cells taken from the intraperitoneally-implanted diffusion chambers. Preliminary synthetic studies of gold-based antirheumatoid complexes are also reported. Several /sup 11/C-labeled amino acids have been prepared for clinical testing. Platinum-195m-labeled-cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum(II) was supplied to collaborators for further testing and /sup 75/Se- and /sup 123m/Te-labeled long-chain fatty acids were supplied to several medical investigators for the evaluation of myocardial function in experimental animals. (ERB)

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1981-01-01

443

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synthesis of the cis- and trans-iodovinyl isomers of the new ORNL cholinergic-muscarinicreceptorligand, 1 -azabicyclo[2.2-2]oct-3-yl{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-l-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (``IQNP``). This agent is prepared in high radiochemical yield, and the racemic mixture shows high specificity and selectivity for the cerebral and myocardial receptors. Since two chiral centers are present in this molecule, it is important to evaluate the importance of the absolute configuration of the two centers on receptor specificity. The tributyltin substrates were carefully separated by column chromatography, converted to the iodine-125 analogues by iododestannylation, and evaluated in rats in vivo. While the ``E`` (trans) isomer cleared rapidly from the receptor-rich areas of rat brain, the ``Z`` (cis) isomer showed high uptake in these areas but also high concentration in the cerebellum. In contrast, the E,Z-isomeric mixture showed good uptake and retention in the receptor rich areas. Also described in this report is a description of neutron flux measurements in the hydraulic tube position at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Also during this period, samples of [l-125]- and [l-131]-labeled racemic ``IQNP`` were supplied through a collaborative program with the Brookhaven National Laboratory for high resolution autoradiographic studies in rat tissues.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-03-01

444

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe tile first successful synthesis and in vivo evaluation of a fluorinated analogue of the IQNP muscarinic-cholinergic receptor ligand. Unanticipated synthetic hurdles lead to several unsuccessful approaches before the synthesis of a model compound was achieved. The successful route involved introduction of the fluoroethyl moiety at an early stage of the synthesis by alkylation of ethyl 1,3-dithiane-2-carboxylate with 1-fluoro-2-bromoethane. Subsequent unmasking of the carbonyl, followed by introduction of the phenyl group with phenylmagnesium bromide and subsequent transesterification with racemic quinuclidinol afforded the target compound, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoroethan-2-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate (QNF). Pretreatment of Fisher rats with QNF one hour prior to the intravenous administration of the [I-131]-Z-(R,R) IQNP isomer demonstrated that the new fluoro analogue blocked uptake of iodine-131 in those regions of the brain rich in muscarinic-cholinergic receptors measured three hours after injection. As an example, the control values for group of nontreated animals were (5 animals; mean {+-} SD): cortex, 1.20{+-}0.27; striatum, 0.73{+-}0.19; pons, 0.70{+-}0.20; cerebellum, 0.43{+-}0.114. Brains from animals pretreated with the fluoro analogue had the following values (mean{+-}SD; % decrease): cortex, 0.67{+-}0.15 (65%); striatum, 0.35{+-}0.114 (52%); pons, 0.40{+-}0.08 (43%); cerebellum, 0.16{+-}0.09(63%). Also during this period several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators and tin-117m samples were provided for collaborative studies.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Lambert, C.R.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Luo, H.

1994-08-01

445

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We describe the synthesis of the cis- and trans-iodovinyl isomers of the new ORNL cholinergic-muscarinicreceptorligand, 1 -azabicyclo[2.2-2]oct-3-yl[alpha]-hydroxy-[alpha]-(1-iodo-l-propen-3-yl)-[alpha]-phenylacetate ( IQNP''). This agent is prepared in high radiochemical yield, and the racemic mixture shows high specificity and selectivity for the cerebral and myocardial receptors. Since two chiral centers are present in this molecule, it is important to evaluate the importance of the absolute configuration of the two centers on receptor specificity. The tributyltin substrates were carefully separated by column chromatography, converted to the iodine-125 analogues by iododestannylation, and evaluated in rats in vivo. While the E'' (trans) isomer cleared rapidly from the receptor-rich areas of rat brain, the Z'' (cis) isomer showed high uptake in these areas but also high concentration in the cerebellum. In contrast, the E,Z-isomeric mixture showed good uptake and retention in the receptor rich areas. Also described in this report is a description of neutron flux measurements in the hydraulic tube position at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Also during this period, samples of [l-125]- and [l-131]-labeled racemic IQNP'' were supplied through a collaborative program with the Brookhaven National Laboratory for high resolution autoradiographic studies in rat tissues.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-03-01

446

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this a report novel electrochemical method is described for the separation of copper-64 and copper-67 following the irradiation of zinc targets. This method is based on the spontaneous electrodeposition of copper on a platinum electrode immersed in the...

F. F. Knapp K. R. Ambrose A. P. Callahan D. W. McPherson S. Mirzadeh

1990-01-01

447

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

In this report the use of a simple colorimetric assay employing the bisthiosemicarbazone (TSC) derivative of phenylglyoxal to evaluate the specific activity of spallation-produced copper-67 (Cu-67) samples is described. Four samples from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and one sample from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) were analyzed and the results compared in a blind study'' with specific activity values obtained by isotope coupling plasma (ICP) analysis at the production sites. A good comparison was found, and these results indicate that the TSC approach is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to determine the specific activity of spallation-produced Cu-67. The synthesis, radioiodination, and evaluation of deiodination in rats in vivo of two new maleimide agents for antibody labeling is also described. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1990-04-01

448

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

In this a report novel electrochemical method is described for the separation of copper-64 and copper-67 following the irradiation of zinc targets. This method is based on the spontaneous electrodeposition of copper on a platinum electrode immersed in the zinc target solution without requiring an external electromotive force (EMF). No-carrier-added N-(2-(3-({sup 125}I)iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl)-maleimide has been prepared by direct iodination of N-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl)-maleimide with (Na({sup 125}I)-chloramine-T). The precursor was prepared by condensation of tyramine with maleic anhydride followed by ring annulation. Studies in rats showed low thyroid uptake of radioactivity which reached a plateau after 4 h, indicating in vivo stability. This new radioiodinated maleimide analogue reacts with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under mild conditions and has been used for labeling a lung-endothelial-cell-specific antibody (411-201B). The ({sup 125}I)-labeled antibodies are currently being evaluated for immunoreactivity and tumor specificity. During this period several agents were also supplied to Medical Cooperative investigators, including iodine-123-labeled and iodine-131-labeled fatty acid analogues for studies at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Cardiology Department at the Free University of Amsterdam, and the University of Bonn, West Germany. A tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator was supplied to the University of Massachusetts, and osmium-191 was supplied for fabrication of generators for patient studies in Finland. 4 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1990-08-01

449

[Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine]. Comprehensive progress report, [1986--1989  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-12-31

450

Application of the ARRAMIS Risk and Reliability Software to the Nuclear Accident Progression  

SciTech Connect

The ARRAMIS risk and reliability analysis software suite developed by Sandia National Laboratories enables analysts to evaluate the safety and reliability of a wide range of complex systems whose failure results in high consequences. This software was originally designed to model the systems, responses, and phenomena associated with potential severe accidents at commercial nuclear power reactors by solving very large fault tree and event tree models. However, because of its power and versatility, ARRAMIS and its constituent analysis engines have recently been used to evaluate a wide variety of systems, including nuclear weapons, telecommunications facilities, robotic material handling systems, and aircraft systems using hybrid fault tree event tree analysis techniques incorporating fully integrated uncertainty analysis capabilities. This paper describes recent applications in the area of nuclear reactor accident progression analysis using a large event tree methodology and the ARRAMIS package.

Wyss, Gregory D.; Daniel, Sharon L.; Hays, Kelly M.; Brown, Thomas D.

1997-06-01

451

Progress on Cleaning up the Only Commercial Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facility to Operate in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the progress on cleanup of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), an environmental management project located south of Buffalo, NY. The WVDP was the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operate...

T. J. Jackson

2002-01-01

452

76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...52-030-COL] In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory B. Jaczko,...

2011-03-02

453

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A building project of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

de Jesús, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

2010-12-01

454

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

SciTech Connect

A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

2010-12-07

455

Suitability of nuclear medicine gamma cameras as gamma spectrometers in the event of a radiological emergency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine gamma cameras are large area NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors that measure both the position and energy of incident gamma rays. A typical, commercial, large field-of-view (LFOV), gamma camera has about 2000 cm3 of useful detector volume with an entrance window of 50×40 cm2 by 1 cm thickness. A 3?×3? NaI(Tl) detector, by comparison, has 17.4% of the volume and 2.3% of the area of the LFOV gamma camera. A 2002 survey reported 11,700 gamma cameras as being installed in hospitals and clinics in the US. In the event of a radiological emergency, the ability to utilize some of this installed detector capacity would be desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of using the gamma camera as a large area gamma spectrometer for detecting and quantifying isotopes likely to be involved in a radiological emergency caused by dispersion of radioactivity by a so called “dirty bomb.” Monte Carlo modeling was used to analyze detection sensitivity as a function of energy for the camera vs. the 3?×3? cylinder. For a point source positioned 100 cm from the face of the detector, the ratio of total extrinsic efficiency of the camera to that of the 3?×3? cylinder varied from 40.3 at 140 keV to 7.3 at 5 MeV. Ratios for extrinsic efficiency of peaks (including the full energy peak, single escape, and double escape peaks) varied from 41.1 at 140 keV to 5.5 at 5 MeV. Modifications that will be required to enable the cameras to function as spectrometers over a wide energy range are described and discussed. Given the large sensitivity advantage, the fact that the camera is shielded on three sides, and that cameras are already present at many locations to where victims of a disaster would be transported, it is desirable that such system capabilities be investigated.

Engdahl, J. C.; Bharwani, K.

2005-11-01

456

A Compton camera for low energy gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C-SPRINT is a prototype electronically-collimated imaging system that has been built using pixellated, low-noise, position-sensitive silicon as the first detector, and a sodium iodide scintillation detector ring as the second detector. The camera was intended to characterize potential performance gains of Compton cameras in nuclear medicine applications. The system consists of a single 4.5 x 1.5 x 0.03 cm3 silicon pad detector module with 2 keV energy resolution centered at the front face of a 50 cm diameter, 12 cm long NaI detector annulus. Calculations of the Uniform Cramer-Rao lower bound show that a "design Compton camera" based on our prototype can challenge existing mechanically-collimated systems at low to medium energies (˜140.5 - 400 keV) despite the deleterious effects of Doppler broadening. Measurements with our current system have yielded system sensitivity and spatial resolution estimates using 99mTc and 131I isotopes. Results showed an absolute efficiency of 1.8 x 10 -7 for 99mTc and 1.2 x 10-6 for 131I. The 99mTc value is an order of magnitude lower than predicted because of a combination of worse than expected silicon detector triggering performance, timing resolution issues, and system dead time effects. After correcting for these, efficiency predictions based on Monte Carlo analysis fall within 10% of the measured values. Spatial resolution estimates are also within 10% of analytical predictions. Measured resolution for the 99mTc point source was 15 min FWHM while in the 131I case, resolution improved to 8 mm FWHM. Extended source imaging was performed to characterize system performance under more challenging conditions. Images obtained were compared with measurements using a clinically-available mechanically collimated Anger camera. A resolution-variance study was also conducted for both isotopes. The results showed that the C-SPRINT camera performance on a per-detected photon basis was worse than the Anger camera for 99mTc but was similar for 131I, as predicted by theory. Potentially large gains in raw system sensitivity of a Compton camera similar in design to C-SPRINT could lead to substantial improvements in noise-equivalent performance of electronically-collimated cameras over mechanical systems, particularly in the energy range above 200 keV.

Leblanc, James Walter

457

Accurate localization of life threatening colonic hemorrhage during nuclear medicine bleeding scan as an aid to selective angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe a new technique to help localize life threatening colorectal bleeding during nuclear medicine bleeding scan to\\u000a aid in selective angiography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  During the gastrointestinal bleeding scan, a simple metallic marker (paper clip) was used to localize the bleeding site on\\u000a the patient body. Angiography was then performed within 2 hours. The marker was then used to guide superselective angiography

Mubin I Syed; Azim Shaikh

2009-01-01

458

Forensic Medicine in South Africa: Associations between Medical Practice and Legal Case Progression and Outcomes in Female Murders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundForensic medicine has been largely by-passed by the tide of health systems research and evidence based medicine. Murder victims form a central part of forensic medical examiners' case load, and women murdered by intimate partners are an important subgroup, representing the most severe form and consequence of intimate partner violence. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of female murder

Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Lorna J. Martin; Shanaaz Mathews

2011-01-01

459

Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of noninvasive fiber optic optical technologies are under development for real-time diagnosis of neoplasia. We inves- tigate how the light scattering properties of cervical cells are affected by changes in nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin tex- ture, which occur during neoplastic progression. We used a Cyto- Savant computer-assisted image analysis system to acquire quantita- tive nuclear features

Rebekah Drezek; Martial Guillaud; Thomas Collier; Iouri Boiko; Anais Malpica; Calum Macaulay; Michele Follen; Rebecca R. Richards-Kortum

2003-01-01

460

A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, September 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last ten months, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1992 Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including those at our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. Copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix. The highlight of the year has been the approval by the NIKHEF and CEBAF PACs of all three of the proposals we have submitted. These are ``Recoil Polarization of the Neutron in the Reactions {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}n) and {sup 4}He(e,e{prime}n),`` NIKHEF Proposal 93-09, ``Photoreactions on {sup 3}He,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-044, and ``Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei,`` CEBAF Proposal 93-019. The NIKHEF experiment involves the use of the High-Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter for detection and measurement of the polarization of the emitted neutron. We, together with our colleagues at Grenoble, are responsible for the design and construction of the wire chambers for this device; we have largely completed the design phase this past year. The CEBAF experiments involve the use of the Hall-B Photon Tagger for production of the monochromatic photon beam. We are responsible for the 432-scintillator focal-plane detector array for this device; again, most of the design work and some prototype testing have been completed this past year. In addition, we have continued to make progress on data analysis and publication of results of previous measurements at Bates, LAMPF, and NIKHEF.

Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

1993-08-01